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lung cancer

Lung cancer
 Leeroy Munesi
 Simbarashe Kasanzu R211841P
 Sharleen
Global Distribution
 Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common malignancy and the most
common cause of cancer deaths.
 Lung cancer in men worldwide has an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 33.8
per 100,000
 It is the fourth most frequent cancer in women (13.5 per 100,000).
 Worldwide, approximately 70% of cancer deaths occur in LMICs, a large
fraction of which is attributed to lung cancer.( World Economic Forum,
 The major types of lung cancer include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell
carcinoma, small cell and large cell carcinoma
Lung Cancer in Zimbabwe
 According to the latest World Health Organization data published in 2020
Lung Cancers Deaths in Zimbabwe reached 286 or 0.26% of total deaths.
 The age adjusted Death Rate is 4.78 per 100,000
 Of population ranks, Zimbabwe is number 139 in the world for lung cancer.
Spread of lung
Lung cancer can spread
(metastasize) in several ways.
Cancerous cells can grow
into surrounding healthy
tissues, including the lining of
the lungs and nearby lobes.
This is known as local
metastasis. Or, cancerous
cells can invade the lymph
nodes and travel through the
lymphatic system to other
parts of the body.
 .
Risk Factors
 The most important risk factor for lung cancer is tobacco smoking.
 Latent period of 30 years
 Other contributory factors include:
 environmental exposure to radon;
 asbestos(latent period of 30-40 years);
 certain metals such as chromium, cadmium and arsenic; some organic
chemicals; radiation; coal smoke; as well as indoor emission of fuel
 Passive smoking
A cough that does not go away or
gets worse
Coughing up blood or rust-colored
sputum (spit or phlegm)
Chest pain that is often worse with
deep breathing, coughing, or
Loss of appetite
Unexplained weight loss
Shortness of breath
Feeling tired or weak
Infections such as bronchitis and
pneumonia that don’t go away or
keep coming back
New onset of wheezing
• If lung cancer spreads to other parts
of the body, it may cause:
Bone pain (like pain in the back or
Nervous system changes (such as
headache, weakness or numbness
of an arm or leg, dizziness, balance
problems, or seizures), from cancer
spread to the brain
Yellowing of the skin and eyes
(jaundice), from cancer spread to
the liver
Swelling of lymph nodes (collection
of immune system cells) such as
those in the neck or above the
 CT scans
 Sputum cytology
 Fibreoptic bronchoscopy
Prevention of lung cancer
 Primary Prevention:
 smoking cessation and clean air initiatives
 Avoid or limit exposure to cancer causing agents eg asbestors
 Consuming Vit. A, Vit E,, Vit C.
 Secondary Prevention:
 Aim is to early diagnose high risk populations via screening
 Chest X-Ray, MRI, CT scans, sputum cytology
 Tertiary prevention
 Targeted at people who survived a cancer disease
 Assists them to retain an optimal level of functioning regardless of their
potential debilitating disease
Legislative components/ policies
 Laws have been enforced/ enacted to:
 protect workers from being exposed to cancer-causing substances,
such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, and chromium, to help lower their risk
of developing lung cancer.
 prevent smoking in the workplace and public space to lower the risk of
lung cancer caused by secondhand smoke
 Policies
 The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco
Control (FCTC), enforced on February 27, 2005
 National Cancer Prevention and Control Strategy for Zimbabwe 2014 2018
 World Health Organization. WHO framework convention on tobacco
control. Geneva; 2003.
 U.S. National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer
Statistics Review, 1975–2011
 World Health Organization. Non Communicable Diseases, 2022