Watch, review, and understand the topics in Module 3 and in a nutshell, discuss the following in your own words. Focus on the strengths and weaknesses. A. Content based Instruction Content-based teaching It is an approach to language instruction that integrates the presentation of topics or tasks from subject matter classes within the context of teaching a second or foreign language". It differs from traditional language classes because language comes second to the content. In other words, the teacher runs a course on current affairs, or American history, or fiction writing, through which students also learn English. It’s important to note that English ends up as subordinate to the material, although the teacher must recognize and be prepared to help students with language skills. Content based lesson: Because of the nature of the content, all four skills get integrated. It’s important to note that the content continues through the whole course, not just a handful of lessons. A course on shopping one day, using the bank on another day, and making hotel reservations in English at a different class session is an example of a CBI class. How can CBI be used in the language classroom? It is not enough to simply integrate content into the language classroom, it must be done effectively. Stoller (2002) lists eight practices that allow for natural content integration: 1. Extended input, meaningful output, and feedback on language and grasp of content 2. Information gathering, processing, and reporting 3. Integrated skills (using reading, writing, speaking and listening in natural classroom activities) 4. Task-based activities and project work, enhanced by cooperative learning principles 5. Strategy training (to produce more metacognitively aware strategic learners) 6. Visual support (ie. Images, graphic organizers, language ladders etc.) 7. Contextualized grammar instruction 8. Culminating synthesis activities (knowledge is displayed in writing and orally) Strength Language learning becomes more interesting and motivating. Language learners tend to be significantly more motivated when authentic materials, content, and contexts are used. This is in contrast to traditional instructional methods and materials such as textbooks, rote memorization, and grammar rule drills. CBI offer a wide educational knowledge to learners in the form of the different topics instructed. It helps students develop valuable study skills such as note taking, summarizing and extracting key information from texts. Developing collaborative skills, especially when using group work, which can have great social value. Active v. passive: CBI provides students with the opportunity to think actively by engaging in rich materials that are genuinely connected to the real world. Rather than learning vocabulary by showing pictures of German food, why not use a simple recipe to make a version of the dish in the classroom? Critical thinking: Related to the point above, the active nature of CBI allows students to develop critical thinking and life skills that may then be used in countless ways outside of the language instruction environment. Real-life application: Students who learn via the CBI approach are better equipped to apply their language skills in real life contexts. Transferability: The CBI approach allows students to use language skills across subjects (i.e. other classes in school and experiences outside of school) rather than traditional approaches that confine language learning to the language classroom. Fun factor: Since CBI embraces the use of authentic materials, students tend to enjoy their school experience significantly more. Remember that humans have a natural desire to learn; it is just a matter of finding ways to make new material interesting, and CBI accomplishes just that. Classroom management: When learning is made more fun and interesting, behavior problems naturally decrease. This is a handy teacher trick that benefits everyone! Efficiency: Not only is CBI effective, it is also more efficient in the sense that active thinking and the use of authentic materials accelerates and solidifies the learning process, whereas traditional approaches usually require extensive memorization and repetition. Weaknesses CBI implicit language instruction can confuse learners and may give them the impression that they are not actually learning language. Overuse of native language can be a problem in some parts of the lesson. Finding information sources and texts that lower levels can understand can be difficult. In a nutshell, although CBI is a challenging approach for both teachers and students, the outcome of its implementation can be rewarding and motivating. Some students may copy directly from the source texts they use to get their information. Avoid this by designing tasks that demand students evaluate the information in some way, to draw conclusions or actually to put it to some practical use. Having information sources that have conflicting information can also be helpful as students have to decide which information they agree with or most believe. Conclusions CBI effectively increases learners' English language proficiency and teaches them the skills necessary for the success in various professions. This method is often used in ESP (English for Specific Purposes) classes where the content of input plays a significant role. It has been indicated that vocabulary is easier to acquire when there are contextual clues in order to make a connection between vocabulary and meaning. Moreover, when learners become aware of the relation between language learning and their favored goals, they become even more motivated to learn. Learners feel that learning is a kind of impressive thing because they know that they are studying authentic content material (not material that are made for all the foreign learners) in the target language. They know that it is a means to an end rather than an end in itself. It has also been proved to be a valid approach for language teaching at all stages of instruction, from elementary school to university levels, both in second or foreign language teaching settings. Generally CBI advocates claim that this approach leads to more successful results in comparison with other language teaching approaches. Because it provides a number of opportunities for teachers in order to match learners’ interests and needs with interesting, meaningful and contextualized content. B. What is CALL? CALL is a program derived from CAL (Computer-Assisted Learning) which is implemented to language, but the use of computer here is mainly aimed at providing a language learning tutorial program (Hartoyo 2006, 21). Advantages of CALL 1. It is individualized, that is each student is free to work at his own place, totally unaffected by the performance of any other students. 2. Information is presented in a structured form. It proves useful in the study of a subject where there is hierarchy of facts and rules. 3. It forces active participation on the part of the student, which contrasts with the more passive role in reading a book or attending a lecture. 4. It utilizes a reporting system that provides the student with a clear picture of his progress. Thus students can identify the subject areas in which they have improved and in which they need improvement. 5. By enabling students to manipulate concepts directly and explore the results of such manipulation, it reduces the time taken to comprehend difficult concepts. 6. It offers a wide range of experiences that are otherwise not available to the student. It works as multimedia providing audio as well as visual inputs. It enables the student to understand concepts clearly with the use of stimulating techniques such as animation, blinking, graphical displays etc. 7. It provides a lot of drilling which can prove useful for low aptitude students and through which high-aptitude students can be escaped. 8. It can enhance reasoning and decision-making abilities. Disadvantages of CALL although there are many advantages of computer, the application of current computer technology still has its limitations and disadvantages. Some disadvantages of CALL are as follows: 1. It packages may not fulfill expectations of teachers. Objectives and methods decided by the author and of a teacher may differ. 2. Motivating and training teachers to make use of computers in education is a challenging task. They may have fear of this new device. They may be unwilling to spend extra time for preparation, selection and use of CAL packages. It may also be perceived as a threat to their job. 3. There are administrative problems associated with computer installation. The problems particularly related to the physical location of the computer resources, the cost of hardware maintenance and insurance and time-tabling. 4. The rapid development of hardware makes it difficult to select a system before it becomes obsolete. If a new system is installed by a maximum number of institutions, they may not get courseware required for the system and courseware developed so far may become useless. Conclusion In summary, the advantages of CALL can be outlined as providing motivation and autonomy for learner, compatible and time flexible learning, immediate and detailed feedback, error analysis, and a process syllabus. Some considerations must be given to the disadvantages of CALL, such as less handy equipment, high cost of education, lack of trained teachers and of CALL programs of perfect quality, and limited capacity of computers to handle unexpected situations. To conclude, CALL has certain advantages and disadvantages and teachers should know the strengths and weaknesses in applying CALL in ESL classrooms. It is agreeable that technological advancement and development has enabled the application of CALL programs in language learning and instruction, and it has become a new trend recently. Even so, computer technology still has its limitation and weaknesses. Therefore, we must first realize the advantages and disadvantages of current CALL programs before applying them to improve our teaching or to help student learning. In the end, we can avoid the mistake in employing CALL program and get the maximum benefit for our ESL teaching and learning. C. Learning Styles and Strategies Your learning style is the way you absorb and assimilate information. People have different learning styles depending on how their brains work during learning. Four different learning styles are identified as visual, auditory, read & write and kinesthetic styles. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages, which can help you, recognize the most suitable learning style for specific subjects or situations. Some subjects or situations also require you to adopt a style different from your natural learning style. Four different learning styles are identified as visual, auditory, read & write, kinesthetic styles and etc. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages, which can help you recognize the most suitable learning style for specific subjects or situations 1. The Auditory Learner Auditory learners thrive in classes that let them process knowledge through hearing and verbal communication. Lectures, reading out loud and giving oral reports and speeches comprise their strongest methods of instruction. They enjoy discussing and debating class material and often have special skills in music, such as memorizing lyrics. Their proclivity toward speaking can also be a downfall, though, as they tend to be overly talkative and dominate conversations. They also may need to hear information in order to fully learn it, meaning that information not covered in lectures may be unclear to them. The Visual Learner Advantages 1. Videos are portable so you can bring them in a lot of places: by being portable, it is possible to carry video equipment in a lot of places where visual learning is required. 2. Video Learning is powerful: The combination of sound and visual content helps the viewer understand easier which makes it even easier for the learner to remember the content being taught. 3. Pausing and rewinding allows learning to be flexible: While using things such as video recorders during visual learning, it is much easier for the teacher to rewind what was said so that the student can comfortably understand what was being communicated. 4. Visual learners usually have a great memory: Visual learning creates in students a great memory that helps them remember what they have learnt in class. This means they are at a better chance of applying what they learnt in class in practical life. 5. Visual learning improves your memory: By virtue of the fact that it makes it easier for you to remember what has been taught, the student will benefit immensely from memory improvement over a period of time. 6. Visual learning stays longer in your memory: visual learning, unlike other forms of learning, has the potential of staying much longer in your memory than any other form of learning. This means you will naturally be able to remember what was taught. 7. Visual learner enjoys the images: Among the tools used in visual learning are images that the learner will mostly find interesting and which also plays an important role in developing the learner‘s understanding and memory. 8. Makes it easy to imagine solutions: Visual learning, unlike other forms of learning, is a great way to imagine what is being taught as it empowers the student to visualize what is being taught. 9. There is more pleasure and interest in learning when dealing with visual learning: Visual learning also plays an important role in creating a unique interest in the mind of the child when learning is going on. 10. Visual learning helps see the whole picture when discussing a problem: It makes it possible for the student to see the whole picture as learning is taking place. Disadvantages 1. When you are listening to lectures your mind usually tends to wonder. 2. They are observant but they miss some of what is said. 3. Video learning requires equipment 4. They usually have to write out directions for themselves. 5. They are not really talkative. The Kinaesthetic Learner Kinesthetic learners acquire information best when they are able to directly experience it through movement and touch. Hands-on activities like experiments, art projects, role-plays and skits give them the greatest advantage. They often enjoy activities like sports, cooking, constructing projects and making crafts. Their tendency toward movement, however, is sometimes problematic, as they frequently struggle with sitting still and paying attention. They are often uncomfortable in classes that involve a great deal of reading and lectures and may need to take frequent breaks while studying. Social/Emotional Learners Advantages The social/emotional learner tends to enjoy working with others or in a team. You tend to encourage others to be involved in a task and therefore you could be seen as quite motivational. You probably enjoy working in groups and will have a prime concern for the wellbeing of colleagues and friends. You thrive on discussion and this can be very stimulating for you. Disadvantages You may become too dependent on assistance from others. You may find it difficult to structure a task if you are completely on your own. It is possible that you are greatly influenced by your feelings and this might affect your judgment. The Metacognitive Learner Advantages The metacognitive learner wants to gain an overview. You tend to be good at reflecting and problem solving. You should be able to use previous learning effectively, when learning new information. You may need time to consider all possibilities and this can be appreciated by others; they may seek out and trust your advice. Disadvantages Your style of learning may be frustrating to others if you are working in a group. You may take a long time to carry out a task, and could appear to be pedantic because of this. Conclusion: Learning styles are important not only for learning, but for helping us through our everyday lives. Learning styles relate to a person's preferences for absorbing information, for solving problems and for success in social and personal situations. They can have implications for learning, family life, marriage, leisure and work. It is important that people are aware of their learning styles so they can relate them to personality type and life preferences, leading to greater self-knowledge; knowing more about yourself helps you gain maximum success and benefit from both leisure and work. D. Learner Autonomy Autonomous learning is the process through which the student identifies what his learning abilities are and what he has to work on in order to decide what resources and strategies he will implement in his learning process. Student's Role It is very important for the student to follow some steps or requirements in order for this learning process to be effective. * - He must be willing to learn - Be responsible for his own learning - Use different learning methods - Create a learning method that's convenient for them. Teacher's Role The teacher must act like a tutor. - There must be a great amount of communication between the teacher and the student. - The learning process must be personalized. - He must be willing to adapt to the student's needs. Learning Styles Learning Strategies Some of the strategies used are: - Repitition - Translation - Note taking - Questions for clarification - Deduction - Selective attention - Self-evaluation - Self-monitoring - self-reinforcement Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages - The student can find out the way he learns. - The student becomes more responsible. - The teacher can learn to see his student's learning necessities. - Classes are more personalized. Disadvantages - There is more responsibility required for the student. - The teacher must be available to help the student more often. CONCLUSION Autonomous learning is a good learning strategy that should be implemented by more people. E. Classroom-based learning Classroom- based learning In spite of the fact that you have to spend a particular amount of money on classroom adapting, still the vast majority of the schools, secondary schools, and universities like to grant training through a Traditional Learning Classroom set up. This is on the grounds that classroom-based learning gives students the chance of up close and personal collaboration with the instructor and a genuine self-think about understanding 1. Accessibility: The educator is accessible during the school hours, yet additionally for a period when school. In contrast to an online class, you approach a balanced intelligent session with the educator whenever during or after a class gets over for any further explanations on the exercise instructed. Availability additionally implies understudies without access to PCs or the web can’t go to an online class. 2. Structure: Understudies are commonly acquainted with a classroom feeling and instructing style. In any case, when web-based educating is presented, a few understudies will be unable to adjust to such a creative structure and thus their inspiration to study will reduce. Understudies who can’t adjust to such auxiliary changes as realized by web-based learning will fall behind bringing about terrible scores. 3. Discipline: PC based learning may not be prepared to guzzle that specific dimension of order in understudies as accepted. Adaptable timings and the opportunity to learn at their own accommodation can prompt an absence of control among understudies. Traditional learning lays accentuation on the significance of the order, as understudies need to go to classes on time bombing which they might be exposed to serious disciplines. Filling in as a gathering under exacting disciplinary measures is the thing that understudies get the opportunity to gain proficiency with all through their instructive profession in Traditional Learning Classroom. 4. Social and Educational Development: In the Traditional Learning Classroom, understudies collaborate with their companions and the educator eye to eye. The earth urges students to be progressively social and well disposed of with others. Also, understudies can straightforwardly approach the educator with their inquiries which the individual in question can illuminate immediately. Web-based learning can’t give the kind of consideration that a few understudies require so as to defeat their shortcomings. Consequently, Traditional Learning Classroom can give both social and instructive advancement through a steady human association. 5. Instructor driven Training: On the web or PC based learning may endure when sought after during working hours. Working understudies may neglect to give the important mindfulness to comprehend an exercise or complex math issue. The teacher drove training in classrooms to request true fixation and learning conditions by removing understudies from their work areas. Understudies can give their most extreme thoughtfulness regarding the topic educated and examined. Furthermore, the educators can demand inputs from the understudies toward the finish of each class and in like manner change his/her instructing style to oblige the determinations of the understudy organization. In this manner, It Classroom gives organized classes, opportune conveyance of exercises alongside well-prepared and controlled offices and foundation to give an extraordinary learning condition. Disadvantages of Traditional learning 1. TOO MUCH FOCUS ON PRESENTATION, LITTLE TIME LEFT FOR PRACTICE: Since an instructor needs to convey a fixed number of ideas inside a restricted time, most classroom exercises are gotten the job done to the introduction arrange as it were. The practice is left for the understudy to do as homework. This procedure does not take into consideration understudies to explore different avenues regarding new ideas. Their learning is put to a stop at a specific stage; they end up packing ideas and are unfit to deliver anything productive, aside from conventional responses to test questions. Furthermore, numerous understudies may stall out while doing issue sets at home. This also obstructs their exhibition. In the event that they are unfit to ace one idea, and have been unfit to rehearse it successfully, we can’t in any way, shape or form anticipate that them should get a handle on a more up to date idea dependent on the past one, 2. A TEACHER’S LECTURE IS GENERALLY ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL: Only one out of every odd understudy has a similar pace of learning. While a few understudies can pursue the educator’s address with accommodation, the vast majority of the others expect time to chow on the data that they are getting. Additionally, every understudy has an alternate learning style. F. Blended learning Blended learning’ actually describes the manner in which eLearning is integrated or combined with a more traditional classroom setup, offering independent study. This particular learning approach makes sure that the audience remains engaged and their overall learning experience is productive. Blended Learning Advantages and Disadvantages Blended learning has some pros and cons. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? What are the advantages of blended learning? Advantage 1: Well-suited for large groups blended learning doesn’t require the trainer to be present all the time. Traditional classroom settings are constrained to a limited number of people at the same time. While your employees are busy learning by themselves, you can dedicate yourself to other tasks, including in-person training sessions. Advantage 2: Better preparation and feedback There is more time for useful discussions. When people can complete task independently, they can come to class with the same knowledge level. There is more time for useful discussions and to practice what they have learned. While they complete the online materials and assignments on their own, you can do less work and relax. Also assist learners from time to time. Advantage 3: Great for the non-technology fans Some people in the education sector are not big fans of technology, even though they recognize its benefits. Also, some employees and customers might not like it either, mostly when they are already used to face-to-face training. Advantage 4: Employees set their own pace Participants can partly work at their own pace and still have face-to-face education. If you’re faster than the other participants, you don’t have to wait for them. The other way around, if you’re slower, you can take your time. If you are a hard working mother and decide to attend a course, beside your normal job, it may be difficult with your time management. You can, to a great extent, decide when you’re studying. Advantage 5: Reduction in costs It requires fewer classrooms or training centers, fewer instructors, less commuting time. Less money is spent all around. Advantage 6: It’s more fun! Keeping people engaged and interested in what you are saying while teaching a mandatory training course can be daunting, even if you are the trainer! Imagine having to repeat yourself over and over and not being able to measure if your trainees have paid attention to what you said!? What are the disadvantages of blended learning? Disadvantage 1: Temporary increase in the workload (transition phase) It's not easy to switch to a new method if you are already accustomed to a traditional approach It’s hard to disagree that there’s a significant amount of work involved in the early stage of blended learning where you set everything up. It’s not easy to switch to a new method if you are already accustomed to a traditional approach. You might wonder how to balance face-to-face training with online training. It can take a while to reap the benefits of this learning approach . Disadvantage 2: Lack of motivation Not every blended learning model is suited to every person, task, subject, or organization. In the way you consider children’s’ reading levels when choosing books for them, you should consider which approach will work best for your employees or customers. Learners who want to exert all their effort in working will be bored in sitting in front of the computer for a long time. Disadvantage 3: Basic technology knowledge You expect participants to have a basic knowledge of technology. If children don’t know what to do, because of the lack of technology knowledge, they will get annoyed. Because participants have to focus on a new system and new knowledge, it might cause a cognitive overload. That’s not what you want to happen! Disadvantage 4: Plagiarism and credibility problem Learners are tempted to look on the internet. They can easily write down anything that they see on the internet. Conclusion: There are learning that are suitable to some students but not for all. But it is depend on the student’s capability although any learning strategies are beneficial for teachers. And teachers will always have a big role of- Students Centered kind of learning.