Uploaded by Jared Lederman

Dynamic Planet Cheat Sheet

Freshwater is water that has less than 0.2% of dissolved salts. Comparatively, freshwater is relatively scarce, comprising less
than 3% of the Earth’s water supply. In addition, the majority of that, about 2%, is frozen away in glaciers and icecaps. Fresh
water can also be found in lakes, rivers, streams, atmospheric vapour, and groundwater. Only about 0.5% of the Earth’s water
is available for human and animal use, as atmospheric vapour, salt water, and icecaps are unavailable for use. The
availability of freshwater is also limited by population, competition, and pollution. Weathering is the breaking down of
material, Erosion is the transportation of material, Deposition is the placing of material. Streams: "Stream" is a general
name for all moving water. Stream Profile: In the case for large rivers, a delta or mouth of the river at sea level is a "Base
Level", in fact, sea level itself is considered the "Ultimate Base Level". How can a waterfall be a base level? These pictures
should shed some light on it. 1. The closer to the origin you are, the faster the water will flow. 2. The closer to the mouth you
are, the slower the water will flow. 3. Sediment will be scoured closer to the higher elevation 4. Sediment will be deposited
at the lower elevations. 5. There is a higher stream gradient the closer to the origin you go.6. There is a lower stream gradient
the closer to the mouth you go. Downcutting is the deepening of a river channel relative to its surroundings. That is, how far
does it dig into the ground. As natural examples tell us, The amount of downcutting on a river is dependent on where on the
river it forms. Base level is the closest to sea level a river can go. Downcutting helps a river in its descent to ultimate base
level. At any one time, rock layers can dictate base levels. Geologically speaking, nothing impedes downcutting. However, at
our timescale, we can witness downcutting happening before our very eyes. That is essentially what a waterfall is, an agent
of downcutting. A waterfall is a morphological feature defined by water flowing over a hard rock layer. In the case of most
waterfalls, the water that flows over the falls erodes the softer layer at the base. Once it erodes enough, the unsupported hard
layer above collapses. This is what makes a waterfall appear to “retreat”. Stream Drainage: Streams follow a general
pattern based on topography. Drainage Channels form where runoff cuts into the ground. Channel Types
Straight, Meandering, Braided.
Dendritic Drainage: is the most common and looks similar to a tree. Dendritic Drainage occurs where a region is above
a single type of bedrock (homogeneous). Which gives the entire area a similar resistance to erosion and therefore a
seemingly random placement of tributaries. Most tributaries will join a larger stream at an acute angle. Parallel
Drainage: generally forms where there is a large hill. They develop in areas with parallel regions of rock that are harder
to erode. Trellis Drainage Patterns: form where there is a folded topography, like the Appalachian mountains.
Tributaries enter the main stream at near right angles. Rectangular drainage patterns: are found in regions that have
undergone faulting. Streams follow the path of least resistance and thus are concentrated in places were exposed rock is
the weakest. Radial drainage patterns: develop around a central elevated point. These patterns are common to such
conically shaped features as volcanoes. Centripetal drainage patterns: are the opposite of radial ones. They are
common in basins like in the United States Southwest region, where streams flow downward to a central point. Deranged
or contorted patterns: develop from the disruption of a pre-existing drainage pattern. In this picture, the stream began as
a dendritic stream but was overrun by a glacier. After receding, the glacier left behind fine grain material that formed
wetlands and deposits that dammed the stream to impound a small lake. The tributary streams appear significantly more
contorted than they were prior to glaciation. Braided Stream Channel: These types of streams form where a sediment
rich stream slows normally near where the stream grade changes from steep to more shallow. Then it divides into many
smaller interwoven channels. They are also generally wide and shallow. Meandering Channel: Meanders generally form
on a flat area with a broad floodplain. A meandering stream has a sinuosity ratio greater than 1.5, with sinuosity = length
of stream along channel/actual straight-line distance travelled by stream. Anastomose Channel: Multiple channels that
divide and reconnect, but not as easily as in a braided channel. Erosion and Deposition: Alluvial Landforms: Once a
stream reaches a base level it forms a large fertile valley due to its meandering: Flood Plain: A flood plain is the flat area
that tends to be covered in water when the river rises. As a flood increases the river's size it slows the river down causing
it to drop sediment which in turn allows for very fertile soil. Natural Levee: A natural levee is formed when
sediment(alluvium) is deposited along the edge of the stream forming a ridge. Meanders: A meander is a bend in a
stream. Meanders are prevalent in older streams. Meanders have erosion on the outer bank and deposition on the inner
bank. A point bar forms where the water going through a meander drops alluvium on the inner bank The neck is the
point of land between the two edges of a meander. The cutoff occurs when the stream erodes through the neck causing the
river to be back to a straight course. The result is an Ox-bow lake which is a separate body of water from the stream.
Deltas: deltas are formed when rivers meet large bodies of water like oceans. They are classified as follows:
Constructional: river-dominated, elongate (digitate, bird foot delta), lobate, Destructional tide-dominated,
wave-dominated, cuspate (tooth shaped delta). Other names for types of deltas: Arcuate delta, Estuarine delta. Stream
Order:Arthur Newell Strahler developed a system known as stream order (or Strahler number) that helps determine how
many tributaries a particular stream has and how large that stream is. Basically, start with the smallest stream, which has
no tributaries; this is a first-order stream. Two first order streams join to make a second order stream, and so on. If a
second-order stream joins a first-order stream, the resulting stream is still second-order. Lakes: A lake is a body of water
completely surrounded by land. More than 90% of Earth’s surface waters are contained in lakes. Less than 1% of Earth’s
surface waters are found in rivers and streams at any moment in time. The origin of most lakes is not related to stream
activity. Conditions necessary for the formation and continued existence of a lake: 1. A natural basin with a restricted
outlet; 2. Sufficient input of water to keep the basin at least partially filled. Most of the world’s lakes contain fresh water.
Less than 40% of lake waters are salty. Any lake that has no natural drainage outlet, either as a surface stream or as a
sustained subsurface flow, will become saline. The water balance of most lakes is maintained by surface inflow,
sometimes combined with springs and seeps from below the lake surface.Lakes are stratified into several layers based on
temperature. Many lakes have an upper warm layer called the epilimnion and a lower cold layer called the hypolimnion,
which are separated by a transition zone called the thermocline. Lakes can be classified in various ways, such as by their
method of formation, nutrient levels, or levels of dissolved oxygen (DO).Lakes are most common in regions that were
glaciated within the relatively recent geologic past because glacial erosion and deposition have deranged the normal
drainage patterns and have created innumerable basins. The series of large lakes in eastern and central Africa is due to
major crustal movements and volcanic activity. Thousands of small lakes in Florida were formed by sinkhole collapse
where rainwater dissolved calcium from massive limestone bedrock. Most lakes are very temporary features in the natural
landscape, geologically speaking. Few lakes have been in existence for more than a few thousand years: 1. Inflowing
streams bring sediments to fill them up; 2. Outflowing streams cut channels that progressively deepen and drain lakes; 3.
As lakes become more shallow, an increase in plant growth accelerates the process of infilling. Dry lake beds located in
desert regions are called playas. When temporarily filled by intermittent streams these bodies of water are called playa
lakes. Permanent desert lakes are nearly always products of either subsurface structural conditions that provide water
from a permanent spring or of exotic streams that have their source in nearby mountain. Lakes may affect climate and
weather: 1. It is generally more humid around lake areas; 2. Because water warms and cools more slowly than land,
temperatures near lakes are generally milder than temperatures at the same latitude but more distant from lakes. There is a
lot to consider about lake organisms and chemicals. Chemicals such as nitrates and phosphates promote the growth of
algae and fish. A lake with a lot of these chemicals is called "eutrophic". Eutrophic lakes generally have more algae, more
fish, and less clear water. A lake with not a lot of chemicals are called "oligotrophic". These lakes have less organisms but
generally clearer water. Eutrophic lakes are more likely to have a stream that feeds into it as well as be in bedrock than
oligotrophic lakes. Oligotrophic lakes are generally found upstream and eutrophic lakes are found downstream. Lakes that
are in the middle are called "mesotrophic" lakes.Chemicals in lakes can come from pollution (fertilisers, a leaky septic
tank) or natural sources. These chemicals can be naturally concentrated by the organisms in the lake. GroundWater:
Groundwater is water that is in the ground. It exists in the pore spaces and fractures in rock and sediment. It originally
was rainwater or snow. Water will move down into the earth until it reaches a layer of soil where it can not penetrate. This
layer is called the impenetrable or impermeable layer. The uppermost reaches of this water is called the water table. Facts:
Groundwater makes up about 1% of the water on Earth. That's about 35 times the amount of water in lakes and streams. It
occurs everywhere beneath the Earth's surface, but is usually restricted to depths less than about 750 metres. The surface
below which all rocks are saturated with groundwater is the water table. Hydraulic Head: The depth of groundwater in
two different places, when measured, can give hydraulic gradient, basically a calculation of slope. hydraulic gradient (I) =
(h1 - h2) / d where h1 and h2 are two different heights, and d is the distance between them. This allows us to calculate the
velocity of groundwater flow, if we know porosity (a unitless percentage that describes what percentage of a rock, gravel,
or sand is empty) and permeability (the variable K). groundwater velocity (V) = hydraulic conductivity (K) x hydraulic
gradient (I) / porosity Darcy also found out how to determine groundwater discharge using this information and the area
the water flows through. discharge (Q) = hydraulic conductivity (K) x hydraulic gradient (I) x area (A). Wetlands:
Wetlands are areas where the ground is often if not always saturated with water. There are swamps, peatlands, fens and
marshes (which yes, are all different). They tend to be acidic and have unique ecological communities. Karst
topography: is a distinctive landform assemblage developed as a consequence of the dissolving action of water on
carbonate bedrock (usually limestone, dolomite, or marble). Types of Karst features include sinkholes, solution valleys,
springs, disappearing streams, and caves developed as a consequence of subsurface solution. Sinkholes: are commonly
funnel-shaped and broadly open upward. Sinkholes may be a few feet to more than 100 feet in depth, though usually
ranging from 10 to 30 feet. Sinkhole diameter sizes range from a few square yards to several acres in area. Another name
for sinkholes are cenotes. Note that not all sinkholes are linked to Karst landscapes. Solution valleys: (or Karst valleys)
are the remains of former surface stream valleys whose streams have been diverted underground as karst developed. They
may develop a series of sinkholes in the valley floor. Karst springs: occur where the groundwater flow discharges from a
conduit or cave. Karst springs or "cave springs" can have large openings and discharge very large volumes of water.
Sinkholes and sinking streams that drain to a large karst spring can be many miles away from the spring. Streams flowing
along the surface may enter a sinkhole as a "disappearing stream" and flow underground for some distance to reappear at
the surface. Caves (or caverns) are large, open underground areas occurring in massive limestone depositions at or near
the surface.
Maximum ratio of wave height to wavelength seen in the open ocean. Also known as wave steepness.
Abyssal Plain
A smooth, nearly flat region of the deep ocean floor.
Abyssal Plains
Flat parts of the ocean floor and flattest parts of Earth.
Amphidromic PointA "no-tide" point in an ocean caused by basin resonances, friction, and other factors around which
tide crests rotate. About a dozen amphidromic points exist in the world's oceans. Sometimes called a node.
Aphotic zone
The part of the ocean beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for
photosynthesis to occur.
region located directly below the lithosphere where mantle rocks are able to deform, change shape,
and flow
Rock type that composes most of the ocean floor
Benthos Animals that live at the bottom of a body of water.
Waves with a ratio greater than 1:7 will do this.
buoyancy the power to float or rise in a fluid; relative lightness.
Capillary These waves are the first to form when the wind blows. Waves with a tiny wavelength less than 1.73cm. The
restoring force is surface tension.
Capillary Waves Small ripples with wavelengths less than 1.7 cm
Capillary waves
The slowest moving waves.
Which direction do gyres flow in the Northern hemisphere?
compressional seismic wave parallel seismic waves that compress and expand as they go through all of Earth's layers
Constructive interference
The addition of wave energy as waves meet producing larger waves.
An organism that feeds on producers
continental margin The transition zone between dry land and the ocean bottom. Includes the continental shelf, continental
slope, and continental rise
Continental Rise The gently sloping surface at the base of the continental slope
Continental Shelf A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
Continental Slope The steep descent of the seabed from the continental shelf to the abyssal zone
density driven movement of material where there is either heating from below or cooling from above.
Convergent Boundary
boundary where two lithospheric plates collide
the central part of the Earth consisting of an iron-nickel alloy. The outer portion of the core is liquid and the
inner core is solid.
Coriolis Effect
Causes moving air and water to turn left in the southern hemisphere and turn right in the northern
hemisphere due to Earth's hemisphere.
Counterclockwise Which direction do gyres flow in the Southern hemisphere?
Currents flowing on the surface in opposite directions to main currents.
the top of a wave
outermost layer of the Earth, composed of solid rock
Current A large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans.
An organism that feeds on dying organisms
These waves move through water greater than 1/2 their wavelength.
density currents
Circulation pattern on the ocean that forms when a mass of more dense seawater sinks beneath less
dense seawater.
How to describe how deep something is
Destructive interference
The subtraction of wave energy as waves meet producing smaller waves.
Diurnal This type of tidal cycle is found commonly in the Gulf of Mexico.
Divergent Boundary
boundary where two lithospheric plate spread apart (divide)
a period or condition of depression or inactivity; a part of the ocean near the equator abounding in
calms and squalls
a sudden movement or motion in the solid Earth caused by the release of accumulated strain
Eastern There are five of these boundary currents. They carry cold water towards the equator. These boundary currents
are shallow and broad with boundaries that are not well defined. Eddies do not tend to form in these boundary currents.
Ebb Current
Water rushing out of an enclosed harbour or bay because of the fall in sea level as a tide trough
A miniature whirlpool or whirlwind resulting when the current of a fluid doubles back on itself
Ekman Spiral
surface winds drive surface currents, and each layer of water drags the layer below, but the Coriolis
Force changes each layer's direction slightly to make a spiral effect
Energy Waves transmit _______________.
epicentre the point on Earth's surface directly above where an earthquake originated
Equator Due to the warmth of the water, the molecules are slightly expanded in this region.
Estuary Kind of wetland formed where a river meets the ocean (flooded river valley)
a break in which one mass of rock is displaced (moved) in relation to another mass of rock
Area over which a wave-generating wind blows
A glacial valley or glacial trough found along the coast that is now filled with a mixture of freshwater and
Flood Current
water rushing into an enclosed area because of the rise in sea level as a tide crest approaches
Food Web
Relationships between plants and animals of a biome having to do with what they eat.
Geostrophic Gyres Gyres in balance between gravity and the Coriolis Effect.
Gravity These waves have a wavelength greater than 1.73cm. The restoring force is gravity and momentum. Wind
waves are one example of these waves.
Guyot A large, flat-topped seamount resulting from erosion of an island volcano when it was above sea level.
A large, nearly circular system of wind driven surface currents that centre around latitude 30 degrees in both
Circular flow pattern of water caused by deflection of water by continents and the ocean basin.
Halocline A layer of water in which there is a rapid change of salinity with depth
Headland A part of the shore that sticks out into the ocean
high tide the highest point on shore that the ocean reaches (occurs when the sun and moon are in line)
High Tides
High water position corresponding to a tidal crest
Intertidal Zone
the area between the high-tide and the low-tide mark.
the rigid outer portion of the Earth comprised of the crust and upper part of the mantle
Waves with ___________ wavelengths move the fastest.
Longshore Drift
The movement of water and sediment down a beach caused by waves coming in to shore at an angle
low tide the time of low water.
Low Tides
Low water position corresponding to a tidal trough
Lunar Day
24 hours 50 mins
Lunar Tide
Tide caused by gravitational and inertial interaction of the moon and Earth.
mantle the zone within Earth that is located between the crust and core
Marine organism any living thing in an ocean
Mid-ocean Ridge An underwater mountain chain where a new ocean floor is formed.
mid-ocean ridges A large system of underwater mountains that have a deep crack, called a rift valley running through
their centre
These tides occur when the earth, moon and sun are at right angles. These tides result in little variation in the
height of tides. Lowest tidal range occurring near the times of the first quarter and third quarter phases of the moon
Nekton Animals that are free to swim through the water column.
Neuritic Zone
The area from low-tide to the edge of the continental shelf.
Open-Ocean Zone the area of the ocean beyond the edge of the continental shelf.
Nearly friction free transfer of energy from molecule to molecule in a circular path.
Microscopic, free-floating, autotrophic plant organisms that function as producers in aquatic
Plankton Almost microscopic algae and animals that are carried by current and waves.
One of the major parts in Earth's outer crust layer.
Plunging Wave
A breaking wave in which the upper section topples forward and away from the bottom, forming an
air-filled tube.
Due to the cold temperature of the water, the water molecules are slightly closer together in this region.
Producer An organism that gets its food from light
Progressive Wave A wave of moving energy in which the wave form moves in one direction along the surface of the
transmission medium.
A layer of water in which there is a rapid change of density with depth
Pytheas Greek astronomer and navigator who first wrote about the connection between moon and the height of the tide.
Rogue Wave
A single wave crest much higher than usual caused by constructive interference.
Salinity A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
Seafloor Spreading A phenomenon in which Earth's plates split apart causing more rock to erupt to the ocean floor.
An underwater mountain rising from the ocean floor and having a peaked or flat-topped summit
below the surface of the sea.
Seiche The sloshing back and forth of water that is confined to a small space like a bucket or swimming pool or in
semi-enclosed bodies of water such as lakes, bays or harbors.
Seismic Sea Wave Tsunami caused by displacement of earth along a fault. (Earthquakes and seismic sea waves are
caused by the same phenomenon.)
an instrument that detects and records seismic activity
This type of tidal cycle is found commonly in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
Shallow These waves move through water shallower than 1/20 their wavelength
shear seismic wave perpendicular seismic waves that move in a side to side manner as they pass through the solid layers
of Earth.
Slack Water
a time of no current, occurs at high and low tides when current change direction
Solar Tides
caused by the gravitational and inertial interaction of the sun and earth
A device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves.
Southern Oscillation
atmospheric pressure conditions corresponding to the periodic warming of El Nino and
cooling of La Nina
Spilling Wave
A breaking wave whose crest slides down the face of the wave.
Spring These tides occur when the earth, moon and sun are in a straight line.These tides are a time of greatest variation
between high and low tides.
spring tide
the large rise and fall of the tide at or soon after the new or the full moon.
Standing Wave
a wave in which water oscillates without causing progressive wave forward movement. there is no net
transmission of energy in a standing wave
a point where one lithospheric plate slides beneath another lithospheric plate
Submarine Canyon Deep, V-shaped valley cutting across the continental shelf and slope
Underwater vehicle used in ocean exploration that is well constructed to withstand pressure.
Surf beat A result of constructive and destructive interference that is seen on shore when waves do not all appear with a
uniform size. Some are larger, some are smaller.
Surface Currents These transfer heat from tropical to polar regions, distribute nutrients, scatter organisms and influence
weather and climate.
Surging Wave
A wave that surges ashore without breaking.
Sverdrup This measurement of volume of water flow is equal to 1 million metres cubed per second.
mature wind waves of one wavelength that form orderly undulations of the ocean surface
A narrow stratum of rapid temperature change in the ocean and in many temperate-zone lakes
Tidal Bore
A high, often breaking wave generated by a tide crest that advances rapidly up an estuary or river.
tidal current
a current produced by tidal forces.
Tidal Datum
The reference level (0.0) from which tidal height is measured.
Tidal Range
is the difference in height between successive high and low tides
the regular rise and fall of the ocean's surface influenced by the moon's gravity pulling on earth. The fastest
moving waves
Tombolo A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island
Transform Boundary
boundary where two lithospheric plates slide past one another
These waves travel though water deeper than 1/20 but shallower than 1/2 their wavelength
In these boundary currents, the flow is from East to West or West to East. They link eastern and
western boundary currents. The West Wind Drift is an example of this type of boundary current.
Trench Deepest part of the sea floor
tsunami a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
Tsunami Wave generated as a result of a seismic event.
Turbidity Current A down-slope movement of dense, sediment-laden water that rapidly transports large amounts of
sediment from the shelf to the sea floor
Countercurrents beneath surface currents. Can influence conditions at the ocean surface.
The movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface of an ocean by offshore winds
Water pressure
The weight that water pushes downwards
a disturbance on the surface of a liquid body, as the sea or a lake, in the form of a moving ridge or swell.
a moving ridge on the surface of the water
Wave crest
highest part of a progresive wave
Wave diffraction Bending of waves around obstacles.
wave fetch
Wind fetch is defined as the unobstructed distance that wind can travel over water in a constant
Wave Frequency Number of waves passing a fixed point per second.
wave height
the height of a wave.
Wave Height
Vertical distance between a wave crest and an adjacent wave trough
wave motion
propagation of disturbances-that is, deviations from a state of rest or equilibrium-from place to place
in a regular and organised way.
wave period
For a wave, the speed is the distance travelled by a given point on the wave (such as a crest) in a
given period of time
Wave reflection
The reflection of progressive waves by a vertical barrier. Reflection occurs with little loss of energy.
Wave refraction
Slowing and bending of progressive waves in shallow water.
wave surfThe waves of the sea as they break upon a shore or reef.
wave swell
Swell is the collection of waves moving away from a storm in the ocean.
Wave Trains
Progressing groups of swell with the same origin and wave length are known as this.
Wave trough
lowest part of a progressive trough
distance between two crest or troughs of a wave
Horizontal distance between two consecutive wave crests or wave troughs
Western These are the fastest flowing boundary currents. These boundary currents move warm water from the equator
towards the poles. The Gulf Stream is an example of this type of boundary current. These boundary currents are narrow
and deep and have sharp boundaries. Eddies can form.
These waves tend to be less than 3m high, and have wavelengths between 60 - 150m in the ocean. Surface
currents are powered by the sun and ______________
Wind Strength
The length of time the wind blows, the fetch and these are three factors that affect wind wave
small free-floating animals that form part of plankton that feed on marine algae.
alluvial fan
If a steep mountain stream flows onto a flat plain, its gradient and velocity decrease abruptly. As a
result, it deposits most of its sediments in a fan-shaped mound called
artesian aquifer
forms where a tilted layer of permeable rock, such as sandstone, lies sandwiched between layers of
impermeable rock, such as shale. Water rises in an artesian well without being pumped. A hose with a hole(inset) shows
why an artesian well flows spontaneously.
bed load boulders and cobbles moved along the stream bed
braided stream
A stream that has split into a tangled network of small streams that split and reunite, winding along a
stream channel filled with sediment from times when the water flow is much greater. Joe Creek in Canada's Yukon
Territory is heavily braided because glaciers provide more sediment than the stream can carry.
capacity of stream total amount of sediment it can carry past a point in a given amount of time
channel the the trough or groove through which a stream flows
measure of the largest particle a stream can carry
Components of the hydrologic cycle evapotranspiration
is the process of water changing from a vapour to a liquid. Water vapour in the air rises mostly by
convection. This means that warm, humid air will rise, while cooler air will flow downward. As the warmer air rises, the
water vapour will lose energy, causing its temperature to drop. The water vapour then has a change of state into liquid or
A stream also slows abruptly when it enters the still water of a lake or ocean. The sediment settles out to form a
nearly flat landform called
discharge (stream flow)
the amount of water flowing down a stream. It is equal to velocity x cross sectional area.
dissolved load
ions dissolved in water
distribution of water on Earth (Oceans, Glaciers, Groundwater, etc.)
drainage basin
The land area that contributes water to a river system
evapotranspiration is water evaporating from the ground and transpiration by plants. It is also the way that water vapour
re-enters the atmosphere.
geyser a hot spring in which water intermittently boils, sending a tall column of water and steam into the air.
glaciers a massive, long-lasting, moving mass of compacted snow and ice
graded stream profile
With time, the stream smoothes out the irregularities to develop a __________.
Water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.
hydrologic cycle The hydrologic cycle shows that water circulates constantly among the sea, the atmosphere, and the
land. Whole numbers indicate thousands of cubic kilometres of water transferred each year. Percentages show proportions
of total global water in different portions of the Earth's surface.
Importance of transport of water from oceans to continents via the atmosphere Every year about 30000 to 40000 cubic
kilometres (a cube 30-35 km in size) of water move across the surface of the continents to the oceans, profoundly shaping
the surface of the continents.
when a portion of the precipitation that reaches the Earth's surface seeps into the ground.
karst topography Sinkholes and caverns are characteristic of karst topography. Streams commonly disappear into
sinkholes and flow through the caverns to emerge elsewhere.
a large, inland body of standing water
that occupies a depression in the land surface
meanders A winding curve or bend of a river.
oxbow lake
Over time, a stream may erode through the neck of a meander to form __________
perched water table In some places, a layer of impermeable rock or clay lies above the main water table, creating a locally
zone, the top of which is called
is the downward movement of water through soil and rock and occurs beneath the root zone.
the ability of rock or soil to transmit water
point bar A depositional feature of streams. A stream erodes the outsides of meanders and deposits sand and gravel on the
inside bends to form ________.
porosity indicates the amount of water that rock and soil can hold.
is water being released from clouds as rain, sleet, snow or hail. Precipitation begins after water
vapour, which has condensed in the atmosphere, becomes too heavy to remain in atmospheric air currents and falls.
rivers and streams can be simply defined as water flowing in a channel. They are defined by their channels, but they also
function to create channels through the process of erosion.
Rivers and streams' three important roles in the formation of a landscape
1. erode the channels in which they flow
2. transport sediments
3. produce a wide variety of erosional and depositional landforms
is precipitation that reaches the surface of the Earth but does not infiltrate the soil. It can also come from melted
snow and ice.
spring occurs where the water table intersects the land surface and water flows or seeps onto the surface.
suspended load
smaller (clay and silt) particles suspended in the water
The velocity of a stream will be influenced by
the gradient (steepness of the stream).
ungraded stream profile
has many temporary base levels that smooth out to develop graded profile
water table
the top of the Zone of saturation
An area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.
zone of saturation completely wet (saturated) soil and bedrock above the barrier (impermeable rock)
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