Uploaded by Ichi Paras

module 3

Watch, review, and understand the topics in Module 3 and in a nutshell, discuss the
following in your own words. Focus on the strengths and weaknesses.
A. Content based Instruction
Content-based teaching It is an approach to language instruction that integrates the presentation
of topics or tasks from subject matter classes within the context of teaching a second or foreign
language". It differs from traditional language classes because language comes second to the
content. In other words, the teacher runs a course on current affairs, or American history, or
fiction writing, through which students also learn English. It’s important to note that English
ends up as subordinate to the material, although the teacher must recognize and be prepared to
help students with language skills.
Content based lesson:
Because of the nature of the content, all four skills get integrated. It’s important to note that the
content continues through the whole course, not just a handful of lessons. A course on shopping
one day, using the bank on another day, and making hotel reservations in English at a different
class session is an example of a CBI class.
How can CBI be used in the language classroom?
It is not enough to simply integrate content into the language classroom, it must be done
effectively. Stoller (2002) lists eight practices that allow for natural content integration:
1. Extended input, meaningful output, and feedback on language and grasp of content
2. Information gathering, processing, and reporting
3. Integrated skills (using reading, writing, speaking and listening in natural classroom
4. Task-based activities and project work, enhanced by cooperative learning principles
5. Strategy training (to produce more metacognitively aware strategic learners)
6. Visual support (ie. Images, graphic organizers, language ladders etc.)
7. Contextualized grammar instruction
8. Culminating synthesis activities (knowledge is displayed in writing and orally)
Language learning becomes more interesting and motivating. Language learners tend to
be significantly more motivated when authentic materials, content, and contexts are used.
This is in contrast to traditional instructional methods and materials such as textbooks,
rote memorization, and grammar rule drills.
CBI offer a wide educational knowledge to learners in the form of the different topics
It helps students develop valuable study skills such as note taking, summarizing and
extracting key information from texts.
Developing collaborative skills, especially when using group work, which can have great
social value.
Active v. passive: CBI provides students with the opportunity to think actively by
engaging in rich materials that are genuinely connected to the real world. Rather than
learning vocabulary by showing pictures of German food, why not use a simple recipe to
make a version of the dish in the classroom?
Critical thinking: Related to the point above, the active nature of CBI allows students to
develop critical thinking and life skills that may then be used in countless ways outside of
the language instruction environment.
Real-life application: Students who learn via the CBI approach are better equipped to
apply their language skills in real life contexts.
Transferability: The CBI approach allows students to use language skills across subjects
(i.e. other classes in school and experiences outside of school) rather than traditional
approaches that confine language learning to the language classroom.
Fun factor: Since CBI embraces the use of authentic materials, students tend to enjoy
their school experience significantly more. Remember that humans have a natural desire
to learn; it is just a matter of finding ways to make new material interesting, and CBI
accomplishes just that.
Classroom management: When learning is made more fun and interesting, behavior
problems naturally decrease. This is a handy teacher trick that benefits everyone!
Efficiency: Not only is CBI effective, it is also more efficient in the sense that active
thinking and the use of authentic materials accelerates and solidifies the learning process,
whereas traditional approaches usually require extensive memorization and repetition.
CBI implicit language instruction can confuse learners and may give them the impression
that they are not actually learning language.
Overuse of native language can be a problem in some parts of the lesson.
Finding information sources and texts that lower levels can understand can be difficult.
In a nutshell, although CBI is a challenging approach for both teachers and students, the outcome
of its implementation can be rewarding and motivating.
Some students may copy directly from the source texts they use to get their information.
Avoid this by designing tasks that demand students evaluate the information in some way, to
draw conclusions or actually to put it to some practical use. Having information sources that
have conflicting information can also be helpful as students have to decide which
information they agree with or most believe.
CBI effectively increases learners' English language proficiency and teaches them the skills
necessary for the success in various professions. This method is often used in ESP (English for
Specific Purposes) classes where the content of input plays a significant role. It has been
indicated that vocabulary is easier to acquire when there are contextual clues in order to make a
connection between vocabulary and meaning. Moreover, when learners become aware of the
relation between language learning and their favored goals, they become even more motivated to
learn. Learners feel that learning is a kind of impressive thing because they know that they are
studying authentic content material (not material that are made for all the foreign learners) in the
target language. They know that it is a means to an end rather than an end in itself. It has also
been proved to be a valid approach for language teaching at all stages of instruction, from
elementary school to university levels, both in second or foreign language teaching settings.
Generally CBI advocates claim that this approach leads to more successful results in comparison
with other language teaching approaches. Because it provides a number of opportunities for
teachers in order to match learners’ interests and needs with interesting, meaningful and
contextualized content.
B. What is CALL?
CALL is a program derived from CAL (Computer-Assisted Learning) which is implemented to
language, but the use of computer here is mainly aimed at providing a language learning
tutorial program (Hartoyo 2006, 21).
Advantages of CALL
1. It is individualized, that is each student is free to work at his own place, totally unaffected by
the performance of any other students.
2. Information is presented in a structured form. It proves useful in the study of a subject where
there is hierarchy of facts and rules.
3. It forces active participation on the part of the student, which contrasts with the more passive
role in reading a book or attending a lecture.
4. It utilizes a reporting system that provides the student with a clear picture of his progress.
Thus students can identify the subject areas in which they have improved and in which they need
5. By enabling students to manipulate concepts directly and explore the results of such
manipulation, it reduces the time taken to comprehend difficult concepts.
6. It offers a wide range of experiences that are otherwise not available to the student. It works as
multimedia providing audio as well as visual inputs. It enables the student to understand
concepts clearly with the use of stimulating techniques such as animation, blinking, graphical
displays etc.
7. It provides a lot of drilling which can prove useful for low aptitude students and through
which high-aptitude students can be escaped.
8. It can enhance reasoning and decision-making abilities.
Disadvantages of CALL
although there are many advantages of computer, the application of current computer
technology still has its limitations and disadvantages. Some disadvantages of CALL are as
1. It packages may not fulfill expectations of teachers. Objectives and methods decided by the author and
of a teacher may differ.
2. Motivating and training teachers to make use of computers in education is a challenging task. They
may have fear of this new device. They may be unwilling to spend extra time for preparation, selection
and use of CAL packages. It may also be perceived as a threat to their job.
3. There are administrative problems associated with computer installation. The problems particularly
related to the physical location of the computer resources, the cost of hardware maintenance and
insurance and time-tabling.
4. The rapid development of hardware makes it difficult to select a system before it becomes obsolete. If a
new system is installed by a maximum number of institutions, they may not get courseware required for
the system and courseware developed so far may become useless.
In summary, the advantages of CALL can be outlined as providing motivation and autonomy
for learner, compatible and time flexible learning, immediate and detailed feedback, error
analysis, and a process syllabus. Some considerations must be given to the disadvantages
of CALL, such as less handy equipment, high cost of education, lack of trained teachers and
of CALL programs of perfect quality, and limited capacity of computers to handle unexpected
To conclude, CALL has certain advantages and disadvantages and teachers should know
the strengths and weaknesses in applying CALL in ESL classrooms. It is agreeable that
technological advancement and development has enabled the
application of CALL programs in language learning and instruction, and it has become a new
trend recently. Even so, computer technology still has its limitation and weaknesses.
Therefore, we must first realize the advantages and disadvantages of current CALL
programs before applying them to improve our teaching or to help student learning. In the
end, we can avoid the mistake in employing CALL program and get the maximum benefit for
our ESL teaching and learning.
C. Learning Styles and Strategies
Your learning style is the way you absorb and assimilate information. People have different
learning styles depending on how their brains work during learning. Four different learning
styles are identified as visual, auditory, read & write and kinesthetic styles. Each has distinct
advantages and disadvantages, which can help you, recognize the most suitable learning style for
specific subjects or situations. Some subjects or situations also require you to adopt a style
different from your natural learning style.
Four different learning styles are identified as visual, auditory, read & write, kinesthetic styles
and etc. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages, which can help you recognize
the most suitable learning style for specific subjects or situations
1. The Auditory Learner
Auditory learners thrive in classes that let them process knowledge through hearing and verbal
communication. Lectures, reading out loud and giving oral reports and speeches comprise their
strongest methods of instruction. They enjoy discussing and debating class material and often
have special skills in music, such as memorizing lyrics. Their proclivity toward speaking can
also be a downfall, though, as they tend to be overly talkative and dominate conversations. They
also may need to hear information in order to fully learn it, meaning that information not covered
in lectures may be unclear to them.
The Visual Learner
1. Videos are portable so you can bring them in a lot of places: by being portable, it is possible to carry
video equipment in a lot of places where visual learning is required.
2. Video Learning is powerful: The combination of sound and visual content helps the viewer understand
easier which makes it even easier for the learner to remember the content being taught.
3. Pausing and rewinding allows learning to be flexible: While using things such as video recorders
during visual learning, it is much easier for the teacher to rewind what was said so that the student can
comfortably understand what was being communicated.
4. Visual learners usually have a great memory: Visual learning creates in students a great memory that
helps them remember what they have learnt in class. This means they are at a better chance of applying
what they learnt in class in practical life.
5. Visual learning improves your memory: By virtue of the fact that it makes it easier for you to
remember what has been taught, the student will benefit immensely from memory improvement over a
period of time.
6. Visual learning stays longer in your memory: visual learning, unlike other forms of learning, has the
potential of staying much longer in your memory than any other form of learning. This means you will
naturally be able to remember what was taught.
7. Visual learner enjoys the images: Among the tools used in visual learning are images that the learner
will mostly find interesting and which also plays an important role in developing the learner‘s
understanding and memory.
8. Makes it easy to imagine solutions: Visual learning, unlike other forms of learning, is a great way to
imagine what is being taught as it empowers the student to visualize what is being taught.
9. There is more pleasure and interest in learning when dealing with visual learning: Visual learning also
plays an important role in creating a unique interest in the mind of the child when learning is going on.
10. Visual learning helps see the whole picture when discussing a problem: It makes it possible for the
student to see the whole picture as learning is taking place.
1. When you are listening to lectures your mind usually tends to wonder.
2. They are observant but they miss some of what is said.
3. Video learning requires equipment
4. They usually have to write out directions for themselves.
5. They are not really talkative.
The Kinaesthetic Learner
Kinesthetic learners acquire information best when they are able to directly experience it through
movement and touch. Hands-on activities like experiments, art projects, role-plays and skits give
them the greatest advantage. They often enjoy activities like sports, cooking, constructing
projects and making crafts. Their tendency toward movement, however, is sometimes
problematic, as they frequently struggle with sitting still and paying attention. They are often
uncomfortable in classes that involve a great deal of reading and lectures and may need to take
frequent breaks while studying.
Social/Emotional Learners
The social/emotional learner tends to enjoy working with others or in a team. You tend to
encourage others to be involved in a task and therefore you could be seen as quite
motivational. You probably enjoy working in groups and will have a prime concern for the
wellbeing of colleagues and friends. You thrive on discussion and this can be very
stimulating for you.
You may become too dependent on assistance from others. You may find it difficult to
structure a task if you are completely on your own. It is possible that you are greatly
influenced by your feelings and this might affect your judgment.
The Metacognitive Learner
The metacognitive learner wants to gain an overview. You tend to be good at reflecting and
problem solving. You should be able to use previous learning effectively, when learning new
information. You may need time to consider all possibilities and this can be appreciated by
others; they may seek out and trust your advice.
Your style of learning may be frustrating to others if you are working in a group. You may
take a long time to carry out a task, and could appear to be pedantic because of this.
Learning styles are important not only for learning, but for helping us through our everyday
lives. Learning styles relate to a person's preferences for absorbing information, for solving
problems and for success in social and personal situations. They can have implications for
learning, family life, marriage, leisure and work.
It is important that people are aware of their learning styles so they can relate them to
personality type and life preferences, leading to greater self-knowledge; knowing more about
yourself helps you gain maximum success and benefit from both leisure and work.
D. Learner Autonomy
Autonomous learning is the process through which the student identifies what his learning
abilities are and what he has to work on in order to decide what resources and strategies he will
implement in his learning process.
Student's Role
It is very important for the student to follow some steps or requirements in order for this
learning process to be effective.
* - He must be willing to learn
- Be responsible for his own learning
- Use different learning methods
- Create a learning method that's convenient for them.
Teacher's Role
The teacher must act like a tutor.
- There must be a great amount of communication
between the teacher and the student.
- The learning process must be personalized.
- He must be willing to adapt to the student's needs.
Learning Styles Learning Strategies
Some of the strategies used are:
- Repitition
- Translation
- Note taking
- Questions for clarification
- Deduction
- Selective attention
- Self-evaluation
- Self-monitoring
- self-reinforcement
Advantages and Disadvantages
- The student can find out the way he learns.
- The student becomes more responsible.
- The teacher can learn to see his student's learning necessities.
- Classes are more personalized.
- There is more responsibility required for the student.
- The teacher must be available to help the student more often.
Autonomous learning is a good learning strategy that should be implemented by more
E. Classroom-based learning
Classroom- based learning In spite of the fact that you have to spend a particular amount of
money on classroom adapting, still the vast majority of the schools, secondary schools, and
universities like to grant training through a Traditional Learning Classroom set up. This is on the
grounds that classroom-based learning gives students the chance of up close and personal
collaboration with the instructor and a genuine self-think about understanding
1. Accessibility:
The educator is accessible during the school hours, yet additionally for a period when school. In
contrast to an online class, you approach a balanced intelligent session with the educator
whenever during or after a class gets over for any further explanations on the exercise instructed.
Availability additionally implies understudies without access to PCs or the web can’t go to an
online class.
2. Structure:
Understudies are commonly acquainted with a classroom feeling and instructing style. In any
case, when web-based educating is presented, a few understudies will be unable to adjust to such
a creative structure and thus their inspiration to study will reduce. Understudies who can’t adjust
to such auxiliary changes as realized by web-based learning will fall behind bringing about
terrible scores.
3. Discipline:
PC based learning may not be prepared to guzzle that specific dimension of order in understudies
as accepted. Adaptable timings and the opportunity to learn at their own accommodation can
prompt an absence of control among understudies. Traditional learning lays accentuation on the
significance of the order, as understudies need to go to classes on time bombing which they
might be exposed to serious disciplines. Filling in as a gathering under exacting disciplinary
measures is the thing that understudies get the opportunity to gain proficiency with all through
their instructive profession in Traditional Learning Classroom.
4. Social and Educational Development:
In the Traditional Learning Classroom, understudies collaborate with their companions and the
educator eye to eye. The earth urges students to be progressively social and well disposed of with
others. Also, understudies can straightforwardly approach the educator with their inquiries which
the individual in question can illuminate immediately. Web-based learning can’t give the kind of
consideration that a few understudies require so as to defeat their shortcomings. Consequently,
Traditional Learning Classroom can give both social and instructive advancement through a
steady human association.
5. Instructor driven Training:
On the web or PC based learning may endure when sought after during working hours. Working
understudies may neglect to give the important mindfulness to comprehend an exercise or
complex math issue. The teacher drove training in classrooms to request true fixation and
learning conditions by removing understudies from their work areas. Understudies can give their
most extreme thoughtfulness regarding the topic educated and examined. Furthermore, the
educators can demand inputs from the understudies toward the finish of each class and in like
manner change his/her instructing style to oblige the determinations of the understudy
organization. In this manner, It Classroom gives organized classes, opportune conveyance of
exercises alongside well-prepared and controlled offices and foundation to give an extraordinary
learning condition.
Disadvantages of Traditional learning
Since an instructor needs to convey a fixed number of ideas inside a restricted time, most
classroom exercises are gotten the job done to the introduction arrange as it were. The practice is
left for the understudy to do as homework.
This procedure does not take into consideration understudies to explore different avenues
regarding new ideas. Their learning is put to a stop at a specific stage; they end up packing ideas
and are unfit to deliver anything productive, aside from conventional responses to test questions.
Furthermore, numerous understudies may stall out while doing issue sets at home. This also
obstructs their exhibition. In the event that they are unfit to ace one idea, and have been unfit to
rehearse it successfully, we can’t in any way, shape or form anticipate that them should get a
handle on a more up to date idea dependent on the past one,
Only one out of every odd understudy has a similar pace of learning. While a few understudies
can pursue the educator’s address with accommodation, the vast majority of the others expect
time to chow on the data that they are getting. Additionally, every understudy has an alternate
learning style.
F. Blended learning
Blended learning’ actually describes the manner in which eLearning is integrated or combined
with a more traditional classroom setup, offering independent study. This particular learning
approach makes sure that the audience remains engaged and their overall learning experience is
Blended Learning Advantages and Disadvantages
Blended learning has some pros and cons. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
What are the advantages of blended learning?
Advantage 1: Well-suited for large groups
blended learning doesn’t require the trainer to be present all the time. Traditional classroom
settings are constrained to a limited number of people at the same time. While your employees
are busy learning by themselves, you can dedicate yourself to other tasks, including in-person
training sessions.
Advantage 2: Better preparation and feedback
There is more time for useful discussions. When people can complete task independently, they
can come to class with the same knowledge level. There is more time for useful discussions and
to practice what they have learned. While they complete the online materials and assignments on
their own, you can do less work and relax. Also assist learners from time to time.
Advantage 3: Great for the non-technology fans
Some people in the education sector are not big fans of technology, even though they recognize
its benefits. Also, some employees and customers might not like it either, mostly when they are
already used to face-to-face training.
Advantage 4: Employees set their own pace
Participants can partly work at their own pace and still have face-to-face education. If you’re
faster than the other participants, you don’t have to wait for them. The other way around, if
you’re slower, you can take your time. If you are a hard working mother and decide to attend
a course, beside your normal job, it may be difficult with your time management. You can, to
a great extent, decide when you’re studying.
Advantage 5: Reduction in costs
It requires fewer classrooms or training centers, fewer instructors, less commuting time. Less
money is spent all around.
Advantage 6: It’s more fun!
Keeping people engaged and interested in what you are saying while teaching a mandatory
training course can be daunting, even if you are the trainer! Imagine having to repeat yourself
over and over and not being able to measure if your trainees have paid attention to what you
What are the disadvantages of blended learning?
Disadvantage 1: Temporary increase in the workload (transition phase)
It's not easy to switch to a new method if you are already accustomed to a traditional approach
It’s hard to disagree that there’s a significant amount of work involved in the early stage of
blended learning where you set everything up. It’s not easy to switch to a new method if you are
already accustomed to a traditional approach. You might wonder how to balance face-to-face
training with online training. It can take a while to reap the benefits of this learning approach [3].
Disadvantage 2: Lack of motivation
Not every blended learning model is suited to every person, task, subject, or organization. In the
way you consider children’s’ reading levels when choosing books for them, you should consider
which approach will work best for your employees or customers. Learners who want to exert all
their effort in working will be bored in sitting in front of the computer for a long time.
Disadvantage 3: Basic technology knowledge
You expect participants to have a basic knowledge of technology. If children don’t know what to
do, because of the lack of technology knowledge, they will get annoyed. Because participants
have to focus on a new system and new knowledge, it might cause a cognitive overload. That’s
not what you want to happen!
Disadvantage 4: Plagiarism and credibility problem
Learners are tempted to look on the internet. They can easily write down anything that they see
on the internet.
There are learning that are suitable to some students but not for all. But it is depend on the
student’s capability although any learning strategies are beneficial for teachers. And teachers will
always have a big role of- Students Centered kind of learning.