c OPERATIONAL PLANNING MODULE INTRODUCTION Operational design and planning is a critical and creative thinking methodology to help commanders at different levels understands the environment, analyze problems, and consider potential approaches so they can exploit opportunities, identify vulnerabilities, and anticipate transitions. This manual is designed and developed as a guiding tool to Law Enforcement Tactical Mission Planning and conducting high risk law enforcement tactical operations. Moving beyond planning and orders production, this manual holistically addresses planning, preparation, execution, and assessment in the continuous learning cycle of the operations process and addresses the fundamentals of planning. Planning is an essential element of command and control and a continuous activity of the operations process. It also defines planning, describes planning at the different levels of operations and the value of effective planning and concludes by describing how to develop key components of a tactical mission plan or order. This module is divided in to 4 key chapters. 1. Introduction and fundamentals of planning 2. Operational planning process 3. MPS emergency response management framework 4. Types of police operations and importance of intelligence in tactical planning 5. Developing operational plan / delivering operational orders 6. Briefing and debriefing 7. Preparing after-action review LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this module, participants will be able to: 1. Plan and conduct varieties of tactical missions 2. Apply the best practices for the briefing and debriefing session. 3. Develop quick and situational orders and understand how to execute these orders. 4. Conduct different situational assessments for the operations 5. Understand the liabilities of commander’s action and the importance of command and control for the operational assets. 6. Manage different tactical concepts and practices such as the theory of Hostage Rescue, theory of Dynamic Entry, theory of Deliberate Entry, theory of Bomb/IED Threat, theory of Insurgency, and theory of Terrorist Response. 7. Manage an incident command post and tactical operation center and what are the resources requited for such management. 8. Respond to bomb/IED threat of call and how to manage such incidents. 9. Conduct varieties of internal security operations such as cordon and search, major event security, Tactical VCP, High risk Patrolling, and Raid Operations. MODULE OUTLINE CONTENT (S) IN DETAIL NO.OF PERIODS IN HOURS THEORY PRACTICAL Importance of Intelligence in Tactical Planning 1 Nature of intelligence Levels of intelligence Types of intelligence Sources of intelligence Intelligence in the modern era Coordination and collaboration between intelligence and 1 operation Actionable intelligence and accountability between intelligence and operations Types of Police Operations 2 Internal security operations Counter terrorism operations Anti-drug operations Anti-gang operations Disaster relief and humanitarian operations Special and joint operations 1 Briefing & Debriefing (The IIMARCH Model) 3 4 Information Intention Method Administration Risk Assessment Communication Human rights and other legal issues Developing & Delivering Operational Order Operational Terminology 2 4 3 8 5 Five paragraph operational order Delivering the order How to conduct quick operational order Conducting After Action Review 6 1 2 How to write an effective AAR Assessment TOTAL PERIODS IN HOURS CONTENT (S) IN DETAIL 24 NO.OF PERIODS IN HOURS THEORY PRACTICAL 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 Situation Development Process 1 Identify nature of the emergency Identifying resource and constraints Immediate actions Alert process and monitoring Shared awareness Conducting Situation Assessment 2 Information gathering Reviewing actions Commanders assessment Issue warning order Course of Action Development and Selection 3 4 Developed cause of actions Intelligence Threat assessment Commanders estimation Recommended cause of action Planning consideration Higher commanders intent Planning Force protection Alert protocols Joint inter agency strategy Deployment plan Operational order Execution 5 6 Execute orders Situation reporting Activating the contingency Log keeping Decision recording After action review Recovery management Investigation 2 2 Assessment TOTAL PERIODS IN HOURS 15 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND FUNDAMENTALS OF PLANNING PLANNING AND PLANS Planning is the process by which commanders (and the staff, if available) translate the commander’s visualization into a specific course of action for preparation and execution, focusing on the expected results. Put another way, planning is the art and science of understanding a situation, envisioning a desired future, and laying out an operational approach to achieve that future. Based on this understanding and operational approach, planning continues with the development of a fully synchronized operation plan or order that arranges potential actions in time, space, and purpose to guide the force during execution. Planning is both a continuous and a cyclical activity of the operations process. While planning may start an iteration of the operations process, planning does not stop with production of an order. During preparation and execution, the plan is continuously refined as situational understanding improves. Subordinates and others provide feedback as to what is working, what is not working, and how the force can do things better. In some circumstances, commanders may determine that the current order (to include associated branches and sequels) is no longer relevant to the situation. In these instances, commanders reframe the problem and initiate planning activities to develop a new plan. Planning may be highly structured involving commanders, staff, subordinate commanders, and others to develop a fully synchronized plan. Planning is also less structured, such as platoon leaders and squad leaders rapidly determining a scheme of maneuver for a hasty attack. Planning is conducted for different planning horizons, from long-range to short-range. Depending on the echelon and circumstances, units may plan in years, months, or weeks, or in days, hours, and minutes. A product of planning is a plan or order—a directive for future action. Commanders issue plans and orders to subordinates to communicate their understanding of the situation and their visualization of an operation. A plan is a continuous, evolving framework of anticipated actions that maximizes opportunities. It guides subordinates as they progress through each phase of the operation. Any plan is a framework from which to adapt, not a script to be followed to the letter. The measure of a good plan is not whether execution transpires as planned, but whether the plan facilitates effective action in the face of unforeseen events. Good plans and orders foster initiative. Plans and orders come in many forms and vary in scope, complexity, and length of time addressed. Generally, a plan is developed well in advance of execution and is not executed until directed. A plan becomes an order when directed for execution based on a specific time or an event. Some planning results in written orders complete with attachments. Other planning produces brief fragmentary orders issued verbally and followed in writing. TYPES OF PLANS OPERATIONAL PLANS Operational plan (OPLAN) is any plan for the preparation, execution and assessment of an operation. An OPLAN becomes an operation order (OPORD) when the commander sets an execution time. If time permits you may begin preparation for possible operation by issuing OPLAN. SERVICE SUPPORT PLANS A service support plan provides information and instructions covering service support for an operation. Estimates of the commands operational requirements are the basis for the service support plan. The service support plan becomes a service support order when commander sets an execution time for the OPLAN that the service support plan supports. CONTINGENCY PLANS A contingency plan is a plan for major contingencies that the command can reasonably anticipate. Operational teams prepare contingency plans as part of all operations. Contingency plans may take the form of the branches of sequels. Operations never proceed exactly as planned. You prepare contingency plans to gain flexibility. VALUE OF PLANNING 1. Planning helps leaders understand and develop solutions to problems A problem is an issue or obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or objective. In a broad sense, a problem exists when an individual becomes aware of a significant difference between what actually is and what is desired. In the context of operations, an operational problem is the issue or set of issues that impede commanders from achieving their desired end state. Planning helps commanders and staffs understand problems and develop solutions. Not all problems require the same level of planning. For simple problems, leaders often identify them and quickly decide on a solution—sometimes on the spot. Planning is critical, however, when a problem is actually a set of interrelated issues, and the solution to each affects the others. For complex situations, planning offers ways to deal with the complete set of problems as a whole. Some situations require extensive planning, some very little. Just as planning is only part of the operations process, planning is only part of problem solving. In addition to planning, problem solving includes implementing the planned solution (execution), learning from the implementation of the solution (assessment), and modifying or developing a new solution as required. 2. Planning helps anticipate events and adapt to changing circumstances The defining challenges to effective planning are uncertainty and time. Uncertainty increases with the length of the planning horizon and the rate of change in the operational environment. Planning horizon refers to how far into the future commanders try to shape events. The farther into the future the commander plans, the wider the range of possibilities and the more uncertain the forecast. Planning keeps the force oriented on future objectives despite the requirements of current operations. By anticipating events beforehand, planning helps the force seize or retain the initiative. To seize the initiative, the force anticipates events and acts purposefully and effectively before the enemy can act or before situations deteriorate. Effective planning also anticipates the inherent delay between decision and action, especially between the levels of war and echelons. Sound plans draw on fundamentals of mission command to overcome this effect, fostering initiative within the commander’s intent to act appropriately and decisively when orders no longer address the changing situation sufficiently. 3. Plans task organize the force and prioritize efforts When developing their concept of operations, commanders first visualize the decisive operation and develop shaping and sustaining operations to support the decisive operation. The decisive operation is the focal point around which commanders develop the entire operation and prioritize effort. When developing their concept of operations and associated tasks to subordinate units, commanders ensure subordinates have the means to accomplish them. They do this by task organizing the force and establishing priorities of support. Task organizing is the act of configuring an operating force, support staff, or sustainment package of specific size and composition to meet a unique task or mission. It includes allocating available assets to subordinate commanders and establishing their command and support relationships. Through task organization, commanders establish relationships and allocate resources to weight the decisive operation. Task organizing results in task organization—a temporary grouping of forces designed to accomplish a particular mission. Appendix F contains guidelines and formats for developing task organizations. In addition to task organizing, commanders establish priorities of support. Priority of support is a priority set by the commander to ensure a subordinate unit has support in accordance with its relative importance to accomplish the mission. Priorities of movements, fires, sustainment, and protection all illustrate priorities of support that commanders use to weight the decisive operation. The concept of operations may also identify a main effort if required; otherwise, the priorities of support go to the unit conducting the decisive operation. The main effort is the designated subordinate unit whose mission at a given point in time is most critical to overall mission success. It is usually weighted with the preponderance of combat power. Designating a main effort temporarily gives that unit priority of support. Commanders shift resources and priorities to the main effort as circumstances and the commander’s intent require. Commanders may shift the main effort several times during an operation. A unit conducting a shaping operation may be designated as the main effort until the decisive operation commences. However, the unit with primary responsibility for the decisive operation becomes the main effort upon execution of the decisive operation. 4. Plans direct, coordinate and synchronize action Plans and orders direct, coordinate, and synchronize subordinate actions and inform those outside the unit how to cooperate and provide support. Effective plans clearly stipulate end state conditions and objectives that help coordinate the activities of the force. Good plans direct subordinate actions by stating who, what (the task), where, when, and why (the purpose to perform the task). They leave much of the how (the method to perform the task) to subordinates. Directing and coordinating actions synchronize the force as a whole to accomplish the mission. A key aspect of planning is synchronization—arranging actions in time, space, and purpose to generate maximum effort or combat power at the decisive point and time. 2-36. Synchronization is a way, not an end. Commanders balance it with agility and initiative. However, overemphasizing the directing and coordinating functions of planning can result in detailed and rigid plans that stifle initiative. Mission command encourages the use of mission orders to avoid creating overly restrictive instructions to subordinates. Mission orders direct, coordinate, and synchronize action while allowing subordinates the maximum freedom of action to accomplish missions within the commander’s intent. FUNDAMENTALS OF PLANNING Effective planning requires dedication, study, and practice. Planners must be technically and tactically competent, be disciplined to use doctrinally correct terms and symbols, and understand fundamentals of planning. Fundamentals of planning that aid in effective planning include the following: 1. Commanders focus on planning 2. Commanders plan for full spectrum operations 3. Commanders continuously test the validity of assumptions 4. Planning is continuous 5. Planning is time sensitive a. One-third, two-thirds rule b. Collaborative and parallel planning c. Planning in time 6. Simple flexible plans work best 7. Commanders avoid planning pitfalls KEY COMPONENTS OF A PLAN While each plan is unique, all plans seek a balance for combining ends, ways, and means against risk. Ends are the desired conditions of a given operation. Ways are actions to achieve the end state. Means are the resources required to execute the way. The unit’s mission statement, commander’s intent, concept of operations, tasks to subordinate units, coordinating instructions, and control measures are key components of a plan. Commanders ensure their mission and end state are nested with those of their higher headquarters. Whereas the commander’s intent focuses on the end state, the concept of operations focuses on the way or sequence of actions by which the force will achieve the end state. The concept of operations expands on the mission statement and commander’s intent. It describes how and in what sequence the commander wants the force to accomplish the mission. Within the concept of operations, commanders may establish objectives as intermediate goals toward achieving the operation’s end state. When developing tasks for subordinate units, commanders ensure that the purpose of each task nests with the accomplishment of another task, with the achievement of an objective, or directly to the attainment of an end state condition 1. MISSION STATEMENT The mission is the task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore. Commanders analyze a mission in terms of the commander’s intent two echelons up, specified tasks, and implied tasks. They also consider the mission of adjacent units to understand how they contribute to the decisive operation of their higher headquarters. Results of that analysis yield the essential tasks that—with the purpose of the operation—clearly specify the action required. 2. COMMANDERS INTENT The commander’s intent is a clear, concise statement of what the force must do and the conditions the force must establish with respect to the enemy, terrain, and civil considerations that represent the desired end state. The commander’s intent succinctly describes what constitutes success for the operation. It includes the operation’s purpose and the conditions that define the end state. It links the mission, concept of operations, and tasks to subordinate units. A clear commander’s intent facilitates a shared understanding and focuses on the overall conditions that represent mission accomplishment. The commander’s intent must be easy to remember and clearly understandable two echelons down. The shorter the commander’s intent, the better it serves these purposes. Typically, the commander’s intent statement is three to five sentences long. 3. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS The concept of operations is a statement that directs the manner in which subordinate units cooperate to accomplish the mission and establishes the sequence of actions the force will use to achieve the end state. It is normally expressed in terms of decisive, shaping, and sustaining operations. The concept of operations expands on the mission statement and commander’s intent by describing how and in what sequence the commander wants the force to accomplish the mission. Commanders ensure they identify the decisive operation and units responsible for conducting the decisive operation. From this focal point, commanders articulate shaping operations and the principal task of the units assigned each shaping operation. When writing the concept of operations, commanders consider nested concepts, the sequence of actions and phasing, decisive points and objectives, and lines of operations and lines of effort. 3.1. Nested Concepts Nested concept is a planning technique to achieve unity of purpose whereby each succeeding echelon’s concept of operations is aligned by purpose with the higher echelons’ concept of operations. An effective concept of operations describes how the forces will support the mission of the higher headquarters and how the actions of subordinate units fit together to accomplish the mission. Commanders do this by organizing their forces by purpose. Commanders ensure the primary tasks for each subordinate unit include a purpose that links the completion of that task to achievement of another task, an objective, or an end state condition. 3.2. Sequence of action phasing 3.3. Decisive points and objectives 3.4. Lines of operation and lines of effort 4. TASKS TO SUBORDINATE UNITS The commander’s intent describes the desired end state while the concept of operations broadly describes how to get there. In contrast, tasks to subordinate units direct individual units to perform specific tasks. A task is a clearly defined and measurable activity accomplished by individuals and organizations. When developing tasks for subordinate units, commanders and staffs use the same who, what (task), when, where, and why (purpose) construct as they did to develop the unit’s mission statement. 5. COORDINATING INSTRUCTIONS Coordinating instructions apply to two or more units. They are located in the coordinating instructions subparagraph of paragraph 3 (execution) of plans and orders. Examples include fire support coordination and airspace coordinating measures, rules of engagement, risk mitigation measures, and the time or condition when the operation order becomes effective. 6. CONTROL MEASURES Planners develop and recommend control measures to the commander for each considered COA. A control measure is a means of regulating forces or warfighting functions. Control measures assign responsibilities, coordinate actions between forces, impose restrictions, or establish guidelines to regulate freedom of action. Control measures are essential to coordinating subordinates’ actions and are located throughout the plan. Control measures can free up subordinate commanders to conduct operations within their assigned area of operations without having to conduct additional coordination. Control measures can be permissive or restrictive. Permissive control measures allow specific actions to occur; restrictive control measures limit the conduct of certain actions. PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING Appointees must consider the following 6 key principles when developing operational plans: 1. COMPREHENSIVE 2. SIMPLICITY Operational strategies communicated in a clear, concise, logical, timely and structured form 3. COORDINATION Effective management (deployment) of both internal and external resources and personnel 4. EFFICIENCY Implementation of effective risk management/ appreciation processes to inform the safe and efficient utilization of operational resources 5. FLEXIBILITY Incorporation of credible contingencies 6. FORESIGHT Anticipation of potentially realistic developments 7. SECURITY Consideration of security implications during all stages of the planning process. PRIMARY PURPOSE AND FUNCTIONS OF PLANNING Provides a baseline template and framework for all operators to draw from, 1.1. Clearly defined task / purpose 1.2. Commanders intent 1.3. Providing consistent – continuous guidance to all members of the team 1.4. Allows key leaders and subordinates a means by which to adequately prepare for all missions and operations 1.5. Ensuring the most effective means of accomplishing any given task. 1.6. Represents an ever evolving process that guides members of the team through all phases of the operation. 1.7. Allows key leaders and subordinates a means by which to adequately prepare for all missions and operations 1.8. Ensuring the most effective means of accomplishing any given task. 1.9. Represents an ever evolving process that guides members of the team through all phases of the operation. 1.10. Think critically 1.11. Develop situational understanding 1.12. Anticipate decisions 1.13. Simplify complexity 1.14. Task and organize teams and allocate resources 1.15. Direct and coordinate actions 1.16. Guide preparation activities KEY PLANNING CONCEPTS 1. NESTED CONCEPTS 2. SEQUENCING OPERATIONS 3. CONTROL MEASURES 4. RISK MITIGATION 5. HASTY AND DELIBERATE OPERATIONS 6. INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE AND RECONNAISSANCE 7. PLANNING HORIZONS 8. PARALLEL AND COLLABORATIVE PLANNING 9. FORWARD AND REVERSE PLANNING 10. ONE-THIRD/TWO-THIRDS RULE 11. PLANNING PITFALLS TYPES OF MISSION PLANNING High-risk search warrant planning Tactical raid planning Open area mission planning Barricaded subject planning Hostage rescue planning Contingency planning CHAPTER 2 PRIMARY PLANNING METHODS This chapter covers various planning methods including the operational planning process, the deliberate planning and the crisis action planning process or time sensitive planning process. It gives a detail insight about the functions of every stage within both the planning process. 1. Deliberate planning 2. Crisis action planning TROOP LEADING STEPS 1. Receive the mission 2. Issue warning order 3. Make a tentative plan (conduct situational estimate) 4. Initiate movement 5. Conduct reconnaissance 6. Complete the plan 7. Issue operation order 8. Supervise – inspect – rehearse CRISIS ACTION PLANNING PROCESS 1. SITUATION DEVELOPMENT Nature of emergency o Unlawful assembly o Airport emergency o Major crime o Health and safety o Terrorist attack o Arson o Disaster o Sea borne incident Estimated impact Shared awareness o Monitoring o Informing o Information gathering Activate protocols Initial report Action in progress Major constraints Notify relevant authorities 2. ANALYSE THE SITUATION Commanders assessment Nature of emergency Expected impact area Identifying course of action Operational limitations o Organizational o Legal o Technical/technological o Manpower/resources Knowing the emergency Commanders estimation Assumptions Risks related to national security Own requirement Inter-agency coordination requirement Identify level of alert 3. COURSES OF ACTION DEVELOPMENT Intelligence briefing report Threat assessment report Commanders assumption/estimation Course of action development process COA approval Final decision/high command intention Activate protocols Activate contingency plans Issue planning order 4. COURSES OF ACTION SELECTION 5. EXECUTION PLANNING High commanders intention Concept plan Task organization Unity of command Force protection plan Operational order Deployment plan Operational contingencies 6. EXECUTION Executing the plan Monitor the situation Log all the actions Log all the decisions After action review Recovery management Investigation TACTICAL THOUGHT PROCESS 1. Estimate of the Situation – METT-TC 2. Suspects most likely course of action 3. Exploitation plan 4. Scheme of maneuver development 5. Task development TACTICAL THOUGHT PROCESS 1. Estimate of the Situation – METT-TC b. Mission analysis i. Tasks analysis a. Identify the tactical task b. Identify the specified task c. Identify the implied task ii. Purpose analysis c. Enemy i. Composition, disposition and strengths (SALUTE) a. Size b. Activity c. Location d. Unit e. Time f. Equipment ii. Capabilities and limitations d. Terrain and weather i. Observation and fields of fire ii. Cover and concealment iii. Obstacles iv. Key terrain v. Avenues of approach vi. Weather e. Troops and fire support i. Organic units ii. Attachments and detachments iii. Fire support available iv. Higher and adjacent units f. Time/space/logistics i. Time ii. Space iii. Logistics g. Civil considerations i. Area ii. Structure iii. Capabilities 2. Suspects most likely course of action Mission Current activity On contact 3. Exploitation plan Center of gravity Critical vulnerability 4. Scheme of maneuver development 5. Task development RUNNING ESTIMATES The commander and staff use the running estimate throughout the operations process. A running estimate assesses the current situation to determine if the current operation is proceeding according to the commander’s intent and if future operations are supportable. In their running estimates, the commander and each staff section continuously consider the effect of new information and update the following: Facts Assumptions Friendly force status Enemy activities and capabilities Civil considerations Conclusions and recommendations Effective plans and successful execution hinge on current running estimates. Running estimates always include recommendations for anticipated decisions. During planning, commanders use these recommendations to select feasible courses of action for further analysis. During preparation and execution, commanders use recommendations from running estimates in decision making. Failure to maintain running estimates may lead to errors or omissions that result in flawed plans or bad decisions. The commander’s running estimate includes a summary of the problem and all variables that affect the mission. Commanders integrate personal knowledge of the situation, analysis of the operational and mission variables, assessments by subordinate commanders and other organizations, and relevant details gained from running estimates. Commanders use their personal estimates to cross-check and supplement the running estimates of the staff. The commander and staff sections maintain their running estimates between operations, even when not deployed. At a minimum, the commander and staff must maintain their situational awareness of friendly force capabilities. Upon receipt or anticipation of a mission, each staff section begins updating its estimate based on information requirements related to the mission. CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 5 DEVELOPING OPERATION ORDERS CHAPTER 6 PREPARING AFTER ACTION REVIEW CHAPTER 5 BRIEFING AND DEBRIEFING IMPORTANCE OF INTELLIGENCE IN TACTICAL PLANNING TYPES OF POLICE OPERATIONS BRIEFING AND DEBRIEFING IIMARCH HOW TO CONDUCT QUICK SITUATIONAL ORDERS KEY TERMS COMMANDER’S INTENT A clear, concise directive, verbal or written, that outlines the basic purpose of any given operation. It describes a command authority’s desired end-state and thus is the unifying factor for focusing subordinates on what has to be accomplished in order to achieve the intended outcome. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS A planning document, informed by strategic direction, which outlines in broad terms the proposed operational activity and the baseline and intent for all further operational planning. INITIATING DIRECTION A specific strategic-level direction (verbal or written) issued to a nominated operation commander, which describes the broad concept of an impending major operational activity. The primary purpose for issuing an initiating direction is to formalize commencement of strategic and operational level planning. MAJOR OR SPECIAL EVENT An event that is considered to be a non-routine operational or security related activity that requires implementation of special arrangements by one or more functional areas. OPERATION A specific policing issue or activity requiring a planned response. OPERATION COMMANDER A command function (not a rank) and means the designated member or protective service officer responsible for the overall management of an operation, and for generating the commander’s intent. Only a member of the rank of Assistant Commissioner or above can designate an appointee, who is not a member or protective service officer, to perform the function of operation commander. OPERATION PLAN A detailed single-use plan which is developed for a particular situation at a particular period in time. OPERATION PROJECT PLAN The project plan that establishes what the operation is, the outcomes, the timelines and the resources required to accomplish it. OPERATIONAL SITE SURVEY A detailed security survey and assessment of a venue or location prior to the implementation of any additional security measures. It does not support the requirements of a specialist policing tactical level site survey. PLANNED OPERATION OR EVENT An operation where there has been opportunity and time to develop strategies, tactics, and contingencies prior to an anticipated operation taking place. STANDING PLAN A plan put in place to address ongoing risks in an operational environment (e.g. specific hazards, events or regularly occurring operational situations). TASK COMMANDER A command function (not a rank) and means the designated member or protective service officer responsible to an operation commander for the command of a specific function or operational activity associated with a planned operation or event. THREAT A condition, event or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesirable situation. RISK A combination of the impact and likelihood for harm, loss or damage to the operation from the exposure to threats. WARNING ORDER A WARNORD, issued by the commander, is a planning directive that initiates the development and evaluation of COAs by a supported commander and requests that the supported commander submit a commander’s estimate. PLANNING ORDER A PLANORD is a planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of plan development before the directing authority approves a COA. ALERT ORDER An ALERTORD is a planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the initiation of plan development after the directing authority approves a COA. An ALERTORD does not authorize execution of the approved COA. EXECUTE ORDER An EXORD is a directive to implement an approved CONOPS. OPERATION ORDER An OPORD is a directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation. FRAGMENTARY ORDER A FRAGORD is an abbreviated form of an OPORD (verbal, written, or digital), which eliminates the need for restating information contained in a basic OPORD while enabling dissemination of changes to previous orders. It is usually issued as needed or on a day-to-day basis. MISSION ANALYSIS Commanders (supported by their staffs and informed by subordinate and adjacent commanders) gather, analyze, and synthesize information to orient themselves on the current conditions of the operational environment. The commander and staff conduct mission analysis to better understand the situation and problem, and identify what the command must accomplish, when and where it must be done, and most importantly why - the purpose of the operation. SPECIFIED TASKS Those specifically assigned to a unit by its higher headquarters. Paragraphs 2 and 3 of the higher hq’s order state specified tasks, but may be listed in annexes, overlays, directives, and/or assigned verbally during collaborative planning sessions. IMPLIED TASKS Those that must be performed to accomplish a specified task or the mission, but are not stated in the higher headquarters order. These are derived from a detailed analysis of the higher order and METT-TC factors. ESSENTIAL TASKS Those specified and implied tasks that must be executed to accomplish the mission. Essential tasks are always included in the unit’s mission statement. INTEROPERABILITY The ability to act together coherently, effectively and efficiently to achieve combined tactical, operational and strategic objectives. CENTER OF GRAVITY The primary source of power that provides an actor its strength, freedom of action or will to fight. TARGETING The process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate response to them, taking into account operational requirements and capabilities. RUNNING ESTIMATE The continuous assessment of the current situation used to determine if the current operation is proceeding according to the commander’s intent and if planned future operations are supportable. CONSTRAINTS RESTRAINTS ASSUMPTIONS LIMITATIONS RECONNAINSANCE CONCEPT OF OPERATION SCHEME OF MANUEVER MISSION STATEMENT A mission statement is a short sentence or paragraph describing the unit’s essential task(s) and purpose - a clear statement of the action to be taken and reason for doing so. It contains the elements of who, what, when, where, and why, but seldom specifies how. • Who will execute the operation (unit/organization)? • What is the unit’s essential task or tasks? • When will the operation begin (by time or event) or what is the duration of the operation? • Where will the operation occur (AO, objective, grid coordinates)? • Why will the force conduct the operation (for what purpose)? HIGH VALUE TARGET A list on which targets are compiled. HVT is a target the enemy commander requires for the successful completion of the mission. The loss of high-value targets would be expected to seriously degrade important enemy functions throughout the friendly commander’s area of interest. LIAISON OFFICER An officer with an assigned task to maintain contact between the unit and other agencies COURSE OF ACTIONS DELIBERATE PLANNING CRISIS ACTION PLANNING BREACHING COURSE OF ACTIONS CENTER OF GRAVITY The element or capability which allows the enemy to execute his mission. A CG is the answer to the below questions: 1. Which factors are critical to the enemy? 2. Which can the enemy not do without? 3. Which, if eliminated, will bend him most quickly to our will? CRITICAL VULNERABILITY A vulnerability that, if exploited, will do the most significant damage to the enemy’s ability to resist us. It is a pathway to the CG, it is directly related to the center of gravity. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. United States Army FM 5-0 (101-5), 2005 version, army planning and orders production. United States Army FM 5-0, 2010 version, the operations process. Australian Federal Police national guideline on operational planning. Joint publication 5-0, 2011 version, Joint operation planning.