Question 2 I intend to use only scholarly academic sources that are peer-reviewed journal articles, reports from organizations, or books. Each article or source used in this assignment will be relevant in terms of its coverage of the subject matter, publication date, and application in the topic. I will use internet sources relying heavily on the school digital library database and google scholar to access and select scholarly sources for use in this research. Initially, I will select as many sources as possible then settle on an appropriate number that is valid and matches my research area. I will limit my sources to the year 2010 and devote my search to more recent articles published from 2015 unless a source has vital information that needs inclusion to enrich the research. In conducting my search for sources, I will use terms related to the workplace environment and teamwork/collaboration. However, since this will yield thousands of articles, I will further limit my search to articles that deal with teamwork in the workplace. The keywords to use in the search will include "teamwork in the workplace", "collaboration in the workplace", and "group work in the organization". These terms will help in generating articles to help understand the topic generally. However, since my area of interest is to examine the current status of teamwork in the target organization, I will need articles on how to improve teamwork and collaboration in areas where there are notable gaps. Therefore, I will also use the following terms to generate appropriate articles: "Strategies to encourage collaboration in organizations”, “ways of improving teamwork in the workplace”, “how to enhance collaboration at work.” Hopefully, I will get adequate articles that will facilitate the completion of the literature review section. This research will use two approaches to exclude some sources. Firstly, the year of publication will be used to ensure only recent evidence is used to inform this research. The literature will rely on articles published between 2010-present with a specific focus on articles published from 2015. The second approach will be based on credibility: that is the relevance to the subject and scholarly standards. Question 3 The articles that are most connected to my topic are: Assbeihat, J.M., 2016. The Impact of Collaboration among Members on Team’s Performance. Management and Administrative Science Review. Kozlowski, S.W., 2018. Enhancing the effectiveness of workgroups and teams: a reflection. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), pp.205-212. Manca, C., Grijalvo, M., Palacios, M. and Kaulio, M., 2018. Collaborative workplaces for innovation in service companies: barriers and enablers for supporting new ways of working. Service Business, 12(3), pp.525-550. These three articles are essential since they focus on specific issues that are related to teamwork/collaboration in the workplace. The first article by Assbeihat (2016) examines the benefits of working in teams and how such workplace structures impact individual employees. This is a vital aspect of the research as it helps in understanding the importance of teamwork for the organization and the employees. In this aspect, issues such as employee satisfaction, increased productivity, enhanced organization performance, and employee loyalty are expected to be discussed. The second article by Kozlowski (2018) looks at ways of enhancing the effectiveness of workgroups and teams. After understanding what teamwork and workgroups are, and identifying their benefits to individuals and organizations, it is imperative to analyze ways of enhancing their effectiveness so that we can achieve more productivity and enhance team cohesion, as well as employee satisfaction. In this article, the author examines core team processes that enhance collaboration and make teams more successful. This literature is essential both in designing the questionnaire and in writing the literature review. Finally, the article by Manca et al. (2018) looks at the barriers and enablers that lead to the success or failure of collaborative workplaces. Having established the importance of teamwork and identified how to enhance teamwork, it is important to acknowledge factors that make teamwork a success and those that make it fail. This helps in advising the organization on what to do and not to do to enhance their collaborative culture. Question 4 Forte, A.M. and Flores, M.A., 2014. Teacher collaboration and professional development in the workplace: A study of Portuguese teachers. European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(1), pp.91-105. This article investigates collaboration in the workplace by focusing on teaching. It shows that time and working conditions are key factors that influence collaboration. The authors also show that lack of training in collaboration, and issues related to lack of incentives and motivation as well as interpersonal relationships affect teamwork. Sanyal, S. and Hisam, M.W., 2018. The impact of teamwork on work performance of employees: A study of faculty members in Dhofar University. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 20(3), pp.15-22. This article examines how teamwork is an important aspect of an organizational environment that promotes performance and productivity. The authors note that factors such as trust, leadership, as well as structure and performance evaluation, and rewards play a critical role in influencing teamwork and increasing team performance and productivity. Mohamed, Z.N.J.M.M.L., Newton, J.M. and McKenna, L., 2014. Belongingness in the workplace: a study of Malaysian nurses' experiences. International Nursing Review, 61(1), pp.124-130. This article examines the importance of belongingness in the workplace which is an important aspect in facilitating collaboration. The article argues that when team members feel disconnected they suffer from stress, anxiety, and lack of self-esteem which affects their productivity and relationship with others. Shuffler, M.L., Diazgranados, D., Maynard, M.T. and Salas, E., 2018. Developing, sustaining, and maximizing team effectiveness: An integrative, dynamic perspective of team development interventions. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), pp.688-724. This article argues that organizations invest in teams to improve their effectiveness and such investments are critical as they enable teams to minimize errors and maximize expertise. In effect, each investment targeting groups and individuals within it help the organization to advance its gains. Fapohunda, T.M., 2013. Towards effective team building in the workplace. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(4), pp.1-12. The article examines the essential components of building an effective team. The author focuses on aspects such as self-development, communication skills, leadership, and the ability to work in teams. The article discusses eight points that are essential for effective team development. Salas, E., Reyes, D.L. and McDaniel, S.H., 2018. The science of teamwork: Progress, reflections, and the road ahead. American Psychologist, 73(4), p.593. This article argues that teams in different organizations and professions are different based on the unique needs of the organization. However, teamwork-supportive organizational conditions and environments are essential in facilitating mechanisms to resolve confidence, ensure safety, mitigate error, learn, and improve performance. Therefore, teamwork competencies such as coordination, communication, and adaptability help to support team progress. Flores-Fillol, R., Iranzo, S. and Mane, F., 2017. Teamwork and delegation of decisions within the firm. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 52, pp.1-29. This article examines the impact of organizational structure on teamwork. The authors show that a structure that supports the delegation of decisions from top managers to employees enhances cooperation and teamwork. Kashyap, S. (2020). Importance of team collaboration at workplace. Retrieved from https://www.proofhub.com/articles/importance-team-collaboration-workplace This article examines the importance of team collaboration in the workplace. It gives several reasons why workers should collaborate and notes that teamwork provides an ideal environment for learning from each other, enhance participation, improve problem-solving, and productivity among others. McEwan, D., Ruissen, G.R., Eys, M.A., Zumbo, B.D. and Beauchamp, M.R., 2017. The effectiveness of teamwork training on teamwork behaviors and team performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled interventions. PloS one, 12(1), p.e0169604. This article explores the impact of teamwork intervention (team training) on performance. The authors note that teamwork training had a positive impact on both new and intact teams. They also note that the most effective training methods are didactic lectures/presentations, workshops, simulation training, and review-type activities conducted in situ. Haas, M., & Mortensen, M. (2016). The Secrets of Great Teamwork. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/06/the-secrets-of-great-teamwork In this article, the authors examine the factors that make teams a success. They note that modern workplace teams are diverse and collaboration is complex. However, successful teams have a shared mindset, compelling direction, supportive organizational structure, and a supportive context that include a reward system that reinforces performance. Question 5 The objective of the study The objective of this study is to explore the nature of teamwork in the target company and investigate ways that the companies have used to provoke collaboration as well as identify new strategies that the company can use to enhance team collaboration. Research Questions i. What is the nature of teamwork and collaboration in the organization? ii. What ways does the management use to encourage teamwork in its workplace? iii. What best strategies can you recommend to make collaboration more effective in this environment? According to Patrick White, one of the criteria of developing research questions is by using the research topic, aim, and objective. In formulating the research questions above, the objective of the study was used by asking relevant questions to meet the objectives. Question 10 Since the research will focus on two or one real organization, it might be necessary to request special permission from the management to have access to important and confidential reports or information that might be used by competitors. For example, in engaging with the employees to understand the nature and effects of collaboration in the workplace, selfadministered questionnaires will be sent to them using their workplace emails. These emails are essential since they are used in sharing vital information about the organization. As such they are targeted by hackers and competitors would want to have them gather internal information about the organization to enhance their competitiveness. To address this issue of a possible and potential leak of the organization's confidential information, all research participants will be required to create a one-time email account to share their completed surveys. Another ethical issue will be a possible disclosure of employees' views to the employer. As a standard practice, the research findings will be shared with the participating organization to help them understand how teamwork works in their company and the possible ways to improve. To understand this issue, data is collected from individuals employees. Some employees might give sensitive information that can trigger punishment from the employer if the latter finds out. Since the study does not want to implicate any participant, all employees will be protected from potential harm and any unforgeable risks. In mitigating this ethical issue, all participants will not fill any personal information except for their age and gender. This will ensure that any information will be confidential. Other ethical issues concern the conduct, analysis, and presentation of the study. In most cases, the research might experience a conflict of interest or have a personal opinion that affects the research design as he/she focuses on achieving a specific objective. In some instances, the organization under study might influence the research to portray it positively by falsifying information. In ensuring these authorship and research issues are addressed, I will strictly follow the research procedure described and formulate research questions independently such that they reflect the aim of the study. Question 11 Having identified the broad research area, the first step will be to review the existing literature to have a better understanding of the study. This will be followed by writing an introduction and literature review draft which will entail the research questions, justification of the study, and the scope of the study. A draft for the first two chapters will be ready by the 7th week. Having identified the gaps in the literature, I will write the research approach and method and develop a tool for collecting the data. By the 10th week, a pilot study will be conducted to test the effectiveness of the questionnaire and make any needed revisions. Data analysis will be the next step which will take approximately four weeks. The result chapter will be written and revised accordingly. This will lead to the writing of the discussion and conclusion chapters to mark the end of the project in mid-September. The last two weeks will be essential for proofreading and editing and eventual submission. While working on this study, the possible risk includes delayed response from the study participants which might affect the schedule. Another possible risk is when the response rate is too low to warrant a feasible number to conduct quantitative research which might force an end to the study. Another potential risk is the lack of funds to conduct the research in case the estimated cost increases significantly. If the respondent delays the response, this will not have a significant impact since the study has been evenly distributed which means that we can afford an extra week or two by squeezing the schedule without affecting the quality. For example at the end of writing the draft, there are two weeks for proofreading and submission. This can be reduced to one without affecting the quality. If the response rate is too low and the gathered information is insufficient, the study will be postponed or canceled. This will be relayed to the professor for further advice. In such a case, we can opt for a second study based on the existing literature. In an event that the funds are insufficient, there is a plan where we can get an extra 20% of the current budget. References Assbeihat, J.M., 2016. The Impact of Collaboration among Members on Team’s Performance. Management and Administrative Science Review. Fapohunda, T.M., 2013. Towards effective team building in the workplace. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(4), pp.1-12. Flores-Fillol, R., Iranzo, S. and Mane, F., 2017. Teamwork and delegation of decisions within the firm. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 52, pp.1-29. Forte, A.M. and Flores, M.A., 2014. Teacher collaboration and professional development in the workplace: A study of Portuguese teachers. European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(1), pp.91-105. Haas, M., & Mortensen, M. (2016). The Secrets of Great Teamwork. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2016/06/the-secrets-of-great-teamwork Kashyap, S. (2020). Importance of team collaboration at workplace. Retrieved from https://www.proofhub.com/articles/importance-team-collaboration-workplace Kozlowski, S.W., 2018. Enhancing the effectiveness of workgroups and teams: a reflection. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), pp.205-212. Manca, C., Grijalvo, M., Palacios, M. and Kaulio, M., 2018. Collaborative workplaces for innovation in service companies: barriers and enablers for supporting new ways of working. Service Business, 12(3), pp.525-550. McEwan, D., Ruissen, G.R., Eys, M.A., Zumbo, B.D. and Beauchamp, M.R., 2017. The effectiveness of teamwork training on teamwork behaviors and team performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled interventions. PloS one, 12(1), p.e0169604. Mohamed, Z.N.J.M.M.L., Newton, J.M. and McKenna, L., 2014. Belongingness in the workplace: a study of Malaysian nurses' experiences. International Nursing Review, 61(1), pp.124-130. Salas, E., Reyes, D.L. and McDaniel, S.H., 2018. The science of teamwork: Progress, reflections, and the road ahead. American Psychologist, 73(4), p.593. Sanyal, S. and Hisam, M.W., 2018. The impact of teamwork on work performance of employees: A study of faculty members in Dhofar University. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 20(3), pp.15-22. Shuffler, M.L., Diazgranados, D., Maynard, M.T. and Salas, E., 2018. Developing, sustaining, and maximizing team effectiveness: An integrative, dynamic perspective of team development interventions. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), pp.688724.