PERFORMING NURSERY OPERATIONS Upon completion of this unit of competency the students/trainees will be able to: Identify and prepare nursery tools, farm implements and simple equipment; Maintain nursery facilities; Handle seeds/planting material Prepare growing media Conduct propagation activities INTRODUCTION: Tools, farm implements and simple equipment for nursery operations are very important for thorough land preparation. Hence without this tools/equipment and simple implements the objectives performing nursery operations could not attain. Learning Objective After the discussion, the student/trainees should be able to identify the different types of tools, farm implements and simple equipment. Definition of Term Hand Tools - are usually light and are used without the help of animals or machines. They are being used in performing farm activities which involve small areas like school garden and home garden. Farm implements –accessories pulled by animals or mounted to machineries to make the work easier Equipment – powered tool machine used in farming Repair – to restore something broken or damaged to good condition. Prepare – to take the necessary action to put something into a state where it is fit for use or for a particular event or purpose. Hand and Digging Tools Pick-mattock is used for digging canals, breaking hard topsoil and for digging up stones and tree stumps. Hand and Digging Tools Grab-hoe is used for breaking hard topsoil and pulverizing soil. Hand and Digging Tools Spade is used for removing trash or soil, digging canals or ditches and mixing soil media. Shovel is used in removing trash, digging loose soil, moving soil from one place to another and for mixing soil media. Hand and Digging Tools Wheelbarrow A wheelbarrow is another handy tool for the garden. One time there was only the one-wheel style similar to that used by builders. Hand and Digging Tools Spading fork is used for loosening the soil, digging out root crops and turning over the materials in a compost heap. Rake is used for cleaning the ground and leveling the topsoil. Hand and Digging Tools Light hoe is used for loosening and leveling soil and digging out furrows for planting. Hand trowel is used for loosening the soil around the growing plants and putting small amount of manure in the soil. Hand and Digging Tools Hand cultivator is used for cultivating the garden plot by loosening the soil and removing young weeds around the plant. Bolo is used for cutting of grasses and weeds, loosening and pulverizing the soil, digging small holes for planting and posts, and breaking the topsoil in preparing garden plots if no other tools are available. Hand and Digging Tools Crowbar is used for digging big holes and for digging out big stones and stumps Hand and Digging Tools GRAFTING TOOLS These are tools used in asexual propagation Hand and Digging Tools Pruning shears is for cutting branches of planting materials and unnecessary branches of plants. Axe is for cutting bigger size post. Hand and Digging Tools Knife is for cutting planting materials and for performing other operations in crop production. Pruning Saws Pruning saws have a narrow curved blade that fits between stems or branches and easily and cuts them as you pull the saw backwards. There are also telescopic tree pruners that are made especially for those high jobs. Equipment Hand tractor is used to pull a plow and harrow in preparing a large area of land. Water pumps are used to draw irrigation water from a source Four wheel tractor is used to pull disc plow and disc harrow in preparing much bigger area of land. Equipment Shredders More recent additions to the gardening world are shredders. Wonderful for disposing of waste and creating mulch for the garden they will save you the cost of buying mulch and disposing of waste. Rototiller- These enginedriven garden tools are most often used for preparing your soil before planting, according to author Walter Hall. Other uses for a rototiller include aerating the lawn and mixing soil. Farm Implements Plows are farm implements used in horticultural operations either pulled by a working animal or a tractor. The plow is specifically used for tilling large areas, making furrows and inters row cultivation. Farm Implements Harrow. The native wooden harrow is made of wood with a metal tooth and pulled by a carabao while the disc harrow is a metal mounted to a tractor. Harrows are used for tilling and pulverizing the soil. Farm Implements Rotavator - an implement mounted to a tractor used for tilling and pulverizing the soil. MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES Agri-bag (Polyethylene) Seeds Fertilizer String MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES Plastic pails – for hauling water, manure and fertilizers Sprinklers – for watering seedlings and young plants Sprayers – for spraying insecticides, foliar fertilizers, fungicides and herbicide Basic Pre- operative Check up Objective At the end of the lesson trainees should be able to give importance of checkingup tools and equipment before using. Purpose of Pre-operative Check-up To maintain the efficiency and effectiveness of farm facilities and to prolong and maximize its use. Steps in PRE-OPERATIVE CHECK UP OF FARM IMPLEMENTS / SIMPLE EQUIPMENT. 1. Get your ballpen and record book 2. See all external parts implement and equipment 3. Record parts that need to repair or change 4. Record parts that need for greasing 5. Record farm implement that needs for replacement 6. Submit records to your trainer. of farm “Good work and quality output depends on the right kind of tools farm implements/ equipment and facilities to be used in the right job.” Definition of terms 1. Tools are material made out of metal that use in the preparation of soil for planting 2. Corrosion is a process of wearing away the surface of a solid of metals 3. Wear is the damage due to use/ To diminish or impair due to use SEGREGATION OF TOOL WITH WEAR AND CORROSIONS The kind or types of hand tools used by the farmer determine the success or failures of his crops. Preparing tools needed before using, needs pre-operative check up to determine whether it need repair or replace. While check-upping, tools with wear and corrosions should be separated to avoid contamination and to comminute others and even to destroy itself. Wear and corrosions is the start of deformation of any tools until such time that this cannot already repair and finally become trash. STEPS IN SEGREGATING TOOLS WITH WEAR AND COROSSIONS 1. Carefully identify tools with rust, wear and corrosions 2. Separate tools with wear and corrosions into a strategic place 3. Identify the degree of damage 4. Record the kind and number of tools with wear and corrosions TREATING TOOLS WITH WEAR AND CORROSIONS Tools with wear and corrosions will be treated by the use of. 1. Sandpaper 2. Wet stone 3. Treating chemical 4. Grease SIMPLE REPAIR AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF TOOLS, FARM IMPLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT Tips in making simple repair of tools: To repair tool handle: 1. Clamp the tool blade in a bench vise 2. Remove the handle from the hasp using a drill, hammer or other tools as needed. 3. Insert the new handle from the hasp. 4. Tighten the handle in the hasp using the fasteners. A use of screw and screwdriver to firmly attach the handle to the tool head. SIMPLE REPAIR AND PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF TOOLS, FARM IMPLEMENT AND EQUIPMENT To fix a leaky hose: 1. Cut through the hose in either side of the bad section using sharp knife. 2. Attach male and female hose coupling to the cut ends following the directions Basic post-operative check up tools, implement/ equipment and facilities Best practices for long storage of Tools, Equipment and Implements 1. Begin by gathering all hand tools and removing dirt or rust with a wire brush, steel wool or light sand paper. 2. For tools that need sharpening, do with file that is made especially for this task. Remember to move the file in one direction only and at 45 degree angle. 3. If necessary sand wooden handles with sand papers and follow up with a coat of paste wax or linseed oil. 4. Spray metal parts with a good coat of lubricating oil. This will discourage rust as your tools stored. 5. Store your tool up off the ground and a dry spot. 6. Drain water hoses and hang them in the garage. Clean and Sharpen Garden Tools Before Storage Proper cleaning should be a habit. A thorough cleaning of all your gardening tools is necessary because dead plants or plant parts can serve as a source of plant diseases, meaning that the bacteria can survive on the tools and infect otherwise healthy plants. Proper care of your tools before storage ensures a good start to next gardening season. Once cleaned, the tools should also be disinfected. One more step remains after you have cleaned and sharpened your tools. Wipe all of your metal tools down with an oiled cloth and store them away neatly. Clean and Sharpen Garden Tools Before Storage General requirements for equipment maintenance Obtaining a copy of the maintenance schedule recommended by the manufacturer. Ensuring that maintenance is performed as required. Ensuring that the person(s) performing the maintenance are competent (e.g. licensed mechanic). Retaining records of maintenance/service conducted. Specifying who is responsible for overseeing maintenance and where the records are kept. equipment How to Clean Rust From Garden Tools Things You'll Need Steel wool Wire brush Rag Chemical rust remover Bucket Garden gloves Rubber gloves SELF- CHECK TRUE OR FALSE: Direction: Write TRUE if the statement is correct and FALSE if it is wrong. 1. Remove any dirt or debris from the tool by spraying it off with water. 2. Wiping off and drying the tool thoroughly is not necessary upon storage. 3. Once cleaned, the tools should also be disinfected 4. In pre operative check up, Record parts that need to repair or change is enough. 5. Scrub the rust away using steel wool. Wear garden gloves to protect your hands. 5 points Steps in PRE-OPERATIVE CHECK UP OF FARM IMPLEMENTS / SIMPLE EQUIPMENT. Answer Key 1. True 2. False 3. True 4. False 5. True 5 points Steps in PRE-OPERATIVE CHECK UP OF FARM IMPLEMENTS / SIMPLE EQUIPMENT. 1. Get your ballpen and record book 2. See all external parts of farm implement and equipment 3. Record parts that need to repair or change 4. Record parts that need for greasing 5. Record farm implement that needs for replacement 6. Submit records to your trainer.