. Webinar 18th July 2020 Contacts: jyotiswarup10@gmail.com, Mobile +91 98868 97021 About the speaker: Mechanical, IIT Graduate, 45 years - Global Experience Fluid Flow And Piping Employment: Nuclear Power Corporation (NPCIL) India; Engineers India Ltd, India , L& T Valdel Engineering, Hyundai Offshore Korea, Technip Malaysia, Comprimo Singapore, Sembawang Engineering Singapore; Nippon Steel Construction Indonesia, Emirates National Oil Company (ENOC) Dubai; Gryphon Energy Kuala Lumpur. By: Jyoti Swarup Expertise: Rotating Equipment, Piping systems, Vibration and Noise, Pressure vessel, Heat Exchangers, and Tank-farms for Refineries, Oil terminals, Offshore production facilities, FPSO/ FSO and Jetties. 18th Jul 2020 Codes: ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 and Div. 2, API 610, API 613, API 614, API 617 etc. TEMA codes, API 620, API 650, API 575, API 653, ASME B31.1, B31.3 & British Standards PD/BS 5500, etc. 4:00 PM to 6:00 PM Google Meet Previous Trainings Conducted: Sarawak Shell Berhad Malaysia, ExxonMobil Singapore, Sembawang Engineering Singapore, Plant Engineering Construction Singapore, ENOC Dubai, Tripatra Jakarta, Indonesia, HPCL India, Quest Bangalore, Dubai Electricity & Water Authority (DEWA), Brunei Shell Petroleum, Carthage Power Company Tunisia etc. 2 of 68 Piping – Basics (1/2) Piping – Basics (2/2) Piping is seen in every day life – water supply from Water works to your home, drain piping from home, irrigation pipes in farms, cooling water to buildings. Engineering is optimization – how to select most optimum size and details of piping system from water tank to your building or in a process plant? The parameters are pipe materials, flow rate required, desired velocities, pressure available at source and pressure required at final outlet. These determine pipe diameter and thickness. After industrial revolution in 1700s, pipes were used to carry pressurized, heating fluids, e.g. steam engines. In a process plant, piping system account for a significant portion of plant cost say 2020-25%. The pipe and fittings have pressure loss while fluid is traveling over its path from source to destination. 3 of 68 4 of 68 L.A. like ancient Rome - Aquaducts Piping Engineering Responsibilities of a Piping engineer: Piping Piping Engineering, design and layout Pipe Pipe flexibility analysis and support system design Pipe Pipe rupture restraints and jet shield design, if applicable Piping Piping around equipment Producing piping bill of materials, Isometrics etc. and coordination of piping fabrication contract. Interface with other disciplines 5 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup Lead pipe to supply water to the Great Bath at Bath Roman Baths. The pipe has a folded seam and is thought to have carried water under pressure. 6 of 68 1 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Pipe Sizes & Available lengths Piping type, thicknesses commonly used ? Standardized pipe dimensions, defined by OD and thicknesses defined by schedules are available in the market to simply the interchangeability and the work of piping engineers. Pipes in various thicknesses available for each size. Three different sources ANSI Schedule numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 160. (Also Sch 5S, 10S, 20S, 40S, 80S for Stainless steels.) ASME / ASTM Std, XS (extra strong) and XXS (Double extra strong) API 5L specified thicknesses Pipe Sizes available are ½”, ¾”, 1”, 1 ½”, 2”, 3”, 4”, 6”, 8”, 10”, 12”, and larger sizes. (14”, 16”, 18”, 20”, 24”, 28”, 30”, 32”, 34”, 36”, 42”, 48”) The pipe upto 12” size is nominal diameter and pipe OD is more than that in inches. Thin walled pipes of Stainless Steel are classified as Sch 5S and 10S. The pipes are either “Seamless” made from piercing solid billets or Welded type made from plate – either straight seam welded or spiral welded. Pipe 14” and above has same OD as pipe nominal diameter. Pipes are supplied as “Random lengths” (17 to 25 ft) or “double random” lengths (38 to 48 ft) “Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a dimensionless designator of pipe sizes The pipe ends are either plain ends, beveled ends or “threaded and coupled”. Diameter Nominal (DN) is a designator of pipe sizes in metric units. Joining methods include Butt Welded, Socket welded, screwed, Bolted Flange, and Quick couplings. For example: NPS 2” OD is 2.375”. DN 50 is same as NPS 2.” Pipe Wall thickness usually has a mill tolerance allowed as per codes. For Carbon steel pipes, it is ±12.5%. 8 of 68 7 of 68 Shell DEP : Dimensions and Properties Pipe dimensions and weight of pipes DN 6 to DN 750 (Sampleonly) ANSI B 36.19 Ref: Van Leeuwen Stainless 9 of 68 10 of 68 Applicable ASME Codes and Standards ASME B31.3 - 2018 - Process Piping The increase of operating temperatures and pressures lead to development of B31 Codes in 60s and 70s; currently as below: Power Piping ASME B31.1 Fuel Gas Piping ASME B31.2 Process Piping ASME B31.3 Pipeline for Liquid ASME B31.4 Refrigeration Piping ASME B31.5 Design of chemical and petroleum plants and refineries processing chemicals and hydrocarbons, water and steam. This Code contains rules for piping typically found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals. Gas Pipeline systems ASME B31.8 System Integrity Gas ASME B31.8S Building Servics Piping ASME B31.9 Slurry Transpt Piping ASME B31.11 Hydrogen Pipeline ASME B31.12 Corroded Pipelines ASME B31G Others are B31E Seismic Design, B31J SIF, B31P Heat Treatment, B31Q Pers. Qualification, B31T Toughness. 11 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup It prescribes requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. This Code applies to piping for all fluids including: (1) raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals; (2) petroleum products; (3) gas, steam, air and water; and (4) cryogenic fluids. Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged equipment assembly. 12 of 68 2 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Material Selection PIPE FITTINGS Considerations for selecting piping materials: Type Type of service Compatibility Compatibility with other materials Mechanical Mechanical strength, ductility, elasticity and toughness To be able to route a pipe across a plot or through a building, one requires elbows, reducers, tees, flanges, nipples etc for usually drains, vents and instrumentation. Need Need for special welding procedures or other joining techniques Need Need for special inspections, tests or quality control Possible Possible misapplication in the field Corrosion Corrosion and erosion caused by internal fluids and/ or marine environment 13 of 68 Pipe Flanges Welding Neck Type Slip On Blind 14 of 68 Pipe data – on Mobile? Lap Joint Flange Standard Sizes (dimensions) of Pipes and Fittings are available on Mobile apps. Some of them may be • Pipedata • Pipe and Fittings • Piping Toolbox: ASME, Flange, Fitting Engineering • Piping Dimensions • Etc. Threaded Socket Welded 15 of 68 16 of 68 Example – Water Piping Assuming a 25m high storage tank, the water pressure at ground level shall be approx. 2.5 barg. barg. (10.19 m Water Column is 1 bar.) Assuming a Carbon steel piping of say 4” diameter, over a length of 1,000m, with many elbows, valves, etc. will require a pressure loss of ~1.1 bar for a flow rate of 30 m3/hr. Thus final pressure available is (say) 1.4 bar at the ground level of the building. The 4” pipe will have many outlets for various flats in an apartment complex, say pipes of 1” and ½” size connections.. At 2nd floor, which is say 7m above ground level, the pressure available in bath is < 0.7 bar. 17 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup Jyoti Swarup 18 of 68 3 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Flange Ratings, ASME B16.5 Piping & Valves Codes ASME B31.1 till B31.12 ASME B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged fittings (NPS (NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 Metric/Inch Standard) Ratings defines as nominal 150 lbs, lbs, 300 lbs, lbs, 600 lbs, lbs, 900 lbs, lbs, 1500 lbs and 2500 lbs. Covers Size ½” to 24” All materials Classified as groups 1.1, 1.2 etc. Example 150# Flange for a given (CS) material have a design pressure at given temperature. And hydrohydro-test at 1.5 times design pressure. Refer ASME B16.5 code for flange dimensions, no. of bolt holes, etc. ASME B16.9 factory made Wrought steel Butt welding fittings ASME B16.34 Valves, Flanged, threaded and welding ends. ASME B16.47 Large diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60) API Spec 6D Pipeline and Piping Valves BS Codes MSS Codes IS codes 19 of 68 Flange Ratings, ASME B16.47 Temp.,°F 150 300 400 600 900 1500 2500 < 100 285 740 985 1,480 2,220 3,705 6,170 ASME B16.34 on Valves also has a Class 4500 but it applies only to welding end valves 20 of 68 Flanges MSS SPSP-4444-2019 MSS SPSP-44 “Steel Pipeline Flanges” covers similar Class 150, 300, 400, 600, and 900 flanges Size 12” to 60”, Class 150# to 900# pressure--temperature ratings, Covers pressure materials, dimensions, tolerances and testing Material Grades from F36, F42, F46, F48, F50, F52, F56, F60, F65, F70, F80, with yield strength from 36 ksi (F36) to 80 ksi (F80). Resulting in large inside pipe diameter and thinner pipe wall. Ratings defines as nominal 75#, , 150#, 300#, 600#, and 900#. Covers Size 26” to 60” This Standard provides two series of flange dimensions. Series A specifies flange dimensions for general use flanges. Series B specifies flange dimensions for compact flanges that, have smaller bolt circle diameter. These two series of flanges are not interchangeable. ASME B16.47 Series A flanges, adopted MSS SP-44 dimensions but does not cover the SP-44 high strength materials used in the pipeline industry to match API line pipe of equivalent grades. 21 of 68 Some Material Specifications (typ.) MSS: Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry, Inc. 22 of 68 Common Pipe Materials Grades Minimum Yield Strength and Tensile Strengths Some Applicable ASME / ASTM Specifications ASTM A53: Pipe Steel, Black and Hot dipped.. ASTM A106: Seamless Carbon steel pipes ASTM A234: Wrought Steel Pipe Fittings ASTM A312: Seamless and Welded Austenitic SS pipe ASTM A333: Seamless and Welded Low Temp Steel Pipe ASTM A420: Pipe Fittings Low temp CS ASME B16.9: Wrought Steel Buttwelded Fittings ASME B16.20: Metallic Gaskets ASME B36.10: Welded and Seamless Wrought steel pipes ASME B36.19: Stainless Steel pipes API 5L: Spec for Line Pipes ASME B31.3 Materials 23 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup Pressure in psig Min. Yield Strength Min. Ultimate Tensile Strength API 5L Min. Yield Grade Strength Min. Ultimate Tensile Strength API 5L Grade A 30,000 48,000 •Grade A 30,000 48,000 API 5L Grade B 35,000 60,000 •Grade B 35,000 60,000 A 53 30,000 48,000 •X42 42,000 60,000 A 106 Gr B 30,000 48,000 •X46 46,000 63,000 A 283 Gr B 27,000 50,000 •X52 52,000 66,000 A 333 35,000 60,000 •X56 56,000 71,000 A 312, Tp 304L 25,000 70,000 •X60 60,000 75,000 A 376, TP 304 30,000 75,000 •X65 65,000 77,000 A 789, S 31803 65,000 90,000 •X70 70,000 82,000 A 789, S 32750 80,000 116,000 •X80 80,000 90,000 24 of 68 4 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Duplex stainless steel UNS S31803 (DIN Material no. 1.4462): Stainless Steel - Properties AISI 304 / 304L: Most common CrCr-Ni 18/8 quality Used widely in the food processing and pharmaceutical industries for piping. Used in chemical industry to manufacture equipment for processes AISI 304L is used primarily in cases where the metal is deformed or subjected to thermal loads over extended periods; where there is heating to temps between 500 and 900° 900°C. Duplex SS is made up of a 22-phase structure of ferrite and austenite. The ferrite gives it excellent mechanical properties, while austenite provides good notch toughness at low temperatures. Duplex SS is used in oil and gas production, the chemical and petrochemical industries and elsewhere. The major alloying elements are chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen. AISI 316/ 316L: The addition of molybdenum makes this alloy oxygen resistant, even in the welding zone. This alloy is found in the chemical industry, where it is used in reactor vessels, piping and equipment for the production of all sorts of salts and organic and inorganic acids. AISI 316L is used primarily in places ‘where the material is exposed to prolonged thermal loads, particularly at temp. between 500 and 900° 900°C’. AISI: The American Iron and Steel Institute 25 of 68 Flange Pressure temperature ratings Glass Reinforced Plastics (GRP) Piping System ASMEB16.34aB16.34a-2017,Table22-1.1AStandardClass(MaterialGroup1.1) Low to medium pressures (typ. 0 – 40 bar) GRP piping system with nominal diameters 25mm to 1200mm may be used on offshore installations in nonnon-hydrocarbon service. Typical applications are Service (or process) water; Potable water Cooling medium Grey water (non hazardous waste) Chemicals; Non hazardous drains/ vents Fire water ring main/ wet deluge/ dry deluge Produced water Ballast water The components of GRP piping system are Pipe, bends, reducers, tees, supports, flanges and joints. lay--up, or Manufacturing methods may be filament winding, hand lay centrifugal casting Ref: UKOOA Specification and Recommended Practice for the use of GRP Piping Offshore. 27 of 68 Internal Pressure - Refinery Straight Piping t = Working Pressures by Classes, psig Temp °F 150# 300# 600# 900# 1500# 2500# -20 to 100 285 740 1480 2220 3705 6170 4500# 11110 200 260 675 1350 2025 3375 5625 10120 300 230 655 1315 1970 3280 5470 9845 400 200 635 1270 1900 3170 5280 9505 500 170 600 1200 1795 2995 4990 8980 600 140 550 1095 1640 2735 4560 8210 650 125 535 1075 1610 2685 4475 8055 700 110 535 1065 1600 2665 4440 7990 750 95 505 1010 1510 2520 4200 7560 800 80 410 825 1235 2060 3430 6170 850 65 270 535 805 1340 2230 4010 900 50 170 345 515 860 1430 2570 950 35 105 205 310 515 860 1545 1000 20 50 105 155 260 430 770 ASME B16.5-2017 has all these values converted into metric units, temp in °C and pressure in bar 28 of 68 Representative Allowable Stresses in tension for Materials (Developed from ASME B31.3, Table AA-1, AA-1B ASME B31.3, para. 304.1.2 Design Thickness for t < D/6 tm = t + c 26 of 68 Pi d o 2 (S E W + P Y ) tm = Minimum required thickness, satisfying requirements for pressure, mechanical corrosion, and erosion allowances. The minimum thickness T of the pipe selected considering manufacturer’s minus tolerance shall not be less than tm t = Pressure design thickness as calculated c = sum of the mechanical allowances, (thread depth and groove depth) corrosion and erosion allowances Pi = Internal design gage pressure Do = Outside diameter of pipe S = Allowable Stresses, from Table AA-1 or A1M E = Longitudinal weld joint factor, Seamless 1.00, ERW, 0.85, Table AA-1B W = Weld joint strength reduction factor (applicable for T > 510 °C) Para 302.3.5 (e) Y = Coefficient; for Ferritic steels = 0.4 < 900 °F, 0.5 for 950 °F and 0.7 for 1000 °F and above. 29 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup 30 of 68 5 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Piping Flexibility Analysis Butane Condenser Butane Accumulator 2nd Stg SCR A Butane Separator PFD Formal analysis not required if (1) system duplicates a successful service (2) is adequate by comparison (3) is of uniform size, with ≤ 2 fixed points, no intermediate restraints, and falls within following limitations 1st Stg SCR A Butane Tank 180’ dia x 80’ high Comp. A D y ≤ K (L − U )2 K = 2 . 08 Χ 10 2nd Stg SCR B 1st Stg SCR B 1 5 , SA ( mm / m ) 2 Ea D = Outside diameter of pipe, mm Ea = Reference modulus of elasticity at 21 °C, MPa L = Developed length of piping between anchors, m SA = Allowable Displacement stress range, MPa U = Anchor distance, straight line y = resultant of total displacement strain, mm to be absorbed by piping system Comp. B 32 of 68 31 of 68 Thermal Expansion loops Piping Flexibility Analysis - Example Pipe material:Carbon Steel, C ≤ 0.3% h Size: 8" Sch 40 SA = f (1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh), f = 1 Temperature range: 30°C to 400°C Ea at 21 °C (70 °F) Range F 86 °F to 752 °F From Table A-1 Find: h where L = U + 2 h, Length U 100m Sh = 13000 psi The expansion stresses and end reactions shall be calculated using largest differential temperature compared with ambient temp., including short term/ upset conditions. The expansion stresses can be mitigated by using flexible connections/ bellows, change in piping direction or thermal expansion loops. The expansion loops in long piping may be horizontal 2D; or 3D to save space, specially say for steam line on pipe racks. Some guidelines for expansion loop design are as shown in sketch. 2.95 E07 Sc = 20000 psi Pipe OD 219.1mm, U = 100m, ΔT = 400 – 30 = 370 °C (666 °F), Assume h = 5m, L = 110m Thermal Expansion Coefficient α at 400°C (752 °F) = 7.54 E-06 mm/mm / °F, Total Displacement strain ε = α ΔT = 7.54E-6 x 666, y = ε x 100 E3 = 502 mm for 100m span. SA = 1 x (1.25 x 20000 + 0.25 x 13000) = 28,250 psi, SA / EA = 9.576E-4, K = 2.08 x E5 x 9.576 E-4 = 199.2 (mm/m)2 D y/ (L-U)2 =(219.1 x 502)/ (110 – 100)2 = 1100 > K, hence 5m loop not acceptable. Assume h = 12m, L = 100 + 2 x 12 = 124m, L – U = 24m, D y/ (L-U)2 = 191 < K. Hence, we may need say two loops of 6m each in the run. (Ref. Exxonmobil GP 0303-7777-06) ANCHOR POINT h GUIDES 1 ft - 0 in. (30.48 cm) MIN. TYP. PS a/2 L a PS GUIDES PS ANCHOR POINT NOTES: (1) L/a = 20 to 40. (2) L/h = 10 to 20. (3) h/a = 2. (4) Pipe stress and flexibility shall be verified per GP 03-77-06 and GP 03-77-07. (5) Anchors and guides shall be per GP 04-77-01. (6) PS = Pipe support. 33 of 68 35 of 68 Types of Gaskets Piping Class Nonmetallic – composite sheet materials for FF flanges, low pressure applications Piping Class Ratings 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500, 2500 corresponding to flange ratings. Piping Class designations A, B, C etc. as in ONGC or 1xx, 3xx, 6xx, 9xx etc. as in Shell specifications. Providing applicable codes and material selections for pipes, fittings, flanges, valves, bolts, gaskets and accessories. Providing design limits in terms of pressure, temperature ratings, hydrotest pressure, and pipe wall thicknesses for a given corrosion allowance for all pipe sizes as applicable. Applicability and any special requirements. Material codifications, if any. Semi Metallic – composite of metal and non metals Spiral Wound Gaskets for raised face flanges – most commonly used, in all pressure classes 150# to 2500# Camprofile Gaskets – solid serrated metal core faced on each side with soft non metallic material Jacketed Gaskets – non metallic gasket material in metallic sheath Metallic Gaskets – high temp. and pressure applications RingRing-Joint type gaskets: Style R (oval or octgonal), octgonal), RX (pressure energised R) and BX (very high pressures). Manufactured to codes API 6A and B16.20. Lens Ring, Spherical surface, special purpose 37 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup 38 of 68 6 . Webinar 18th July 2020 ONGC Piping Class F1 (1500#) 2/2 ONGC Piping Class F1 (1500#) 1/2 39 of 68 40 of 68 Fluid Flow Few Problems in fluid flow may be solved with acceptable accuracy using idealized equations. Several empirical formulas have been developed to fit particular circumstances in predicting flow capacity and pressure drops. Beranoulli Theorem based on conservation of energy as total of elevation, pressure head and velocity at points 1 and 2, considering friction loss hL may be defined as Ze1 + P1 / ρ1 + V12/2g = Ze2 + P2 / ρ2 + V22/2g + hL Modifications to above equation have been proposed by many investigators to account for this friction losses. Jyoti Swarup 41 of 68 Fluid Physical Properties VISCOSITY: readiness by which a fluid flows when acted upon by an external force and is temperature dependent Absolute viscosity is a measure of fluids resistance to deformation Kinematic Viscosity is ratio of absolute viscosity to mass density. 42 of 68 Reynolds Number At low velocities, the velocity of fluid at the centre of the pipe is maximum and zero at pipe wall. (laminar flow) At higher velocities, the fluid particles begin to show a random motion transverse to the direction of flow (turbulent flow) Specific Volume is inverse of density. Relative density of a gas is the ratio as Reynolds number defined as Re = D V ρ /μ defines this transition. Re < 2,000 flow is laminar, Re . 4,000 is turbulent. In between Re 2,000 to 4,000 it is undefined. γ = M (gas)/ M (air) Non circular conduits, equivalent diameter D may be approximated as 4 x Hydraulic radius as Hydraulic radius = Area of Flowing fluid/ Wetted perimeter 43 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup 44 of 68 7 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Reynolds number Flow velocity limits Velocity in single phase liquid lines should not normally exceed 5 m/sec at maximum flow rates to minimize flashing ahead of control valves. Velocity should not be less than 1m/sec to minimize deposition of sands and other solids. 45 of 68 46 of 68 Reynolds number (CGS units) Reynolds number (FPS units) Dimensionless number Re = D V ρ / μ where ρ = liquid density, lb/ft μ = liquid viscosity, cP lb/ft3 D = Pipe ID, ft V = fluid velocity, ft/sec Example 4” Sch 40 pipe, OD = 4.5”, Thk = .216”, Pipe ID = 4.068” = 0.339 ft Assumed Flow rate 30 m3/hr = 1059.4 ft3/hr = 0.2943 ft3/sec Flow velocity = Flow / area = 0.2943/(π 0.2943/(π ID2/4) = 0.2943 /3.1415 / 0.3392 x 4 = 3.26 ft/sec Water Density 62.4 lb/ft lb/ft3, Viscosity 1 cP = 0.000672 lbm/ft lbm/ft sec, Reynolds number Re = 0.339 x 3.26 x 62.4 / 0.000672 = 102,620 Dimensionless number Re = D V ρ / μ where ρ = liquid density, kg/m3 μ = liquid viscosity, Pa.s D = Pipe ID, m V = fluid velocity, m/sec Example 4” Sch 40 pipe, OD = 0.1143m, Thk = 5.486mm, ID = 103.33mm = 0.10333 m Flow rate 30 m3/hr = 0.0083 m3/sec Flow velocity = Flow / area = 0.0083/(π 0.0083/(π ID2/4) = 0.0083 /3.1415 / 0.103332 x 4 = 0.994 m/sec Water Density 1000 kg/m3, Viscosity 1 cP, cP, Reynolds number Re = 0.10333 x 0.994 x 1000 / 1 x 1000 = 102,710 Kinematic Viscosity ν = μ / ρ 1 cSt (centiStokes) = 10-6 m2/s Dynamic Viscosity 1 cP = 0.001 Pascal second 47 of 68 Typical Roughness of pipe materials Pipe Friction The resistance to the incompressible flow of any fluid in any pipe is from the equation hf = f (L/D) (V2/2g) hf frictional resistance in ft (m) of fluid L Total design length of pipe in ft (m) V average velocity in pipe ft/sec (m/sec) g acceleration due to gravity ft/sec2 (m/sec2) f friction factor, which can be computed from Colebrook equation (or Moody charts) 1 / √f = 2 log10 [ε / (3.7D) + (2.51/Re √f )] ε = surface roughness parameter, which may be as typically below https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8oYSi0P6aZA Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup 48 of 68 49 of 68 Material ε ft μm Plastic Piping 0.000005 2 Steel or wrought iron 0.000150 46 Asphalt-dipped CI 0.000400 122 Galvanized iron 0.000500 152 Cast Iron 0.000850 259 Concrete 0.003000 914 50 of 68 8 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Moody friction factors as a function of Reynolds numbers Relative Roughness of Pipe materials and friction factors for complete turbulence (Ref GPSA) 51 of 68 52 of 68 Pressure Drop calculations - Example GPSA: Equivalent lengths for valves and fittings Example Darcy-Weisbach formula Pipe length m Flow rate m3/Hr Flow rate m3/sec Diameter mm Roughness e mm Kin. Viscosity 20 °C m2/sec Velocity V m/sec Ratio e/D Reynolds Number VD/ν Moody Friction factor f Friction loss m H2O Water Flow Asphalt Pipe Comerc. Stl 1000 1000 180 1440 0.05 0.4 200 500 0.12 0.045 1.01E-06 1.01E-06 1.59 2.04 0.0006 0.00009 3.15E+05 1.01E+06 0.018 0.013 11.62 5.50 GPSA: Gas Processors Supplier Association 53 of 68 Head Loss 54 of 68 Pipe Span Calculations Pressure drop in a piping can be calculated using the flow parameters as above by adding the equivalent length of various fittings into the pipe length. For a 4” Sch 40 pipe, 600 GPM Water flow rate, Surface Roughness 0.048mm, Re = 471,000, and a pressure drop of 1.81 bar for a eq. pipe length of 100m. The flow velocity is 4.61 m/sec. A simple web based online calculator as shown may be used. There are many such calculators available on the net. This calculator has calculation options for bends, Tees, Valves, Strainers etc. Maximum allowable spans between supports for horizontal piping are limited by three factors Bending Bending Stress Vertical Vertical deflection Natural Natural Frequency Natural frequency is related to maximum deflection as f = 1/2π √( g/ Δ ) = 3.12/Δ, where g = 386 in/sec2, Δ deflection in inches. Thus for a 1” sag, natural frequency is 3.12 cps. http://www.pressure-drop.com/Online-Calculator/ 55 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup 56 of 68 9 . Webinar 18th July 2020 Deflection and Stress is based on end conditions Pipe Deflections If both ends Simply supported, and no concentrated loads (e.g. valves) L = √ (8 Z Sh / w) limited by Stress L = 4√ (384 Δ E I / 5 w) limited by deflection If end condition assumed between simply supported and fixed at both ends, we may use L = √ (12 Z Sh / w) limited by Stress L = 4√ (384 Δ E I / 3 w) limited by deflection L allowable pipe span in Z modulus of section of pipe, in3 Sh allowable tensile stress at design temp. Refer Table AA-1, B31.3 x Factor (Typically 1500 to 3000 psi) w total weight of pipe (Metal + Contents + Insulation) lb/in lb/in Δ allowable deflection sag, in C--6, B31.3 E modulus of elasticity at design temp, psi , Table C Example : 10” Std WT, 400 °F, A106 Gr B Filled with Liquid, Sp. Gr. 1.2, Insulation 2” Calcium Silicate, 11 lb/ft lb/ft3 Assume maximum deflection allowed 5/8” Self weight = PI/4 (10.752-10.022)(0.283)(12) = 40.44 lb/ft lb/ft Contents weight = PI/4 (10.022)(62.4/123)(12)(1.2) = 41.0 lb/ft lb/ft Insulation weight = PI/4 (14.752-10.752)(11/123)(12) = 6.12 lb/ft lb/ft Total weight of pipe 40.44 + 41.0 + 6.12 = 87.56 lb/ft lb/ft = 7.30 lb/in lb/in Allowable Stress at design temperature (assumed) 20,000 psi x .25 Section Modulus Z = 29.9 in3 Young’s Modulus 27.2 x 106 psi, Moment of Inertia I = 160.7 in4 Limited by stress L = √ (8 Z Sh / w) = √8 29.9 20000 0.25 / 7.30 = 33.7 ft (10.28m) Limited by deflection L = 4√ (384 Δ E I / 5w) = 4√384 5/8 27.2E6 160.7 / 5 7.30 = 34.3 ft (10.5m) Select lower of the two i.e. 33.7 ft as maximum span allowed. 57 of 68 58 of 68 ASME B 31.131.1-2018 Table Pipe support Spans (1/2) Shell DEP 31.38.01.11 Appendix 11 (a) Suggested max. spacing between supports for horizontal straight runs of standard and heavier pipe at max. op. temp. of 750° 750°F (400° (400°C). (b) Does not apply where span calculations are made or where there are concentrated loads between supports, such as flanges, valves, specialties, etc. (c) The spacing is based on a fixed beam support with a bending stress < 2,300 psi (15.86 MPa) and insulated pipe filled with water or the equivalent weight of steel pipe. A sag of 0.1 in. (2.5 mm) between supports is permissible. (d) See Table 121.5121.5-1 attached in next slide Pipe Spans for CS & Heavy Wall SS pipes 59 of 68 ASME B31.1 Table 121.5-1 Suggested Steel Pipe Support Spacing 60 of 68 Equipment Layout (1/2) Equipment layout shall be developed based on the following data: P&IDs P&IDs Overall Overall Plot Plan Wind Wind direction Equipment Equipment Data Sheets Indicative Indicative Equipment Layout from Process Licensor Process Process package These values are identical to support spacing in MSS-SP-58 61 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup 62 of 68 10 . Webinar 18th July 2020 SELECTION OF VALVES Equipment Layout (2/2) The skills required for plant layout designer of a project as well as person vetting those layouts include: Common Common sense and creativity Knowledge Knowledge of what a particular plant is designed to do. A A general understanding of how process equipment is maintained and operated. The The ability to generate a safe, comprehensive layout within a specified time and with consideration toward constructability and costcost-effectiveness. Knowledge Knowledge and the ability to use input from other disciplines. Willingness Willingness to compromise in the best interest of the project. * Designed to control flow Throttle or On-Off * Operated Manually, Remotely or Automatically * Variety of Materials LIFE CYCLE COST VALVE SELECTION INITIAL EXPENSES REPLACEMENT VALVE LABOR FOR REPLACEMENT DOWNTIME AND LOSS OF PRODUCTION INTERNAL LEAKAGE ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS DECIDE TYPE OF FLOW CONTROL TYPE OF VALVE MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION MANUFACTURER The The ability to generate clear and concise documents, and to defend designs when challenged. VALVE VARIETIES GATE GLOBE QUARTER TURN (Plug, Ball, Butterfly) CHECK ASME B16.34-2017▹Valves - Flanged, Threaded and Welding End covers Valves upto 60” size 64 of 68 63 of 68 Thank You 3D Plant Design and Management System Contacts: jyotiswarup10@gmail.com, Mobile +91 98868 97021 66 of 68 67 of 68 Exercise 1. For an 10” 600# flange, 400° 400°F operating, CS material, what is design pressure in bar and psi in ASME B16.5? Also, design pressure at ambient temp. (Hint Refer ASME B16.5 Table IIII-2-1.1 Pressure– Pressure–Temperature Ratings for Group 1.1 Materials.) 2. What is above size Flange OD in inch and mm from ASME B16.5 (or Mobile apps)? WNRF flange weight & Nuts/ Bolts weight? 3. What is Seamless CS (A(A-106 Gr B) 10” pipe OD? Welded 10” Pipe OD? 4. Please calculate pipe thickness for above 600# flange design pressure at ambient temperature? CA=1.5 mm. (Hint: See ASME B31.3 Table AA-1 Basic Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metals for S.) 5. What pipe schedule can be used for above design if mill tolerance on pipe thk. 12.5%. thk. is ±12.5%. 6. What is Pressure drop in above pipe (10” Sch xxx) 150m long, flowing liquid 300 m3/Hr, Sp. Gr. 0.8, Pipe roughness to be assumed 0.045 mm and Fluid kinematic Viscosity 0.3E0.3E-6 m2/sec (0.3 cSt). cSt). 7. Above Pipe support span (in m and ft) from table in the ppt. (Assume insulated pipe as it is high temperature.). Also, to verify this with pipe support span calculations. 68 of 68 Fluid Flow and Piping, by Jyoti Swarup 11