Subjectivism Chapter 3 2 Table of Contents. 1 4 Proponents Magnetic Influence Thesis 2 Subjectivism 3 Emotivism 5 Universalism 6 Examples 3 1 Proponents David Hume Generally regarded as one of the most important philosophers to write in English, David Hume (1711– 1776) was also well known in his own time as an historian and essayist. A master stylist in any genre, his major philosophical works—A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–1740), the Enquiries concerning Human Understanding (1748) and concerning the Principles of Morals (1751), as well as his posthumously published Dialogues concerning Natural Religion (1779)—remain widely and deeply influential. 4 Alfred J. Ayer Sir Alfred Jules ("Freddie") Ayer (better known as Alfred Ayer or A. J. Ayer) (1910 - 1989) was a 20th Century British philosopher in the Analytic Philosophy tradition, mainly known for his promotion of Logical Positivism and for popularizing the movement's ideas in Britain. 5 Charles L. Stevenson Charles L. Stevenson authored the first thorough emotivist, or noncognitivist, account of ethical language. Traditionally the study of ethics had involved a quest for the truth about what is good and right, but Stevenson abandoned that search and set out to investigate the practical use of ethical language to shape attitudes. In a series of articles, and in his 1944 book Ethics and Language, he proposed answers to classical philosophical questions about meaning and justification that set the agenda for the next several generations of moral philosophers. 6 7 2 Subjectivism What is subjectivism? 8 9 The belief that moral standards are relatively dependent on an individual. ― Irene M. Pepperberg 10 Subjectivism is developed by existentialist and linguistic analyst. Existentialist Man as a person is a subject. Linquistic Analyst Our statement about right and wrong is meaningless in the sense that it cannot have truth value. Hume In assessing the morality of an action, you cannot find an object that will qualify the action as wrong. 11 3 Emotivism 12 Moral judgement is related with our approval and disapproval of a certain action but is not an assertion. ― Irene M. Pepperberg 13 4 Magnetic Influence Theory 14 Moral judgement is not merely an expression of feelings but it also has the characteristic to influence the attitude of the one who hears the moral expression. ― Irene M. Pepperberg 15 Moral principles 16 Moral Principles Hume Feelings – Moral Judgement Ayer Feelings – Moral Judgemental Expression not an assertion. Not verifiable. Stevenson Feelings – Moral Judgement Expression not an assertion. Not verifiable. Evoke an action 17 5 Universalism 18 Moral value is independent on one's like and dislike or one's approval or disapproval. ― Irene M. Pepperberg 19 Thank you!