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Week-1 IoT

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Unit 43- Internet of Things
Presented by – Daw Thi Thi Thandar Saw Htay
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The Purpose of IoT?
• The internet of things, or IoT, is a system of interrelated computing devices,
mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided
with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network
without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
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A Brief History Of IoT
The internet of Things(IoT)has come a long way, going from one or two
machines In the 1980s to billions in 2019
1969 ARPANET, the
precursor to the
internet, is
1982 Carnegie-Mellon
researchers connect a vending
machine to the internet so they
can remotely check for cold
1998 IPv6 adds 2^128
new IP addresses, which
even IoT devices will have
trouble eating up.
1999 The term “Internet
of Things” is first used by
Kevin Ashton of MIT.
1990 John Romkey
demonstrates the first
toaster controlled via the
2000 LG announces the
first smart fridge. It’s cool
(literally) but also too
expensive to sell well.
1995 The GPS satellite
2007 The first iPhone
network (version 1) is
2008 The first international
IoT conference is held. Also,
there are now more online
devices than there are
humans on earth.
2009 Google starts
testing self-driving cars.
2013 Google Glass is
released. Too soon,
apparently. VR and AR are
still in early stages.
2014 Amazon releases
the Echo, which sets off a
scramble to enter the
smart home hub market.
2017-2019 IoT
continues to grow as
Internet penetration, AI,
blockchain, edge
computing and cheap
devices and sensors
2016 GM, Lyft, Uber and
Tesla are all testig selfdriving cars now. Mirai,
the first large-scale IoT
attack, also takes place,
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9 Fundamental Characteristics of IoT
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Features of Internet of Things (IoT)
1. Connectivity
IoT devices can be connected over Radio waves, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Li-Fi, connectivity
across IoT ecosystems and Industry.
2. Sensing
Electrochemical, gyroscope, pressure, light sensors, GPS, pressure, RFID, etc. Light
detection sensors along with pressure, velocity and imagery sensors.
3. Active Engagements
Cloud Computing network in blockchain to establish active engagements among IoT
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4. Scale
IoT devices can be scaled up or down easily on demand. smart home automation to
automating large factories and work stations, so the use cases vary in scale.
5. Dynamic Nature
The various components of IoT need to change their state dynamically.
6. Intelligence
The analog signals are preprocessed and converted to a format on which machinelearning models are trained. We need to keep in mind the proper data infrastructure
based on business needs.
7. Energy
From end components to connectivity and analytics layers, the whole ecosystems
demand a lot of energy.
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8. Safety
Safety, security measures, and firewalls to keep the data away from
misuse and manipulations.
9. Integration
IoT integrates various cross-domain models between infrastructure and
operational costs.
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• Wifi IEEE
• Barcode or Qr code
• Zig bee IEEE
• Sensors and smartphone
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• Radio-frequency identification(RFID) uses electromagnetic fields to
automatically identify and track tags attached to objects.
• Widely used in Transport and logistics
• Easy to deploy: RFID tags and RFID readers
• Communication range and frequency depends on the type of
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• WiFi is the wireless technology used to connect computers, tablets,
smartphones and other devices to the internet.
• Low cost and Highly interoperable
• Widely used both indoor and outdoor environments
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Barcode QR Code
• Several devices can read a barcode
• Smart Barcode readers help to keep the track of inventory for a retailer.
• However, the use of AI-based barcode readers is not just limited to the
retail sector. It can also be used in warehouses and manufacturing facilities
to keep the track of stocks.
• Once, the product is passed through the bar code scanner and the final
purchase is made, the removal of the product form the stock listing is
shown in the computers.
• The automation of the update process saves a lot of manual effort and
time. It also simplifies the checkout process for IoT applications.
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• Very long battery life
• Easy to deploy and low cost
• Large number of nodes( up to 64770)
• Ideals for WPAN and mesh networks
• Support for multiple network technologies
• Low cost
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IoT Sensors
• IoT sensors are a crucial cog that allows the collection and transmission of data
amidst a network of devices. It is one of the finest Internet of Things Examples.
• Generally, a sensor can be classified in different ways but the most common form
of classification is active or passive sensors. You can also categorize them as an
analog and digital sensors.
• The IoT sensors are coupled with the circuit boards, which are programmed to
collect various types of data.
• Usually, two of the popular boards which are connected to sensors, today, include
Arduino Uno and Raspberry Pi 2.
• Arduino circuit board is most commonly used in both analog and digital sensors.
Raspberry Pi 2 is one of the versions of the same, and each of them has its
operating system with its core in Linux.
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• Smart home
• Lot in agriculture
• Energy engagement
• Transport and logistics
• Smart lighting
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Smart Home
• Living in a house with connected devices is living in a Smart Home. Quite often
we forget to switch off the lights and fans. This is one of the finest IoT Examples.
• Most of the time we return home after a busy day at the office to see that the
fans and lights are on.
• Imagine the amount of energy wasted, and the extra cost that you have to pay for
the futile consumption of power.
• IoT is changing the way we interact with our homes, as you can control the
majority of the home appliances right from your smartphone.
• So, next time when you leave the home and forget to switch off the electrical
appliances, just take out your smartphone and save power & money.
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• End of Lecture
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Arshdeep, B. (2014) Internet of Things: A Hands on Approach. 1st Ed. VPT.