Uploaded by Krshieville Padilla


Problem #3. What are the ideologies present in Mindanao myths?
Before the breakthrough of postclassical narratology, ideology in fiction was most
often studied as the “range of cultural stereotypes or accepted knowledge” contained
within the narrative and accepted by the reader as natural and self-evident (Culler, 1975).
In Barthes (1970), ideology forms part of the “cultural code” that refers to a body of cultural
knowledge activated by the narrative. To Genette, the founder of classical structuralist
narratology, the ideology of a narrative can be found in the “body of maxims and
prejudices that make up both a world-view and a system of values” and that incite the
reader to accept the story world as plausible and credible. Ideology, in other words,
founds the narrative’s verisimilitude or vraisemblance. Cultural conventions are turned
into natural and self-evident givens. Several implications were observed in the narrative
structure and content of the Mindanao myths analyzed:
First, “Good will always prevail over evil”. “Evil triumphs, but never conquers,” is a
timeless concept repeated throughout all great literature in some capacity. It means that
evil is powerful, and may even take over one’s life for a limited amount of time. In the end,
though, the good always comes out and wins over. In other words, everything will always
get better, and good is stronger than bad. This concept is evident in the myths M 3, M4,
and M6 wherein the heroes have gone through villainy [A] and struggle [H] but the story
ended wherein the heroes are triumphant and victorious in their quests [I] , and the lacks
being presented are liquidated [K].
Second, Disobedience creates consequences.
1. Selfishness and greed lead to self-destruction
2. With great power comes great responsibility
3. Everything happens in its own perfect timing.
4. Promises should be kept
5. Perseverance leads to victory
6. Good actions will be rewarded
7. Stealing is a crime that is punishable by death
8. Love knows no boundaries
9. Keep dreams at reach
Furthermore, in the context of narrative fiction, ideology may also be defined as
the frame of values informing the narrative. This frame installs hierarchical relationships
between pairs of oppositional terms such as real vs. false, good vs. bad, and beautiful
vs. ugly. These preferences may be explicitly stated in the text or remain more or less