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Article · November 2012
3 authors, including:
Arati Petkar
College of Engineering, Pune
Dhiraj Takkekar
Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:
Critical Introspection of Urban Voids in Indian Cities View project
“Urban design guidelines and development control regulations for rapid transit systems (a case study of Aundh–Ravet B.R.T. Route, PCMC, Pune.)” View project
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*Mrs. Arati Siddharth Petkar, Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Pune,
India. Email:-asp.civil@coep.ac.in
**Dr. J.E.M Macwan, Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute
of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India. Email: - jemm@ced.svnit.ac.in
***Dhiraj L. Takkekar, M.Tech student, Town and Country planning, College of Engineering, Pune, India.
E-mail:- ar.dhirajtakkekar@gmail.com
Abstract—Urbanization is phenomenon which is observed all over the world weather nation is developed or
developing. Main cause being migration and increase in population, it has various impacts on the city structure.
One of the most significant impacts is seen on the housing sector as residential land use is predominant over
other land uses. This study analyses the urbanization trends in India, causes of urbanization and its impacts on
housing sector. Impact of rapid urbanization on housing sector is observed as dominant and need more attention
while preparing development plans, regional plans.
Keywords—Urbanization, rapid urbanization, fringe area, urban housing.
Urbanization and pace of urbanization has increased tremendously in last few decades. Cities are growing very
fast, in terms of population as well as size, spreading beyond municipal jurisdiction. More and more towns are
now getting converted in to cities. According to UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund Agency) in 2008
more than half of Worlds population lives in cities. Urbanization trend is seen all over the world but is becoming
most dominant in Asia. In India we have many metro cities as well as tier two cities which are growing very
rapidly because of migration from surrounding areas. Urbanization has many effects on the city structure.
Increasing population has to be accommodated in the city, so the problems of slums, unauthorized construction
and haphazard development of fringe areas are observed in most of the Indian cities.
This study analyses the causes of urbanization, trends of urbanization in developed nation as well as India
as developing nations. Further discusses advantages and disadvantages of urbanization and its impact on
housing sector which is observed in most of the Indian cities.
Urban area is an area which is dominated by the people engaged in non-agricultural activities. Urbanization is
the process, by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas,
forming cities.
Urbanization is an index of transformation from traditional rural economies to modern industrial one. It is
progressive concentration of population in urban unit. Quantification of urbanization is very difficult. It is a long
term process. Kingsley Davis has explained urbanization as process of switch from spread out pattern of human
settlements to one of concentration in urban centers. It is a finite process--- a cycle through which a nation
passes as they evolve from agrarian to industrial society [1]
The unique features of urbanization in India can be highlighted in the following manner:
 Lopsided and focused on Class-I Cities.
 Urbanization occurs without industrialization and strong economic base.
 Urbanization is mainly a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural - urban migration.
 Rapid urbanization leads to massive growth of slum followed by misery, poverty, unemployment,
exploitation, inequalities, degradation in the quality of urban life.
 Urbanization occurs primarily, not due to urban pull but due to rural push.
 Poor quality of rural-urban migration leads to poor quality of urbanization.
 Distress migration initiates urban decay. [1]
Urbanization - Causes and trends
The main reason for urbanization is migration. Internal rural to urban migration means people move from
rural areas to urban areas. In this process the number of people living in cities increases compared with the
number of people living in rural areas. Natural increase of urbanization can occur if the natural population
growth in the cities is higher than in the rural areas. This scenario, however, rarely occurs. A country is
considered to urbanize when over 50 per cent of its population live in the urban areas. People from rural areas
migrate to cities in search of employment, opportunity, better facilities and amenities, etc. This migration can be
of two types, first In-migration also termed as urban pull, this happens due to availability of employment in a
city. Second is Out-migration also termed as rural push, this happens due to lack of resources, opportunities in
rural areas causing people to migrate from rural areas to urban areas.
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