The Good Life Aristotle • Ancient Greek Philosopher • known for his natural philosophy. logic and political theory More on Aristotle • one of the greatest thinkers in the history of western science and philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance, and theatre. • first to classify areas of human knowledge into distinct disciplines such as mathematics, biology, and ethics. • founder of the Lyceum, the first scientific institute, based in Athens, Greece. • One of the strongest advocates of a liberal arts education, which stresses the education of the whole person, including one’s moral character, rather than merely learning a set of skills. • He was a student of Plato, who was then a student of Socrates. Together, they were considered the 'Big Three of Greek Philosophy. • He was the founder of formal logic, devising for it a finished system that for centuries was regarded as the sum of the discipline; and he pioneered the study of zoology, both observational and theoretical, in which some of his work remained unsurpassed until the 19th century. • He was a GREEK philosopher who pioneered systematic, scientific examination in literally every area of human knowledge and was known, in his time, as "the man who knew everything" and later simply as "The Philosopher”, needing no further qualification as his fame was so widespread. Nicomachean Ethics • All human activities aim at some good. Every art and human inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good; and for this reason the good has been rightly declared as that at which all things aim. • What we need, in order to live well, is a proper appreciation of the way in which such goods as friendship, pleasure, virtue, honor and wealth fit together as a whole. In order to apply that general understanding to particular cases, we must acquire, through proper upbringing and habits, the ability to see, on each occasion, which course of action is best supported by reasons. What is meant by a good life? • Living in comfort and luxury with few problems or worries. • Characterized by happiness from living and doing well • Content • Everyone has a definition of what good is-getting a college degree, traveling across the world, succeeding in a business venture, pursuing a healthy and active lifestyle, or being a responsible parent. • one in which a person cultivates and exercises their rational faculties by, for instance, engaging in scientific inquiry, philosophical discussion, artistic creation, or legislation. What is eudaimonia? • Came from the greek word eu meaning “good” and daimon meaning “spirit” • Refers to the good life marked by happiness and excellence. • • • • • Flourishing life filled with meaningful endeavors that empower the human person to be the best version of himself/herself. The good for human life -‘happiness’ -‘living well and faring well’:flourishing Eudaimonia is not a state of mind,but relates to the activity of living It is not easily changed,but relates to a life as a whole Eudaimonia transcends all aspects of life for it is about living well and doing well in whatever one does Aristotle’s View of Good Life • The activity of the soul in accordance with virtue According to Aristotle, happiness is the only end or good that we desire for its own sake, and it is for the sake of happiness that we desire all other ends or goods. Happiness is the meaning and purpose of life, the whole aim and end of human existence.Since the function of all human beings to live a certain sort of life--and this life is an activity or action of the soul (mind and spirit, here) implying a rational principle--then the function of good human beings is to make use of their mind and spirit. Thus good life or happiness is the activity of the soul in accordance with virtue. • Believed that good humans is the maximum realization of what was unique to humans • The good for humans was to reason well • The task of reason was to teach humans how to act, virtuously, and the exercise faculties in accordance with virtue. There are several ways in which Aristotle approaches the question of what happiness consists in. First, he notes that flourishing for plants and animals consists in their functioning well according to their natures. So one question we should ask is this: What is the proper or peculiar function of a human being? Aristotle thinks it obvious that our proper function consists in reasoning and in acting in accord with reason. Meaning we have moral and intellectual. So on this line of reasoning we are led to the conclusion that the possession and exercise of moral and intellectual virtue is an essential element in living well well. Virtues • Behavior showing high moral standards • “Paragons of virtue” • Synonyms: goodness, pureness, principles, ethics • patience, courage and perseverance. . Patience is the ability to endure difficult circumstances. Courage is the choice and willingness to confront uncertainty.persistence in doing something despite difficulty or delay in achieving success Nicomachean Ethics • Virtue, then, being of two kinds, intellectual and moral, intellectual virtue in the main owes its birth and growth in teaching(for its reason it requires experience and time). While moral virtue comes about as a result of habit. • virtue can be learned only through constant practice implies that there are no set rules we can learn and then obey. We are all born with the potential to be morally virtuous, but it is only by behaving in the right way that we train ourselves to bevirtuous. Kung baga natuto tayong maging mabait kapag gumagawa tayo ng mabuting bagay. The Virtues Intellectual Virtue • Theoretical wisdom (thinking and truth) • Practical wisdom • Understanding. Experience and time are necessary requirements for the development of intellectual virtue Moral Virtue • Controlled by practical wisdom (ability to make right judgement) • Owed its development to how one nurtured it as habit • Can be learned Happiness to Aristotle • Happiness depends on ourselves. • Central purpose of human life and a goal in itself. • Depends on the cultivation of virtue • A genuinely happy life required the fulfillment of a broad range of conditions, including physical as well as mental well-being. Happiness as the Ultimate Purpose of Human Existence • Happiness is a final end or goal that encompasses the totality of one’s life • It is not something that can be gained or lost in a few hours, like pleasurable sensations. • It is more like the ultimate value of your life as lived up to this moment, measuring how well you have lived up to your full potential as a human being. Science and Technology and Good Life utilization of that knowledge to boost the prosperity of human lives, and to solve the various issues facing society. • S&T is also the movement towards a good life. • S&T are one of the highest expressions of human facilities. • S&T allows us to thrive and flourish if we desire it. • S&T may corrupt a person especially by doing dishonest or illegal things in return for money or power. • S&T with virtue can help an individual to be out of danger.