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Genbio 3-9

Vince Jeth G. Yu
G12 STEM Heracles
Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran
General Biology 2
Lesson 3
What I Know
1. Respiration – is the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the
cells within tissues, and the removal of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
2. Cellular respiration – is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take
place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen
molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release
waste products.
3. Positive pressure breathing – means that airway pressure is applied at the
patient's airway through an endotracheal or tracheostomy tube. The positive
nature of the pressure causes the gas to flow into the lungs until the ventilator
breath is terminated.
4. Negative pressure breathing – is how we breathe normally, without the aid of
bag-valve-masks or mechanical ventilators.
5. Air sacs – are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of
air. Among modern animals, birds possess the most air sacs, with their extinct
dinosaurian relatives showing a great increase in the pneumatization in their
6. Oxygen Transport – is the biological system responsible for (i) bringing oxygen
into the body from the ambient environment.
7. Carbon dioxide transport – is the product of cellular respiration, and is
transported from the cells of tissues in the body to the alveoli of the lungs through
the bloodstream. While oxygen binds to the iron content in the heme of
hemoglobin, carbon dioxide can bind to the amino acid chains on hemoglobin.
What’s New
1. Identify the Organs of the Respiratory System and its functions.
Mouth and nose: Openings that pull air from outside your body into your
respiratory system.
Sinuses: Hollow areas between the bones in your head that help regulate the
temperature and humidity of the air you inhale.
Pharynx (throat): Tube that delivers air from your mouth and nose to the trachea
Trachea: Passage connecting your throat and lungs.
Bronchial tubes: Tubes at the bottom of your windpipe that connect into each
Lungs: Two organs that remove oxygen from the air and pass it into your blood.
Diaphragm: Muscle that helps your lungs pull in air and push it out.
Ribs: Bones that surround and protect your lungs and heart.
Alveoli: Tiny air sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide takes place.
Bronchioles: Small branches of the bronchial tubes that lead to the alveoli.
Capillaries: Blood vessels in the alveoli walls that move oxygen and carbon
Lung lobes: Sections of the lungs — three lobes in the right lung and two in the
left lung.
Pleura: Thin sacs that surround each lung lobe and separate your lungs from the
chest wall
Cilia: Tiny hairs that move in a wave-like motion to filter dust and other irritants
out of your airways.
Epiglottis: Tissue flap at the entrance to the trachea that closes when you
swallow to keep food and liquids out of your airway.
Larynx (voice box): Hollow organ that allows you to talk and make sounds when
air moves in and out.
Allows you to talk and to smell.
Warms air to match your body temperature and moisturizes it to the humidity
level your body needs.
3. Delivers oxygen to the cells in your body.
4. Removes waste gases, including carbon dioxide, from the body when you
5. Protects your airways from harmful substances and irritants.
2. Identify the Plant structures responsible for gas exchange and its functions.
- Stomata, the small pores on the surfaces of leaves and stalks, regulate
the flow of gases in and out of leaves and thus plants as a whole. They
adapt to local and global changes on all timescales from minutes to
millennia. The stomata control gas exchange in the leaf. Each stoma can
be open or closed, depending on how turgid its guard cells are. In the
light, the guard cells absorb water by osmosis, become turgid and the
stoma opens.
What’s I’ve Learned
1. A
2. B
3. A
4. C
5. B
6. C
7. A
8. A
9. C
10. B
Vince Jeth G. Yu
G12 STEM Heracles
Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran
General Biology 2
Lesson 4
What I Know
1. Xylem – plant vascular tissue that conveys water and dissolved minerals from the
roots to the rest of the plant and also provides physical support.
2. Phloem – is the vascular tissue in charge of transport and distribution of the
organic nutrients.
3. Diffusion – is the net passive movement of molecules or particles from regions of
higher to regions of lower concentration.
4. Cell transport – refers to the movement of substances across the cell membrane.
5. Circulation – the flow of fluid, especially blood, through the tissues of an
organism to allow for the transport and exchange of blood gases, nutrients, and
waste products.
6. Arteries – are the blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to
the tissues of the body.
7. Veins – are a type of blood vessel that return deoxygenated blood from your
organs back to your heart.
8. Systematic Circulation – refers to the part of the circulation system that leaves
the heart, carrying oxygenated blood to the body’s cells, and returning
deoxygenated blood to the heart.
9. Pulmonary Circulation – is the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood. It
carries blood to the capillaries where carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood into
the alveoli and then into the lungs, where it is exhaled.
What’s New
1. What are the functions of xylem and phloem?
- The xylem distributes water and dissolved minerals upward through the plant,
from the roots to the leaves. The phloem carries food downward from the
leaves to the roots.
Vince Jeth G. Yu
G12 STEM Heracles
Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran
General Biology 2
Lesson 5
What I Know
1. Internal Environment – is a set of elements that define the atmosphere within the
company's structure.
2. Osmolarity – is defined as the number of ionic species in molarity that has a
characteristic range depending on the species examined.
3. Osmosis – is the movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable
membrane into an area that has area that has a higher solute concentration.
4. Osmoregulation – maintenance by an organism of an internal balance between
water and dissolved materials regardless of environmental conditions.
5. Osmoconformers – are organisms that keep their internal fluids isotonic to their
environment, that is, they maintain an internal salinity similar to their ambient
conditions (e.g., most marine invertebrates, seagrass).
6. Osmoregulators – refer to the animals that maintain a constant internal osmotic
environment in spite of changes in its external environment.
7. Ammonia – a colorless gas with a very sharp odor
8. Urea – a colorless crystalline compound which is the main nitrogenous
breakdown product of protein metabolism in mammals and is excreted in urine.
9. Uric Acid – is a waste product found in blood.
10.Filtration – is a physical separation process that separates solid matter and fluid
from a mixture using a filter medium that has a complex structure through which only
the fluid can pass.
What’s New
1.What are the possible consequences should there be a failure in the aility of the body
to dispose or eliminate toxic metabolic wastes?
One of the possible consequences is it will cause a domino effect in our body.
The kidney will be the first to fail, then the bloodstream will follow, blood will
circulate the toxic waste to our major systems and distribute it throughout our
body. Once the toxic waste has been completely distributed to our body, it will
then cause the physical body to fail or die.
2.What are the two types of animals based on the osmolarity of their body fluids in
relation to the environment?
Two major types of osmoregulation are osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
Osmoconformers match their body osmolarity to their environment actively or
passively. Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers, although their
ionic composition may be different from that of seawater.
3.Identify the three types of nitrogenous wastes excreted by animals.
Nitrogen excretion: Nitrogenous waste is excreted in different forms by
different species. These include (a) ammonia, (b) urea, and (c) uric acid.
What’s More
Renal Capsul
Major & Minor Calyx
Renal Cortex
Renal Pelvis
Renal Medula
Renal Artery/ Renal
Medullary Pyramid
Vince Jeth G. Yu
G12 STEM Heracles
Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran
General Biology 2
Lesson 6
What I Know
Innate Immune System – refers to nonspecific defense mechanisms that come
into play immediately or within hours of an antigen’s appearance in the body.
These mechanisms include physical barriers such as skin, chemicals in the
blood, and immune system cells that attack foreign cells in the body. The innate
immune response is activated by chemical properties of antigen.
Adaptive Immune System – refers to the antigen-specific immune response.
Immunity – is the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful
Humoral response – is mediated by antibody molecules that are secreted by
plasma cells.
Cell mediated response – is an immune response that does not involve
Antibodies – a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a
specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body
recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the
Antigen – a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response
in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Infection – The invasion and growth of germs in the body.
What’s New
What are the different types of immunity?
Innate immunity and Adaptive immunity
What’s More
Describe when inflammation is good and when it is bad.
When it's good, it fights off foreign invaders, heals injuries and mops up debris. But
when it's bad, inflammation ignites a long list of disorders: arthritis, asthma,
atherosclerosis, blindness, cancer, diabetes and, quite possibly, autism and mental
What are the five hallmarks of inflammation?
redness (rubor), swelling (tumour), heat (calor; only applicable to the body' extremities),
pain (dolor) and loss of function (functio laesa).
What is the importance of inflammation in the immune response?
Inflammation is a vital part of the immune system's response to injury and infection. It
is the body's way of signalling the immune system to heal and repair damaged tissue,
as well as defend itself against foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria.
Vince Jeth G. Yu
G12 STEM Heracles
Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran
General Biology 2
Lesson 7
What I Know
Nervous System – Your nervous system is your body's command center.
Originating from your brain, it controls your movements, thoughts and automatic
responses to the world around you. It also controls other body systems and
processes, such as digestion, breathing and sexual development (puberty).
Peripheral Nervous System – consists of the nerves that branch out from the
brain and spinal cord. These nerves form the communication network between
the CNS and the body parts. The peripheral nervous system is further subdivided
into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
Central Nervous System – consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain plays
a central role in the control of most bodily functions, including awareness,
movements, sensations, thoughts, speech, and memory. Some reflex
movements can occur via spinal cord pathways without the participation of brain
Brain – is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all
vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is located in the head, usually close
to the sensory organs for senses such as vision.
Spinal Cord – a long bundle of nerves and cells that extends from the lower
portion of the brain to the lower back.
Motor Neurons – is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex,
brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or
outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly
muscles and glands.
Sensory Neurons – are the nerve cells that are activated by sensory input from
the environment - for example, when you touch a hot surface with your fingertips,
the sensory neurons will be the ones firing and sending off signals to the rest of
the nervous system about the information they have received.
Somatic Nervous System – is the part of the peripheral nervous system
associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System – is a component of the peripheral nervous system
that regulates involuntary physiologic processes including heart rate, blood
pressure, respiration, digestion, and sexual arousal.
Axon – also called nerve fibre, portion of a nerve cell (neuron) that carries nerve
impulses away from the cell body.
Myelin Sheath – is an insulating layer, or sheath that forms around nerves,
including those in the brain and spinal cord.
Neurons – are the fundamental units of the brain and nervous system, the cells
responsible for receiving sensory input from the external world, for sending motor
commands to our muscles, and for transforming and relaying the electrical
signals at every step in between
Hypothalamus – is a small region of the brain. It's located at the base of the
brain, near the pituitary gland. While it's very small, the hypothalamus plays a
crucial role in many important functions, including: releasing hormones,
regulating body temperature.
Tropisms – response or orientation of a plant or certain lower animals to a
stimulus that acts with greater intensity from one direction than another.
Thermoreceptors – are free nerve endings that reside in the skin, liver, and
skeletal muscles, and in the hypothalamus, with cold thermoreceptors 3.5 times
more common than heat receptors.
Pain receptors – is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially
damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the
What’s New
How animals respond to environmental stimuli?
Animals may respond to environmental stimuli through behaviours that
include hibernation, migration, defence, and courtship.
How plants respond to environmental stimuli?
Plants respond to changes in the environment by growing their stems, roots, or
leaves toward or away from the stimulus. This response, or behaviour, is called a
What’s More
What are the divisions of the nervous system?
The central nervous system.
The peripheral nervous system.
Differentiate the function of the endocrine and the nervous system
The nervous system can respond quickly to stimuli, through the use of action
potentials and neurotransmitters. Responses to nervous system stimulation are
typically quick but short lived.
Vince Jeth G. Yu
G12 STEM Heracles
Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran
General Biology 2
Lesson 8
What I Know
Photoreceptors – are specialized cells for detecting light. They are composed of
the outer nuclear layer that contains the cell nuclei, the inner segment that
houses the cell machinery, and the outer segment that contains photosensitive
Mechanoreceptors – are a type of somatosensory receptors which relay
extracellular stimulus to intracellular signal transduction through mechanically
gated ion channels. The external stimuli are usually in the form of touch,
pressure, stretching, sound waves, and motion
Chemoreceptors – are sensors that detect changes in CO2, O2, and pH, and
have been classified, based upon anatomical location, as either central or
Thermoreceptors – are free nerve endings that reside in the skin, liver, and
skeletal muscles, and in the hypothalamus, with cold thermoreceptors 3.5 times
more common than heat receptors.
Pain receptors – is a sensory neuron that responds to damaging or potentially
damaging stimuli by sending “possible threat” signals to the spinal cord and the
Sclera – is the white part of the eye that surrounds the cornea.
Cornea – is your eye's clear, protective outer layer. Along with the sclera (the
white of your eye), it serves as a barrier against dirt, germs, and other things that
can cause damage.
Conjunctiva – is a loose connective tissue that covers the surface of the eyeball
Retina – is a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside.
Optic Nerve – is a bundle of more than 1 million nerve fibers.
Eustachian tube – is a small passageway that connects your throat to your
middle ear.
Hydrostatic Skeleton – a flexible skeleton supported by fluid pressure
Endoskeleton – a skeleton that is on the inside of a body
Appendicular skeleton – is the portion of the skeleton of vertebrates consisting of
the bones that support the appendages.
Sense their environment
The canine nose does more than
smell the roses. Dogs use both sight
and smell to assess their surroundings
and communicate.
Whiskers are extensions of the cat's
skin and are designed to detect even
the smallest changes in the
environment, including air currents, air
pressure and temperature and wind
Sharks have a complex electrosensory system. Enabled by receptors
covering the head and snout area.
These receptors sit in jelly-filled
sensory organs called the ampullae of
Lorenzini. These tiny pores are
extremely sensitive and can detect
even the faintest of electrical fields.
The giant panda's solitary nature is
underscored by its reliance on its
sense of smell (olfaction)
The rabbit is able to get a sense of its
surroundings by detecting sound
waves that bounce off of objects in its
What’s More
Explain echolocation in bats
Bats produce echolocation by emitting high frequency sound pulses
through their mouth or nose and listening to the echo. ... With this echo,
the bat can determine the size, shape and texture of objects in its
Discuss the evolution of the vertebrate eye.
The information that is now available provides powerful clues to the
sequence of events that occurred during the evolution of the
vertebrate eye. That process involved a vast number of slight
improvements to a primordial photoreceptive region, though very few
of the transitional steps have survived to the present day, because
of competition from animals with eyes that were superior.
Furthermore, there are likely to be few signs in the fossil record
because the refinements occurred in soft tissue that is rarely
preserved. We propose that the “eye” of the hagfish provides a
glimpse into a state that arose some 530 Mya, in which craniate
animals had evolved bilateral non-imaging photoreceptive organs.
The subsequent stages of evolution of the optical apparatus and
information-processing capacity of the retina occurred with
remarkable rapidity, within a period of 30 million years, so that by
500 Mya early vertebrates possessed eyes fundamentally similar to
our own.
Draw the differences among striated or skeletal muscle, smooth
muscle and cardiac muscle.
Vince Jeth G. Yu
G12 STEM Heracles
Brgy. Hugpa, Biliran, Biliran
General Biology 2
Lesson 9
What I Know
Homeostasis – is the state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions
maintained by living systems.
Positive feedback mechanism – control self-perpetuating events that can be out
of control and do not require continuous adjustment. In positive feedback
mechanisms, the original stimulus is promoted rather than negated. Positive
feedback increases the deviation from an ideal normal value.
Negative feedback mechanism – (or balancing feedback) occurs when some
function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a
manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by
changes in the input or by other disturbances.
What’s New
1. Explain why homeostasis is important to organisms.
Homeostasis helps animals maintain stable internal and external environments
with the best conditions for it to operate. It is a dynamic process that requires
constant monitoring of all systems in the body to detect changes, and
mechanisms that react to those changes and restore stability.
What’s More
1. Identify and describe 10 disorders that result from the disruption of
Heart failure
A condition that develops when your heart doesn't pump enough blood
for your body's needs. CHF has its origins rooted in inappropriate
neurohormonal activation, a homeostatic mechanism invoked when
the failing heart does not sustain renal perfusion. When excessive and
persistent, this homeostatic response gone awry begets
dyshomeostasis at organ, cellular, and subcellular levels.
Kidney failure causes a very serious and possibly fatal disruption of
homeostasis in the body. Complications include weakness, shortness
of breath, widespread swelling (edema), metabolic acidosis, and heart
Liver failure
Liver disease is associated with an altered intestinal micro biome. An
imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier
and subsequent microbial translocation. Microbial translocation is an
important pathogenic factor in the progression of chronic liver disease.
a medical emergency that occurs when your body loses heat faster
than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body
temperature. Normal body function depends on its ability to maintain
thermal homeostasis. Alterations of body temperature associated with
impaired thermoregulation, decreased heat production or increased
heat loss can lead to hypothermia.
Is condition caused by the loss of too much fluid from the body. It
happens when you are losing more fluids than you are taking in, and
your body does not have enough fluids to work properly.
A disorder in which extra iron builds up in the body to harmful levels.
Is characterized by abnormally high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels
in the blood due to over activity of the parathyroid glands.
Type 1 diabetes
An auto-immune disease that results in the destruction of β-cells in the
pancreas1. With the destruction of β-cells, the body cannot produce
enough insulin to maintain energy homeostasis. Onset of type 1
diabetes typically occurs in children and young adults.
Is the process during which structural and functional changes
accumulate in an organism as a result of the passage of time.
Graves' disease
Autoantibodies, such as M22, constitutively activate T3 and T4 release
by the thyroid gland, thereby disrupting the physiological negative
feedback loops maintaining TRH and TSH homeostasis and resulting
in chronically increased thyroid hormone levels.