1.OVERVIEW OF THE HUMAN BODY 1.1 DEFINING ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY HUMAN ANATOMY- The study of the structure of the human body, it is also the on how every part of a human interacts to function as a whole. ANATOMY- The study of the structure and location of the components of an organism to provide framework for understanding. In simple words- Anatomy is the study of the body structure. 2 MAJOR TYPES OF ANATOMY GROSS MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY- The study of anatomical structures visible to the naked eye, such as internal and external organs. Gross (Macroscopic) Anatomy can be subdivided into three different fields: a. SURFACE ANATOMY- The study of external anatomical features by observing the surface of the body without dissection. b. REGIONAL ANATOMY- Focuses on specific external or internal regiobns of the body. ex. head or chest c. SYSTEMIC ANATOMY- Focuses on the anatomy of different organ systems. ex. respiratory or nervous system MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY- The study of tiny anatomical structures on a microscopic scale, including cells (cytology), and tissues (histology) a. CYTOLOGY- The study of the structure and function of cells. b. HISTOLOGY- The study of the organization and details of biological tissues HISTORY OF ANATOMY ANDREAS VESALIUS- Belgian born anatomist and physician, he is considered the father of modern anatomy and his work the beginning of modern medicine. - Beginning in Ancient Greece and developing through the MIddle Ages and the Renaissance, methods of studying have advances dramatically. - Examination of animals and cadavers through dissection to the technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th Century, such as non-invasive imaging and radiology. "Anatomy provides information about structure, location, and organization of different parts of the body that is needed to truly understand phyiology. Together, anatomy and physiology explain the structure and function of the different components of the human body to describe what it is and how it works." PHYSIOLOGY- The study of the body function. It studies the processes and mechanisms that allows an organism to sustain life, grow, and develop. PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES- Ways in which organ systems, organs, tissues, cells, and biomolecules work together to accomplish the complex goal of sustaining life. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY- The study of the functions of humans, their organs and cells, and how all these functions combine to make life, growth, and development possible. In simple words: Human Physiology is the study of the physiological processes in the body of a human. "The academic discipline of physiology views the body as a collection of interacting systems, each with its own combination of functions and purposes." "No system works in isolation, and the well being of the person depends on the well being of the interactions between body systems." PATHOPHYSIOLOGY- The study of how physiology is altered. It focuses on how the physiological processes fail to maintain their normal function, resulting in the manifestation of disease symptoms. In simple words: Pathophysiology is the study of the abnormality in the normal body function resulting and is associated with diseases.