Uploaded by aligatokrysha


All in all, Alejo { 2015} of the Southeast Asian Minister of Education Organization- innotech
[SEAMEO- Innotech ] sums up to enhanced K to 2 curriculum as designed to provide holistic
education for all. The K to 12 curriculum is more than adding years to a child’s schooling.
Implemented starting in 2011 and signed into law in 2013, the longer educational cycle of the
K-12 curriculum is seen as critical in giving Filipino students a higher quality of education. Now
decongested , it will give students ample time to master basic academic skills as well as to
participate in co-curricular and community activities.
Undeniably, the curricular reform has tremendously brought big changes in the structure of the
educational system especially in the public school. It brings into focus a new profile of the
Filipino learners. As Bro. Armin Luistro , former DepEd secretary pointed out , “ Ang bagong
Pilipino- higit sa paging maka-tao, maka-diyos. Maka-bayan, at maka-kalikasan ay kailangang
magtagla ng kasanayan at pananaw na angkop sa 21st century”. The K-12 curriculum is focused
on the learner’s acquisition of the 21st century skills such as learning and innovation skills which
take into scope creativity and curiosity, critical-thinking, problem solving, and risk-taking ,
adaptability, managing complexity and self-direction and higher-order thinking and sound
reasoning. This calls for making learning and meaning –making multimodal. Such is the
provision for the new curriculum that it demands utmost attention and consideration from
education stakeholders for its implementation to work as purported.
For the teachers at the forefront of instruction bringing to fruition the objectives of the K-12
curriculum entails subscribing to prescribed standards. They have to prepare budgeted lessons.
These budgeted lesson are very demanding since the teacher needs to tackle lessons every
quarter for the school year. Lesson prepared for each quarter are unattainable and
immeasurable since they primarily cause burdens to both teachers and learners . A teacher
always rushes to finish each lesson for one to three days. Teachers : thus, devise ways in which
lesson are to be covered as budgeted and ensure that competences are met as stated in the
curriculum guide. Teaching English though is another matter. Think of literary materials
needing advance reading and greater coverage without sacrificing the allotted time for such.
This brings to the fore varying strategies employed by teachers teaching English. These
strategies target foremost the reading development of the students particularly where
comprehension is concerned.
According to Ingerslev [2012] there are different approaches to English teaching and are used,
too, for the different purposes. One may employ advanced reading where the students have an
idea of the subject which form the basis of their ways of reading and learning . Ingerslev
concurred that the teacher’s conception of knowledge , view of the subject , and idea of the
ideal educational setting is decisive for the teacher’s practice in English. This approach results
to students having conceptions of learning and ideas of educational setting where decisive for
their study behavior in studying English. Baird and Mitchell [ 2014] noted how responsibility
and control of the lessons is wholly the teacher’s .Students are made to understand the nature,
purpose or progress of the lesson by performing set tasks. When this is done students are fully
informed and involved in managing the lesson and lesson content In English . In this case
students participate actively according to teacher directions. Advancing ways of learning
English text as Biggs [2015] pointed out affirm hoe teacher’s assume responsibility and control
for lesson nature and development . Moreover, it develops the ability to look themselves in
relation to the text and to look at a text on several levels. Meyer and Boulton-lewis [2014]
professed how progression of lessons in English is done without fail when teachers develop
schemes to ensure continuity and coverage lessons. Consequently ,such scheme as Ono [2010
asserts, also addresses reading difficulties students may have pertinent to reading
comprehension. Al-Khateeb [2010] confirms his when he avers how remedial reading enables
learners to not only focus on the text but also on the interpretation of its deeper meanings.
Reading comprehension is evident when this happens.
In the Philippines the Department of Education’s Policy Guidelines on Daily Lesson Preparation
fo the k-12 Basic Education Program as stated in DepEd order No. 42,s.2016 directs teachers to
follow the competencies set by DepEd as reflected in the budget of work. This entails managing
their classes and lessons effectively and ensuring that learning outcomes are achieved.
It is in this context that this stud is conducted. It looked into the utilization of remedial reading
as a strategy in teaching English in keeping with Deped’s budget of work and as a intervention
in improving student’s reading ability. In particular it looked into the effects of remedial reading
in teaching of English to the Grade 8 Students at the Escalante National High School this year
2021-2022. Through remedial reading, the teacher is afforded the chance to elaborate the
meaning of a certain prose or poetry by deeply engaging the students to relate its content to
some issues affecting our society. There is the chance to impart greater appreciation and
profound interpretation of English. The impact of this study will let the student explore English
in a lighter, enjoyable and accessible learning area through the use of remedial reading.
Moreover, this study will afford the teachers to improving student’s reading comprehension
and in coping with the coverage of budgeted lessons.
This study determined the effects of remedial reading in the teaching of English to Grade 8
Students enrolled during the academic year 2021-2022 at Escalante National High School
Specifically this study answered the following questions:
1. What is the profile of the students in terms of:
Third grading grade in English;
Parent’s educational attainment and:
Montly family income
2. What is the performance of the students in English after the exposure to remedial
3. Is there a significant difference between the performance of the students in English
before and after the remedial reading?
4. In there a significant difference between the performance of the students in English
exposed and not exposed to remedial reading?
Research Hypotheses
In this study, the following hypotheses were tested in its null form at 0.005 level of significance.
1.There is no significant difference between the performance of the student in English before
and after remedial reading.
2.There is no significant different between the performance of the student in English exposed
and not exposed to remedial reading.
Significant of the study.
School Administrator. The results of this study would give an output to their school that would
show an effective way of making the curriculum relevant, functional and effective to their
teachers for the learners to meet the standards in providing quality education for all since they
are known to be as instructional leaders and must look for effective programs that would
benefits the students. They would also be institutionalizing the conduct of remedial reading
since one of the key result areas in education is literacy.
Department Heads in English. This study is relevant of them in terms of providing solutions to
existing problems in teaching English to the students. They must think of innovative and
effective ways in order to make the teaching learning process active and engaging. They would
also have an opportunity to initiate programs that would strengthens the conduct of remedial
reading in teaching English through the development of reading materials to be used in
remedial class.
English Teachers. Through this study ,they would have an effective way to make the delivery of
instruction effective way to make the students towards the attainment of the learning
competencies necessary for the subject.
Parents. This study would remind parents that reading is one of the fundamental skills that
every students should master in school necessary for lifelong learning.
Students. They are the main reason why this study is conducted in order for them to really
appreciate the teaching of English through remedial reading as a aid to fully understand the
text being studied and not to be just passive learners.
Community. This study will be relevant to the community in term of having a well-informed and
literate citizens as reading is one of the most fundamental skills that everyone should know in
order for the smooth implementation of its programs and policies.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are the defined operationally and conceptually in order to present how
they are used in the study.
Remedial Reading. It is an approach in reading aimed at increasing speed and comprehension
by correcting poor reading habits.
Students not exposed in remedial reading. They are the group of students who do not receive
treatment by the researchers.
Students exposed in remedial reading. It is the group in an experiment that receives the
variable being tested. One variable is tested at a time. The students exposed in remedial
reading are compared to the students not exposed in remedial reading, which do not receive
the test variable.
Teaching. This refers to the act , practice, or profession of a teacher.
K to 12 Basic Education Program. It covers kindergarten and 12 years of basic education [ six
years of primary education, four years of junior high ,two years of Senior High School {SHS} to
provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts an skills, develop longlife learners, and prepare
graduates or tertiary education, middle level skills development, employment ,and
This chapter presents the literature and studies reviewed to have connection to the present
study. This includes the literature on remedial reading, and on profile variables. It also includes
studies that focus on remedial reading.
On Remedial Reading
Reading, as Ewing {2016} claims, is touted as one of the most important academic language
skills as it serves as a means for independent learning . It is also regarded as a way to open the
door of enlightenment and enjoyment, and a valuable instrument for learning in the content
fields. As Scott {2010} assumes that the learner’s ability to use reading strategies is the most
critical factor determining their reading comprehension and consequently in their performance
in reading assessment. It’s this importance of reading that compels parents to ensure that
literacy begins at home, to ensure that they teach their children even before they send them to
school as Hill [ 2011] notes in the National institute for Literacy. Brown [2013] notes: however,
that despite this period of language learning, there are still students who are either nonreaders or whose level of reading comprehension is poor. As one aspects of communication
process, reading is not just a subject but rather an information-gathering and utilization
process. This goes to show that reading skills venture all areas of specialization to primarily
understand their own context. Consequently, this process enables students engaged in
remedial reading to identify basic information found in the text and be able to locate them in
accordance with allotted time. As Dalton And proctor [2010] point out reading enables students
to differentiate ideas and relate it of the actual situation. This study would give the students
the opportunity to interpret concepts in a lighter mood through the guidance of the teachers.
Undeniably, the rapid changes in our society brought about several factors which affect reading
habits of the students. Attwell [2010] attributes the emergence of new words which givesrise to
a wealth of vocabulary to the advent of technology and globalization. Consequently, Hughes
[2010] notes how these new words affect the students who may have difficulty of
understanding where its context and correct usage are concerned. Thus, the intended sessions
of remedial reading include the ability of students to identify difficult words in a certain
selection and be able to comprehend its meaning using the dictionary. This also gives them
background about the selection in relation to their personal experiences.
Similarly, Mc cabe [2011] stresses the pedagogic approaches used by teachers today in
integrating techno-centric words in text used in contemporary literature. This allows an
interaction between the reader and the text as the reader uses mental activities to construct
meaning from text. These pedagogic approaches bring about the conduct of activities general
referred to as reading strategies or reading skills. One example of these pedagogic approaches
is remedial reading. The students are provided with strategies for better understanding.
Significantly, Raudenbush [n.d] mentions that remedial programs target students who lag
behind their peers by a grade level or more on reading tests Research on the effectiveness of
remedial reading interventions shows varying results but also points to effective methods to
support struggling readers. Basically the purpose of this study is to let struggling readers
improve their reading level and catch up in the regular classroom instruction. For reading
interventions to succeed, Allington,[2012] believes that there is a need to match students
individually to the intervention that will work best. Wallace [2010] opines that effective reading
remediation involves teachers modelling for students the abilities they struggle with and
guiding students as they practice these skills. Intervention should then focus on teaching
students how to use strategies to improve comprehension of texts read. This intervention
serves as an avenue for students to develop awareness in the importance of learning English by
exploring Literary text in a lighter mood for them to catch up in their regular class….