Vince Jeth G. Yu G12 STEM Heracles Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran General Biology 2 Lesson 3 What I Know 1. Respiration – is the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the removal of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. 2. Cellular respiration – is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. 3. Positive pressure breathing – means that airway pressure is applied at the patient's airway through an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube. The positive nature of the pressure causes the gas to flow into the lungs until the ventilator breath is terminated. 4. Negative pressure breathing – is how we breathe normally, without the aid of bag-valve-masks or mechanical ventilators. 5. Air sacs – are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. Among modern animals, birds possess the most air sacs, with their extinct dinosaurian relatives showing a great increase in the pneumatization in their bones. 6. Oxygen Transport – is the biological system responsible for (i) bringing oxygen into the body from the ambient environment. 7. Carbon dioxide transport – is the product of cellular respiration, and is transported from the cells of tissues in the body to the alveoli of the lungs through the bloodstream. While oxygen binds to the iron content in the heme of hemoglobin, carbon dioxide can bind to the amino acid chains on hemoglobin. What’s New 1. Identify the Organs of the Respiratory System and its functions. Mouth and nose: Openings that pull air from outside your body into your respiratory system. Sinuses: Hollow areas between the bones in your head that help regulate the temperature and humidity of the air you inhale. Pharynx (throat): Tube that delivers air from your mouth and nose to the trachea (windpipe). Trachea: Passage connecting your throat and lungs. Bronchial tubes: Tubes at the bottom of your windpipe that connect into each lung. Lungs: Two organs that remove oxygen from the air and pass it into your blood. Diaphragm: Muscle that helps your lungs pull in air and push it out. Ribs: Bones that surround and protect your lungs and heart. Alveoli: Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. Bronchioles: Small branches of the bronchial tubes that lead to the alveoli. Capillaries: Blood vessels in the alveoli walls that move oxygen and carbon dioxide. Lung lobes: Sections of the lungs — three lobes in the right lung and two in the left lung. Pleura: Thin sacs that surround each lung lobe and separate your lungs from the chest wall Cilia: Tiny hairs that move in a wave-like motion to filter dust and other irritants out of your airways. Epiglottis: Tissue flap at the entrance to the trachea that closes when you swallow to keep food and liquids out of your airway. Larynx (voice box): Hollow organ that allows you to talk and make sounds when air moves in and out. Functions: Allows you to talk and to smell. Warms air to match your body temperature and moisturizes it to the humidity level your body needs. 3. Delivers oxygen to the cells in your body. 4. Removes waste gases, including carbon dioxide, from the body when you exhale. 5. Protects your airways from harmful substances and irritants. 1. 2. 2. Identify the Plant structures responsible for gas exchange and its functions. - Stomata, the small pores on the surfaces of leaves and stalks, regulate the flow of gases in and out of leaves and thus plants as a whole. They adapt to local and global changes on all timescales from minutes to millennia. The stomata control gas exchange in the leaf. Each stoma can be open or closed, depending on how turgid its guard cells are. In the light, the guard cells absorb water by osmosis, become turgid and the stoma opens. What’s I’ve Learned 1. A 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. A 9. C 10. B Vince Jeth G. Yu G12 STEM Heracles Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran General Biology 2 Lesson 4 What I Know 1. Xylem – plant vascular tissue that conveys water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant and also provides physical support. 2. Phloem – is the vascular tissue in charge of transport and distribution of the organic nutrients. 3. Diffusion – is the net passive movement of molecules or particles from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration. 4. Cell transport – refers to the movement of substances across the cell membrane. 5. Circulation – the flow of fluid, especially blood, through the tissues of an organism to allow for the transport and exchange of blood gases, nutrients, and waste products. 6. Arteries – are the blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body. 7. Veins – are a type of blood vessel that return deoxygenated blood from your organs back to your heart. 8. Systematic Circulation – refers to the part of the circulation system that leaves the heart, carrying oxygenated blood to the body’s cells, and returning deoxygenated blood to the heart. 9. Pulmonary Circulation – is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood. It carries blood to the capillaries where carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the alveoli and then into the lungs, where it is exhaled. What’s New 1. What are the functions of xylem and phloem? - The xylem distributes water and dissolved minerals upward through the plant, from the roots to the leaves. The phloem carries food downward from the leaves to the roots. Vince Jeth G. Yu G12 STEM Heracles Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran General Biology 2 Lesson 5 What I Know 1. Internal Environment – is a set of elements that define the atmosphere within the company's structure. 2. Osmolarity – is defined as the number of ionic species in molarity that has a characteristic range depending on the species examined. 3. Osmosis – is the movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane into an area that has area that has a higher solute concentration. 4. Osmoregulation – maintenance by an organism of an internal balance between water and dissolved materials regardless of environmental conditions. 5. Osmoconformers – are organisms that keep their internal fluids isotonic to their environment, that is, they maintain an internal salinity similar to their ambient conditions (e.g., most marine invertebrates, seagrass). 6. Osmoregulators – refer to the animals that maintain a constant internal osmotic environment in spite of changes in its external environment. 7. Ammonia – a colorless gas with a very sharp odor 8. Urea – a colorless crystalline compound which is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein metabolism in mammals and is excreted in urine. 9. Uric Acid – is a waste product found in blood. 10.Filtration – is a physical separation process that separates solid matter and fluid from a mixture using a filter medium that has a complex structure through which only the fluid can pass. What’s New 1.What are the possible consequences should there be a failure in the aility of the body to dispose or eliminate toxic metabolic wastes? - One of the possible consequences is it will cause a domino effect in our body. The kidney will be the first to fail, then the bloodstream will follow, blood will circulate the toxic waste to our major systems and distribute it throughout our body. Once the toxic waste has been completely distributed to our body, it will then cause the physical body to fail or die. 2.What are the two types of animals based on the osmolarity of their body fluids in relation to the environment? - Two major types of osmoregulation are osmoconformers and osmoregulators. Osmoconformers match their body osmolarity to their environment actively or passively. Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers, although their ionic composition may be different from that of seawater. 3.Identify the three types of nitrogenous wastes excreted by animals. - Nitrogen excretion: Nitrogenous waste is excreted in different forms by different species. These include (a) ammonia, (b) urea, and (c) uric acid. What’s More Renal Capsul Major & Minor Calyx Renal Cortex Renal Pelvis Renal Medula Renal Artery/ Renal Vein Ureter Medullary Pyramid Vince Jeth G. Yu G12 STEM Heracles Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran General Biology 2 Lesson 6 What I Know 1. Innate Immune System – refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come into play immediately or within hours of an antigen’s appearance in the body. These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body. The innate immune response is activated by chemical properties of antigen. 2. Adaptive Immune System – refers to the antigen-specific immune response. 3. Immunity – is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms. 4. Humoral response – is mediated by antibody molecules that are secreted by plasma cells. 5. Cell mediated response – is an immune response that does not involve antibodies. 6. Antibodies – a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood. 7. Antigen – a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies. 8. Infection – The invasion and growth of germs in the body. What’s New 1. What are the different types of immunity? Innate immunity and Adaptive immunity What’s More 1. Describe when inflammation is good and when it is bad. When it's good, it fights off foreign invaders, heals injuries and mops up debris. But when it's bad, inflammation ignites a long list of disorders: arthritis, asthma, atherosclerosis, blindness, cancer, diabetes and, quite possibly, autism and mental illness. 2. What are the five hallmarks of inflammation? redness (rubor), swelling (tumour), heat (calor; only applicable to the body' extremities), pain (dolor) and loss of function (functio laesa). 3. What is the importance of inflammation in the immune response? Inflammation is a vital part of the immune system's response to injury and infection. It is the body's way of signalling the immune system to heal and repair damaged tissue, as well as defend itself against foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria. Vince Jeth G. Yu G12 STEM Heracles Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran General Biology 2 Lesson 7 What I Know 1. Nervous System – Your nervous system is your body's command center. Originating from your brain, it controls your movements, thoughts and automatic responses to the world around you. It also controls other body systems and processes, such as digestion, breathing and sexual development (puberty). 2. Peripheral Nervous System – consists of the nerves that branch out from the brain and spinal cord. These nerves form the communication network between the CNS and the body parts. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. 3. Central Nervous System – consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain plays a central role in the control of most bodily functions, including awareness, movements, sensations, thoughts, speech, and memory. Some reflex movements can occur via spinal cord pathways without the participation of brain structures. 4. Brain – is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. 5. Spinal Cord – a long bundle of nerves and cells that extends from the lower portion of the brain to the lower back. 6. Motor Neurons – is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands. 7. Sensory Neurons – are the nerve cells that are activated by sensory input from the environment - for example, when you touch a hot surface with your fingertips, the sensory neurons will be the ones firing and sending off signals to the rest of the nervous system about the information they have received. 8. Somatic Nervous System – is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles. 9. Autonomic Nervous System – is a component of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary physiologic processes including heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, digestion, and sexual arousal. 10. Axon – also called nerve fibre, portion of a nerve cell (neuron) that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body. 11. Myelin Sheath – is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves, including those in the brain and spinal cord. 12. Neurons – are the fundamental units of the brain and nervous system, the cells responsible for receiving sensory input from the external world, for sending motor commands to our muscles, and for transforming and relaying the electrical signals at every step in between 13. Hypothalamus – is a small region of the brain. It's located at the base of the brain, near the pituitary gland. While it's very small, the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in many important functions, including: releasing hormones, regulating body temperature. 14. Tropisms – response or orientation of a plant or certain lower animals to a stimulus that acts with greater intensity from one direction than another. 15. Thermoreceptors – are free nerve endings that reside in the skin, liver, and skeletal muscles, and in the hypothalamus, with cold thermoreceptors 3.5 times more common than heat receptors. 16. Pain receptors – is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain. What’s New 1. How animals respond to environmental stimuli? Animals may respond to environmental stimuli through behaviours that include hibernation, migration, defence, and courtship. 2. How plants respond to environmental stimuli? Plants respond to changes in the environment by growing their stems, roots, or leaves toward or away from the stimulus. This response, or behaviour, is called a tropism. What’s More 1. What are the divisions of the nervous system? 1. The central nervous system. 2. The peripheral nervous system. 3. Differentiate the function of the endocrine and the nervous system 4. The nervous system can respond quickly to stimuli, through the use of action potentials and neurotransmitters. Responses to nervous system stimulation are typically quick but short lived. Vince Jeth G. Yu G12 STEM Heracles Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran General Biology 2 Lesson 8 What I Know 1. Photoreceptors – are specialized cells for detecting light. They are composed of the outer nuclear layer that contains the cell nuclei, the inner segment that houses the cell machinery, and the outer segment that contains photosensitive pigment. 2. Mechanoreceptors – are a type of somatosensory receptors which relay extracellular stimulus to intracellular signal transduction through mechanically gated ion channels. The external stimuli are usually in the form of touch, pressure, stretching, sound waves, and motion 3. Chemoreceptors – are sensors that detect changes in CO2, O2, and pH, and have been classified, based upon anatomical location, as either central or peripheral. 4. Thermoreceptors – are free nerve endings that reside in the skin, liver, and skeletal muscles, and in the hypothalamus, with cold thermoreceptors 3.5 times more common than heat receptors. 5. Pain receptors – is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the brain. 6. Sclera – is the white part of the eye that surrounds the cornea. 7. Cornea – is your eye's clear, protective outer layer. Along with the sclera (the white of your eye), it serves as a barrier against dirt, germs, and other things that can cause damage. 8. Conjunctiva – is a loose connective tissue that covers the surface of the eyeball 9. Retina – is a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside. 10. Optic Nerve – is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers. 11. Eustachian tube – is a small passageway that connects your throat to your middle ear. 12. Hydrostatic Skeleton – a flexible skeleton supported by fluid pressure 13. Endoskeleton – a skeleton that is on the inside of a body 14. Appendicular skeleton – is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of the bones that support the appendages. Animals Dog Cat Shark Panda Rabbit Sense their environment The canine nose does more than smell the roses. Dogs use both sight and smell to assess their surroundings and communicate. Whiskers are extensions of the cat's skin and are designed to detect even the smallest changes in the environment, including air currents, air pressure and temperature and wind direction. Sharks have a complex electrosensory system. Enabled by receptors covering the head and snout area. These receptors sit in jelly-filled sensory organs called the ampullae of Lorenzini. These tiny pores are extremely sensitive and can detect even the faintest of electrical fields. The giant panda's solitary nature is underscored by its reliance on its sense of smell (olfaction) The rabbit is able to get a sense of its surroundings by detecting sound waves that bounce off of objects in its environment. What’s More 1. Explain echolocation in bats Bats produce echolocation by emitting high frequency sound pulses through their mouth or nose and listening to the echo. ... With this echo, the bat can determine the size, shape and texture of objects in its environment. 2. Discuss the evolution of the vertebrate eye. The information that is now available provides powerful clues to the sequence of events that occurred during the evolution of the vertebrate eye. That process involved a vast number of slight improvements to a primordial photoreceptive region, though very few of the transitional steps have survived to the present day, because of competition from animals with eyes that were superior. Furthermore, there are likely to be few signs in the fossil record because the refinements occurred in soft tissue that is rarely preserved. We propose that the “eye” of the hagfish provides a glimpse into a state that arose some 530 Mya, in which craniate animals had evolved bilateral non-imaging photoreceptive organs. The subsequent stages of evolution of the optical apparatus and information-processing capacity of the retina occurred with remarkable rapidity, within a period of 30 million years, so that by 500 Mya early vertebrates possessed eyes fundamentally similar to our own. Draw the differences among striated or skeletal muscle, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. 3. Vince Jeth G. Yu G12 STEM Heracles Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran General Biology 2 Lesson 9 What I Know 1. Homeostasis – is the state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems. 2. Positive feedback mechanism – control self-perpetuating events that can be out of control and do not require continuous adjustment. In positive feedback mechanisms, the original stimulus is promoted rather than negated. Positive feedback increases the deviation from an ideal normal value. 3. Negative feedback mechanism – (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances. What’s New 1. Explain why homeostasis is important to organisms. Homeostasis helps animals maintain stable internal and external environments with the best conditions for it to operate. It is a dynamic process that requires constant monitoring of all systems in the body to detect changes, and mechanisms that react to those changes and restore stability. What’s More 1. Identify and describe 10 disorders that result from the disruption of homeostasis 1. Heart failure A condition that develops when your heart doesn't pump enough blood for your body's needs. CHF has its origins rooted in inappropriate neurohormonal activation, a homeostatic mechanism invoked when the failing heart does not sustain renal perfusion. When excessive and persistent, this homeostatic response gone awry begets dyshomeostasis at organ, cellular, and subcellular levels. 2. Kidney failure causes a very serious and possibly fatal disruption of homeostasis in the body. Complications include weakness, shortness of breath, widespread swelling (edema), metabolic acidosis, and heart arrhythmias. 3. Liver failure Liver disease is associated with an altered intestinal micro biome. An imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier and subsequent microbial translocation. Microbial translocation is an important pathogenic factor in the progression of chronic liver disease. 4. Hypothermia a medical emergency that occurs when your body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain thermal homeostasis. Alterations of body temperature associated with impaired thermoregulation, decreased heat production or increased heat loss can lead to hypothermia. 5. Dehydration Is condition caused by the loss of too much fluid from the body. It happens when you are losing more fluids than you are taking in, and your body does not have enough fluids to work properly. 6. Hemochromatosis A disorder in which extra iron builds up in the body to harmful levels. 7. Hyperparathyroidism Is characterized by abnormally high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood due to over activity of the parathyroid glands. 8. Type 1 diabetes An auto-immune disease that results in the destruction of β-cells in the pancreas1. With the destruction of β-cells, the body cannot produce enough insulin to maintain energy homeostasis. Onset of type 1 diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults. 9. Ageing Is the process during which structural and functional changes accumulate in an organism as a result of the passage of time. 10. Graves' disease Autoantibodies, such as M22, constitutively activate T3 and T4 release by the thyroid gland, thereby disrupting the physiological negative feedback loops maintaining TRH and TSH homeostasis and resulting in chronically increased thyroid hormone levels.