By Zia Ul Islam Ahmad Jadoon Amir Khan (FA19-PHM-081) (FA19-PHM-062) (FA19-PHM-001) INTRODUCTION TO BASIC TERMINOLOGIES • Solution: “Is a liquid mixture in which the minor component (the solute) is uniformly distributed within the major component (the solvent)”. • Solvent: “A substance that is able to dissolve other substances”. • Solute: “The minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent”. It can be a solid or liquid. PERCENT SOLUTION Introduction: “A percentage solution is an amount or volume of chemical or compound per 100mL of a solution. One way to describe the concentration of a solution is by the percent of a solute in the solvent”. Advantages Of Percent Solution: Percentage solutions are a convenient and easy way to record solution concentrations. An advantage of percentage solutions is that the molecular weight of a compound does not figure into the percentage of the required solution. Relative Expression: It is a relative expression of solute to solvent: X amount/100 ml = X% TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION There are four types of percent solution which are: 1. Percent Weight/Weight (W/W):This type of percent solution represents percent of weight of solute in the total weight of the solution. So in other words it is the number of grams of solute in 100 grams of solution. Example: A 9% NaCl (W/W) solution is made by weighing 9g NaCl and dissolving it in 91g of solvent. TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION 2. Percent Weight volume (% W/V): Percent of weight of solute in the total volume of solution. Percent here is the number of grams of solute in 100 ml of solution. This is the most commonly used concentration representation method in percent solutions. Example: 8% (W/V) atropine solution is formed by dissolving 8g of atropine in 92ml of solvent. TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION 3. Percent Volume/Volume (% V/V): Percent of volume of solute in the total volume of solution %V/V. Percent here is the number of milliliters of solute in 100 ml of solution. Example: A 15% (V/V) propanol solution is formed by the addition of 15ml of propanol in 85ml of solvent. TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION 4. Volume By Weight Percent Solution: Its define as the percent of volume of solute in total gram of solution. Percent here is the number of milliliters of solute in 100g of solution. Examples: 30% (V/W) Cephalandra Indica solution is formed by addition of 30ml of Cephalandra Indica solution to 70g of solute. Making total volume of solution 100ml.