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Analytical Chemistry
Introduction to Analytical Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Analytical Approach
Analytical Chemistry
- it is “the science of inventing and applying the
concepts, principles, and strategies for measuring the
characteristics of chemical systems”. (Murray, R. W.
1991. Anal. Chem., 63, 271A).
- it is a measurement science consisting of a set of
powerful ideas and methods that are useful in all
fields of science, engineering, and medicine.
- it is often described as the area of chemistry
responsible for characterizing the composition of
matter, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
- it is a science of measurements
• Roles of Analytical Chemistry
- it has provided many of the tools and methods
necessary for research in other traditional areas of
- it is fostering multidisciplinary research in:
- medicinal chemistry
- clinical chemistry
- toxicology
- forensic chemistry
- materials science
- geochemistry and environment
- the essence of analytical chemistry is in developing
new tools for solving problems, and in defining the
type and quality of information available to other
- it is an important tier of environmental protection
and has been traditionally linked to compliance and/or
exposure monitoring activities for environmental
Analytical Approach
1. Identify and Define the Problem
- the analytical chemist works similarly to any other
scientist involved in basic research to address a
hypothesis in a scientific area by developing new
measurement methods or techniques.
- the second aspect of analytical chemistry practice
hinges on the importance of chemical measurements
to address technical problems related to
manufacturing and regulation.
- in this mode, the analytical chemist may be a member
of a team addressing a particular problem and the
goal may not be to answer questions to test a
hypothesis, but to solve a particular practical
- this is best accomplished through discussions with
others involved in answering the problem;
Common Analytical Problem
1. Quantitative Analyses
- the most common analytical problem (it tells us of
how much is present?)
- it includes elemental analyses of a newly
synthesized compound,
- measuring the concentration of glucose in the blood.
- measuring the amount of contaminant such as
2. Qualitative Analyses
- we need to identify what is present in the sample
- this includes identifying the products of chemical
- Screening an athlete’s urine for possible
performance – enhancement drugs
- Determining the spatial distribution of
Chromium, Lead and some other toxic substances on
the surface or airborne particulates
3. Characterization Analyses
- methods for characterizing physical and chemical
- determination of chemical structure
- determination of equilibrium constant of particle
size and of surface structure.
4. Fundamental Analysis
- it is important to improve our understanding that
supports an analytical method and to understand
better an analytical method’s limitations.
- it tells us how does these methods work
- how can it be improved?
Analytical Chemistry
Introduction to Analytical Chemistry
2. Design the Experimental Plan/ Procedure
- selection of the method of analysis
- sampling
- sample preparation
3. Perform Analysis
- the samples will be collected, treated and subjected
to analysis according to the plan developed in step 2.
*The first step in performing the
measurements is to verify that the instrument is
working properly.
4. Data Analysis and Interpretation
- once the data has been acquired, it must be
converted into a format that leads to meaningful