PAST BOARD EXAM OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (SEC) - Materials which have the same composition/compression at any point. 2012 - Material has the same elastic properties in all directions. Resultant - Is Homogeneous the force which determines whether the body will be in Equilibrium or will have a varying state of motion Ductility - Property of a material enables it to under large permanent strains before Hooke’s Law failure. - The principle used in equations related - Ability of a material to deform/ to the deformation of axially loaded defuse in the plastic range without material. breaking. (2013 & 2016). - That the stress is proportional to the strain within the elastic region. Pre-Tensioning - It is described herein stressing high Poisson’s Ratio strength steel wires before concrete - The ratio of the lateral to the hardens. longitudinal strain is constant. Post-Tensioning Young’s Modulus - It is described herein stressing high - It is the constant of proportionality strength steel after the concrete has that defines the linear relationship been cast and has attained sufficient between stress and strain. strength. Column Relaxation - A structural member that has the - Is described herein loss of stress ratio of its unsupported height to its that takes place with the passage of least lateral dimension of not less than time as concrete is held at a constant 3 and is used primarily to support axial strain. load. Resilience / Modulus of Resilience Kinetic Friction - Ability of a material to absorb energy - Retarding force acting opposite of in the Elastic Range. (2016) body in motion. Proportional Limit - It is the term for the value beyond which the stress is no longer proportional to the strain. 2013 Toughness / Modulus of Toughness - Ability of a material to absorb energy in the plastic range or fracture point. (2016) Elasticity Reciprocal of Stiffness - Property of a material which makes it - Refers to flexibility of structure. return to its original dimension when the load is removed. Orthotropic - The material has the same composition Center of Rigidity at every point but the elastic may not - It is the point through which the be resultant of the resistance to the - The composite material applied lateral force acts. (2018) elastic properties in Eccentricity - It is the distance between the Center of Rigidity and Center of Mass. 2017 Soft Story - One in which the lateral stiffness is less than 70 percent of the stiffness of the story above is called _____. Story Drift - A Lateral Displacement of one level relative to the level above or below is called _____. (2021) 2018 “Liquefaction” is best described as .... - A sudden drop in the shear strength of a soil. Which refers to the Rigidity of a Structure? - Deflection - Reciprocal of Deflection - Product of Stiffness and Deflection - Reciprocal of Stiffness Center of Mass - It is the point through which the applied seismic force acts. the same different from in all directions. exhibits one that direction in the perpendicular direction. Focal Depth - Besides the Epicenter, it describes the location of the Earthquake. Actual Displacement or Seismic/Earthquake Waves - It is measured by a seismometer. Magnitude of Earthquake - It is measured by the Richter Scale 2021 Fatigue - The material is subjected to repeated cycles of stress or strain, it causes the structure to breakdown ultimately leading to fracture. Creep - When a material has to support a load for a long period of time, what causes it to continue to deform until a sudden fracture occurs. Plasticity - Condition of a material when it breaks down and deforms permanently even due to a slight increase in stress above the elastic limit. Resonance Plasticity - It occurs when a building period coincides with the earthquake period. - A property of a material where if the specimen be unloaded, it Torsion/Torsional Shear Stress will not return to its original - It occurs when the structure’s center length, rather it will retain a of mass does not coincide with its permanent elongation sometimes center of rigidity. called a permanent set. * Random objective Questions Yield stress Proportional limit The greatest - stress a a material is straight line proportionality between strain and stress * - The greatest stress a material is permanent elongation remaining specimen The max. stress a material is - The stress at which the specimen actually breaks. Stiffness Modulus of elasticity - great strain of the curve or the ratio of stress over the strain Brittleness Ductility - The ability of a material to in the plastic to undergo considerable plastic deformation under tensile load Implies the absence plastic deformation of any prior to failure. range without breakage or the ability before actual rupture. * The property of a material to withstand high stress without Slope of the straight line portion deform strain Rupture strength upon complete unloading of the - in capable of developing capable of developing without a - increase Ultimate stress Elastic limit - marked without an increase in stress capable of developing without deviation from The stress at which there occurs Malleability - The property enabling it of to a material undergo considerable plastic deformation under compressive load before actual rupture. Toughness - The Brittle material property of a material tensile strain up to the point of loads or shock loads. rupture The Tangent modulus property of enabling high without inducing a material impact a stress in Specific strength specific allowable stress. unit volume. Specific modulus The condition that renders the further increase in loads. Diagonal tension - Poisson's ratio Ratio of the Youngs modulus to the specific weight. Isotropic material - One having the same elastic properties in all directions at any The tensile stress that develops on the diagonals surface. one point of the body. Seismograph - Is a ground mounted – device The ratio of lateral strain to which axial strain for an unrestrained displacement of the ground with member. respect Change of volume per unit volume. Ductile material "e" measures to the a actual stationary reference point. Dilatation - to weight that is the weight per resisting - strength Ratio of the failure stress to the load resisting member unfit for - The ratio of the ultimate or tensile Failure - The rate of change of stress with respect to strain - Factor of safety - - loads excess of the elastic limit. - Is one having a relatively small enabling it to endure high-impact Resilience - - Intensity - It is the oldest useful measure of an earthquake’s strength which is based on the damage Is one having a relatively large and other observed effects on tensile strain up to the point of people, rupture features. buildings and other Dynamic - Forces generated by a body in motion.