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Study Guide Test 1

Study Guide for Test #1 Sociology
Definition of sociology
Study of human behavior in society
The characteristics of sociology
Aims to understand human behavior, social relationships, and social institutions
Definition of the sociological imagination
Asks you to imagine yourself in a different set of circumstances to make what is familiar, strange
C. Wright Mills
Factors in the development of sociological thinking
Scientific Revolution
Industrial Revolution
What did the early founders of sociological thought believe or seek to do?
Scientifically study society
Definition of norms
Common rules of a culture
What is the significance of Auguste Comte?
Father of sociology
Definition of macro-level and micro-level paradigms
Macro – Large scale processes
Micro – Small scale interactions between individuals
Characteristics of structural functionalism
Seeks to explain social organization and change
Society is made up of many interdependent parts like the human body
All parts must work together to ensure equilibrium
Characteristics of conflict theory
Says inequalities and injustice are the source of conflicts
Resources and power are distributed unequally
People with more resources use those resources to keep those with fewer resources in their place
Characteristics of symbolic interactionism
People created shared meanings regarding symbols and events and then interact on the basis of those
Difference between qualitative and quantitative research
Qualitative – deals with data that can’t be easily counted, usually by interview
Quantitative – Deals with data that can be easily counted and focuses on large scale data gathering,
usually done by survey
Characteristics of good scientific theories
Plan research study
Design research plan and method for collecting data
Make sense of the data
Definition of variable
Concept that can take on two or more variables
Definition of correlation
Degree to which variables are correlated
Positive vs. negative correlation
Positive Correlation
UP, UP or Down, Down
Both variables go in the same direction
Negative Correlation
UP, Down or Down, UP
Both variables go in opposite directions
Difference between validity and reliability
Validity – Accuracy
Reliability - Consistency
How can bias be introduced into a study?
Deductive vs. inductive reasoning
Inductive Reasoning
Information – pattern – hypothesis – theory
Deductive Reasoning
Theory – hypothesis – observation – confirmation
Definition of sample and population
Sample – portion of a large population
Population – the whole group to be studied
What is the Nuremberg Code and why is it important?
Ethical guidelines for human experimentation
Developed after WWII
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
The structure of a language affects the ways in which its respective speakers conceptualize their
world, i.e. their world view
Definition of culture
Composition of the beliefs, norms, behaviors and products common to the members of a group
Nonmaterial vs. material culture
Nonmaterial – abstract creations of human culture such as emotions, ideas
Material – physical objects created, embraced or consumed by society
Definition of beliefs
Ideas that people accept as true
Distinguish between mores, folkways, and taboos
Folkways – fairly weak norms that mark the distinction between rude and polite behavior
Mores – strongly held norm, violation seriously offends the standards of acceptable behavior
Taboos – powerful mores, violation is considered unthinkable
What are the characteristics of laws?
Formalized and institutionalized societal norms
Usually created to gain something from those violating the norm
Definition of ethnocentrism
Other cultures are measured against our own where “our own” is considered normal
Definition of multiculturalism
Being apart of several distinguishable cultures
Definition of socialization
Lifelong process by which people learn the culture of their society
Constructs a sense of who you are, how to think, and how to act
Primary way of reproducing culture
Definition of the looking-glass self
The self-image that results from our interpretation of other people looking at us
Interact with someone – they react – you adjust your reaction based off their reaction
George Herbert Mead’s explanation of the self
Consists of the “I” and “Me”
I – impulsive, creative part of a person
Me – part of self through which we see ourselves as others see us, wants to conform to norms
Definition of significant others
Romantic or sexual relationship with another person
Definition of generalized other
Composite of societal expectations
Agents of socialization (examples)
Definition of hidden curriculum
Unspoken classroom socialization norms
Definition of total institutions
Setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and are
subject to tight control
Primary vs. secondary vs. reference groups
Primary – family, close friends
Secondary – everything else
Differences between working class parents and middle-class parents
Working class – obedience and respect for authority
Middle class – creativity and spontaneity
Five key questions of media literacy (from lecture – this is NOT IN YOUR BOOK)
Who created it?
What is used to attract my attention?
How might different people understand this message differently?
What lifestyle, values and points of view are represented in or omitted from this message?
Why is the message being sent?
Creative techniques used to get your attention (from lecture – NOT IN YOUR BOOK)