T: Abdelghafour Raquibi Function Addition اإلضافة Cause السبب Effect/ Result النتيجة Contrast and Concession االستدراك والتناقض Sequencing التسلسل Summarizing Concluding الختم والتلخيص Explaining And giving examples الشرح والتفسير وإعطاء االمثلة Purpose الغاية Emphasis التوكيد Comparison المقارنة Linking Words in addition, /additionally furthermore / moreover, also / too/ as well Because / as/ since Because of /due to /owing to Thanks to Therefore / consequently, as a result, thus/ hence, for this reason, Although /Even though Translation إضافة إلى ذلك عالوة على ذلك أيضا ألن بسبب بفضل وبناء عليه ونتيجة لذلك وبالتالي لهذا السبب رغم أن but However, / Nevertheless, Nonetheless, yet Despite / In spite of Despite the fact that In spite of the fact that On the contrary/ conversely / In contrast Whereas/ while on the one hand ... on the other hand First /, second /, third firstly, secondly, thirdly To begin with / First of all Next/ then/ after that Last/ Lastly/ Finally Last but not least In conclusion To sum up/ in brief In a nutshell, لكن ومع ذلك Computers are cheaper nowadays; furthermore, they are lighter. I'm cold, and I'm also hungry and tired. I stayed at home because it was raining. I stayed at home because of the rain. Thanks to this treatment, her condition has improved. It was raining, therefore I stayed at home. She worked hard. As a result, she had good grades. There was a lot of traffic; thus, we were late. She's just found out she failed her exams, hence her bad mood. even though he is rich, he lives in a small house. “He works hard, but he doesn’t earn much.” The problems are not serious. Nonetheless, we shall need to tackle them soon. رغم/ بالرغم من In spite of the rain, we went for a walk. We went for a walk despite the rain. We went for walk despite the fact that it was raining. The risk of infection hasn’t diminished. on the contrary, it has increased. Life in the city is fast, whereas life in the countryside is slow. Laptops are convenient; on the other hand, they can be expensive. في/على العكس المقابل بينما – في حين ومن... من جهة جهة أخرى .. ثالتا، ثانيا،أوال Firstly, you should exercise regularly. Secondly, you need to cut down on fast food. Thirdly, you have to see a doctor regularly. Last but not least, you should have a balanced diet. بادئ ذي بدْء/بداية بعد ذلك،ثم أخيرا ًأخيراً وليس آخرا ختاما خالصة For example Like / Such as Namely in other words, / to put it differently, that is to say In order to / so as to In order not to/ so as not to So that على سبيل المثال مثل تحديدا بعبارة أخرى as a matter of fact, / in fact Undoubtedly Particularly / in particular Especially في الحقيقة بدون شك خصوصا خاصة Similarly, / likewise equally in the same way, by the same token, Example sentences To sum up, there are three main ways of tackling the problem… In a nutshell, we’re all responsible for the environment. Many countries, for example/ such as Mexico and Japan, have a lot of earthquakes. “There are 2 problems: namely, the cost and the time.” He was economical with the truth; in other words, he lied. I’ll deal with the second point first, that is to say the change to the club’s rules. أي/هذا يعني لكي/من أجل لكي ال لكي وبالمثل على حد السواء بنفس الطريقة على نفس المنوال He gave up a permanent job in order to freelance. I agreed to her suggestion in order not to upset her. I've reorganized my files so that I can easily find them. It's not that difficult. As a matter of fact, it's quite easy. Undoubtedly, this topic is very important. I love coffee, in particular ones from Brazil The car is quite small, especially if you have children. Alex enjoys telling jokes; in the same way/similarly, his son adores funny stories. Tajin was delicious. Likewise, the salad was yummy. .