What is the most important thing in laboratory experiments??? Hine Marae Palma-Arboleda Asso. Prof. 1, School of Arts & Sciences Aklan State University SAFETY IN THE ACADEMIC SCIENCE LABORATORY Objectives: • Safety is a primary concern in a chemical laboratory because of potential hazards working with chemicals • Laboratory safety seminar aims to: 1. Educate on the different types of hazards and their impacts to human health as well as the environment 2. Protect users from the hazards of chemicals 3. Reduce or minimize incidents of chemically induced illnesses or injuries resulting from the use of chemicals 4. Enhance protection of the public as well as the environment • The laboratory is a “discovery” based experience. It introduces new concepts and other time, expands on some of the concepts first developed in class. • laboratory can be a place of discovery and learning – However, by the very nature of laboratory work, it can be a place of danger if safety precautions aren't taken seriously • The ultimate responsibility for health and safety within laboratories lies with each individual who works in the laboratory – Safety in the laboratory is everyone’s responsibilities – however, it is the responsibility of the faculty and laboratory supervisor to ensure that students have been provided with all the necessary information to work safely in laboratories under their control ROLES Management/Administrators • Refers to Vice President of Academic Affairs, Dean, Laboratory-In-Charge, Department heads, Chair, or Principal Users • Chemists, laboratory technician/assistants, students, workers using chemicals Suppliers • Refer to the seller of chemicals, distributors, etc. RESPONSIBILITIES Management/Administrators • Establish a policy on safety in the use of the laboratory facilities specially the chemicals • Communicate the policy Management/Administrators • Ensure that all necessary apparatus/equipment and chemicals used are properly labeled and marked Management/Administrators • Comply with appropriate standards, codes and guidelines formulated, approved or recognized by the competent authority concerning safety in the use of chemicals Management/Administrators • Ensure adequate and competent supervision of laboratory work and practices, and the application and use of the control measures provided • Equip supervisors/teachers with safety training Immediate Supervisor/Teacher/ Laboratory Technician • Facilitate in obtaining an M(SDS) • Ensure that all chemicals used are labelled with all the hazards and precautions given on the label • Ensure chemicals and apparatus are properly stored and secured • Conduct safety inspection Ignites at normal temperature Stable Slightly hazardous Personal Protection (H) Teacher • Provide appropriate supervision: – Ensure safety rules are followed – Account for the chemicals before, during and after laboratory activities – Ensure wastes are properly disposed – Report accidents and/or unsafe conditions to the principal or department head or other appropriate administrators Teacher • Prepare safety checklists which need to be accomplished: – Work habits of your students – Safety wear – Facilities and equipment – Proper disposal of chemicals – Safety and Emergency Procedure • Accident prevention requires an effective safety program, which must have direct and enthusiastic support from the top administrative officer. – With direct and strong support and active involvement of all faculty and staff members, few accidents will be prevented Safety Officer • Appropriately trained, qualified, and with the authority to act, is also essential. – Laboratory-in-charge – Faculty – Staff – Students Doing things sagely is not merely the right way to work it is the ONLY way. • Academic institutions have the moral and professional responsibility to train students in safe laboratory practices. • Students are expected to comply with the local accident-prevention rules and to participate conscientiously in any training exercises • Inform students that they have the responsibility to obtain advice and guidance whenever they are in doubt about accident-prevention procedures or potential hazards in their laboratory work. Protect Yourself & Your Institution BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY SAFETY 1. Conduct a risk assessment for each laboratory activity your students will perform for the purposes of determining appropriate safety control measures – identify all the hazards associated with the experimental activity • Familiarize with the different laboratory symbols • Familiarize with the MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) of chemicals to be used A material safety data sheet (MSDS) is a form containing basic information regarding the chemical and physical properties of a substance and guidelines on how to safely use it. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) • You will find the following essential information in an MSDS: – Physical and chemical properties of the substance; – Health hazard information, including both shortand long-term health effects; – Permissible Exposure Limits, or PELs, and symptoms of exposure; – A description of how to safely handle the substance under normal and emergency conditions; and – A description of first-aid and medical treatment if overexposed. Ignites at normal temperature Stable Slightly hazardous Personal Protection (H) • Briefly review an MSDS for a common lab chemical, pointing out where to find necessary health and safety information. • Make sure students know where they can obtain copies of MSDSs 2. Select appropriate safety measures – Work practices and personal protective equipment/gear to minimize or eliminate those risks Personal Protective Equipment/Gear Laboratory Gown Goggle or Safety glass Contact lenses are not allowed. • Even worn under safety goggles • Fumes may accumulate under lens and cause serious injuries Face mask Gloves Close Shoes Hair Control Mechanism Work Practices/Conduct Control Mechanism • • • • Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control of health hazards ANTICIPATION • Make sure that your students are physically prepared for example, don't do lab work on an empty stomach, or without sleep Anticipation • Advance Experiment Planning – Pre-Laboratory Discussion – Acquire safety information (MSDS) – Risk analysis • • • • • Which chemicals to use? How much? Special equipment needed? Can the experiment go wrong? Do you have emergency plan? Dress appropriately for the lab period. Safety glasses or goggles must be worn at all times when in the laboratory • If you have any existing physical conditions that might affect your performance, your health, or other peoples' health in the lab, please inform your instructor. – This information will be kept confidential; examples might include pregnancy, medications, allergies, epilepsy. Special arrangements may be possible. RECOGNITION Some of the Laboratory Hazards You Should Never… • Engage in…. – practical jokes – games of any kind Never directly smell the source of any vapour or gas Never taste anything. EVALUATION Maintain a safe laboratory environment – includes safe housekeeping and proper storage of chemicals – What are the anticipated risks? • Are the equipment and facilities adequate? • Are staff/teacher properly and sufficiently trained? • Risks if experiment goes wrong • Is there are plan for this? Personal items, including, but not limited to, book bags and books, should be put in the area of the lab room designated for that purpose. Do not put personal items on the lab bench Clear aisle for easy movement Know how to use and where to find CONTROL Proper waste disposal Proper waste disposal Chemical Reagent Preparation Segregate and Store Chemicals Safely Segregate and Store Chemicals Safely • Hazardous chemicals must be segregated (stored separately) in chemical storage cabinets by chemical hazard when possible. – Take time to read each chemical Safety Data Sheet (SDS) to determine the hazard(s) of your chemicals. Guidelines for Segregating and Storing Chemicals • Store all hazardous liquids in secondary containment. Guidelines for Segregating and Storing Chemicals • Physically look at chemical containers monthly • Hazardous chemicals must be stored at or below eye level so that everyone in the lab can reach them. Guidelines for Segregating and Storing Chemicals Guidelines for Segregating and Storing Chemicals • Chemicals should never be stored underneath a laboratory sink, in the fume hood, or on the lab floor. • Return chemicals to proper storage cabinets areas daily. Proper Storage of Laboratory Apparatus/Equipment Safety Precaution Guidelines Posted in Science Laboratory Rooms What to follow . . . • Guidelines in borrowing and returning laboratory apparatus/equipment • Guidelines in requesting chemical reagents What to follow . . . • The institution must have – Procedural Manual in Laboratory – Laboratory Safety Manual/Handbook for Students and Faculty Prepare for emergencies – Even though we hope that by taking the first three steps, you can avoid fires, spills, injuries, and other emergencies, you must be prepared to deal swiftly and effectively with emergency situations should they arise. Chemical Spills Neutralize spilled acid or base as follows: a) Acid on clothing – use acid bicarbonate solution b) Base on clothing – use boric acid solution c) Acid or base on the desk – use solid sodium bicarbonate, followed by water Chemical Spills If your skin (or clothing) comes in contact with the spill, immediately flush the skin or clothing with water for 15 minutes. • If a student is injured, even slightly, the teacher should apply first aid immediately. Then, seek medical attention immediately. Minor burns, cuts, and scratches are fairly common injuries in laboratory. - The teacher should know how to determine the appropriate first aid procedure to utilize. Learn where the nearest fire extinguisher is and how to use it. - If students’ hair or clothing catch fire, smother the fire by dousing him/her in the shower. Fire/Emergency Exits Fire/Emergency Exits REMEMBER . . . When in doubt – DON’T ACT, ASK!!! • Exercise Caution and Good Judgment • Do not carry out a new or unfamiliar procedure until you have been fully trained & understand the precautions necessary for safety • DO NOT GUESS!!!! A Competent Teacher • Always Prepared – Know the procedure in the lab – Research and understand the known hazard – Plan for handling and control of toxic by-products – Familiar with the location and use of safety facilities – Observe proper conduct at all times – Alert to Unsafe conditions and actions Able Technicians/Lab In-charge • • • • Skilled Alert Familiar with First Aid Energetic/Enthusiastic • L -- Label everything clearly • A -- Appropriate containers in good condition • B -- Be neat and orderly • • • • • • S A F E T Y -- Store only what you will use -- Always wear protective clothing -- Food allowed in eating areas only -- Everything in its place on a shelf -- Time to inventory & organize -- Your safety is important Doing this safely is not merely the right way to work IT IS THE ONLY WAY. Thank you very much!!!