Name : Khan Mohd Absar Mohd Faseehuddin Roll No : 20DCO04 Batch : 02 Class : TE_CO Subject : CCL_LAB Exp_No : 05 Title : Case study on Fog Computing What is Fog Computing ? Fog computing is a decentralized computing infrastructure in which data, compute, storage and applications are located somewhere between the data source and the cloud. Like edge computing, fog computing brings the advantages and power of the cloud closer to where data is created and acted upon. Many people use the terms fog computing and edge computing interchangeably because both involve bringing intelligence and processing closer to where the data is created. This is often done to improve efficiency, though it might also be done for security and compliance reasons. The fog metaphor comes from the meteorological term for a cloud close to the ground, just as fog concentrates on the edge of the network. The term is often associated with Cisco; the company's product line manager, Ginny Nichols, is believed to have coined the term. Cisco Fog Computing is a registered name; fog computing is open to the community at large. How Fog computing infrastructure/architecture is set up? Fog architecture involves using services of end devices (switches, routers, multiplexers, etc) for computational, storage and processing purposes. Fog computing architecture consists of physical as well as logical elements of the network, software, and hardware to form a complete network of a large number of interconnecting devices. Fog node distribution (physical as well as geographical, along with the topology and protocols used form key architectural features of a fog architecture. Fog architecture involves the distribution of functions at different layers, the types and the number of protocols used, and the constraints imposed at various layers. Hierarchical Fog Computing Architecture The hierarchical fog architecture comprises of following three layers: 1>Terminal Layer The terminal layer is the basic layer in fog architecture, this layer includes devices like mobile phones, sensors, smart vehicles, readers, smartcards, etc. The devices which can sense and capture data are present in this layer. Devices are distributed across a number of locations separated far apart from each other. The layer mostly deals with data sensing and capturing. Devices from different platforms and different architectures are mainly found in this layer. The devices have the property of working in a heterogeneous environment, with other devices from separate technologies and separate modes of communication. 2> Fog Layer . Fog layer includes devices like routers, gateways, access points, base stations, speciﬁc fog servers, etc., called as Fog nodes. Fog nodes are located at the edge of a network. An edge can be a hop distance from the end device. The Fog nodes are situated in-between end devices and cloud data centers. Fog nodes can be static, e.g., located in a bus terminal or coffee shop, or they can be moving, e.g., fitted inside in a moving vehicle. Fog nodes ensure services to the end devices. Fog nodes can compute, transfer and store the data temporarily. Fog nodes and cloud data center connections are enabled by the IP core networks, providing interaction and cooperation with the cloud for enhancing processing and storage capabilities. 3> Cloud Layer This layer consists of devices that can provide large storage and machines (servers) with high performance. This layer performs computation analysis and stores data permanently, for back-up and permanent access to the users. This layer has high storage and powerful computing capabilities. Enormous data centers with high computing abilities form a cloud layer. The data centers provide all the basic characteristics of cloud computing to the users. The data centers are both scalable and provide compute resources on-demand basis. The cloud layer lies at the extreme end of the overall fog architecture. It acts as a back-up as well as provides permanent storage for data in a fog architecture. Usually, data that isn’t required at the user proximity is stored in a cloud layer. Layered Fog Computing Architecture. Working Principle of Fog Computing . Fog computing works by utilizing local devices termed fog nodes and edge devices. Raw data is captured by IoT beacons. This data is sent to a fog node close to the data source. This data is analyzed locally, filtered, and then sent to the cloud for long-term storage if necessary. Edge devices can be several different types of device, including: Routers Cameras Switches Embedded servers Controllers In reality, any device with computing, storage, and network connectivity can act as a fog node. When data is collected by IoT devices and edge computing resources, it is sent to the local node instead of the cloud. Utilizing fog nodes closer to the data source has the advantage of faster data processing when compared to sending requests back to data centers for analysis and action. In a large, distributed network, fog nodes would be placed in several key areas so that crucial information can be accessed and analyzed locally. The potential benefits of a decentralized computing structure are plentiful. However, a good example to illustrate the importance of rapid data analysis is alarm status. Many security systems rely on IoT technology to detect break-ins, theft, etc., and notify the authorities. If the alarm warning triggered by the IoT security system needs to be sent all the way to the data center to be analyzed and acted on, it could act too late, rendering the entire IoT security system more or less useless. Time-sensitive data like alarms, fault warnings, and device status greatly benefits from the speed of edge computing. This data needs to be analyzed and acted upon quickly in order to prevent major damage or loss. The cloud is great for decentralized access to resources and data, but cloud computing struggles to keep up with the speed and efficiency demanded by the influx of information provided by IoT technology. Application that uses Fog Computing. Here is Fog Computing Applications Across Various Industries: ● ● ● ● ● Fog Computing in Agriculture and Farming Fog Computing and the Healthcare Industry Fog Computing and Smart Cities Fog Computing in Education Fog Computing and Entertainment Conclusion. Fog Computing aims to reduce processing burden of cloud computing. Fog computing is bringing data processing, networking, storage and analytics closer to devices and applications that are working at the network’s edge. that’s why Fog Computing today’s trending technology mostly for IoT Devices.