# presentation ```By
Zia Ul Islam
Amir Khan
(FA19-PHM-081)
(FA19-PHM-062)
(FA19-PHM-001)
INTRODUCTION TO BASIC TERMINOLOGIES
• Solution: “Is a liquid mixture in which the minor
component (the solute) is uniformly distributed
within the major component (the solvent)”.
• Solvent: “A substance that is able to dissolve
other substances”.
• Solute: “The minor component in a solution,
dissolved in the solvent”. It can be a solid or
liquid.
PERCENT SOLUTION
 Introduction:
“A percentage solution is an amount or volume of chemical
or compound per 100mL of a solution. One way to describe the concentration
of a solution is by the percent of a solute in the solvent”.
Percentage solutions are a
convenient and easy way to record solution concentrations. An advantage of
percentage solutions is that the molecular weight of a compound does not
figure into the percentage of the required solution.
 Relative Expression: It is a relative expression of solute to solvent:
 X amount/100 ml = X%
TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION
There are four types of percent solution which are:
1. Percent Weight/Weight (W/W):This type of percent
solution represents percent of weight of solute in the total
weight of the solution. So in other words it is the number of
grams of solute in 100 grams of solution.
 Example: A 9% NaCl (W/W) solution is made by weighing
9g NaCl and dissolving it in 91g of solvent.
TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION
2. Percent Weight volume (% W/V): Percent of weight of
solute in the total volume of solution. Percent here is the
number of grams of solute in 100 ml of solution. This is the
most commonly used concentration representation method in
percent solutions.
 Example: 8% (W/V) atropine solution is formed by dissolving
8g of atropine in 92ml of solvent.
TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION
3. Percent Volume/Volume (% V/V): Percent of volume
of solute in the total volume of solution %V/V. Percent here is
the number of milliliters of solute in 100 ml of solution.
Example: A 15% (V/V) propanol solution is formed by the
addition of 15ml of propanol in 85ml of solvent.
TYPES OF PERCENT SOLUTION
4. Volume By Weight Percent Solution: Its define as the
percent of volume of solute in total gram of solution.
Percent here is the number of milliliters of solute in 100g of
solution.
 Examples: 30% (V/W) Cephalandra Indica solution is
formed by addition of 30ml of Cephalandra Indica solution to
70g of solute. Making total volume of solution 100ml.
```