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Health promotion

Health promotion : ‫تعزيز الصحة‬
Pg 14 : Approaches to health education : ‫مناهج التثقيف الصحي‬
: describe how to give the peoples information to educate them .
Its have 3 tyes :
1- Individual approach : its one to one health education .
2- Group approach : its when a health educator or medical professional teach
a group of peoples about topic in a health it can happen in a ( medical
setting or community setting or school or work pace )
3- Mass audience approach : it Aims to teach a big group of peoples to
improve them health it happen on ( television, radio, newspapers, social
media, and other online sources ) .
Example : The Ministry of Health and Prevention use the internet and social
media to educate residents across the UAE about many health topics.
WHO : world health origination
Pg 18 >
The pillars of health education – ‫اركان تعزيز الصحة‬
1- Good governance : the way that a country or city is controlled by the
people ho run it ( crate a laws that help to improve the heath ) .
2- Health cites : creating a space on town and cites that allow peoples to have
healthier lifestyle (includes organising events that encourage healthy
behaviours such as fun runs and marathons ) .
3- Health literacy : is about increasing peoples knowledge about health ,
health education is linked with health literacy ( an example of health
literacy: writing a massages in a cigarette packets about the diseases can
cause it cigarettes like sugar disease and hearts diseases )
Pg 21 >
The Ottawa charter for health promotion – ‫ميثاق أوتاوا لتعزيز الصحة‬
The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was created by the WHO as a
framework for health promotion.
Three basics strategies for health promotion :
1- Advocate : it can help overcome major barriers health ( social and
environmental issues ) .
2- Enable - Health promotion enables everyone to have fair and equal access
to resources and information that impact health.
3- Mediate : health promotion should include group of sectors not just the
health sector ( schools , university , work place and others ) .
Pg 25-26 >
- Client – centered approach : working by educator with the individual to
find out what needs to change and to make a plan on how to do it .
- Socio-environmental approach : This approach is aimed at a large groups
of people , It may involve changing regulations to create a healthy
environment ( have a cover place in your school so you can do some
sports away from the sun , no sugary foods or drinks will be sold in
schools .
- Educational approach : This approach is aimed at groups of people. It
uses health education to increase people’s knowledge and
understanding of health issues .
- Preventative medical approach : It focuses on preventing diseases
before they happen and treating existing conditions to avoid further
diseases .
- Ways to stop a disease or injury before it happens include :
1- education about a healthy lifestyle .
2- vaccinations against diseases .
3- policies and laws to keep people safe .
pg 30 >
This is an example of a health promotion intervention organized by the UAE
government aimed at everyone in the UAE.
This campaign aimed to show people the health risks form eating too many
sugary foods and drinks. Adverts, like the video you have just watched,
were shown on TV, the internet, and social media. Posters, like the one
above, were shown in hospitals, malls, billboards, and community parks.
Pg 31 – 32 – 34
Breast cancer awareness October is breast cancer aware month , 40 OLD
children and the aim is to reduce childhood obesity
PG 44 :
professionals use two important indicators to measure population health: disease prevalence
and disease incidence. Disease prevalence is the number of individuals within a population who have a
particular disease at a given time. Disease incidence is the number of new cases of a particular disease
within a population in a given time period. Prevalence tells us how widespread the disease is, while
incidence tells us about the risk of contracting a particular disease.
PG 56 – 56 ):
It is best to choose whole meal or wholegrain foods from this food group. Wholemeal and
wholegrain foods are generally brown in colour. They have more fibre which can help to
move food through the digestive system and prevents constipation. They can also help to
keep a healthy weight because they keep you full for longer.
The cereals and their products food group include the following foods: Bread ~ Rice ~ Pasta ~ Potatoes
Meat, eggs and legumes
This food group provides the body with protein and iron. Protein is required for the growth
and repair of muscle and tissues. Iron is required to help carry oxygen in the blood. Low-fat
and lean meat should be chosen rather than meat with fat. It is important to eat some fish
and non-meat sources of protein regularly including beans, peas and lentils.
Aim for at least two portions of fish a week, including a portion of oily fish. Oily fish includes
salmon, sardines and fresh tuna. These provide the body with omega-3 which helps to lower
blood cholesterol, which will reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Foods from this food group include the following .
Red meat – beef and lamb ~ Poultry – chicken or turkey ~ Seafood – tuna, salmon,
shrimps, lobster, hammour ~ Eggs ~ Nuts and seeds – pine nuts, almonds, hazelnuts,
peanuts, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds ~ Legumes – beans, lentils,
Milk and dairy product :
These foods are grouped together because they are rich in calcium and protein. Calcium is a
mineral which is important for strong bones and has a role in muscle contractions.
Dietary guidelines recommend that people choose low-fat dairy products. This is because
the full-fat versions have high levels of saturated fat (unhealthy fat). Some dairy foods have
vitamin D added to them in the production process.This is called fortification.
Pg 58 – 59 ):
Fats and oils
There are different types of fats that can be found in food. Each type of fat has different
The functions of fat in the body are to insulate the body and protect vital organs. Fat
provides the biggest number of calories per gram of food, compared to the calories that are
provided from other nutrients .
Saturated fats: This fat is not good for health and should be limited (have small amounts) in
the diet. It is found in foods like biscuits, cakes, chocolate, desserts and the fat that is found
on meat .
Trans fat should also be limited in the diet. These fats can increase the low-density
lipoprotein (‘bad’ cholesterol) and reduce the amount of high-density lipoprotein (‘good’
cholesterol) in the blood.
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are ‘good fats’. They can be found in sunflower
oil, olive oil and rapeseed oil. Oily fish such as salmon and mackerel are good sources of
polyunsaturated fat .
Other foods
Other foods are foods that are high in saturated fat, sugar and salt. These foods include
biscuits, cakes, pastries, desserts, deep-fried food, sweets, chocolate and sugary drinks.
These foods contain a high number of calories and have little nutritional benefit. Foods in
this group should not be eaten every day.
Nutrients : ‫المغذيات‬
are components in food – ‫هي مكونات الغذاء‬
Your body needs nutrients to: ‫يحتاج جسمك للغذاء من أجل‬
give you energy. ‫تعطيك الطاقة‬
help you to stay healthy and fight infection. ‫تساعدك في البقاء صحيا و محاربة العدوى‬
help your brain to function properly. ‫تساعد العقل في عمل وظائفه بشكل صحيح‬
help your body with growth, development and repair. ‫يساعد جسمك على النمو و التطور‬
Nutrients are divided into 2 categories; macronutrients and micronutrients.
‫ المغذيات الكبيرة المقدار و المغذيات الدقيقة‬: ‫تنقسم المغذيات الى نوعين‬
Macronutrients give the body energy in the form of calories. Macronutrients are
needed in large amounts, and they are needed for survival. The three macronutrients are
carbohydrates, protein and fat. Some foods have more of one macronutrient and less of
‫ نحتاج المغذيات كبيرة األقدار بشكل كبير‬، ‫ تعطي الجسم طاقة على شكل سعرات حرارية‬: ‫المغذيات كبيرة األقدار‬
‫ بعض األطعمة‬، ‫ الكهيبرودات و البروتينات و الدهون‬: ‫ الثالث مغذيات كبيرة األقدار هم‬، ‫و نحتاجها للبقاء على قيد الحياة‬
. ‫تمتلك أكثر من مغذي‬
Body needs macronutrient in large amounts – ‫الجسم يحتاج المغذيات كبيرة القدار بشكل كبير‬
Carbohydrates provide you with most of your energy. Foods that are rich in
carbohydrates mostly come from the cereals and their products food group, fruit and
vegetables are also a good source of carbohydrates .
‫ و أيضا الخضروات والفواكه‬، ‫ تأتي األطعمة الغنيه بالكربوهيدات بالحبوب ومنتجداتها‬، ‫ تعطيك معظم طاقتك‬: ‫الكربوهيدات‬
. ‫مصد جيد للكروهيدات‬
There are two types of carbohydrates; simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. It is
best to choose more complex carbohydrates as they contain more fibre.
‫ من األفضل اختيار الكربوهيدات المعقدة ألنها تحتوي‬، ‫ الكربوهيدات البسيطة و الكربوهيدات المعقدة‬: ‫هناك نوعان من الكربوهيدات‬
. ‫على ألياف اكثر‬
Protein is mainly responsible for the growth and repair of all cells within the body, and it helps
to regulate body processes. It also gives the body energy. Foods that are rich in protein
generally come from the meat, eggs and legumes food group. Milk and dairy products are also a
good source of protein.
، ‫ و يعطي الجسم طاقة‬، ‫البروتين مسؤول عن نمو الجسم و إصالح جميع خاليا الجسم و يساعد في تنظيم عمليات الجسم‬
. ‫ الحليب و منتجات االلبان هي مصد جيد للبروتينات‬، ‫البروتينات توجد في اللحوم و البيض و البقوليات‬
Fat : the function of fats in the body. Fat provides more energy per gram than any other
macronutrient, which is why we do not need to eat as much not all fats are bad for the body .
‫وظيفة الدهون في الجسم توفر طاقه اكبر لكل جرام من أي مغذيات كبيرة أخرى ولهاذا السبب ال نحتاج إلى تناول الكثير منها‬
. ‫ ليست كل الدهون ضارة‬،
Micronutrients are nutrients which the body needs in small amounts compared to
macronutrients. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals found in food and drinks. Even
though we only need them in small amounts, they are very important for health.
‫ هي فيتامينات و معادن توجد في‬، ‫ هي مغذيات يحتاجها الجسم بكميات قليلة مقارنة بالمغذيات كبيرة المقدار‬: ‫المغذيات ا لدقيقة‬
. ‫ نحن نحتاجها بشكل قليل لكنها مهمة للصحة‬، ‫األطعمة و المشروبات‬
Vitamin A Protects against infection by keeping skin and tissues healthy.
Found in eggs, cheese, liver, green leafy vegetables (such as kale and spinach) and
orangecoloured fruits and vegetables (such as carrots and sweet potato).
‫ يوجد في البيض و الجبن و الكبد و‬، ‫ يحمي الجسم من العدوى عن طريق الحفاظ على صحة الجلد و األنسجة‬: ‫فيتمامين أي‬
‫الخضروات ذات األوراق الخضراء مثل ( اللفت و السبانخ ) و الخضروات و الفواكه ذات اللون البرقالي مثل البرتقال و‬
. ‫البطاط الحلوة‬
The relationship between immune and nutrion is protein .
the main source of vitamin D is from sunlight. – ‫المصدر الرئيسي لفيتامين د هو ضوء الشمس‬
Around 90% of the UAE population do not have enough vitamin D in their bodies .
. ‫ في المئة من سكان اإلمارات ليس لديهم فيتماين د كافي في أجسادهم‬90 ‫حوالي‬
Dietary sources of vitamin D include eggs and oily fish (such as salmon).
. ‫تشمل المصادر الغذائيه ليفتامين د هي البيض و األسماك الزيتية مثل السلمون‬
Calories are energy : The number of calories in your food is a measurement of the amount of
energy in that food. Your body uses calories (energy) from food for walking, thinking, breathing
and other important functions , Women need to eat approximately 2000 calories per day, while
men need to eat approximately 2500 calories per day to maintain their weight and to do
everyday tasks. However, the exact daily calorie requirements can change depending on the
following .
‫ يستخدم جسدنا السعرات‬، ‫ عدد السعرات الحرارية في الطعام هو مقياس للطاقة في ذلك الوقت‬، ‫السعرات الحرارية هي طاقة‬
‫ سعرة حرارية يوميا بينما يحتاج‬2000 ‫ النساء يحتاجون‬، ‫الحرارية من الطعام للمشي و التفكير و التنفس و مهمات أخرى‬
‫ يمكن أن تغير السعرات الحرارية يوميا اعتمادا‬، ‫ سعرة حرارية للحفاظ على وزنهم والقيام بالهمات اليومية‬2500 ‫الرجل‬
: ‫على‬
Age - Gender- Physic activity level
‫العمر – الجسم – النشاط البدني‬
You can find out how many calories are in most food by looking at the nutrition
facts label on the package.
Calculating energy needs
The amount of energy and nutrients needed depend on: age – generally,
Age : people need fewer calories as they get older - ‫يحتاج الناس الى سعرات حرارية اقل‬
‫مع تقدمهم في العمر‬
body size a person who is muscular will need more calories
. ‫الشخص الضخم يحتاج الى مزيد من السعرات الحرارية‬
gender – women need fewer calories compared to men.
. ‫الجنس – يحتاج النساء سعرات حرارية اقل من الرجال‬
activity level – the more energy burned doing an activity, the more calories that are needed.
‫مستوى النشاط – كلما زادت الطاقة المحروقة أثناء القيام بنشاط ما زادت السعرات الحرارية المطلوبة‬
What is energy balance?
Energy balance is the difference between energy input (the number of calories
that you put into your body) and energy output (or the number of calories you
burn each day).
‫ الفرق بين عدد السعرات التي تدخلها الجسم وعدد السعرات الحرارية التي تحرقها كل‬: ‫توازن الطاقة هو‬
. ‫يوم‬
The equation for energy balance is as follows:
Between 6075% of the calories your body uses up each day is in order to simply
survive and carry out processes such as digestion.
‫ من السعرات الحرارية التي يستخدمها جسدك كل يوم من اجل البقاء على الحياة مثل‬%6075 ‫ما بين‬
. ‫عمليات الهضم‬
The energy balance result will belong to one of three categories; perfect energy
balance, positive energy balance, or negative energy balance.
‫ توازن‬، ‫ توازن طاقة إيجابي‬، ‫ توازن طاقة مثالي‬: ‫ستنتمي نتيجة توازن الطاقة إلى احدى الفئات الثالث‬
. ‫طاقة سلبي‬
Perfect energy balance If the result is zero, this means the person’s body is in
perfect energy balance. In this state of energy balance, the person will not gain or
lose weight, as the amount of calories they consume is the same as the amount of
calories they expend .
‫ فهاذا يعني انه جسم هذا االنسان في حاله توازن‬، ‫ اذا كانت النتيجة تساوي صفر‬: ‫توازن الطاقة المثالي‬
‫ الن عدد السعرات الحرارية التي يكتسبها تساوي عدد‬، ‫ لن يكتسب او يخسر االنسان وزن‬، ‫مثالي للطاقة‬
. ‫السعرات التي يفقدها‬
Positive energy balance If the result is a positive number, this is a positive energy
balance. People with a positive energy balance are consuming more calories than
they are burning. In this state, they will gain weight over time.
‫ فهاذا يعني أن الجسم في حالة توازن طاقة إيجابي‬، ‫ اذا كانت النتيجة رقم موجب‬: ‫توازن الطاقة اإليجابي‬
. ‫ سوف يزيد وزنهم بمرور الوقت‬، ‫أي انهم يكتسبون سعرات حرارية أكثر من حرق سعرات الحرارية‬
Negative energy balance : If the result is a negative number, this is a negative
energy balance. People with a negative energy balance are consuming less
calories than they are burning, in this state they will lose weight over time .
‫ اذا كانت النتيجة رقم سلبي فهاذا يعني أن الجسد في حالة توازن طاقة سلبي أي أنهم‬: ‫توازن الطاقة السلبي‬
. ‫ وهذا سوف ينقص وزنه بمرور الوقت‬، ‫يستهلكون طاقة أقل ممن يحرقونه‬
Fruit and vegetables
A portion of fruit or vegetables is approximately the amount you can fit in one
hand. However, you can have bigger portions of fruit and vegetables as they are
mostly low in calories. For juices and smoothies, the portion size is 150ml (a small
‫ حصة الفواكه و الخضروات هي الكمية التي يمكنك وضعها ف يد وحده ومع ذلك‬: ‫فوكه و خضروات‬
‫ بالنسبة للعصائر حجم‬، ‫يمكنك تناول كميات اكبر من الخضروات و الفواكه النها في الغالب قليلة السعرات‬
. ) ‫ مل ( كوب صغير‬150 ‫الحصة‬
Cereals and their products
A serving of breakfast cereal is 30g, which is around three handfuls. For cooked
rice and cooked pasta, a serving size can fit into two hands cupped together. This
is around 180g each. Two rice cakes count as a serving for a snack. If you are
having more than one food from this group in a meal then portion sizes should be
smaller, for example when having rice and bread with meat.
‫ بالنسبة للمعكرونة و‬، ‫ حفنات‬3 ‫ قراما أي ما يقارب‬30 ‫ تبلغ حصة حبوب اإلفطار‬: ‫الحبوب و منتجاتها‬
‫ يتم احتساب اثنين من كعكات‬، ‫ قراما‬180 ‫ يمكن أن يتناسب حجم الحصه يدين معا أي ما يعادل‬، ‫األرز‬
‫ اذا كنت تتناول اكثر من طعام واحد في هذه المجموعة فيجب أن تكون الحصص‬، ‫األرز كوجبات خفيفة‬
. ‫أقل‬
in Japan, the model is called the Spinning Top. In the United Kingdom the model
used is called The Eatwell Guide.
How to carry out basic health assessments of the vital signs ?
1- Body temperature :
A person’s body temperature can be taken from many parts of the body including
the mouth, ear canals, on the skin, or under the arm.
Digital thermometers are most commonly used .
For a healthy adult, the normal body temperature is between 36.5°C and 37.2°C.
The environment can influence a person's body temperature, especially if they
are in a very cold or very hot place.
2- Pulse rate – ‫معدل النبض‬
As the heart beats, forcing blood through the arteries, you can feel beats
pressing on the arteries that are located close to the surface of the skin.
‫ يدفع الدم عبر الشرايين يمكنك أن تشعر بالضغط على الشرايين القريبة من‬، ‫عنما ينبض القلب‬
. ‫سطح الجلد‬
easiest to take the pulse rate at the wrist, but you can also find a pulse on
the side of the neck and on the inside of the elbow.
. ‫ وداخل الكوع‬، ‫ وأيضا تستطيع إيجاد نبض على جانب العنق‬، ‫من السهل قياس معدل النبض عند الرسغ‬
To check a person's pulse, simply use the first and second fingertips. Press firmly
but gently on the arteries until you feel a pulse and count the pulse for 60
seconds .
‫ استخدم اصبعك األول و الثاني اضغط بقوة ولكن برفق على الشرايين حتى‬، ‫للتأكد من أن الشخص ينبض‬
. ‫ ثانية‬60 ‫تشعر بالنبض وعد النبض لمدة‬
A normal pulse for a healthy adult at rest is 60-100 beats per minute. A person's
pulse rate can be influenced by medical conditions. It is important to take this into
consideration when measuring pulse .
‫ من الممكن أن يتأثر ذلك ب ظروف‬، ‫ نبض في الدقيقة‬100-60 ‫النبض الطبيعي لألشخاص األصحاء هو‬
. ‫ من المهم أخذ ذلك باالعتبار عند قياس النبض‬، ‫صحية‬
resting heart rate suggests that the heart is working more efficiently , resting
heart rate may be closer to 40 beats per minute.
‫ قد يكون معدل ضربات القلب‬، ‫يشير معدل ضربات القلب أن القلب يعمل بشكل أفضل في أوقات الراحه‬
. ‫ نبضه في الدقيقة‬40
Respiration rate: ‫معدل التنفس‬
This is the number of breaths a person takes per minute.
. ‫هذا عدد األنفاس الذي يتنفسها الشخص في الدقيقة‬
Measuring the respiration rate is done when a person is at rest, by counting the
number of breaths they take for one minute. Every time the chest rises is
considered one breath.
‫ عن طريق حساب عدد األنفاس التي يتنفسها لمدة دقيقة‬، ‫قياس التنفس يحدث عندا يكون الشخص في راحة‬
. ‫ كل مره يرتفع فيها الصدر يعتبر نفسا‬، ‫واحدة‬
the normal respiration rate at rest is 12-20 breaths per minute.
. ‫ نفس في الدقيقة‬20-12 ‫معدل التنفس الطبيعي عند الراحة هو‬
Blood pressure :
the force of blood pushing against artery walls - ‫قوة ضغط الدم على جدران الشرايين‬
Two numbers recorded when measuring blood pressur - ‫يتم تسجيل رقمين عند قياس ضغط الدم‬
The higher number is systolic pressure. This is the pressure inside the artery
when the heart contracts and pumps blood around the body
‫ هذا هو الضغط داخل الشريان عندا ينقبض القلب و يضخ الدم في‬، ‫الرقم األعلى هو الضغط االنقباضي‬
. ‫جميع أنحاء الجسم‬
The lower number is diastolic pressure. This is the pressure inside the artery when
the heart is at rest and filling with blood.
. ‫ هذا هو الضغط داخل الشريان عندا يكون القلب في حالة راحه و يمتأل بالدم‬، ‫الرقم األقل هو االنبساطي‬
A normal blood pressure reading for a systolic pressure of 120 and a diastolic
pressure of 80. This is written as 120/80mm Hg (millimetres of mercury).
80/120 ‫ وتكتب‬، 80 ‫ و للضغط االنبساطي‬120 ‫ضغط الدم الطبيعي للضغط االنقباضي‬
A person whose blood pressure reading is greater than 140/90mm Hg is have
hypertension (high blood pressure).
. ‫ يعاني من ارتفاع ضغط الدم‬90/140 ‫الشخص الذي تتم قراءة ضغط دمه‬
Causes of cardiac :
The most common cause of cardiac arrest is a heart attack.
. ‫السبب األكثر شيوعا للسكتة القلبية هو النوبة القلبية‬
Other cauese for cardiac arrest is :
Ventricular fibrillation : this is when the heart is not beating at a normal rhythm ‫الرجفان البطني‬
Ventricular tachycardia : this when the heart beating very fast : ‫تسرع القلب البطني‬
Coronary heart diseese : ‫يتم حظر امداد القلب بالدم او انقطاعه‬
Pacemaker failure – a pacemaker is a small device that is fitted to someone whose
heart does not beat properly on its own : ‫فشل جهاز تنظيم ضربات القلب‬
Respitatory arrest : breathing stops due to lung faliure : ‫توقف التنفس‬
Choking : ‫االختناق‬
Drowning : ‫الغرق‬
Electrocution : ‫الصعق بالكهرباء‬
Hypothermia – dangerously low body temperature ‫انخفاض خطير في درجة حرارة الجسم‬
Dramatic drop in blood pressure : ‫انخفاض حاد في ضغط الدم‬
Chain of survival– ‫سلسلة البقاء على قيد الحياة‬
The chain of survival the actions that need to be taken to treat adults who have
gone into cardiac arrest outside of a hospital setting. There are six steps:
call the local emergency number (998).
Perform high-quality CPR immediately – ‫قم باجراء اإلنعاش القلبي الرئوي‬
Complete rapid defibrillation as soon as it is available - ‫إزالة الرجفان السريع‬
Provide basic and advanced emergency medical services - ‫تقديم خدمات الطوارئ‬
Provide advanced life support and post-cardiac arrest care
‫تقديم الدعم والرعاية بعد السكتة‬
6- Provide rehabilitation treatment and support during the recovery period.
. ‫تقديم العالج التأهيلي و الدعم خالل فترة التعافي‬
The first three steps of the chain can involve you ‫ خطوات‬3 ‫يمكنك القيام ب اول‬
he last three steps would normally be completed in a hospital – ‫الثالث خطوات األخيرة في المستشفى‬
It can also make the recovery process much quicker– ‫يمكن أن تجعل عملية االسترداد اسرع‬
Check for normal breathing
If the person is unresponsive , Look for movement of the chest area for at least 5 seconds,
but no more than 10 seconds , or if they are not breathing or gasping, they will need CPR.
‫ اذا كان ال يتنفس او‬، ‫ ثوان‬10 ‫ ثوان ولكن ليس أكثر من‬5 ‫ ابحث عن تحرك الصدر ع األقل‬، ‫اذا كان الشخص ال يستجيب‬
. ‫يلهث فسوف يحتاج الى انعاش رئوي‬
‫? ‪What to do if you are not sure‬‬
‫‪If you think someone needs CPR but you are not sure, give them CPR. You may save that‬‬
‫‪person’s life. High-quality CPR is not likely to cause harm if the person is not in cardiac arrest.‬‬
‫صا ما يحتاج إلى اإلنعاش القلبي الرئوي ولكنك غير متأكد ‪ ،‬فامنحه اإلنعاش القلبي‬
‫اذا كنت تعتقد أن شخ ً‬
‫الرئوي‪ .‬يمكنك إنقاذ حياة ذلك الشخص‪ .‬من غير المحتمل أن يسبب اإلنعاش القلبي الرئوي عالي الجودة‬
‫ضررا إذا لم يكن الشخص مصابًا بالسكتة القلبية‪.‬‬