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Chemistry 2
General Chemistry 2 – Grade 11
Quarter 3 – Module 11: Effect of Concentration on Colligative Properties of
First Edition, 2020
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Chemistry 2
Quarter 3
Self-Learning Module 11
Effect of Concentration on Colligative
Properties of Solutions
Introductory Message
For the facilitator:
Welcome to the General Chemistry 2 Self-Learning Module 11 Effect of
Concentration on the Colligative Properties Solutions
This Self-Learning Module was collaboratively designed, developed and
reviewed by educators from the Schools Division Office of Pasig City headed by its
Officer-in-Charge Schools Division Superintendent, Ma. Evalou Concepcion A.
Agustin, in partnership with the City Government of Pasig through its mayor,
Honorable Victor Ma. Regis N. Sotto. The writers utilized the standards set by the K
to 12 Curriculum using the Most Essential Learning Competencies (MELC) in
developing this instructional resource.
This learning material hopes to engage the learners in guided and independent
learning activities at their own pace and time. Further, this also aims to help learners
acquire the needed 21st century skills especially the 5 Cs, namely: Communication,
Collaboration, Creativity, Critical Thinking, and Character while taking into
consideration their needs and circumstances.
In addition to the material in the main text, you will also see this box in the
body of the module:
Notes to the Teacher
This contains helpful tips or strategies that
will help you in guiding the learners.
As a facilitator you are expected to orient the learners on how to use this
module. You also need to keep track of the learners' progress while allowing them to
manage their own learning. Moreover, you are expected to encourage and assist the
learners as they do the tasks included in the module.
For the Learner:
Welcome to the General Chemistry 2 Self-Learning Module 11 Effect of
Concentration on Colligative Properties of Solutions
This module was designed to provide you with fun and meaningful
opportunities for guided and independent learning at your own pace and time. You
will be enabled to process the contents of the learning material while being an active
This module has the following parts and corresponding icons:
Expectations - This points to the set of knowledge and skills
that you will learn after completing the module.
Pretest - This measures your prior knowledge about the lesson
at hand.
Recap - This part of the module provides a review of concepts
and skills that you already know about a previous lesson.
Lesson - This section discusses the topic in the module.
Activities - This is a set of activities that you need to perform.
Wrap-Up - This section summarizes the concepts and
application of the lesson.
Valuing - This part integrates a desirable moral value in the
Posttest – This measures how much you have learned from the
entire module.
After going through with this self-learning module, you are expected to:
1. describe the effect of solute concentration to the colligative properties of
2. explain what happens when two solutions of different concentrations are
separated by semi permeable membrane: and
3. cite the importance of osmosis to living things by giving examples.
Direction: Choose the letter of the best answer:
Which of the following statements about the effect of concentration of solution
to the properties of solution is NOT correct?
A. The greater the concentration of the solute, the fewer the molecules of
solvent in it.
B. The vapour pressure of solution containing a non-volatile solute is always
lower than the vapour pressure of the pure solvent.
C. The vapour pressure of non-volatile solute will depend on the concentration
of the solution.
D. The greater the concentration of the solute in the solution, the greater the
molecules of solvent in it.
A cell in hypotonic solution
A. loses water
B. gains water
neither gains or loses water
gains or loses water equally
Red blood cells are put into isotonic solution. What will happen when salt is
added to the solution?
A. the cell burst
C. water enters the cell
B. the cell crenate
D. proteins pump salts into the cell
Which of the following is the best description of a semipermeable membrane
in the context of osmosis?
A. A membrane that allows neither solute nor solvent particles to pass
through it.
B. A membrane that allows solute particles, but not solvent particles, to pass
through it.
C. A membrane that allows solvent particles, but not solute particles, to
pass through it.
D. A membrane that allows both solute and solvent particles to pass through
5. For ideal systems, the reduction in the chemical potential of solvent molecules
upon the addition of solute depends only on which one of the following?
A. The melting point of the solute.
C. The solubility of the solute.
B .The number of solute particles.
D. The boiling point of the solute.
Fill in the blanks. Choose the word or phrases from the word pool given below:
1. Some solutions conduct electricity because of the free flow of electrons in their
structure. They are so called ______________.
are those solutions in which the solute does not dissociate into
ions when dissolved.
3. ______________ are properties that depend only on the number of solute particles
in solution and not on the nature of the solute particles.
4. _________________
is the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its
condensed phase, either liquid or solid, at a particular temperature.
5. The boiling point of a liquid can be defined as the temperature at which the
vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to ____________.
6. The difference in vapour pressures of the two solutions which are separated by
a semipermeable membrane is called __________
7. _____________ is the selective passage of a solvent molecule through a porous or
semipermeable membrane from a diluted solution to a more concentrated solution.
Have you ever tried to prepare homemade ice cream where there is no electricity?
Did you put salt on the ice to cool the mixture of milk and sugar? The ice cream
vendors also put salt on the ice chunks around the cans of the ice cream. What
property of the salt makes it possible to make the ice colder? After studying this
module, you will understand this phenomenon.
Figure 1. Ice in Salt Ice Cream Making
In your previous module, you have learned that colligative properties depend
only on the number of solute particles in solution and not on the nature of the solute
particles. They all depend on the number of solute particles present regardless, of
whether they are atoms, ions or molecules.
In dealing with solutions, it will be useful also to consider an ideal solution
wherein solute-solute, solvent-solvent and solute interactions are in the same
magnitude. In an ideal solution, the different molecules act independently of each
When you determine the number of particles in a solution, it is very important
that you always remember that not all solutions with the same molarity contain the
same concentration of solute particles.
For example, 0.01 M aqueous solutions of sucrose, NaCl, and CaCl 2. It is
because, sucrose dissolves to give a solution of neutral molecules, the concentration
of solute particles in a 0.01 M sucrose solution is 0.01 M. In contrast, both NaCl and
CaCl2 are ionic compounds that dissociate in water to yield solvated ions. As a
result, a 0.01 M aqueous solution of NaCl contains 0.01 M Na+ ions and 0.01 M
Cl− ions, for a total particle concentration of 0.02 M. On the same way, the CaCl2
solution contains 0.01 M Ca 2+ ions and 0.02 M Cl− ions, for a total particle
concentration of 0.03 M.
At higher concentrations especially with salts, highly charged ions just like
or Al 3+, or in solutions with less polar solvents, dissociation is often
incomplete to give separate ions. The sum of the concentrations of the dissolved
solute particles determine the physical properties of a solution. In the succeeding
discussion, you must therefore keep in mind the chemical nature of the solute.
Let us consider for example an ideal solution of two components only. If the
solute and solvent molecules are both volatile, the molecules will evaporate
independently of each other. The vapour pressure of each component will depend
upon the rate at which its molecules leave the surface. Now, this in turn, will depend
upon the concentration of the molecules of each component on the surface of and
within the liquid. The concentration of each component is decreased by the
molecules of the other component. Therefore, each component in the solution will
have a lower vapour pressure than that of the individual pure component. So, it
means that the total vapour pressure of the solution will be the sum of the
independent vapour pressure of the two components.
If the solute is non-volatile, the vapor pressure of the solution will be that of
the solvent only and will depend on its concentration. The greater the concentration
of the solute in the solution, the fewer the solvent molecules will escape, and the
lower will be the vapor pressure of the solution. The vapor pressure of a solution
containing a non-volatile solute is always lower than the vapour pressure of the pure
solvent. However, the vapour pressure of the solution will approach that of the pure
solvent as the solution becomes more and more dilute.
Like boiling point elevation and freezing point depression, osmotic pressure is
directly proportional to the concentration of solution. This is what we will expect
because all colligative properties depend only in the number of solute particles in the
solution. If there are two solutions of equal concentration and hence, have the same
osmotic pressure, they are said to be isotonic. If two solutions are of unequal osmotic
pressures, the more concentrated solution is said to be hypertonic and the more
dilute solution is described as hypotonic.
Figure 2. Types of Solutions
There are many interesting applications of osmotic pressure phenomenon. In
order to study the contents of red blood cells, which are protected from the external
environment by a semipermeable membrane, the biochemists use a technique called
hemolysis. The red blood cell membrane is not permeable (passage through is not
possible to sodium chloride). The red blood cells are placed in a hypotonic solution.
Because the hypotonic solution is less concentrated than the interior of the cell,
water moves into the cells. The cells swell and then eventually burst, releasing
hemoglobin and other molecules.
Any solution to be injected into the blood plasma must be isotonic with the
cell fluid. This is insured by dissolving the material in a 0.87% salt solution known
as physiological salt solution. Also, nasal sprays or drops are in isotonic solution to
prevent swelling or shrinkage of the tissue of the nasal cavity when sprays or drops
are applied.
Other applications of osmotic pressure include home preserving of jam and
jelly. A large quantity of sugar is actually necessary to the preservation process since
sugar helps kill the bacteria that may cause botulism. When bacterial cell is in
hypertonic (high concentration) sugar solution, the intracellular water tends to move
out of the bacterial cell to the more concentrated solution by osmosis. We call this
process as crenation, which causes the cell to shrink and eventually to cease
Osmotic pressure is also in major mechanism in transporting water upward
in plants. Because the leaves constantly lose water to the air, in the process called
transpiration, the solute concentrations in leaf increase. Water is pulled up through
the trunk, branches, and stems of tress.
Activity 1. Match the terms in Column A with their characteristics in Column B and
then with column C. Write your answers on the blank provided with you on the number
before each number.
____1. solubility
____2. solute
____3. freezing point
____4. boiling point
____5. solvent
____6. electrolyte
____7. miscible
____8. osmotic pressure
____9. solution
____10. nonelectrolyte
A. dissolving substance
B. form ions to conduct
3. sodium chloride
C. temperature at which
4. 0 0 C
liquids starts to solidify
5. oil in water
D. homogeneous mixture
6. semipermeable
E. proportional to molar concentration
F. mixes easily
7. acidic solution
G. does not conduct electricity
8. 1000 C
H. vapour pressure is equal to atmospheric
H2 O
I. measure the amount of solute
10. alcohol in
J. dissolved substance
sugar solution
36 g NaCl/ 100 g
K. two opposing processes occur at equal
Activity 2. Using the given clues, arrange and form the correct word/words with the
jumbled letters
LNIGBOI TOIPN _____________________
-the temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid equals the prevailing
atmospheric pressure.
TOSMOIC SPEURESR ___________________
the pressure needed to stop the net flow of solvent molecules in a situation where a
solution is separated by a semipermeable membrane from a pure solvent.
GZEFINER TPOIN ______________________
temperature at which solid and liquid are in equilibrium.
TGILIVAOCLE ____________________
the properties which mean that they depend on the collective effect of the
concentration of solute particles present in the solution.
ROVAP SUPESERR ____________________
the pressure exerted by the gas that is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid in
closed system at a specific temperature.
Fill in the blanks.
The most active component of the solution is the (1)____________ (solute, solvent).
It has greater effect on the properties of a (2) __________(solute, solvent, solution) such
as boiling temperature, freezing temperature, and (3) ________________ (boiling point,
vapour pressure).
(4) ________________ (Properties, Concentration) of a solution is expressed in
(5)_______________(molarity, molality), rather than mole fractions is used in solving
(6)___________________(boiling point elevation, freezing point expression).
(7). _____________________(Osmosis, osmotic pressure) is the passage of a solvent
molecule through a(8) ____________________ (permeable, semipermeable) membrane
from a (9) _____________ ( diluted, concentrated) solution or from the solvent itself into
a (10) ________________ (diluted, concentrated) solution. The (11) ____________ (greater,
lesser) the concentration of the solute, the greater the (12) ___________(vapour
pressure, osmotic pressure) of the solution.
The knowledge about colligative properties of solution and concentration of
solution are very useful in our daily living. Similarly, there are careers in which these
knowledge is very useful, too. Just like the pharmacists, they are engaged in the
preparation and distribution of drugs and medications. Another example is the
perfumer. Perfumers mix solutions
of ingredients, check to make sure that the
ingredients are properly balanced, and test the fragrances. Can you cite other work or
jobs in which concepts on solution concentrations are being applied?
Choose the letter of the best answer:
1. Which of the following about the effect of concentration of solution to the
properties of solution is correct?
A. Since the vapour of a solution is always lower than that of pure solvent, the
solvent in solution does not freeze at 0 0 C.
B. The greater the concentration of the solute in the solution, the greater the
molecules of solvent in it.
C. For the vapour pressure of the solvent to be equal to the vapour pressure of
solid solvent, the solution need to be cooled at higher temperature.
D. The diffusion of the solvent molecules is from lower to higher concentration.
The solution with ________ solvent concentration has a higher vapour pressure
than the other solution.
B. lower
C. slower
D. cannot be determined
The difference in solute concentration between two areas or regions is called
C. absolute difference
D. concentration gradient
4. A wilted plant tissue placed in cold water becomes stiffer and harder because
plasmolysis has occurred.
water has passed into the cells
the cell has gained cellulose
the cell’s salt concentration has increased
5. Osmotic pressure is important in biological processes. What do you think will
happen if a salt solution were to be poured on a plant?
It will grow fast because more nutrients will be obtained from salt
The plant will dry up and die since water will flow out of the roots
because salt solution is concentrated.
The plant will become acidic making it healthier.
The plant will obtain water from other parts of the plants.
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