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Great Discoveries Syllabus, Fall 2022

Great Discoveries
in Greek and Roman Archaeology
Pompeii, 1st century CE, looking toward Mt. Vesuvius
CLASS 1702/ARKEO 1702/NES 1602
Fall 2022, Mon./Wed. 1:00–2:15 pm
Goldwin Smith Hall G64 (Kaufman Auditorium)
Professor: Dr. Caitie Barrett (ceb329@cornell.edu, she/her)
Teaching assistants:
Lead TA: Claire Challancin (cc2667@cornell.edu, she/her)
Alicia Nandita Maynard (anm229@cornell.edu, she/her)
Madeline Topor (mrt89@cornell.edu, she/her)
Office hours:
• Prof. Caitie Barrett: Wed. 2:30–4:30, Goldwin Smith Hall G23
• Claire Challancin: Tu/Fri. 9:00–10:00 and by appointment, Olin Library Café or on Zoom
• Alicia Nandita Maynard: TBA
• Madeline Topor: TBA
This introductory course surveys the archaeology of the ancient Greek and Roman
Mediterranean. Each week, we will explore a different archaeological discovery that transformed
scholars’ understanding of the ancient world. From early excavations at sites such as Pompeii
and Troy, to modern field projects across the Mediterranean, we will discover the rich cultures of
ancient Greece and Rome while also exploring the history, methods, and major intellectual goals
of archaeology.
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
Learning Objectives
Achieve a foundational understanding of ancient Greek and Roman archaeology
and material culture
Achieve an introductory knowledge of the goals, methods, and disciplinary history
of Greek and Roman archaeology
Understand how archaeologists use material evidence to investigate past societies
Contextualize recent historical developments in the perspective of a much longer
span of human history
Examine and critique the ways that people use (and misuse) the past to construct
meaning in the present
Grading Policy
Your grade will depend on the following components:
• Assessed throughout the semester:
o Module quizzes: 25%
• One-off assignments:
o Preliminary Exam 1: 25%
o Preliminary Exam 2: 25%
o Final Exam: 25%
Grades for this course will not be curved. I will use the following rubric for translating
percentages into letter grades (rounding all numbers to the closest whole integer):
• A+: 97–100
• A: 94–96
• A-: 90–93
• B+: 87–89
• B: 84–87
et cetera.
Course Readings
You will be responsible for about 30-70 pages of reading per week. Unless otherwise
specified, readings should be completed before taking the online quiz at the end of each module.
PDFs of all assigned readings will be posted to the relevant Modules in Canvas.
The lectures and course readings are designed to supplement, rather than duplicate, each
other. While the lectures and readings for a given week will deal with the same general topics,
they will approach those topics from different perspectives and provide different types of
information. In particular, lectures will often provide historical and cultural background
necessary for contextualizing the readings.
Please note that regular attendance and careful note-taking during lectures will be
extremely important for your performance in this course. Put differently: If you do the readings
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
but do not attend the lectures, you will not be able to do well in this class! As is common in
many humanities courses, there is no single textbook that covers all the material that you need to
learn – so I will often use lectures to present key primary sources (both material and visual), as
well as essential historical and contextual information. As a result, if you don’t participate in the
lectures, it will often be hard to understand the readings or know what to take away from them.
During lectures, I will use Poll Everywhere to pose questions and collect student
responses. Poll Everywhere is a web-based program which you can access on your computer or
mobile device. You can either access the program through a website or download the Poll
Everywhere app. You can find more information about Poll Everywhere on a PowerPoint slide in
the “Basic Course Information” module on Canvas.
Laptops and Electronic Devices
You are welcome to use laptops to take notes, refer to course readings, or respond to polls
during class. However, checking email or browsing the internet in class will have negative
consequences for your participation grade – as well as your comprehension of course materials!
Phones and other non-notetaking devices should be put away and silenced during class (unless
you are using your phone as a polling device, in which case you are allowed to use it for that
purpose only).
All forms of audio and/or video recording are ordinarily prohibited in class, although
exceptions may be made for students with documented visual or hearing impairments.
Module Quizzes
You will complete a short online quiz after completing each module (or, in many cases,
after completing two closely associated modules). The questions will be based on both the
recorded lectures and the readings. The quizzes will be open-book, and the questions will be
multiple choice. The quizzes will be administered on Canvas, and multiple submissions will
be allowed; Canvas will save the highest grade.
These quizzes will be due by the end of the day on the Friday following the end of each
module. Up to that point, they can be completed any time after the last lecture of a module. The
quizzes will be made available on Canvas by 5pm on the day of the last lecture of each module,
and you will be able to take them at whatever time you want, as many times as necessary, up
until the deadline.
These quizzes will not be designed to trip you up; if you’ve watched the lectures and
done the readings, you should be able to answer the questions without much difficulty. The goal
of this assignment is to ensure that you keep up with the lectures and readings, rather than trying
to cram at the last minute before the final exam! To this end, quizzes submitted after the deadline
(without prior instructor approval) will have a 2% deduction for each day they are late.
At the end of the semester, we will calculate your average score on all of the online
quizzes, and this cumulative average will be worth 25% of your semester grade.
Preliminary Exams and Final Exam
Like the module quizzes, the preliminary exams and final exam will be open-book. (You
can find more specific details on what this entails in the “Academic Integrity” document in the
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
“Basic Course Information” module on Canvas.) I hope that open-book exams will encourage
you not just to memorize names and dates (which you can look up in your notes), but more
importantly, to synthesize and think critically about the course material. To do well on the
exams, you will need not only to know a set of facts, but to use those facts to address big
interpretive questions.
Exams will be administered in-person. Preliminary exams will be held during our
regularly scheduled lecture times.
Late Policy
Unless an extension is granted, late work will typically lose two percentage points for
each day it is late. Extensions should be requested at least 48 hours before the due date.
Academic Integrity
All students are responsible for following Cornell’s Code of Academic Integrity, with
which you should thoroughly familiarize yourself. You can find the code at
http://theuniversityfaculty.cornell.edu/academic-integrity/. You can also find more coursespecific information about academic integrity in the “Basic Course Information” module on
Canvas. All of the work that you submit for this course, whether written or oral, must be your
own work in both form and content. All contributing sources or outside assistance must be fully
and correctly cited. Additionally, all work that you submit for this course must be an original
submission composed for this course and not another. Collaborating with other students on
course assignments is prohibited. This includes posting exam answers or essays online, or
making use of any such improperly posted materials.
Any violations of the Code of Academic Integrity will normally result in a failing grade
for this course. If you have any questions about academic integrity policies, please let me know,
and I’ll be very happy to help!
All instructor-created materials for this class, including PowerPoints, video recordings,
handouts, exams, and assignments, are copyrighted to the instructor and designed exclusively for
use within this class. Publishing, buying, selling, and otherwise redistributing such materials
either in print or online (e.g., on websites like Chegg, CourseHero, and Slader) is
prohibited. Students who buy or otherwise access course materials through such a vendor are
subject to a charge of “Unauthorized Assistance,” thereby violating the Code of Academic
Integrity. Additionally, students who sell course materials (even your own class notes
summarizing lectures!) without the instructor’s authorization are subject to a charge of
“Academic Misconduct.” They may also be participating in copyright infringement, as original
course materials are intellectual property that belong to the author and are not a student’s
property to sell.
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
Mutual Respect
This classroom is a place of mutual respect, and discrimination or harassment of any
form will not be tolerated. I respect and uphold Cornell’s policies and regulations regarding
sexual harassment, racial or ethnic discrimination, observance of religious holidays, and
assistance for students with physical disabilities and/or visual or hearing impairments.
Accommodations for Students with Disabilities
If you have a condition that may affect your participation in the class, please let me know
at the start of the semester and I will be happy to provide reasonable academic accommodations.
An accommodation notification letter should be provided from Student Disability Services
within the first two weeks of the semester.
Land Acknowledgment
Cornell University is located on the traditional homelands of the Gayogo̱hó꞉nǫ' (the
Cayuga Nation). The Gayogo̱hó꞉nǫ' are members of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, an alliance
of six sovereign Nations with a historic and contemporary presence on this land. The
Confederacy precedes the establishment of Cornell University, New York state, and the United
States of America. We acknowledge the painful history of Gayogo̱hó꞉nǫ' dispossession, and
honor the ongoing connection of Gayogo̱hó꞉nǫ' people, past and present, to these lands and
This land acknowledgment has been reviewed and approved by the traditional
Gayogo̱hó꞉nǫ' leadership.
And a final note about fall 2022…
For all of us, the years impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic have been (and continue to
be) very different from a pre-pandemic experience of learning and living at Cornell! Even now
that we are back to teaching in-person and many restrictions have been lifted, I understand that
this semester will continue to pose special challenges for most of us.
In this course, we will respect and abide by Cornell’s public health requirements. As of
August 2022, this no longer includes mandatory masking, but anyone who wants or needs to
wear a mask is welcomed and encouraged to do so. You can find more information about current
Covid policies here: https://covid.cornell.edu/students/. Of course, as we all know, this is an
evolving situation, so please make sure that you monitor Cornell’s policies closely throughout
the semester in case of any change in guidelines.
If you need to isolate or quarantine for Covid-related reasons, please contact me to
arrange for ways to make up the missed lectures. All readings and quizzes can be accessed
online. This year’s lectures will be in-person only, rather than Zoom or hybrid as in the past two
years. However, I have a full set of recordings of Zoom lectures from previous semesters, and I
am happy to make these available upon request from students who have to miss class for illness
or other approved reasons.
More generally: I understand that the pandemic has created numerous unprecedented
mental and emotional health challenges, and that these are still very much a part of life for many
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
of us. You can find a guide to wellness resources at Cornell in the “Basic Course Information”
module on Canvas. Please feel free to reach out to me if, at any point, you are feeling
overwhelmed or encountering difficulties. I care about your safety and well-being, and I want to
help you make this semester as productive, fulfilling, and happy as possible!
Course Schedule
8/22, 8/24, 8/29. Module 1. Introduction to Archaeology
• Big questions: What do archaeologists do, and how do they do it? How can we use
material evidence to shed light on human life in the past?
• Topics: Goals and structure of this course. Introduction to archaeological methods and
approaches, and to the history of archaeology as a discipline.
• Readings:
o To read by 8/29:
§ Renfrew and Bahn 2018: Chap. 1, “Searching for the Past,” pp. 11-26
(25 pp.). ***Content note: This reading includes a photo of ancient human
§ Renfrew and Bahn 2018: Chap. 2, “What Is Left?”, pp. 38-61 (24 pp.).
***Content note: This reading includes photos of ancient human remains.
• No quiz for the first module of the course, but the quiz at the end of the next module will
cover materials from both Module 1 and Module 2.
• Introductory survey in Canvas: please take by 8/29!
8/31, 9/7, 9/12. Module 2. Digging Up Homer? Troy and Mycenae
• No class on Monday 9/5 (Labor Day).
• Big questions: What are the strengths and weaknesses of material vs. textual evidence,
and how can we put these forms of evidence in dialogue? How should modern scholars
address the complicated legacy of someone like Schliemann, whose work was
foundational to the field, but also in many ways problematic?
• Topics: Heinrich Schliemann’s pioneering discoveries at Troy and Mycenae. Using
Schliemann’s excavations as a window onto the origins of Classical archaeology, and
examining how the field has changed since then.
• Readings:
o To read by 8/31: Renfrew and Bahn 2018: 91-105 (14 pp.)
o To read by 9/7: Burke 2017: 13-36 (24 pp.)
• Modules 1-2 quiz due before the end of the day on Friday, 9/16.
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9/14, 9/19. Module 3. (Re)discovering – and Creating – the Athenian Acropolis
• Big questions: How does material culture help to construct state power? What
relationships exist between religion and political power? How do people use the remains
of the ancient past to construct new meanings in the present?
• Topics: Early modern and modern encounters with the Athenian Acropolis, from Evliya
Çelebi to the creation of the Greek state. The Athenian Acropolis in antiquity.
Democracy and empire in Classical Athens. The “polis model” of ancient Greek religion.
• Readings:
o To read by 9/14: Neer 2018: 272-297 (26 pp.)
o To read by 9/19:
§ Hanink 2017, Chap. 2: “How Athens Built Its Brand” (38 pp.)
§ Excerpts from Evliya Çelebi’s Book of Travels (trans. Dankoff and Kim
2010): pp. 270-276 (6 pp.)
• Module 3 quiz due by the end of the day on Friday, 9/23.
9/21, 9/26. Module 4. Discovering Daily Life: Houses and Households at Olynthos
• Review session (outside of class time, attendance optional) for the upcoming preliminary
exam – to be scheduled.
• Big questions: How can household archaeology help us understand everyday life in
antiquity? How and why do texts and archaeology give us different perspectives on
gendered experience in ancient Greek culture?
• Topics: Household archaeology and the study of everyday life. Excavations at Olynthos,
from D.M. Robinson to the current Olynthos Project. The development of modern field
methods: changing approaches to survey and excavation. Gender and the gendered
experience of household space at Olynthos.
• Readings:
o Vester 2017 (22 pp.)
o Nevett 2012: 216-224 (8 pp.; read sections titled “The Fifth and Fourth Centuries:
Spatial Organization and Social Control” and “From the Later Classical into the
Hellenistic Period: Housing as Status Symbol.”)
• No module quiz, because of the upcoming exam.
9/28: Preliminary Exam #1. The exam will cover material from Modules 1–4.
10/3, 10/5. Module 5. Cracking the Hieroglyphic Code – and Exploring “Greek Egypt”:
The Rosetta Stone
• Big questions: How do modern forms of imperialism and colonialism compare to their
ancient predecessors? Should we describe Ptolemaic Egypt as a “colonial state”? What
forms of agency and power were available to different population groups within ancient
empires? Should we understand someone like Cleopatra as “Greek,” “Egyptian,” or both,
and what is at stake when we make such claims?
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
Topics: The discovery of the Rosetta Stone: Napoleon in Egypt. The Rosetta Stone as key
to the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs – and also an important primary source on
Egypt under Greek rule. Culture and society in Ptolemaic Egypt.
Readings and video content:
o To watch before 10/3:
§ Pre-recorded lecture by Prof. Ziad Fahmy (about 50 minutes long) on
Napoleon in Egypt.
o To read by 10/5:
§ Quirke and Andrews 1988: 16-24 (translation of the Rosetta Stone) (8
pp.) ***Please note: the format of this document may appear a little
strange at first! The translators have presented the text of the Rosetta
Stone in three columns, corresponding to the three different scripts on the
stone. We will talk about this more in class!
§ Bowman 1986: 21-41 (20 pp.)
§ Haley 1993 (the full article is 20 pp. long; we will concentrate on the
author’s discussion of Cleopatra on pp. 27–31)
§ Urbanus 2017 (5 pp.) ***Content note: This reading includes a photo of
ancient human remains.
No module quiz on 10/7, because of Fall Break and Indigenous Peoples’ Day. Instead, the
next module quiz will cover material from both Modules 5 and 6.
10/8–10/11: Fall Break
10/12, 10/17, 10/19. Module 6. Greeks and “Others,” from Sudan to Afghanistan: Meroe
and Ai Khanoum.
• Big questions: How do people construct ethnic and cultural identities, and how do those
identities shape their lives? What did it really mean to be “Greek” in an age when Greekspeaking people, and “Greek”-looking objects, could be found all the way from Sudan to
Afghanistan? How does archaeological evidence complicate modern narratives about the
“Western” tradition?
• Topics: Political, military, and cultural developments following the conquests and death
of Alexander “the Great.” Visual culture from the site of Ai Khanoum in
Afghanistan. Meroitic Nubia and the site of Meroe.
• Readings:
o On Meroe:
§ Ashby 2020: 2-4 (“A Brief Political History of Nubia”) and pp. 12-17
(“Terminology”) (9 pp.)
§ Dafa’alla 1993: 15-27 (13 pp.)
§ Doxey 2018, pp. 151-157 (7 pp.)
o On Ai Khanum: Hoo 2018 (26 pp.)
• Modules 5–6 quiz due by the end of the day on Friday, 10/21.
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
10/24. Module 7. Inequality and Identity in Ancient Rome: The “Tomb of the Baker”.
(Lecture by Claire Challancin)
• This week’s big questions: How do people use material culture to compete socially with
each other, trying to maintain and justify already-privileged positions or trying to break
into the ranks of the elite? How do monuments (including funerary monuments) shape
cultural memory?
• Topics:
o Introduction to Roman Italy and the Roman world in the late Republic and early
Empire. The 19th-century rediscovery of the tomb of the baker Eurysaces. Debates
about Eurysaces’ origins and social status: was he a freedman (someone who was
formerly enslaved)? Social class, slavery, and inequality in Roman society.
• Readings:
o Petersen 2003 (27 pp.)
o Excerpts from Petronius’ Satyricon: Harvey 2016: #135, 287, 300 (5 pp.)
• Note: Because this module is just half a week long, there will be a combined module quiz
with Module 8 on Nov. 4. There will be no quiz on Oct. 28.
10/26, 10/31, 11/2. Module 8. Out of the Ashes: Pompeii and Herculaneum
• Big questions: How do people use domestic space to assert social status and power, both
in antiquity and today? In what ways have archaeology and antiquarianism historically
been embedded in politics?
• Topics: The destruction and rediscovery of Pompeii and Herculaneum, and the
development from antiquarianism to archaeology. Ancient Roman households as arenas
for social performance.
• Readings:
o Pliny the Younger, two letters to Tacitus about the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
(Cooley and Cooley 2004: 32-37) (6 pp.)
o Kleiner 2007: 139-152 (13 pp.)
o Wallace-Hadrill 1994: 3-16 (13 pp.)
• Modules 7-8 Quiz due by the end of the day on Friday, 11/4.
11/7, 11/9. Module 9. Transformation over Time: The “Serpent Column” of
• Review session (outside of class time, attendance optional) for the upcoming preliminary
exam – to be scheduled.
• Big questions: How do things and places take on new meanings over time in new social
contexts? What do we mean by the “end” of antiquity, and can we really speak of an
“end” to the Classical world?
• Topics: Introduction to the “Serpent Column,” the site of Constantinople (today’s
Istanbul), and the so-called “late antique” period. A closer look at the many evolutions of
the “Serpent Column,” from Delphi to Constantinople and across the centuries. A test
case in using the “biography” of an object to shed light on the many societies and
individuals that interacted with that object.
• Readings:
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o Alcock and Cherry 2013: 513-517 (4 pp.)
o Woolf 2012: 19-28 (starting with “The Archetypal Empire”) (9 pp.)
o Strootman 2014 (20 pp.)
No quiz this week because of the upcoming preliminary exam.
11/14. Preliminary Exam #2. The exam will primarily focus on materials from Modules 5–9,
although you will still be responsible for materials covered in previous modules.
11/16, 11/21. Module 10. “Great Discoveries” beyond Excavation: Exploring the Range of
21st-Century Archaeology
• Big questions: How has archaeology changed since 20th century, and why? How should
we conceptualize archaeological “discovery” beyond the framework of excavation? In
what ways has archaeological science transformed our understanding of the Classical
world? What can studying the ancient climate tell us about climate change today?
• Topics: Major archaeological movements of the 20th century and 21st centuries:
processualism, post-processualism, and contemporary developments. “Great discoveries”
in the laboratory: archaeological science, the study of the ancient climate, and the
activities of the Dendrochronology Lab at Cornell. Going beyond the classroom: an
introduction to finding, and funding, archaeological field opportunities as a student.
• Readings and video content:
o To watch by 11/16: Pre-recorded video lecture by Dr. Brita Lorentzen (about
75 minutes long) on dendrochronology and the study of the ancient climate.
o To read by 11/21: Renfrew and Bahn 2018: 26-37 (“The Ecological Approach”
through “Summary”). (11 pp.)
• No module quiz this week, because of the Thanksgiving break. Instead, the next module
quiz will cover material from both Modules 10 and 11.
11/23–11/27: Thanksgiving Break
11/28, 11/30. Module 11. Archaeology, Politics, and Ethics: The Changing Political and
Social Contexts of 20th and 21st-Century Discoveries
• Big questions: In what ways is archaeology the product of nationalism, imperialism, and
colonialism, and how can modern archaeologists respond to this problematic legacy?
What responsibilities do archaeologists bear to other people, both living and dead? What
are the ethical obligations of archaeologists toward present-day people and communities
in the regions where they work?
• Topics: Nationalist, imperialist, and colonialist entanglements within the history of
archaeological practice. Museums and the often fraught history of museum collecting.
Looting and the destruction of the archaeological record.
o Lecture 1: Museums and the often fraught history of museum collecting practices.
Looting and the destruction of the archaeological record.
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
o Lecture 2: Discussion with Dr. Fred Gleach on museum ethics and the Cornell
Anthropology Collection.
Readings and video content:
o To read before 11/28:
§ Renfrew and Bahn 2018: Chap. 11, “Whose Past?” (18 pp.)
§ Brodie and Gill 2003 (12 pp.)
o To watch before 11/30:
§ Pre-recorded video of an interview with Dr. Fred Gleach (about 1 hour
long) on museum curatorial practices and ethics.
Modules 10-11 quiz due by the end of the day on Friday, 12/2.
12/5. Module 12. The Future of the Past
• Big questions: In what ways is archaeology relevant to our world today? What
contributions can, or should, archaeology make to our world? What role (if any) do you
think that the so-called “Classical tradition” – the legacy of ancient Greek and Roman
societies – can, or should, play in contemporary people’s lives? How and why have
people often used that tradition in problematic ways, and how can we grapple with this
legacy in order to move forward? Where should the study of ancient Greek and Roman
culture go from here – and if you could plot a course for the field of Greek and Roman
archaeology over the next 10-20 years, what new developments would you like to see?
• Readings:
o Padilla Peralta 2015 (online at Eidolon: https://eidolon.pub/from-damocles-tosocrates-fbda6e685c26).
o Kennedy 2017 (online at Eidolon: https://eidolon.pub/we-condone-it-by-oursilence-bea76fb59b21).
o Appiah 2018 (25 pp.)
• No quiz for this module, because of the upcoming final exam.
12/6–12/8: Study Period.
Final Exam: Date to be determined by the Registrar.
© Caitlín Barrett 2022
Course Bibliography
Alcock, S.E., and J.F. Cherry. 2013. “The Mediterranean World.” In C. Scarre, ed., The Human
Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies, 3rd edn., 472-517.
London: Thames & Hudson.
Appiah, K.A. 2018. “Culture.” In The Lies that Bind: Rethinking Identity, 187-212. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company.
Barrett, C.E., K.L. Gleason, and A. Marzano. 2019. “The Casa della Regina Carolina Project at
Pompeii.” Cornell University. http://blogs.cornell.edu/crcpompeii/.
Bowman, A.K. 1986. Egypt after the Pharaohs: 332 BC – AD 642. Berkeley/Los Angeles:
University of California Press.
Brodie, N., and D. Gill. 2003. “Looting: An International View.” In L.J. Zimmerman et al.,
Ethical Issues in Archaeology, 31-44. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Cooley, A.E., and M.G.L. Cooley, eds. 2004. Pompeii: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge.
Dafa’alla, S.B. 1993. “Art and Industry: The Achievements of Meroe.” Expedition 35.2: 15-27.
Dankoff, R., and S. Kim, trans. and commentary. 2010. An Ottoman Traveler: Selections from
the Book of Travels of Evliya Çelebi. London: Eland.
Doxey, D. 2018. “Nubia and Its Neighbors.” In Arts of Ancient Nubia. Boston: MFA.
Haley, S. 1993. “Black Feminist Thought and Classics: Re-Membering, Re-Claiming, ReEmpowering.” In N.S. Rabinowitz and A. Richlin, eds., Feminist Theory and the
Classics, 23-43. New York/London: Routledge.
Hanink, J. 2017. The Classical Debt. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hoo, M. 2018. “Ai Khanum in the Face of Eurasian Globalisation: A Trans-Local Approach to a
Contested Site in Hellenistic Bactria.” Ancient West & East 17: 161-186,
Kennedy, R.F. 2017. “We Condone It by Our Silence: Confronting Classics’ Complicity in
White Supremacy.” Eidolon, May 11, 2017 (https://eidolon.pub/we-condone-it-by-oursilence-bea76fb59b21).
Neer, R.T. 2012. Greek Art and Archaeology. A New History, c. 2500 – c. 150 BCE. New York:
Thames & Hudson.
Neer, R.T. 2018. Greek Art and Archaeology. A New History, c. 2500 – c. 150 BCE. 2nd edition.
New York: Thames & Hudson.
Padilla Peralta, D.-E. 2015. “From Damocles to Socrates: The Classics in/of Hip-Hop.” Eidolon,
June 8, 2015 (https://eidolon.pub/from-damocles-to-socrates-fbda6e685c26).
Petersen, L.H. 2003. “The Baker, His Tomb, His Wife, and Her Breadbasket: The Monument of
Eurysaces in Rome.” The Art Bulletin 85.2: 230-257.
Quirke, S., and C. Andrews. 1988. The Rosetta Stone. London: British Museum Publications.
Renfrew, C., and P. Bahn. 2018. Archaeology Essentials. 4th edn. London: Thames & Hudson.
Strootman, R. 2014. “The Serpent Column: The Persistent Meanings of a Pagan Relic in
Christian and Islamic Constantinople.” Material Religion 10.4: 432-451.
Urbanus, J. 2017. “In the Time of the Rosetta Stone.” Archaeology 70.6: 50-55.
Vester, C. 2017. “Women and the Greek Household.” In A. Glazebrook and C. Vester, eds.,
Themes in Greek Society and Culture, 291-312. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wallace-Hadrill, A. 1994. Houses and Society in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Woolf, G. 2012. Rome: An Empire’s Story. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
© Caitlín Barrett 2022