Uploaded by julyareyn11


A multilevel system not simply
Self - entire person of an individual.
reducible to genes or neurons,
emerging from interaction of
mechanisms operating at neural,
Dimension of the Self
a. Social Factor- refers to the
psychological, and social levels.
influences of significant people in
Theoretical entity that can be
one’s life.
hypothesized in order to explain a
b. Personality- the individual patterns
huge array of important
psychological phenomena.
of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
c. Environmental Factor- physical
and communal elements present in
Important Roots of Selfhood
everyday surroundings, and are
1. Reflexive Consciousness-
invariably dealt with by the
conscious attention turning back
toward its own source and gradually
individuals in a specific area.
d. Personal Volition Factor-
constructing a concept of oneself.
inclination of a person to form and
2. Interpersonal Being- Selves
construct a specific identity that will
become handles and tools for
set him/her apart from the others.
relating to people.
3. Executive Function- When one
Definition of terms:
makes a resolution or vow as a
Self- a unified being essentially connected
decision-maker or controller of
to consciousness, awareness, and agency.
Classical Antiquity
Nature: Natural basis of the self is
Ancient philosophy of the self can be
anchored on biology and explains that
traced back from one of 147 Greek
human traits are passed on from one
aphorisms prominently inscribed in
generation to another.
the temple of Apollo at Delphi-know
thyself-socrates’ guiding principle
Genes and Hereditary Factors- Physical
that he imparted to his students.
appearance and personality characteristics.
Self defined through 2 lens such as:
Nurture: The self should be principally
viewed as an outcome of various nurturing
1. Empiricism
factors in the context of one’s life.
There is no such
thing as innate
Environmental Variables- Childhood
Knowledge is from
experiences, how we were raised, social
experiences- either
relationship and surrounding culture.
with the help of
senses or brain.
Identity vs. Self
2. Rationalism
Identity- the qualities, beliefs, etc. that
makes a particular person different from
There is innate
There are different
source of innate
b. Physical world (body)
entity whose nature exists
3. Idealism
Knowledge is
Self is fundamentally an intellectual
independent from the physical world.
dependent on the
He divided the reality into two:
a. Ontos (ideal)- ultimate
activity of mind.
reality which is permanent
and spiritual.
Three Great “Golden Age” Greek
b. Phenomena- the
1. Socrates
before he was born in the world and
man to bring his inner self to
was only forgotten due to long exile
on earth.
Bad man is not virtuous
contemplation and doing good, he
The man who does not follow
can regain his former imperfection.
or a divine exemplar which he
recognize it.
follows to reach and attain his
Socrates Ethics is the
imitation of the divine exemplar of
deepest and most basic propensity
virtue, embodied in man’s former
of man.
perfect self.
Innate in the mind and
self-knowledge is the source of all
3. Aristotle
individuals may gain possession of
Happiness, which is the fruit of
virtue, is attained by the constant
A man has a guiding star, a model,
because he does not
By constant remembering through
through ignorance.
concept of virtue and
Man is omniscient or all knowing
Know yourself; tell each
the good fails to do so
manifestation of the ideal.
Be one’s own master through
The ideal is subsumed in the
Ideal as essences and phenomena
as matter.
The essence provides meaning and
the purpose to the matter, and the
2. Plato
matter provides substance and
The ideal self, the perfect
solidity to essence.
An empiricist.
His conceptualization of the
All knowledge comes to human
self was introduced in his
dialogue, Phaedrus.
beings from and through sensation.
Minds start as blank slates and from
The main idea of his dialogue
sensation we get our ideas or so
was that truth can be
called “contents” of our mind.
distinguished in two forms:
a. Metaphysical realm
4. Immanuel Kant
Respect for self
Man is the only creature who
governs and directs himself and his
actions, who sets up ends for
All knowledge is derived from human
senses. (empiricism)
himself and his purpose, and who
Bundle theory- collection of
freely orders means for the
a. Impressions- vivid; products
attainment of his aims.
of direct experience.
Every man is an end in himself and
b. Ideas- copies of impressions;
should never be treated merely as a
The self is the bundle theory of mind
Plain dictum of reason and justice:
Skeptical about the existence of the
Respect others as you would
self, specifically, on whether there is
respect yourself.
a simple, unified self that exists over
A person should not be used as a
tool, instrument, or device to
No clear and intelligible idea of self.
accomplish another’s private ends.
No single impression of the self
exists; rather, the self is just the
5. Rene Descartes
Self is a thinking entity distinct from
the body.
thing to which all perceptions are
Known for his principle “ Cogito,
impression of the self, it should
ergo sum.”
remain constant over time to
Although the mind and the body
constitute identity. However, man’s
are independent and have their own
impressions vary and always
functions, man must still use his
mind to investigate, analyze,
experiment, and develop himself.
6. John Locke
Even if there were such an
Personal Identity (the self) is a
matter of psychological continuity.
A person can never observe oneself
w/o other’s perceptions.
8. The Christian or Biblical View of the
God created humans
Founded on consciousness
(memory) and not on the substance
9. St. Augustine
of either the soul or the body.
Man is of a bifurcated nature.
Personal identity is the concept
Two aspect
about oneself that evolves over the
a. Imperfect (earthly)
course of an individual’s life.
b. Capable of reaching
Identity is not locked in the mind,
soul, or body only. He included the
concept of a person's memory.
Goal of the person: to attain
communion with divine (God).
Identity is explained by
Real world is where God is.
psychological connection between
Earth is only a temporary world.
life stages.
Love and Justice as foundation.
Tabula rasa.
A virtuous life is a dynamism of love.
7. David Hume
10. St. Thomas Aquinas
Man is composed of matter and
b. Objective- observed and
scientifically investigated.
a. Matter (hyle)- common stuff
that makes up everything.
b. Form (morpe)- essence of
Regarded the self as the embodied
It sees human beings neither as
disembodied minds (exists w/o
body) nor as complex machines, but
11. Gilbert Ryle (British)
as living creatures whose
I act, therefore I am.
subjectivity (consciousness is
Mind is not separate from the body.
actualized in the forms of their
physical involvement with the world.)
Consciousness is both perceiving
Analytical behaviorism; theory of
mind states that mental concepts
and engaging.
can be understood that mental
the mind is inseparable from our
observable events.
bodily, situated, physical nature.
12. Sigmund Freud
The ego is not a master in its own
Accepted the idea of mental states
but he also suggests that the use of
concepts can be understood through
Opposed the cartesian cogito.
The body cannot be viewed solely
as an object, or material entity of the
Man is governed by 2 drives; Eros
Sociological Perspective of the Self
and Thanatos.
Three provinces of the mind: id
(desire), ego (reality), superego
Cultural Acquisition of a specific learned
response among rhesus monkeys.
A. George Mead
13. Paul and Patricia Churchland
The social self.
Eliminative Materialism- radical
claim that ordinary, common sense
understanding of the mind is deeply
wrong and that some or all of the
mental states posited by common
sense do not actually exist.
Self is nothing else but the brain.
Self is contained entirely within the
Self created through social
Process started in childhood
physical brain.
with children beginning to
Idea that to understand the self, one
develop a sense of self at
must study the brain, not just the
about the same time that
they began to learn
14. Maurice Merleau-Ponty (French)
Two types of body:
a. Subjective- lived and
The self is the human capacity to be
reflective and take the role of others.
Self emerges from social
C. Ervin Goofman
experiences. It is not part of the
Constructing situation
body and it does not exist at birth.
People routinely behave like actors
Social experiences involve
on stage. Everyday social life
communication and the exchange of
becomes theatrical. There are roles,
symbols. People create meanings.
scripts and actions, Daily life as a
To understand intention you must
series of stagecraft rules.
imagine the situation from another
person’s point of view. By taking the
role of the other: the self is reflective
Presentation of the self in everyday life
and reflexive.
through interaction.
Stages in Mead’s Theory
1. Preparatory Stage- children
the role of a particular other.
Interaction order.
Impression Management
mimic/imitate others.
2. Play Stage- children pretend to play
Believed that meaning is constructed
People are concerned with
controlling how others view them
Focuses on how individuals take on
Significant others are the
roles and act them out to present a
perspective and particular
favorable impression to their
role that a child learns and
3. Game Stage- children play
organized games and take on the
The self is social construction
a. Frontstage- plays different roles
perspective of generalized others.
everyday and displays different
4. Generalized other- the perspective
kinds of behavior depending on
and expectation of a network of
others that a child learns and then
where they are and the time of day.
b. Backstage- free from expectations
takes into account when shaping
and norms that dictate front stage
5. Dual nature of the self- the beliefs
that we experience the self as both
subject and object the “I” and “me”
Each definition of a situation lends
itself to a different approach, and the
consequences are real.
B. Charles Cooley
The looking-glass self
“One’s sense of self depends on
seeing one’s self reflected in
interaction with others.
The self is a social construction
dependent on the situation.
William Shakespeare
All the world's a stage, and all the
George Mead’s colleague
men and women merely players;
Self develops through our perception
they have their exits and their
of others evaluation and appraisal of
entrances; and one man in his time
plays many parts.
Self is based on how they believe
others perceive them.
The Self from the anthropological
A. Material Culture- refer to the
Filipino- belonging or relating to the
national flag, emblem or seal and
Philippines, or to its people and culture.
those representing all the people
In the context of citizenship,
Filipino simply means membership
who are part of a nation.
B. Non-material Culture- embodies
in a nation-state.
the shared understanding o a group
In the constitution, a citizen is
of people when including norms,
someone who legally resides in a
beliefs, and tradition.
National Identity- requires the process of
Cultural Identity and National Identity
In self-categorization, one must identify
himself with an in-group and out-groups.
Culture - derived from the latin word cultura
or cultus meaning care or cultivation.
Analogous to caring for an
Brian Morris Anthropology of the Self,
entity but a process that
Identity- who the person is
orchestrates an individual’s personal
Qualities and traits of an individual
that make him or her different from
He reiterated that the self is not an
As a result of this process, a person
becomes self-aware and
Cultural Identity- refers to the identity or
self-reflective about his place in the
feeling of belongingness to a certain culture
surrounding world.
Individual’s perception about
themselves is anchored on race,
gender, nationality, religion, ethnicity
and language.
Cultural Identity Theory
Explains why a person acts and
behaves the way he does.
It makes sense of how an individual
is influenced by the cultural contexts
he is situated in.
A nation is a group of people on the
premise of shared customs,
traditions, religion, language, art,
history, and more.
National Identity- refers to the identity or
feeling of belongingness to one state or
Rupert Emerson- a political scientist
defined it as a body of people who feel that
they are a nation.