FACULTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES PSYCHOLOGY DEPARTMENT PSY 420 FINAL PRESENTATION MUHORACYEYE BRENDA OCEANE 20167456 Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Middle-childhood(612years) OVERVIEW • • • • • • • • • Intoduction Definition of main concepts Symptoms Causes Complications Prevention Literature review(related articles) References conclusion INTRODUCTION • there are certain child behavior problems that are common during the school age development which ranges between 6-12 years of age which is refered to as the concrete operational stage according to jean piaget’s theories, and as industry/inferiority according to Eric Erikson, it is also referred to as the latent period according to Sigmund freud. And several kinds of problems occur in this stage among which ADHD is particularly common specifically in this development stage as will be analysed. DEFINITION OF MAIN CONCEPTS • School-age/middle-childhood refers to the expected physical, emotional, and mental abilities of children between 6 to 12 years of age. • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children mostly in their school years and often continues into adulthood. It includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. • Impulsive behavior is a tendency to act without thinking about the consequences of your actions. E.g Having trouble waiting for their turn in games and conversation , Grabbing things from people or push in line, Being aggressive toward other kids (hitting, kicking, or biting….) SYMPTOMS -low self-esteem, -troubled relationships , -poor performance in school -Attendion Deficit for example; -Failing to pay close attention to details or make careless mistakes in schoolwork, -Having trouble staying focused in tasks or play, -Appearing not to listen even when spoken to directly, -Having trouble organizing tasks and activities, -Avoiding or disliking tasks that require focused mental effort, such as homeworks, -Losing items like;toys, school assignments, pencils needed for assigned activities Hyperactivity and impulsivity children suffering from hyperactive and impulsive symptoms may often showcase symptoms such as; • Having difficulty staying seated in the classroom or in other situations • Be on the go, in constant motion • Run around or climb in situations when it's not appropriate • Have trouble playing or doing an activity quietly • Talking too much • Blurt out answers, interrupting the questioner • Have difficulty waiting for his or her turn • Interrupt or intrude on others' conversations, games or activities CAUSES -Biological factors. i.e Blood relatives, such as a parent or sibling, with ADHD or another mental health disorder • Environmental factors. i.e Exposure to environmental toxins — such as lead, found mainly in paint and pipes in older buildings. • Maternal drug use, alcohol use or smoking during pregnancy • Premature birth • Too much screen time.excessive use of electronics for entertainment. COMPLICATION . academic failure and judgment by other children and adults • Tend to have more accidents and injuries of all kinds than do children who don't have ADHD • poor self-esteem • Are more likely to have trouble interacting with and being accepted by peers and adults • Are at increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse and other delinquent behaviors. CO-EXISTING CONDITIONS children with ADHD are more likely than others to also have conditions such as; • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), generally defined as a pattern of negative, defiant and hostile behavior toward authority figures • Conduct disorder, marked by antisocial behavior such as stealing, fighting, destroying property, and harming people or animals • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, characterized by irritability and problems tolerating frustration • Learning disabilities, including problems with reading, writing, understanding and communicating • Substance use disorders, including drugs, alcohol and smoking • Anxiety disorders, which causes overwhelming worry,nervousness, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) • Mood disorders, which includes bipolar disorder,depression as well as manic behavior • Autism spectrum disorder, a condition that impacts a person’s perception of and socialization with others • Tic disorder or Tourette syndrome, disorders that involve repetitive movements or unwanted sounds (tics) that can't be easily controlled PREVENTION - Avoiding anything that could harm fetal development. For example, don't drink alcohol, use recreational drugs or smoke cigarettes during pregnancy -Protecting children from exposure to pollutants and toxins, including cigarette smoke and lead paint. -Limiting screen time. Although still unproved, it is very advisable to avoid excessive children’s exposure to TV and video games or any other kind of devices mostly in the first five years of life LITERATURE REVIEW The most recent article related to this this topic is; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Last in, first out - delayed brain maturation with an accelerated decline? Author links open overlay panelBrigittaKakusziBálintSzuromiIstvánBitterPálCzobor conducted in Semmelweis University, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Balassa u. 6., Budapest 1083, Hungary, Received 24 September 2019, Revised 9 March 2020, Accepted 13 March 2020, Available online 9 April 2020. Which proved age difference is diminished by mid-adulthood, a large longitudinal study in 223 ADHD and 223 normally-developing children showed that the peak of cortical-thickness maturation was delayed in ADHD by an average of 3 years; in frontal and temporal areas, the maturation was delayed between 5 years and above. And a longitudinal study by the same researchgroup also highlighted the previous findings by demonstrating that the maturation of cortical surface area was also delayed in children with ADHD. And hence as well argues that ADHD is more likely to start in middlechildhood, and decrease in severity as the person grows older. CONCLUSION • ADHD has been unfailingly scientifically proven to be mostly common in middle-childhood and hence continue till late adulthood, and even though it’s causes are still vague, the causes mentioned above are put into consideration yet not validated, therefore, it is emphasized that thorough research on the factual causes continue, however some studies have also proven sugar to be a popular suspect in causing hyperactivity, yet there’s also no reliable proof of this. REFERENCES • Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2015;Published online 2015 Jun 26. • Perceived behavioral problems of school aged children in rural Nepal: a qualitative study by Ramesh P. Adhikari,corresponding author Nawaraj Upadhaya, Dristy Gurung, Nagendra P. Luitel, Matthew D. Burkey, Brandon A. Kohrt, and Mark J.D. Jordans. • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. https://dsm.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed Jan. 26, 2019. • Brown A. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 9, 2018. • AskMayoExpert. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2017. • Voight RG, et al., eds. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: American Academy of Pediatrics Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 2nd ed. Itasca, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018. • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml. Accessed Jan 26, 2019. THANK YOU!