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The Theseus Paradox
- The Ship of Theseus
- Made by Plutarch
- Famous for slaying minotaur
- Greek mythology character
- He did a voyage in killing the minotaur
- After many years, the parts have been wrecked
- To continue commemorating, its wrecked parts have been replaced
- “Is the newly upgraded ship still the ship of Theseus?”
- What if someone made a ship out of the discarded parts of the hip? Is this the
ship of Theseus?
- So which one by essence is the ship of theseus?
- Everything about you is changing but what holds you together?
- Never wrote anything
- But his words are written by his student, Plato
- Loves questioning
- Father of Western Philosophy
- Met the Oracle of Delphi, the oracle of Delphi told him that “no one is wiser than
- When people give him an answer, he still kept on asking -> Dialectic or Socratic method
- No one is wiser than me, because at first, no one is truly wise
● Docta Ignorantia
- Doctrine of ignorance
- Everything you believe that you know, you actually don’t know
- “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
- Answers Socrates’ questions
- The Dialouges of Plato
● Dualism/Two-Worlds Theory
- The Allegory of the Cave
● World of Forms
- Real, true, perfect
● World of Matter
- Imitation of the world of forms
- Imperfect, temporary
St. Augustine
Medieval Era
Rise of religion and faith
St. Augustine
- Tries to seek someone greater than him
- “My soul is restless until it finds its rest on you.”
- Human as we are, what we are going after is happiness
- Happiness is the ultimate end of man, everything that a man does is purposed
towards happiness.
- Love bring as much closer to happiness
- To be human is love
- Love brings us close to God which is love himself
- To love another person is to see the face of God
Rene Descartes
*Modern Era*
- Focuses on human reason instead of the divine
Rene Descartes
- Father of Modern Philosophy
- Tutor the royals and noble family in France
- Has difficulty in sleeping due to sched in tutoring so he doubted if he is asleep or
- Alo doubted his existence
- He held on to mathematics (sleep/awake it’s still the same)
- He developed the Cartesian Plate
Methodic DOubt
- Doubting everything
The only thing we cannot doubt?
- We cannot doubt that we are doubting
- Doubt is the only thing we cannot doubt
Faculty that doubts
- Mind = it thinks
Cogito ergo sum
- I think, therefore I am.
I think, therefore I exist.
Thinking affirms existence
I am = I exist
George Berkeley
- “If a tree falls in the forest, and nobody is around to hear it, will it make a sound?”
- Does our existence rely on being perceived?
Esse est percipi
- To be is to be perceived
Ultimate perceiver
Søren Kierkegaard
● Existentialism
- Focuses on human existence
- Focuses on freedom of choice
Søren Kierkegaard
- Father of Existentialism
- “Essence perceds existentialism.”
Theistic existentialism
- There is God in his equation
Jean-Paul Sartre
- “Existence precedes essence.”
- You were born, you mold your essence after.
- No God in the process
Albert Camus
- Life is absurd!
- Focuses on the absurdity of existence
The Myth of Sisyphus
- Sisyphus cheated death
- Punished by gods bu uplifting the rock/boulder ar the top of the hill
- The punishment will end if he will manage to put it uphill
- But, it is a repetitive/eternal punishment kay nagahulog balik ang bato as it
almost reach the peak
No matter where you arrive at in life, everything just role downs at again ‘cause we all
die at the end. Mangamatay ra japun ta!
Life doesn’t have to be meaningful, because life is absurd.
“The struggle towards the heights is enough to fill a man’s heart. One must imagine
Sisyphus happy.”
Life is absurd! :( (x)
Life is absurd! :D (/)
Trying is the absence of meaning
Don’t find it, live with it!
Numbers are what make up reality.
Man is by nature dualistic-matter and form.
The purpose of the self is to love.
The self must be examined, to make life worth living.
Everything comes from the Boundless.
The self thinks, therefore, it exists.
Human existence is pointless.
Everything comes from water.
Reality, including the self. comes from air.
One has the freedom to be what one wants.
No man can ever step into the same river twice.
The meaning of one's self is already present before birth.
To exist means to be sensed by the others,
He was accused of impiety and corrupting the minds of the young.
Everything must be in constant moderation.
Socrates was a Greek philosopher and one of the very few individuals who
shaped Western thought (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2017). However, unlike
the other philosophers during his time, Socrates never wrote anything. Knowledge
about Socrates is through second-hand information from the writings of his student Plato
(another of the most influential Western thinkers) and historian Xenophon (The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2017).
Socrates was known for his method of inquiry in testing an idea. This is called the
Socratic Method whereby an idea was tested by asking a series of questions to
determine underlying beliefs and the extent of knowledge to guide the person toward
better understanding (Maxwell, 2015). Socrates was described to have gone about in
Athens questioning everyday views and popular Athenian beliefs. This apparently
offended the leaders in his time. He was then accused of impiety or lack of reverence
for the gods and for corrupting the minds of the youth. At 70 years old, Socrates was
sentenced to death by drinking a cup of poison hemlock (Brickhouse & Smith, 2007).
Some of Socrates ideas were
The soul is immortal
The care of the soul is the task of philosophy.
Virtue is necessary to attain happiness
Socrates believed that philosophy had a very important role to play in the lives of
the people. One of his most quoted phrases is, "The unexamined life is not worth living.”
According to Socrates, self-knowledge or the examination of one's self, as well as the
question about how one ought to live one's life, are very important concerns because
only by knowing yourself can you hope to improve your life (Rappe, 1995). Socrates
believed that you as a person should consciously contemplate, turn your gaze inward,
and analyze the true nature and values that are guiding your life.
He added self-knowledge would open your eyes to your true nature; which
contrary to pop culture, is not about what you own, how many "Likes” you get in your
social media posts, or how successful you are in your career. In fact, your real self is not
even your body. According to Socrates, the state of your inner being (soul/self)
determines the quality of your life.
Socrates said existence is of two kinds:
1. The visible, and
2. The invisible
The visible existence changes while the invisible existence remains constant
(Connolly, 2017). According to Socrates, this is the state of the human being. The body,
which is visible, changes; the other part, the kind that is invisible to humans yet sensed
and understood by the mind remains constant. In the Socratic Dialogue, Plato wrote
what Socrates said about the body and the soul: "When the soul and body are together
nature assigns our body to be a slave and to be ruled and the soul to be ruler and
master” (Hamilton et al., 1961; Organ, 1986). However, Socrates said that the body was
a reluctant slave, and the soul gets dragged toward what is always changing. This
would leave the soul confused (Organ, 1986).
Socrates also believed that the goal of life is to be happy. How does one
become happy? According to Socrates, the virtuous man is a happy man, and that
virtue alone is the one and only supreme good that will secure his/her happiness. Virtue
is defined as moral excellence, and an individual is considered virtuous if his/her
character is made up of the moral qualities that are accepted as virtues, i.e., courage,
temperance, prudence, and justice (The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2017).
According to Socrates, even death is a trivial matter for the truly virtuous because
he/she has realized that the most important thing in life is the state of his/her soul and
the acts taken from taking care of the soul through self-knowledge.
Oriental Philosophy
Removed the idea of an individual self
And view in a greater scheme
Henotheistic religion
Henotheistic: believe in one great deity- Brahman
- The absolute
- Encompasses everything
- Manifests itself into different gods and goddesses:
● Brahma
- The God of creation
● Vishnu
- The God of preservation
● Shiva
- The God of destruction
- Ones destroyed something, it restore it to something else
- Ex. stone -> sand
- Behind our changes
- The soul, spirit
- Manifestation of Brahman
- Find within everything
- The being in me, acknowledges the being in you
- The Atman in me, recognizes the Atman in you
Each of us have Atman within us
- Each of us have infinite worth no matter who we are
Always acknowledge the Atman
Hinduism- aspires to be reunited with the Brahman
● Dharma
- Moral obligation
- Thing needed to comply to go back to the ultimate perfect state
- Changes from time to time
- Depends on the context
- The basis of karma
- Cause and effect
- Whatever you have done/sown, will be the same energy that will bounce back.
- The endless cycle between birth and death, and rebirth
- Basis of reincarnation is your karma (if you did good/bad)
The goal is to be liberated and rise above the endless cycle… so Hindus would
always aspire for
- Liberation from endless cycle between birth and death, and rebirth
- The Atman will be liberated from the limits of the flesh ‘til the Atman will go back
to the Absolute which is the Brahman. So this is the ultimate end/goal of the
Always follow your Dharma so you will have good Karma. Always gather these all good
Karma, so that in facing another Samsara, we’ll be better than this so that eventually we
will attain Moksha.
● Sidhartha Gautama
- Buddha
- Human who attained enlightenment
- nobel/royal before
- In his middle age, he witnessed the different sufferings in life outside the castle
- He mediated under Bodhi tree and get enlightenment
- Bodhi tree - where “Buddhism” originated
- He realized these:
4 Noble Truths
1. There is suffering
- Each of us is suffering from something
2. Suffering has a cause
- And that is attachment
3. There is a way to end the suffering
4. The way to end suffering i though the Noble eightfold path
8 ways to get to end the suffering:
1. Right understanding
2. Right intention
3. Right speech
4. Right action
5. Right living
6. Right effort
7. Right attentiveness
8. Right concentration
The best way to end suffering is through detachment.
It's the way we feel about things that makes us suffer.
Look at things objectively.
Be mindful about things.
You have the power to go beyond that suffering.
Take everything as they are.
The end of suffering is about detachment.
Acknowledge it, then let it go.
How would you prevent a drop of water from drying up?
Put it in the ocean
Thus, place the self into the world.
Psychological Notions of the Self
● Cognition
Makes us truly humans
● Psychology
The scientific study of how people behave, think, and feel.
● Cognitive
“Of relating to, being, or involving conscious intellectual activity
such as thinking, reasoning, or remembering.
● Jean Piaget
Best known for his pioneering work in child development
Cognitive Development”, a
The theory deals with knowledge itself and how humans gradually
acquire and use it.
Cognitive development is a progressive reorganization of mental
processes resulting from biological maturation and environmental
experience in consistency on what they already know and what
they discover in their environment and then adjust their idea
Claims that cognitive development is at the center of the human
● 3 Basic Components to Piaget’s Cognitive Theory
1. Schemas/scheme
Are mental organizations that individuals use to understand
his or her environment and designate action.
Our brain gathers information and classifies it according to a
specified area in our brain.
Building blocks of knowledge that helps us understand our
environment and the actions that we encounter every day.
And upon learning, we describe the process to adapt this new information.
There are two processes:
a. Assimilation
The application of previous concepts to new concepts.
b. Accommodation
information or when existing ideas are challenged.
The child will then adjust his/her understanding and form a
new schema to accommodate that new information.
2. Adaptation
Involves the child’s learning processes to meet situational
3. Stages of Cognitive Development
Reflects the increasing sophistication of the child’s thought
● 4 Stages of Cognitive Development
1. Sensorimotor Stage
0-2 y/o
We develop through movement and experiences our five
Becoming curious of everything
The child continues to move, increasing physical mobility
resulting to increase of cognitive development
Realization of objects
Primitive understanding of cause-and-effect relationships
Objective permanence
When decreased development happen
We become impulsive that cannot decide directly
We become attention-seeker
Poor motor skills
2. Preoperational Stage
2-7 y/o
Lots of fantasies
Learns to speak
Loves to play pretend
Ask many questions
The birth of primitive reasoning
The intuitive age
Categorizing symbolic functions
Child uses language and symbols, including letters and
Egocentrism is evident
Conservation marks the end of preoperational stage
When decreased development happen
We become the dreamer, not the doer
We tolerate immaturity
Ebay going, happy-go-lucky person
Goal-driven personality
3. Concrete Operational Stage
7-11 y/o
Discover logic
E.g. sorting objects in certain order
Learning to put ourselves in someone else's shoes
Child demonstrates conservation, reversibility, serial ordering,
relationships. Thinking at this stage is still concrete
Focuses on the logic
We draw conclusions and make generalization
Emphasizes inductive reasoning
We realize that we are unique among other people
When decreased development happen
Extrovert in negative way
Subjective that violets norm
4. Formal Operational Stage
12 and above
We become formally operational
Can think more rationally about abstract concepts such as
success and failure, love and hate; and hypothetical events
Understanding of our identity and morality
Understand why people behave the way they do resulting to
more compassion
Final stage of cognitive development
Focuses on abstract concept
Morality and identity confirmation
We give importance to compassion
Rational individual
The individual demonstrates abstract thinking, including logic,
deductive reasoning, comparison, and classification
When decreased development happen
Break law
Lower elf-esteem that develops regret along the way
● Dr. Susan Harter (1999)
Detailed the emergence of self-concept and asserted that the
broad developmental changes observed across early childhood,
later childhood, and adolescence could be interpreted within a
Pigeatian framework.
● Harter’s Self-Development Concept
1. Early Childhood
child described the “self” in terms of concrete,
material possessions, and preferences.
When she wants what she wants will describe her personality
0-5 y/o
2. Middle to Later Childhood
The self was described in terms of trait-like constructs that
would require the type of hierarchical organizational skills
characteristic of logical thought development.
6-12 y/o
Like being kind, anti-social, intro or extro
3. Adolescence
According to Harter, this is the emergence of more abstract
self-definitions such as inner thought, emotions, attitudes and
13-16 y/o
4. Emerging Adults
The marked characteristic of “self” for emerging adults is
having a vision of “possible self”. It is the “age of possibilities”.
Widens our imagination and motivates us to our grand
More realistic and positive when reaching 28-33 y/o
● William James
Father of American Psychology
● I-self
Is the pure ego
It is the subjective self
It is the “self” that is aware of its own actions
Initiator of behavior
Sense of being unique
A sense of continuity - you are the same person yesterday and
Sense of self-awareness - consciously knowing what is going around
● Me-self
The self that is the object
It is the “self” that you can describe such has your physical
characteristics, personalities, social role, or relationships, thoughts,
Self as an object
Being part of the environment
Empirical self
Enhancing relationship with the society
Verified b experiences
3 dimensions:
1. Material
Physical appearance and extensions of it such as
clothing, immediate family, and home
Like datu ka kung naa ka branded clothes, etc.
2. Social
Social skills and significant interpersonal relationships
3. Spiritual
Personality, character, defining values
● Carl Ransom Rogers
Was an American psychologist and among the founders of the
humanistic approach to psychology.
“The curious paradox is that when I accept myself just as I am, then I
can change.”
● Humanistic approach
innate drive to self-actualization
● Ideal Self
Notions influenced by your parents
What you admire in others
What the society sees as acceptable
What you think is in your bet interest
● Real Self
The person you actually are
How you behave right at the moment of a situation
Who you are in reality
How you think, feel, or act at present
● The Importance of Alignment
When there is a great inconsistency between your ideal and real
selves or if the way you are is not aligned with what you want to be,
then you experience a state Rogers called incongruence.
He added that incongruence could lead to maladjustment.
Maladjustment: inability to react successfully and satifcatotily to the
demands of one's environment kaya nagkakaroon ng insecurities
along the way.