MIXED SESSION PERIODIZATION AS A NEW APPROACH FOR STRENGTH, POWER, FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE, AND BODY COMPOSITION ENHANCEMENT IN AGING ADULTS Downloaded from http://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr by BhDMf5ePHKav1zEoum1tQfN4a+kJLhEZgbsIHo4XMi0hCywCX1AWnYQp/IlQrHD3i3D0OdRyi7TvSFl4Cf3VC1y0abggQZXdgGj2MwlZLeI= on 03/22/2022 EWERTTON DE SOUZA BEZERRA,1,2 LUCAS BET DA ROSA ORSSATTO,1 BRUNO MONTEIRO JEFFREY M. WILLARDSON,3 ROBERTO SIMÃO,4 AND ANTÔNIO RENATO PEREIRA MORO1 DE MOURA,1 1 Biomechanics Laboratory, Sports Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Floriano´polis, Brazil; 2Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil; 3Health and Human Performance Department, Montana State University Billings, Billings, Montana; and 4Physical Education and Sports School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ABSTRACT Berzerra, ES, Orssatto, LBR, Moura, BM, Willardson, JM, Simão, R, and Moro, ARP. Mixed session periodization as a new approach for strength, power, functional performance, and body composition enhancement in aging adults. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2795–2806, 2018—The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mixed session periodization (MSP) vs. traditional periodization (TP) on strength, power, functional performance, and body composition in aging adults. Forty-five healthy aging adults were randomly divided into 3 groups: MSP, TP, and Control. Subjects were tested before the intervention for baseline values (week 4) and then repeated testing during (week 7 and week 11), as well as after the intervention (week 15). Subjects were tested on the following performance measures: 5 repetition maximum (5RM) leg press and seated leg curl; 12RM cable chest press; countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump; up-and-down stairs; timed up and go (TUG); and body composition. All comparisons were analyzed through a mixed-model analysis with repeated measures (group 3 time) and with Bonferroni post hoc tests (p # 0.05). After the intervention, no significant differences were observed between experimental groups; however, the MSP and TP groups demonstrated significantly greater values vs. the Control group in the 5RM leg press (p , 0.01), seated leg curl (p , 0.01), and 12RM cable chest press (p , 0.001). For CMJ performance, the MSP and TP groups significantly increased at week 7 (p , 0.001). The MSP and TP groups significantly improved functional task performance, including Address correspondence to Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, esbezerra@ gmail.com. 32(10)/2795–2806 Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Ó 2018 National Strength and Conditioning Association TUG (p , 0.001), upstairs (p , 0.01), and downstairs (p , 0.01) after training. Furthermore, body composition for the lower limbs significantly changed for the MSP and TP groups, with increased fat-free mass (p , 0.001) and decreased fat mass (p , 0.01) after training. In conclusion, the MSP and TP models used in this study were equally effective in developing strength, power, and functional performance while increasing fat-free mass and improving body fat percentage in aging adults. However, it should be considered that the MSP protocol did result in greater effect sizes in lower-limb strength, lower-limb fat-free mass, up-and-down stair, and TUG performance. KEY WORDS training model, resistance training, muscle strength, muscle hypertrophy INTRODUCTION P eriodization in the context of resistance training (RT) was introduced to reduce the risk of overtraining and to achieve peak neuromuscular performance by targeting a specific competition or match (19). The most popular periodization models applied in RT are defined as linear and nonlinear. In the linear model, the beginning of the program is characterized by higher training volume and lower intensity, with an overall pattern of decreasing volume and increasing intensity over time. Conversely, in the nonlinear model, volume and intensity fluctuate daily or weekly, without a distinguishable pattern (17). In young subjects (18–30 years), studies have assessed changes in strength parameters between these periodization models, with some studies favoring the nonlinear model in trained subjects (28,29), trained male judo athletes (15), and untrained women (25). However, other studies reported no VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 10 | OCTOBER 2018 | 2795 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Mixed Session Periodization for Aging Adults differences between models in trained men (6,18). A recent systematic review and meta-analysis that included 510 subjects, revealed no differences between linear and nonlinear models for upper-body strength (bench press overall effect size [ES], 0.89) and lower-body strength (squat overall ES, 0.36) (17). In older adults, few studies have compared the effects of progressive RT vs. different periodization models (9,10,22,35). However, in these studies, the periodization program was based on variations training intensity and volume, without manipulations in training velocity (9,10,22,35). Strohacker et al. (40) suggested that further research is necessary to understand the effectiveness of different (e.g., flexible nonlinear) periodization models in the older adult population. Possibly, a periodization model that mixes hypertrophic, strength, and power methods within the same training session would elicit superior stress and consequently greater adaptations in neuromuscular characteristics in older adults. A flexible nonlinear periodized model is characterized by within-session variations in load intensity and movement velocity. Different load intensities and movement velocities are characterized by distinct motor unit recruitment patterns (12,13), with fast contractions resulting in greater motor unit recruitment and distinct fiber recruitment patterns vs. slow contractions (12,13,16). Within-session manipulation of such training variables has been discussed in the context of allostasis, a concept which suggests that organisms maintain physiological stability by anticipating “needs” before they arise, and by mobilizing a diverse breadth of neurological, biological, and immunological accommodations to counter emerging challenges (23). There is a strong growing body of evidence supporting RT is a very effective method to counteract aging-associated decreases in strength (33), power, functional performance (7), and lean mass (34) in untrained subjects. The use of slow-tomoderate velocities and moderate load intensities (60–80% of one repetition maximum [1RM]) are recommended for improvements in strength and hypertrophy in older untrained adults (37). However, this type of training is not recommended as efficient for power and functional task improvements (42,43). Thus, it might also be beneficial to include exercises during which the concentric phase is performed as fast as possible, in conjunction with low-to-moderate load intensities (20–80% of 1RM) (7,37). In older adults, an optimal periodization model has not been determined to facilitate concomitant gains in muscle mass and strength, body composition enhancement, and functional task performance. These are important priorities for older adults to preserve independence in performing daily living activities (7) and reduce the risk of falls (20). To the author’s knowledge, there is no information about the effects of targeting different neuromuscular characteristics (i.e., power, strength, hypertrophy, and localized muscular endurance) within the same session (i.e., mixed session periodization [MSP]) for older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of MSP vs. traditional 2796 the periodization (TP) on strength, power, functional performance, and body composition in aging adults. Our hypothesis was that the MSP would promote superior improvements in outcome measures, when compared with a TP model. METHODS Experimental Approach to the Problem This study was a randomized controlled trial. Healthy untrained aging adults were randomly divided into 3 groups: MSP, TP, and Control. The study included 4 phases: phase 1, subjects completed 3 familiarization sessions to ensure that the training exercises could be performed with proper technique. Phase 2, baseline test and retest assessments were performed to ensure data reproducibility. Tests were performed on 2 nonconsecutive days with at least 48 hours of rest (i.e., days 1 and 3, power and functional tests; days 2 and 4, strength tests). The tests were performed in random order (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump; up-and-down stairs and timed up and go [TUG]; and 5RM leg press, seated leg curl, and 12RM cable chest press). Body composition was measured using dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and at posttraining (week 15). Phase 3, the experimental groups performed 9 weeks (3 sessions per week) of either TP or MSP training. Phase 4, post-testing was conducted using the same order as baseline and 48 hours after the last training session. All subjects were evaluated at the same time of day on assessment days. The experimental design is displayed in Figure 1. Subjects Subjects completed specific health history and physical activity questionnaires and met the following inclusion criteria: aged 55 years and older, physically independent, free of cardiac disease, free from orthopedic dysfunction, and not performing regular RT during the 6 months preceding the beginning of the study. Forty-five men and women were randomly divided (simple randomization, stratified by sex) into 3 groups: MSP, TP, and Control (CG). A total of 30 older adults (men = 17 and women = 13, aged 56–76 years 6 SD) completed the experimental protocol (Table 1). Eight were aged older than 65 years (2 in the CG; 3 in the TP group, and 3 in the MSP group). The dropout rate was 33%; 4 subjects withdrew claiming muscular discomfort during the RT regime; 4 did not meet the established minimum session attendance (required frequency .85%); 2 subjects in the Control group withdrew claiming muscular discomfort during baseline tests; and 5 subjects did not answer our call to return for post-testing. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects after a detailed description of study procedures. All procedures performed in this study were approved by the Federal University of Santa Catarina Ethics Committee and followed the ethical guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki. Procedures Five repetition maximum (5RM) testing was performed for the leg press and seated leg curl, and 12RM testing for the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | www.nsca.com Figure 1. Study design. RT = resistance training. cable chest press in random order, and using the same equipment as during training (Righetto, São Paulo, Brazil). These specific RM protocols were selected to maximize the transfer of training, based on the loading prescribed across the intervention. To minimize error during RM testing, the following strategies were adopted: (a) standardized instructions concerning the testing procedures and exercise technique were given to subjects; and (b) verbal encouragement was provided during the testing. The RM for each exercise was determined in no more than 3 attempts, with a rest interval of 5 minutes between attempts, and 15-minute rest between exercises. For a repetition to be considered successful, full range of motion had to be evident, defined as 90–08 knee and elbow extension. The heaviest RM test load achieved at each time point (i.e., baseline, week 7, week 11, and week 15) was used in the statistical analysis. Muscular Power. The vertical jump test was performed on a piezoelectric force platform (Kistler Quattro Jump 9290AD, Winterthur, Switzerland), with a sampling frequency of 500 Hz. The jump execution was controlled by Kistler software (Quattro Jump, type 2822a1-1). Each subject performed 2 attempts of each jump (i.e., squat jump and CMJ) in random order, with 30-second rest between jumps. The peak power output (PPO) and jump height (JH) were calculated from the vertical ground reaction force of the highest jump, according to Ache-Dias et al. (1). In the CMJ protocol, subjects started from a static standing position and were instructed to perform a countermovement (descent phase until approximately 708 knee flexion), followed by a rapid and vigorous extension of the lower-limb joints (ascent phase). During the jump flight, subjects were asked to sustain their trunk as vertically as possible, with hands on their hips. Subjects were instructed to TABLE 1. Baseline anthropometric and body composition characteristics.*† General Body mass (kg) Height (m) Age (y) Body composition LLF (%) LLF (kg) LLFF (kg) LL BMD (g$cm22) Femur BMD (g$cm22) Lumbar BMD (g$cm22) Control (n = 8) (M = 3, W = 5) TP (n = 11) (M = 7, W = 4) MSP (n = 11) (M = 7, W = 4) 64.51 6 5.38 1.63 6 0.70 63.00 6 6.96 74.62 6 15.95 1.66 6 0.09 65.00 6 4.21 80.98 6 15.72 1.70 6 0.08 64.27 6 5.33 36.3 7.21 12.44 1.20 0.91 1.08 6 6 6 6 6 6 8.15 2.40 1.82z 0.10 0.13 0.16 29.32 6.47 15.55 1.30 0.91 1.19 6 6 6 6 6 6 9.01 1.35 4.24 0.16 0.13 0.18 31.87 7.96 17.03 1.30 0.97 1.20 6 6 6 6 6 6 8.93 3.55 3.12 0.76 0.94 0.12 *TP = traditional periodization; MSP = mixed session periodization; LLF = lower-limb fat mass; LLFF = lower-limb fat-free mass; LL = lower limb; BMD = bone mineral density. †Mean 6 SD. zStatistical difference from MSP group (p , 0.05). VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 10 | OCTOBER 2018 | 2797 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Mixed Session Periodization for Aging Adults jump as high as possible. For the squat jump, subjects were given the same instructions, with the exception that subjects started each jump from an initial squat position (knees flexed 708), so that the stretch-shorten cycle did not contribute to the JH. Body Composition. Anthropometric assessments included height and body mass; and body composition assessments included fat mass, fat-free mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lower limbs. Height was measured using a stadiometer (Alturexata, Minas Gerais, Brazil) and body mass with a digital balance scale (Welmy W200, São Paulo, Brazil) measured to the nearest 0.1 cm and 0.1 kg, respectively. The fat mass, fat-free mass, and BMD measurements of the lower limbs were performed with DXA Lunar Prodigy Advance (GE Medical Lunar System, Madison, WI, USA). The procedures and positioning were standardized for all subjects, and all measurements were performed by the same experienced technician, according to the International Society for Clinical Densitometry official position (adult and pediatric) recommendations. Specifically, the seated position required subjects to have their back straight and feet flat on the floor about shoulder width apart, arms crossed at chest height, with hip and knee flexion of approximately 908 (39). Caloric Intake. Caloric intake was evaluated during the intervention period through a 24-hour food recall, which was collected through a personal interview. The evaluator recorded the food descriptions, and the size and volume of the portions consumed. Three assessments were made throughout the intervention period, specifically at baseline, mid-training (week 11), and post-training (week 16). The caloric intake was assessed by the same researcher at each time point (14). Macronutrients (i.e., carbohydrate, protein, and fat) were analyzed as a percentage of total calories consumed. Training Procedures. At the commencement of each training session, subjects performed a general warm-up routine (Table 2). Following, the TP and MSP groups performed the leg press and seated leg curl in all training sessions, with the order of exercises alternated. The TP intervention was completed in blocks of training (mesocycles), where muscular characteristics (hypertrophy, maximal strength, and power) were developed separately. Conversely, the MSP targeted different neuromuscular characteristics within the same session (Table 3). The load when targeting hypertrophy and maximum strength characteristics was increased by 2.5–5.0 kg for the next session when subjects were able to perform more repetitions than prescribed (Table 3). Immediately after completion of all exercises, the Omni Scale was used to assess rating of perceived exertion (26). After the performance of leg press and seated leg curl, a further complementary upper-body program was performed, consisting of 1 set of 12 repetitions (to repetition Functional Tests. All the functional performance tests were performed 15 minutes after the muscular power assessments. The order of the TUG and up-and-down stair tests were randomized. Subjects completed 3 trials with 30-second rest between attempts and 2-minute rest between tests. All functional tests were recorded using a digital camera at a sampling frequency of 100 Hz (GoPro Hero 4 Silver; GoPro Inc., San Mateo, CA, USA) and timed by an evaluator who was blinded to the subject’s group assignment with specialized software (Kinovea, France). The trial with the lowest completion time was used for further analysis (39). Up-and-down stair performance was tested according to da Silva et al. (39). Subjects started up a flight of 8 steps (15-cm high and 30-cm deep). After a brief rest (30 seconds), subjects were asked to perform TABLE 2. Experimental groups’ resistance training warm-up routine.*† the downstairs test by descending the same flight of 8 steps. Training Rest Cadence Timing commenced for the Phase duration Repetitions (min) (C-I-E) up-and-down stair test when 1 4–6 wk Body mobility: 3 3 10 1 1:0:1 the subject raised their heel Prone plank: 3 3 1500 off the ground to climb or Back extension: 3 3 1500 descend the first step and stop2 8–10 wk Body mobility: 3 3 10 1 1:0:1 ped when both feet were Abdominal lateral: 3 3 20 Four-point kneeling: 3 3 15 (by side) placed on the eighth step. 3 12–14 wk Body mobility: 3 3 10 (by side) 1 1:0:1 They were instructed to comAbdominal crunch on the Swiss ball: 3 3 20 plete the task as fast as possible Back extension on the Swiss ball: 3 3 15 and to use the handrail. *C = concentric; I = isometric; E = eccentric. The TUG test measured the †Body mobility—get up off the bench (height = 50 cm) with wooden stick (length: 150 cm time taken to raise from and body mass: 600 g) on the thigh while raising the stick above the head (extension of hip a seated position, walk forward and knee associated with shoulder flexion). 2.44 m, and return to a seated position as quickly as possible. 2798 the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research TABLE 3. Experimental groups lower-limb training program.* Groups TP Training phase Training duration 1 4–6 wk 2 8–10 wk 3 12–14 wk All sessions RT methods Repetitions range Rest (min) Cadence (C:I:E) Hypertrophy Strength Power Hypertrophy Strength Power 3 3 10–12 3 3 3–5 3 3 4–6 1 3 10–12 1 3 3–5 1 3 4–6 2 2:0:2 1:0:2 AFAP:0:2 2:0:2 1:0:2 AFAP:0:2 | www.nsca.com sets 3 repetitions. Relative dynamic strength was calculated by dividing the absolute dynamic strength (kg) by the free fat mass of the lower limbs (kg). Statistical Analyses All values were reported as mean 6 SD. The normality of the distribution and homoscedasticity for outcome measures *RT = resistance training; TP = traditional periodization; AFAP = as fast as possible; MSP were tested using the Shapiro– = mixed session periodization. Wilk, and Mauchly and Levene criterion, respectively. To check the random stratification of subjects, a 1-way failure) of the cable chest press, seated row, biceps curl, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess betweentriceps extension, with a 1-minute rest between sets. On group differences in baseline measures. Main training effects average, the workout duration was ;37 minutes for both within and between groups were assessed by a repeatedgroups. During all sessions, subjects were directly supervised measures ANOVA (time [baseline vs. week 15] 3 3 groups (i.e., trainers with Bachelor Degree in Physical Education) [Control vs. TP vs. MSP]). The time course of effects within to help ensure consistent and safe performance. Volume and between groups were assessed by a mixed-model ANOVA (time [baseline vs. week 7 vs. week 11 vs. week 15] 3 2 load was calculated using the equation: load lifted 3 MSP 2 Figure 2. Absolute dynamic strength (ADS) and relative dynamic strength (RDS) change for leg press (A and C) and seated leg curl (B and D) at post-training (week 15) to Control, traditional periodization (TP), and mixed session periodization (MSP). Statistical difference for @MSP group and &TP group (p , 0.01). LPress = leg press; SLC = seated leg curl. VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 10 | OCTOBER 2018 | 2799 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Mixed Session Periodization for Aging Adults groups [TP vs. MSP]). When a significant F value was achieved, Bonferroni’s post hoc tests were used to determine the pair-wise differences between the different time points and between groups. Test–retest reliability was determined by calculating intraclass correlation, coefficients with a 2-tailed t-test used to determine whether a significant difference existed between the 2 tests for a variable at baseline. For rating of perceived exertion, a Friedman test was applied to analyze the difference between experimental groups. Sample size was calculated using GPOWER software (version 3.0.1) with a target ES = 0.8, alpha = 0.05, power = 0.8, resulting in an estimated sample of 12 subjects per group. An alpha level of p # 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. All statistical procedures were completed using SPSS 21 for Windows (Statistical Package for the Social Science; IBM, Chicago, IL, USA). Effect sizes were calculated and determined in accordance with Rhea (38), based on the Control group and pre-training measures. The ES magnitude was defined as trivial (,0.50), small (0.50–1.25), moderate (21.26 to 1.9), and large (.2.0). RESULTS Muscular Strength The leg press and seated leg curl (5RM) showed a group 3 time interaction for absolute dynamic strength (F = 25.08; p , 0.0001; h2p = 0.65 and F = 29.81; p , 0.0001; h2p = 0.70), respectively. The TP and MSP groups demonstrated significantly greater leg press (TP: p , 0.003, ES = 2.56, large and MSP, p , 0.0001, ES = 3.38, large) and seated leg curl strength (TP: p , 0.028, ES = 1.53, moderate and MSP, p , 0.001, ES = 2.27, large) vs. the Control group at posttraining (week 15), although there were no significant differences between experimental groups for both exercises (p = 1.00 and 0.76; Figure 2A, C), respectively. Furthermore, there were group 3 time interactions for relative dynamic strength on the leg press and seated leg curl (F = 5.21; p , 0.012; h2p = 0.28 and F = 6.41; p , 0.005; h2p = 0.32), respectively. Both experimental groups showed significantly greater leg press performance vs. the Control group (TP, p = 0.017 and MSP, p = 0.019). However, only the MSP group demonstrated significantly greater performance in the seated leg curl vs. the Control group (p = 0.0001), whereas the TP was not significantly different vs. the Control group (p = 0.089). The ESs were moderate and large for the TP (1.94) and MSP (2.11) for the leg press; and small (TP = 1.01) to moderate (MSP = 1.34) for the seated leg curl (Figure 2B, D), respectively. There was a group 3 time interaction in the cable chest press (F = 49.78; p = 0.0001; h2p = 0.787). Both experimental groups showed a significant increase after training when compared with baseline for cable chest press strength (p , 0.001 for both), whereas the Control group significantly decreased (p = 0.048) (Table 4). TABLE 4. Changes in muscular strength across the experimental period.*† RM test (Kg) Leg press—5RM Period Baseline Week 7 Week 11 Week 15 Seated leg curl—5RM Baseline Week 7 Week 11 Week 15 Cable chest press—12RM Baseline Week 15 Control (n = 8) 71.5 6 16.62z 5.27 6 0.93 — — — — 71.5 6 19.71z¶ 5.69 6 0.93z¶ 61.25 6 13.20 4.54 6 0.54 — — — — 61.87 6 16.69z¶ 4.88 6 0.81z 35.00 6 4.75 30.37 6 3.70§z¶ A R A R A R A R A R A R A R A R A A TP (n = 11) 96.72 6.47 99.55 6.69 115.73 7.60 122.27 8.00 72.54 4.80 77.55 5.07 82.55 5.31 87.54 5.70 39.27 60.18 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 28.66 2.86 35.64 3.41 32.85§║ 3.54§║ 36.60§║# 3.75§║# 20.91 1.80 23.17§ 1.82§ 22.41§║ 1.97§║ 23.07§║# 2.26§║# 10.32 16.28§ MSP (n = 11) 108.81 6.74 114.82 7.11 126.82 7.49 138.54 8.21 75.63 4.76 83.91 5.25 91.18 5.47 99.81 5.97 37.90 52.10 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 25.11 2.05 26.96 2.17 25.07§║ 1.99§║ 28.41§║# 2.32§║# 17.98 1.66 18.41§ 1.79§ 19.40§║ 1.92§║ 18.06§║# 1.89§║# 10.68 18.08§ *RM = repetition maximum; TP = traditional periodization; MSP = mixed session periodization; A = absolute; R = relative. †Mean 6 SD. zStatistical difference for MSP group (p , 0.05). §Statistical difference from baseline. ║Statistical difference from week 7. ¶Statistical difference from TP group. #Statistical difference from week 11. 2800 the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | www.nsca.com Figure 3. Time course of changes in absolute dynamic leg press (A) and seated leg curl (B) to traditional periodization (dashed lines) and mixed session periodization (continuous lines) groups. Statistical difference for (p , 0.01) *statistical difference from baseline; #statistical difference from week 7. The time course for absolute dynamic strength presented significant increases for the TP and MSP with no significant differences between groups (F = 75.25; p = 0.0001; h2p = 0.791 and F = 38.49; p = 0.0001; h2p = 0.658), respectively. Leg press dynamic strength increased from week 7 to week 11 (p , 0.0001) and through week 15 (p , 0.0001), although no difference occurred over the initial phase (baseline vs. 7 weeks, p = 0.15), Figure 3A. Absolute dynamic strength for the seated leg curl showed gradual increases with training (baseline , week 7 , week 11 , week 15, p , 0.001), Figure 3B. Muscular Power Jump height and PPO derived from the squat jump and CMJ are presented in Table 5. No statistical differences were observed between experimental groups in jump measures (p . 0.05). Furthermore, the ES for JH in the TP group was small for squat jump (0.99) and CMJ (0.93); and small (0.77) and trivial (=0.41) in the MSP group for the squat jump and CMJ, respectively. The PPO ES was small for the TP (squat jump = 0.56 and CMJ = 0.66) and trivial for the MSP (squat jump = 0.45 and CMJ = 0.42). TABLE 5. Changes in muscular power across the experimental period.*† Power test Countermovement jump Period Baseline Week 7 Week 11 Week 15 Squat jump Baseline Week 7 Week 11 Week 15 Control (n = 8) PPO Height PPO Height PPO Height PPO Height PPO Height PPO Height PPO Height PPO Height 27.92 6 5.03 22.84 6 5.32 — — — — 26.80 6 5.30 23.54 6 5.00 26.27 6 4.52 30.89 6 5.35 — — — — 26.13 6 4.67 30.73 6 5.48 TP (n = 11) 30.77 25.78 30.10 32.62 30.97 27.42 31.26 27.83 28.31 35.23 27.39 34.06 28.38 36.48 28.77 36.20 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6.25 6.79 5.37 7.98z 6.91 8.56§ 6.26 7.10§ 6.20 6.51 6.16 7.50 6.43 7.21 6.16 7.37 MSP (n = 11) 29.52 25.14 30.74 34.61 31.54 26.08 30.07 25.04 27.76 33.52 28.73 36.81 29.14 36.55 27.27 34.99 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7.40 6.50 7.97 9.06z 8.82 8.28§ 8.38 8.02§ 7.85 7.34 8.06 9.79 7.77 8.63 8.64 8.03 *TP = traditional periodization; MSP = mixed session periodization; PPO = peak power output. †Mean 6 SD. zStatistical difference from baseline. §Statistical difference from week 7; (p , 0.05). VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 10 | OCTOBER 2018 | 2801 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Mixed Session Periodization for Aging Adults TABLE 6. Changes in functional performance across the experimental period.*† Group Period Upstairs Downstairs Timed up and go Control TP MSP Control TP MSP Control TP MSP Control TP MSP Baseline 2.95 6 0.34 3.22 6 0.47 3.47 6 0.56 — 3.27 6 0.67 3.47 6 0.51 — 3.12 6 0.57 3.36 6 0.66 3.17 6 0.30 3.02 6 0.56z§ 3.18 6 0.53z§ 3.05 6 0.38 2.99 6 0.69 3.24 6 0.60 — 2.98 6 0.73 3.17 6 0.64 — 2.92 6 0.77 3.07 6 0.60 3.14 6 0.37 2.78 6 0.74z§ 2.89 6 0.58z§ 5.50 6 0.44 5.45 6 0.78 5.53 6 0.77 — 5.46 6 0.94 5.53 6 0.80 — 5.38 6 0.58 5.48 6 0.74 5.61 6 0.44 5.28 6 0.92§ 5.15 6 0.84z§ Week 7 Week 11 Week 15 *TP = traditional periodization; MSP = mixed session periodization. †Mean 6 SD. zStatistical difference from baseline. §Statistical difference from week 7. The time course showed significant increases in CMJ height (F = 17.38; p = 0.001; h2p = 0.46); week 7 was significantly greater than baseline (p = 0.001), week 11 (p = 0.001), and week 15 (p = 0.004). Peak power output did not present significant differences (p . 0.05). Functional Performance Group mean 6 SD for functional tasks are presented in Table 6. A main effect for time (F = 4.51, p = 0.01; h2p = 0.172) was observed for the TUG (week 15 , week 7, p = 0.002) for upstairs (F = 8.43, p = 0.0001; h2p = 0.30), in which week 15 was significantly lower than week 7 (p = 0.001) and baseline (p = 0.001), as well as, for downstairs (F = 8.43, p = 0.0001; h2p = 0.30), in which week 15 was significantly lower than week 11 (p = 0.013), week 7 (p = 0.01), and baseline (p = 0.01). However, no interactions or between-group differences were observed (p . 0.05). Baseline to week 15 ES for TP and MSP were 0.21 (trivial) and 0.50 (small) for TUG, 0.43 (trivial) and 0.53 (small) for upstair, and 0.30 (trivial) and 0.58 (small) for downstair tests, respectively. Body Composition Lower-limb fat-free mass presented a group 3 time interaction (F = 5.76; p = 0.0001; h2p = 0.30). Both experimental groups were significantly greater after the intervention vs. baseline (TP, p = 0.007, ES = 0.096 and MSP, p = 0.0001, ES = 0.26). The MSP group displayed significantly greater lower-limb fat-free mass vs. the Control group (p = 0.009, ES = 2.81, large), however, similar to the TP group (p = 0.139), Figure 4. Body composition variables: lower-limb fat-free mass (A), lower-limb fat mass (B and C), lower-limb BMD (D), femur BMD (E), and column BMD (F) for all groups (Control, traditional periodization [TP], and mixed session periodization [MSP]). Mean 6 SD. *Statistical difference from baseline. BMD = bone mineral density. 2802 the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | www.nsca.com TABLE 7. Macronutrients of food ingesting across the experimental period.*† Group Control TP MSP Control TP MSP Control TP MSP Time Group Time 3 group Period Carbohydrate Protein Fat Baseline 51.90 6 6.49 47.91 6 11.23 55.25 6 8.21 52.68 6 8.73 55.46 6 8.73 57.34 6 7.51 50.55 6 9.55 53.19 6 9.52 50.51 6 9.87 p = 0.14; h2p = 0.080 p = 0.69; h2p = 0.031 p = 0.26; h2p = 0.106 21.88 6 5.90 20.61 6 3.74 17.08 6 4.20 21.35 6 5.46 18.43 6 6.23 18.45 6 3.31 23.68 6 6.70 18.74 6 7.94 19.44 6 1.49 p = 0.52; h2p = 0.028 p = 0.38; h2p = 0.084 p = 0.20; h2p = 0.131 26.73 6 6.09 32.43 6 9.82 28.22 6 7.42 26.45 6 6.42 26.46 6 6.84 24.78 6 6.21 26.28 6 4.74 28.47 6 8.88 30.37 6 10.11 p = 0.20; h2p = 0.067 p = 0.48; h2p = 0.071 p = 0.67; h2p = 0.034 Middle Post *TP = traditional periodization; MSP = mixed session periodization. †Mean 6 SD (percentage of daily ingest). with a moderate ES (1.80) (Figure 4C). Furthermore, the body fat percentage of the lower limb significantly decreased for all groups after the intervention (F = 11.05; p = 0.002; h2p = 0.30) vs. baseline (p = 0.002) (Figure 4A). However, the ES for the experimental groups was small for both groups (TP, 0.85 and MSP, 0.66), in comparison with the Control group. Lower-limb fat mass did not present a group 3 time interaction (F = 0.76; p = 0.47; h2p = 0.053), time main effect (F = 1.04; p = 0.32; h2p = 0.37), or group main effect (F = 1.06; p = 0.40; h2p = 0.073), respectively (Figure 4B). Similarly, the ES was trivial (0.38) for both experimental groups in comparison with the Control group. Bone mineral density was not significantly different at any time point between groups for the spine, femur, and lower limb (p . 0.05) (Figure 4D–F), respectively. The ES for spine was trivial for both groups (TP = 20.26 and MSP = 0.14); equal ES was observed for the femur (TP = 20.55 and MSP = 0.12) and the lower limb (TP = 0.04 and MSP = 0.025). Training Volume Load There were no differences between experimental groups in the absolute volume load (F = 2.30, p = 0.14; h2p = 0.103), TP (4,271 6 1,339 kg), and MSP (5,007 6 891 kg). Rating of perceived exertion was significantly different between experimental groups (TP = 9 and MSP = 8, p , 0.001). Caloric Intake There were no significant differences between experimental groups at any time point (baseline, mid-training, and posttraining) for all macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat; Table 7), respectively. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients Intraclass correlation coefficients for Control, TP, and MSP were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.98 for leg press 5RM; 0.96, 0.95, and 0.97 for seated leg curl 5RM; 0.89, 0.98, and 0.98 for squat jump; 0.99, 0.98, and 0.98 for CMJ, 0.89, 0.85, and 0.90 for upstairs; 0.90, 0.89, and 0.95 for downstairs; and 0.90, 0.95, and 0.95 for TUG, respectively. Baseline The MSP group displayed significantly greater lower-limb fat-free mass vs. the Control group (F = 4.90; p = 0.015; h2 = 0.30) (Table 1). Leg press absolute dynamic strength was significantly greater between experimental groups (TP and MSP) vs. the Control group (F = 4.41; p = 0.02; h2 = 0.25). All other variables did not present statistically significant differences between groups (p . 0.05). DISCUSSION To our knowledge, this was the first study to evaluate the effect of MSP vs. TP on strength, power, body composition, and functional performance in older adults. The key finding was that both periodization models (TP and MSP) induced similarly significant dynamic strength increases over the training intervention (ES overall; TP = 2.0, MSP = 2.8), along with similarly significant improvements in functional task performance (TUG, upstairs, and downstairs), and lower-limb fat-free mass. Therefore, our original hypothesis was rejected because the MSP model did not elicit superior adaptions vs. the TP model after 9 weeks of RT in older adults. The present increases in muscular strength were consistent with multiple studies that aimed to investigate the efficacy of various training strategies in older adults (5,33). Recent studies have investigated different types of periodization to find more efficient strategies to develop muscular strength in aging subjects (9,10,35). In the current study, both the MSP and TP models resulted in increased leg press VOLUME 32 | NUMBER 10 | OCTOBER 2018 | 2803 Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. Mixed Session Periodization for Aging Adults and seated leg curl 5RM, with no differences between groups. However, after week 15, the MSP group ES was higher than the TP group for the 5RM leg press (3.38 and 2.27) and seated leg curl (2.56 and 1.53), although the difference was not statistically significant between groups. This effect was consistent with the initial study hypothesis that the variation of stimuli within a single session would elicit superior adaptations. Different training volumes, intensities, and contraction velocities are characterized by distinct motor unit and muscle fiber recruitment patterns (12,13,16). Previous studies that compared different periodization models for older persons did not find differences (9,35). However, these studies only varied training volume and intensity across the intervention period; conversely, this study also included variations in contraction velocity (i.e., power training set). In one study conducted by Conlon et al. (9), block and nonlinear periodization models were examined over a 22week training period in older adults (65–81 years). The authors reported similar increases in leg press dynamic strength (i.e., 1RM) for both periodization models. Prestes et al. (35) also reported similar increases in leg press strength for linear and nonlinear periodization models (repetition range from 12–14 to 4–6 during the intervention). It is important to note that higher ESs were achieved for both the MSP (2.11) and TP (1.94) groups in this study (over 27 sessions) vs. the study by Conlon et al. (9) for the leg press in nonperiodized (1.13), block (1.46), and nonlinear (0.96) periodization models (over 60 sessions); and also higher ESs vs. the study by Prestes et al. (35) for the leg press in linear (0.96) and nonlinear (1.17) periodization models (32 sessions). The strategy for the MSP group of this study of adding 1 set of high velocity concentric actions within session may have been the reason for the between-group percentage differences observed, specifically in the first phase of the intervention (at week 7) in CMJ height (TP, 26.5%, ES = 1.00 vs. MSP, 37%, ES = 1.45). Concentric actions performed with the intent to contract as fast as possible have been demonstrated to be more effective for power improvements in the elderly population compared with slow contraction methods (7,42). These adaptations can be explained by increases in maximum force, rate of force development (24), the contraction velocity (2), and rate of electromyography rise (11). Previous studies reported improvements in power (37 6 29%) in the elderly after the inclusion of high-velocity contractions (30–50% of 1RM) as part (20%) of a traditional heavy RT program (21) or training only with fast concentric contractions (7,32,36). Caserotti et al. (8), Ramı́rez-Campillo et al. (36), and Pereira et al. (32) all reported CMJ height increases of ;18% (ES = 1.1), 23% (ES = 0.63), and 40% after 24, 36, and 36 sessions, respectively. With relevance to older adults, the improvement in power performance might be associated with maintenance of fast-twitch muscle fibers, and an increase in maximal fiber contraction velocity, less- 2804 the ening the risk of disability, rate of falls, and injuries in older adults (8,20). Regarding functional capacity, it was expected that the MSP group would experience better improvements vs. the TP group at week 7, due to the inclusion of power training (i.e., 1 set per session). Power increases can result in greater improvements of functional capacity (7) vs. traditional slow contraction RT (42). However, both periodization models produced similar improvements in functional task performance by week 15, with a slightly percentage advantage for the MSP group (downstairs, TP = 7% and MSP = 10%; upstairs, TP = 6.5% and MSP = 8.5%; and TUG, TP = 3% and MSP = 7%). It was hypothesized that functional task performance needs a longer time to demonstrate a transfer of training effect in the present population, although strength and power had increased by week 7 for both experimental groups. Recently, Moura et al. (30) reported similar improvements in muscular strength (normalized to body mass) and functional task performance after 12 weeks of nonlinear periodization. In the current data set, the improvements in strength observed for TP and MSP at week 15 might be one of the reasons for the concomitant improvements in functional task performance. This study was in agreement with others that reported increases in functional task performance after RT, without differences between periodization models (i.e., undulating vs. TP (35) or nonperiodized vs. block vs. undulating (8)). It is important to highlight that all functional tests were filmed and then later analyzed offline, which was different from the data collection method of the aforementioned studies. This technique decreases measurement errors and increases data accuracy (39). Different from muscular strength, increases in lower-limb fat-free mass after RT have not been consistent among studies in the aging population (34,41). In this study, improvements were observed for both the MSP and TP groups occurring after week 15 only. These results were in agreement with the results of the study by Lixandrão et al. (27) that examined the time course of muscle hypertrophy after progressive linear RT in older adults and found significant increases in vastus lateralis cross-sectional area ;7 to 8% (ES = 0.37) (assessed by ultrasonography) after 20 sessions (10 weeks). Conversely, some studies reported no increase of muscle mass or fat-free mass, despite strength improvements in aging subjects (4,31,41). With the limited capacity for hypertrophy in the elderly population (3), strategies that successfully result in increases in fat-free mass should be developed. In addition, in our current data set, a slightly greater ES for MSP compared with TP was in accordance with the initial hypothesis that mixing different patterns of motor unit recruitment, and metabolic and mechanical stresses within the same session would result in greater adaptations. The current periodization models produced a gain of 2.6% (ES = 0.09) and 4.8% (ES = 0.26) in lower-limb fat-free mass for the TP and MSP groups, respectively. TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited. the TM Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research It is important to acknowledge limitations in this study design, including the short training period (9 weeks) may not be long enough to observe differences in the effectiveness of periodization models, because the study subjects were untrained in the beginning of the intervention, which increases their responsiveness to any type of volumematched RT. In addition, the dropouts (n = 15) reduced the sample size and statistical power; it could be argued that between-group statistical differences were possibly undetected because of type II error. However, the calculation of ESs provided additional information for between-group comparisons. In addition, this study used valid methods of evaluation, and test-retest measurements showed high reproducibility, resulting in reliable data. In summary, the MSP and TP models resulted in increased strength, power, functional task performance, and lower-limb fat-free mass in aging adults. The MSP group showed higher ESs for leg press and seated leg curl 5RM, lower-limb fat-free mass, up-and-down stairs; and TUG after the training periods vs. the TP group over 9 weeks of RT in aging adults. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This result of this research has valuable applications for RT prescription in older adults. First, both the suggested periodization models can be used to counteract the effects of advancing age in muscular strength, power, functional task performance, and lower-limb fat-free mass. The difference observed in the magnitude of ESs between models suggests that the MSP model could be an alternative for better results. 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