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Hassan Choudhury 201034
We, humans, are living creatures, so it comes as no surprise we need to energy(ATP) to carry out
basic functions such as movement, rehabilitation and even breathing just to name a few. To acquire
energy we need to consume food, but before food is converted to energy(ATP) it passes through the
digestive system where it gets digested. Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food
molecules into smaller soluble ones, this is done so our body can absorb the nutrients from the food
we eat.
Salivary glands
Gall bladder
Small intestine
Large intestine
Buccal cavity
A whole surrounded by the lips.
The soft palate and tounge(taste buds) allow us to taste things.
Tonsil filter our mouth from bacteria in food.
Jaws(mandible and maxillae), muscles in the face and teeth allow us to masticate(chewing)
Mucouse membrane secrete saliva to keep our mouth moist,assist with tasting food and
contains hydrolytic enzymes
Mouth, larynx , vocal cords, and facial muscles allow speech to happen.
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Hassan Choudhury 201034
- A muscle at the rear of the throat lined with muscles
- Tongue moulds chewed food into a bolus(ball) and and presses it against the roof of the
mouth to the pharynx, where swallowing occurs as an automatic cranial reflex
- The muscles in the pharynx contract, tongue presses against the rood of the mouth,
epiglottis covers glottis these prevents food from entering the airway.
25 cm long, 2.5 cm diameter.
Made of 4 layers
Mucous membrane secretes mucous to lubricate the passage of food.
Submucosa holds mucous membrane in place
A muscular bag Located in the upper abdomen and below the diaphragm
Its walls consist of a thick layer of muscle with longitudinal, circular, smooth and oblique
muscle fibres
Food enters cardiac end of the stomach from the oesophagus.
Epithelial cells secrete gastric juice containing enzymes and hydrochloric acid
Peristaltic waves are generated from the muscle walls of the stomach to churn the food in
with enzymes and eventually for a chyme.
Small intestine
The acidity of the chyme causes the pyloric sphincter muscle to relax
In small amounts the chyme can go into the duodenum
Duodenum is 25 cm long and has a diameter of 2.5 cm and is attached to the dorsal
abdominal wall
Made of layers of smooth muscle cells and lined with epithelial cells
Receives hydrolytic enzymes and pancreatic juices ,bile from liver these enter at the
sphincter of oddi
Jejunum is 2.5 m long and has a diameter if 3.8 cm and extends from duodenum to ileum
The ileum is 3.6 m long, its walls are thinner than the jujenums and is folded a lot
Epithelium contains finger like structure known as villi
Villi increase surface area to volume ration thus maximising rate of reaction(absorption in
this case)
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Located within the pancreas
Is a soft pink gland supported by menestery
Secretes hydrolytic enzymes to aid with digestion.
The ducts are surrounded by bundles of acini
Acinar cells contain high amounts of rough endoplasmic recticulum and vesicles
Lined with epithelial cells, which secrete ions that increase the ph of the pancreatic juice
Helps maintain homeostasis by adjusting blood glucose levels
Gall bladder
-stores bile and releases it via the bile duct into the duodenum at the sphincter of the oddi in
response to food entering the duodenum from the stomach
Thin,green and 10 cm long
the gall bladder. Bile is released into the small intestine by the gall bladder, when needed.
Made up of hexagonal liver lobules, which contain hepocytes
Oxygenated blood enters the liver vis the hepatic artery
Deoxygenated blood leaves via the hepatic vein
Hepatocytes synthesise bile, which enters the canalliculli and then moves into the gall
bladder, which is where it is store till its needed
Bile contains the following, salts that emulsify the fat to increase surface area to volume
ration to maximise rate of reaction, hydrogen-carbonate ions to neutralise acidic chyme
,products(birrublin and biliverdin) of broken red blood cells and cholesterol
Stores glycogen, regulates blood glucose levels, makes plasma just to name a few
Large intestine
first part of the large intestine is the caecum(sac like) branches from the appendix and
contains lots of lymphoid tissue and bacteria which may help it recolonise gut microbiota
The colon is comprised of four main parts Ascending, transverse ,descending and sigmoid
Colon mucosa contains a high quantity of columnar epithelial cells and has no villi or folds
thus leading to a rather flat surface. Also contains very few digestive enzyme secreting cells
To protect against the acids and gasses produced by bacteria, goblet cells produce mucus.
The passage from the rectum to anal canal is lubricated by mucus
Gut bacteria synthesis vitamin B,K and appetite regulating hormones
From undigested food, water is collected in the colon
Faeces are then into the rectum where even more water is extracted
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When the rectum stretches it activates the defecation reflex
When the impulses reach the brain we can make the conscious decision to open the external
anal sphincter
Peristalsis= wave like motion which pushes contents of the canal along
Positive results
To the
Add benedicts
solution to food
sample and heat
to 80 degrees to
This test is done
to test for more
simple sugars
than starch so
only do this if
have gotten
negative for
down food and
mix with water
2. Filter
3. Add hcl and
4. Add sodium
carbonate to
neutralise acids.5.
Add benedicts
solution and place
in water bath to
speed up
Crimson,yellow,green Blue
Crimson,yellow,green Blue
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Add buiret
solution to food
1. Add
ethanol to
2. In a test
Make 10cm3 of
filtered food
solution. To 1cm3
of DCPIP, add
drops of
filtrate,the more
drops required to
colourless, the
less vitamin c
Cloudy white
emulsion formes at
Dcpip loses colour
Vitamin c
Yoghurt contains: glucose, monosaccharide, vitamin c and protein
Mushroom soup contains: glucose, monosaccharide, starch, lipids
Potato contains: glucose, starch, protein, monosaccharides
Rice contains: starch
Enzymes are biological catalyst, this means they speed up chemical reactions and not actually carry
them out.The bonds binding the molecular 'building blocks' inside the food together can be
separated by a phenomenon called enzymatic hydrolysis (a form of chemical digestion). Hydrolysis is
a phenomenon in which, with the molecule of water, a given molecule is broken into 2 fragments.
Hydrolysis of proteins, fats, oils and carbohydrates is enabled and sped up by the catalytic
contribution of enzymes.For an example, protein polymers are broken down into the amino
acids(monomer). These small molecules will then be ingested through the gut wall and then into the
bloodstream until they are secreted.
Digestive enzymes and juices
-Amylase(found in the saliva) catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose
Hazards: - DCPIP can stain so cover clothes hands and eyes
- Water bath is hot so wear gloves
- Enzymes can denature, so to maintain a steady temperature use a water bath
- Ethanol can irritate skin and eyes so wear gloves and goggles
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HCL can irritate skin and eyes, so wear gloves and goggles
Gastric juices
-protease( pepsin and HCL found in gastric juices) catalyse the breakdown of proteins into partly
digested protein
Pancreatic juices
-proteases(trypsin, found in pancreatic juices) the breakdown of protein into peptides
-lipases (found in pancreatic juices)catalyse the breakdown of fats into fatty acids and glycerol
-amylases(found in pancreatic juices) catalyse the breakdown of starch into maltose
Intestinal enzymes
-Peptidases catalyse the breakdown of peptides into amino acids
-sucrase catalyse the breakdown of sucrose into glucose and fructose
-lactase catalyse the breakdown of lactose (milk sugar) into glucose and galactose
-maltase catalyse the breakdown of maltose into glucose
Bile from the liver
-bile salts emulsify fat globules into fat droplets
Adaptations of the small intestine
-high blood supply, movement of blood will maintain an ideal concentration gradient
- Villi and microvilli increase surface are to volume ratio to increase the rate of absorption
- Cells have many mitochondria to supply ATP for active transport
-membrane is one cell thick reducing the diffusion pathway
- carrier proteins for active transport so they can get sufficient amount of nutrients by going against
the concentration gradient and co transport so they can manipulate the gradient to get desired
- the small intestine is 23 feet and takes food roughly 8 hours to pass through, this ensures there is
enough time to absorb all the nutrients.
Co transport
The ingestion of sodium and glucose ions from the small intestines, especially the ileum, is a
common example of co-transportation. The transportation of sodium ions must be assisted by a
carrier protein from the epithelial cells to the blood through active transport. this decreases the
sodium concentration in the epithelial cells In order to generate a favourable concentration
gradient between the ileum and the epithelial cell, Therefore, sodium ions diffuse through the
epithelial cells down the concentration gradient.This is through a carrier protein for co-transport. If
the sodium ions bind and disperse through carrier protein, they can transport either glucose or
amino acids with them into the epithelial cells.
Active transport
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This is the movement of molecules and ions via the use ATP and carrier proteins against the
concentatrion gradient(region of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration). In order
to transfer substances through the membrane, the carrier proteins serve as pumps. This is rather
selective, since only some molecules can attach to the proteins that are pumped from the carrier.
On carrier proteins, some molecules may bind to the receptor site. On the inside of the membrane,
ATP can bind to the protein and is hydrolysed into ADP and Pi. This allows the proteins to change
and open up into the membrane's interior. This allows the molecule, on the other side of the
membrane, to be released.
Osmosis is the net movement of water from high concentration to low concentration through a semi
permeable membrane this requires no ATP
Diffusion is net movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration. This requires
no ATP and is described as passive
Absorbtion and Assimilation
- Glucose and amino acid are absorbed via active transport with the use of a co transport ion.
- Sodium ions are absorbed by the epithelial cells lining the villi this uses atp and further
imbalances the concentration gradient.
- Fatty acids and glycerol diffuse into the epithelial cell surface membrane via diffusion and
are converted back into triglycerides and transported to the Golgi apparatus and a layer of
protein is added to form a chylomicron. These out the plasma membrane of epithelial cells
of the villi snd enter lymph fluid of the lacteal. Then fat soluble vitamins diffuse across the
plasma membrane.
These nutrients can be used in many ways.For an example, glucose when assimilated it is
transported to the liver via the hepatic vein and stored there as glycogen and released according to
the body’s needs like respiration , amino acid can be used in protein synthesis as it is a monomer
and can make protein polymers like DNA and lipids could be used to make phospholipid bi layers
and an excess is stored as adipose tissue.
Vitamin E
An antioxidant which reduces the risk of cancer and heart diease
Good sources: nuts, prawn, bread and oils
A deficiency would lead to poor nerve transmission, muscle weakness and damaged retina
Lowers blood cholesterol
Prevents constipation
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Promotes the frowth of healthy bacteria in gut
Good sources: fruit, vegatable, porridge
Lack of fibre lead to constipation and not much healthy bacteria in the gut
Makes bodily fluids such as gastric juice and helps dispose of urea via urinating
Hosts metabolic reactions within cells
Regulates body temprature
Good source: water and other edible liquids
Lack of water leads to: de hydration, disruption of electrolytes, loss of water from blood and
enzymatic reactions can take place properly
Growth of body structures such as muscles, organs and antibodies among others.
Good source: meat, fish and eggs
Deficiency can lead to: kwashiorkor; stunted growth and degradation of muscles.
Stores energy and can be stored under the skin and insulate heat.
Can make membranes, cholesterol and sex hormones
Deffiency can lead to: lack of fat solube vitamins(a,d,e)
Excess can lead to: obesity, atherosclerosis and increase chance of heart attack
Vitamin a
Vitamin A is a category of nutrients that are important for male and female eye health and
functional and reproductive health. It also plays a role in defence against pathogens in the immune
According to WHOTrusted Source, the leading cause of preventable blindness in infants is a
deficiency of vitamin A. Vitamin A-deficient pregnant women have higher maternal death rates as
well. Xerophthalmia is a disease related to vitamin a deficiency and here are the symptoms
- Night blindness( cant see in dim light)
- Bitots spots(lesions on the cornea)
- Corneal ulcers
Iron deficiency is the most common dietary deficiency internationally. Deficiency in iron can lead to
anaemia. This is a disease of the blood that induces tiredness, fatigue, and a host of other
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Common Food that contain iron are dark leafy greens, red meat, and egg yolks. It helps to generate
red blood cells in the body. Your body produces less red blood cells while you're iron-deficient. The
red blood cells it creates are thinner and lighter than blood cells that are stable. They're even less
effective at providing the tissues and organs with oxygen.
Thiamine also known as vitamin b1, is an important part of the nervous system and helps turn
carbohydrates into ATP(energy). A lack of of thiamine can lead to fatigue, weight loss, confusion,
short term memory loss, nerve and muscle damage and affect the heart.
Vitamin b-3
Another mineral that makes the body transform food into atp is niacin. It's known as vitamin B-3.
A severe niacin deficiency is also referred to as pellagra.Niacin can be found in peanuts and most
animal proteins, as a consequence, in developed countries or in meat-eating societies, this disease is
Diarrhoea, dementia, and skin abnormalities are among the signs of pellagra. With a healthy diet and
vitamin B-3 supplements, you can generally prevent it.
Calcium helps grow healthy bones and teeth in your body. It allows your heart, muscle, nerves and
muscles function normally.
Calcium deficiency sometimes does not immediately display symptoms, but over time, it may lead to
severe health concerns. If you do not eat enough calcium, the calcium from your bones will be used
instead by your body. Which adds to bone degradation. Good sources of calcium are, dairy products,
small fish with bones and calcium set tofu.
Vitamin d
Around a seventh of people worldwide don't get enough vitamin D, according to Harvard's School of
Public Health. There is a greater chance of vitamin D deficiency in individuals with darker skin tones.
For healthy bones, vitamin D is important. In order to control the growth of teeth and bones, it lets
the body retain the right amount of calcium. A deficiency of this nutrient may contribute to bone
growth that is stunted or low.Induced by a lack of calcium and vitamin D, osteoporosis can result in
porous and weak bones that crack rather easily.
Vitamin c
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A essential nutrient that helps the body absorb iron and create collagen is vitamin C. Tissues will
begin to decompose if the body does not produce enough collagen.
After 8 to 12 weeks, signs of vitamin C deficiency may begin to emerge if they are present. Loss of
appetite, loss of weight, exhaustion, irritability, and lethargy are early symptoms. The lack of vitamin
c is often referred to as scurvy.
Scurvy occurs when vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is deficient. Symptoms of fatigue, anaemia, gum
disease, and skin disorders stem from the deficiency. This is due to the fact, to stabilise the structure
of collagen, an essential component in connective tissues, vitamin C is needed. Connective tissues,
like the formation of blood vessels, are important for body structure and support. The immune
system, iron intake, cholesterol metabolism and other functions will also be impaired by the lack of
vitamin C.
Scurvy is strictly due to a lack of vitamin c, but why does one vitamin have such a great impact? Well
vitamin c aka ascorbic acid is responsible for formation of collagen and collagen can be found all
over our body and is the most abundant protein in our body as stated by healthline.com. Collagen is
responsible for making bones, skin, muscle, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels just to name a
few. So if you lack ascorbic acid you you will lack collagen thus leading to scurvy.
Symptoms of vitamin c anemia
mood changes, and depression
gum disease and loss of teeth due to the destabilised structure of collagen
poor wound healing due to the destabilised structure of collagen
corkscrew hairs due to destabilised structure of collagen in your scalp.
shortness of breath due to damaged collagen in your blood vessels
petechiae, or small red spots resulting from bleeding under the skin due to the damged
Scurvy’s symptoms can be hugely attributed to the damaged collagen, to fix this we need to produce
healthy and stable collagen, which vitamin c very capable of. Unlike some animals, we humans can
not synthesise vitamin c so we need to get it from the food we eat or oral suppliments. One can
increase the amount of vitamin c in their diet with the incorporation of foods such as
orange,grapefruit,lime and lemon among many others. Within 24 hours patients may see
improvements in their symptoms and start to recover with a week or two and possibly make a full
recovery in 3 months. The restored levels of vitamin c has started making healthy and stable
collagen once again, this is what cures symptoms such as damaged blood vessels, cork screw hairs,
gum disease and poor wound healing among others.
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Anaemia is when the body is lacking a substantial amount of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is essential
for the transport of oxygen so a lack of haemoglobin leads to a lack of oxygen transport to cells and
Patients may be lethargic and overexerted easily due to the lack of oxygen caused by the
absence of iron
Weird food cravings such as clay, ice and dirt due to…
White faced(pale) due to the lack of blood flow to the face
Inflamed tongue, the tongue will smooth instead of being textured due to the decreased
Increased heart rate, due to the inefficient transport of oxygen the heart pumps faster to
Reduced haemoglobin level, as iron is one of three components, which comprise
When patients take a blood smear test and the blood cells are inspected under a
microscope, the blood cells will be hypo-chromic (they will pale in colour) and
Nails will become koilonychia (spoon shaped)
In ability to concentrate
poor intake due to diet or during pregnancy in due to the high demand around the 9 month
Absorption problems such as intestinal surgery , celiac disease, Crohn’s disease or gastric
Blood loss from menstruation, hemroids and wounds etc
Patients should take Oral Iron supplements, to increase absorption they should take it with
something high in vitamin c (orange juice) and on a empty stomach. Patients should also
prepare it with a liquid a and drink through a straw as iron may stain teeth. Patients may
notice their faeces has darkened, this is normal when taking iron supplements. They may
also experience constipation which can be minimised by preparing it with a liquid and if
they are really being bothered by it they can get an over the counter stool softener. Patients
can expect to recover within a few months. This is possible due to the fact iron is a huge
component in haemoglobin, a substance carried by red blood cells to maximise the delivery
of oxygen. Restoring the amount iron in out blood restores the amount of haemoglobin in
our blood thus the amount if oxygen our cells get. The restored level of oxygen is what get
rid of symptoms such as lethargy, increased heart rate, over exertion, low haemoglobin
levels and pale face among many others.
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Crohn’s disease
Crohn’s disease is a sub category of IBD, which cause inflammation and ulcers at on the GI tract.
Crohn’s can be found all along the GI tract but is most commonly found from the terminal of the
ileum to the start of the colon. Crohn’s is found in patches, so it’s not found in one continuous
strand of infected lining, rather its found in patches of both healthy and inflamed lining. This leads to
a cobblestone like appearance when doctors look with a camera what they are seeing is the
inflamed and healthy lining contrasting each-other. There are 5 types of Crohn’s disease depending
on which part of the GI tract is infected. The first one is illeocolitis, which is the inflammation of the
ileum and colon, the second type is gastroduodenum crohns which is found in the stomach and
duodenum.The third type is jejunoileitis found in the jejunum and the fourth type is ileitis which can
be found at the ileum. The fifth type is granulomateus colitis, which can be found only at the
colon.Crohns effects the absorption of digestion as it usually targets the small intestine where a
huge amount of absorbtion takes place. Due to the lining of the small intestine being inflamed it can
not efficiently absorb nutrients from digestion
The cause of this disease is currently unclear, but scientists are certain that it’s a fault within the
immune system. This fault may be genetic and effect the gastrointestinal epethilial barrier. This
separates the content of the gut and immune system, a “crack” within the barrier causes the
immune system to over reacts to non-pathogenic antigens from the gut. Enviromental factors may
also increase the chance of Crohn’s disease but the only evidence to back this up is higher rates of
Crohns in developed countries.
Effects and complications
Within the walls of the intestine pockets of infections can form due to Crohn’s disease these pockets
of infections are referred to as abscess. Abscess can burst and form fistulas. Fistulas are unintended
pathways created in the intestinal walls. These pathways can lead to the skin surfaces, organs and
different parts of the intestine just to name a few. This can be detrimental, for an example lets say
the fistula leads to the bladder. The bladder is a rather sterile organ, which means its very sensitive
to bacteria so it can lead to things like sepsis and a renal failiure. Fistures can be categorised based
on where they lead to. A fisture going from one part of the intestine to another is known as Enteroenteric. A fisture leading to the anus is know as perianal. A fisture, which connects the intestine to
the bladder is referred to as entrovesical. There are more but these were just a few. Patients will
experience times when symptoms are present and damage is inflicted, these are referred to as flare
ups. Contrary to that patients will experience times when the symptoms are not present snd healing
takes place, these are referred to as remissions. Patients will experience a cycle of flare ups and
remissions, this continuous cycle of damage and healing creates scarred tissue.
Nutritional deficiencies as a result of having Crohns
People with Crohns disease may have a protein deficiency due to the damage sustained by the small
intestine due to fistulas and inflammation (thus hindering its ability to absorb protein), blood loss via
bloody stools, diarrhoea and the use of steroids such as prednisone. Protein deficiency can lead to
weak muscles and tiredness as protein(amino acid) is responsible for the structure of DNA and
muscle fibres
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Calcium deficiency may occur as the medication they take interferes with the absorption of calcium.
If parts of the ileum and jejunum have been removed due to surgery patients may be faced with a
magnesium deficiency.
Pain the lower quadrant of the abdomen, this is due to the fact the illeum is located there
which is the most commonly affected part of the gi tract.
Malnourishment, the small intestine is usually the target for Crohn’s and is where a majority
of absorption takes place, so the damaged small intestine can not properly absorb nutrients
thus leading to malnourishment.
Diarrhoea, this is due to the fact the cells in the large intestine have lost the ability to
reabsorb water properly and now the excess eater is being secreted via diarrhoea
One method of reducing the effects of Crohn’s is to avoid eating things which are hard to digest like
raw vegetables. This is a very good method as it doesn’t expose you to the risks of surgery, can be
cost effective, doesn’t require medical expertise from a doctor. However it is a part of some cultures
and religions to eat certain food which may be difficult to digest e.g muslims eat raw dates during
the month of Ramadan.
Another method is the use of drugs, different drugs are prescribed depending on the severity of
Crohn’s. If the case is mild patients are prescribed a 5-aminosalicylates or corticosteroids but if the
case is more severe they be prescribed immunosuppressants. 5-aminosalicylates are the first type of
drugs that will be prescribed to a patients, a common 5-aminosalicylates is sulfasalazine.
Sulfasalizine is an anti- inflammatory, it prevents flare ups and prolongs remissions thus allowing
damaged cells and tissue to repair and does not expose you to the risks of surgery(bleeding,
infection and surgical errors.) However if the patient is allergic to sulphonamide drugs or the drug
does not seem to be working patients may then be prescribed a corticosteroid. A common
corticosteroid is prednisone. Prednisone is also an anti-inflammatory drug that prevent flare ups and
pro long remission, which allows damaged tissue to heal and also suitable for long term use.
However this drug has many side effects such as increased blood sugar levels, risk of infection and
thinning of skin. If the case is severe and the patient is not responding to any of the medication
above they may need to take immunosuppressant drugs. A common type of immunosuppressant
drug is azathioprine. These drugs work by suppressing the immune system, which solves the
problem of the immune system overacting to antigens but due to the absence of the immune
system you are more prone to infection, cancer and can not take live vaccines.
Surgery may be required if there if a frequent intestinal obstruction or there is a tricky fistula or
abscess. However unlike other IBS, surgery is not an outright cure Crohn’s disease. This is due to the
fact Crohn’s effects the GI tract in patches and you can only selectively remove damaged tissue and
reconnect healthy ones. This surgery may improve symptoms but it exposes you to the risks of
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surgery ( infection, bleeding and surgical errors) and requires your time, surgical expertise and
recovery period.
The right treatment for you? (Treatment evaluation)
The ideal treatment may vary depending on your circumstance as these treatments vary from
another quite drastically. Anyones first resort when treating Crohn’s should be a dietary change as it
it requires little resources and commitment. If you are facing complications with food or symptoms
have not eased since the dietary change you will be prescribed sulphasalazine this treatment is for
those who have been recently diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. If you are still having frequent flare
ups or are allergic to sulpha drugs your doctor will give you corticosteroids as a short term fix as
these can cause serious side effects.this drug is for those who need a quick fix due to Crohn’s
affecting their day to day life and are willing to be affected by the side effects. Your doctor may also
prescribe immunosuppressants if the drugs mentioned have not seemed to be effective.
Immunosuppressant take weeks maybe months to kick in and when they do they leave you prone to
all sorts of pathogens. One should not take immunosuppressants if they work in a environment
which heavily expose the to dangerous pathogens(dustbin men, doctors and cleaner etc). This drug
is ideal for patients who work from home or spend a majority of their time at home, as they are not
exposed to dangerous pathogens. If your prescribed drug does not seem to be working or you have
developed a dangerous fistula you may be expected to undergo surgery but even the surgery does
not out right cure Crohns and you may have to take days off work to do the surgery and recover. You
will be expected to take anaesthetics during this surgery so if you have a history of not responding to
anaesthetics or are allergic to them you will not be able to undergo this surgery. This is for those
who are willing to expose them selves to the risk of surgery in order to keep their symptoms in
Argosy Publishing, Inc (2019). Mouth. [online] Visiblebody.com. Available at:
Body, V. (n.d.). Accessory Organs | Digestive Anatomy. [online]
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BBC Bitesize. (2019). Digestive system - Revision 7 - GCSE Biology (Single Science) BBC Bitesize. [online] Available at:
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the Healthline Editorial Team (2018). Nutritional Deficiencies (Malnutrition).
[online] Healthline. Available at:
www.medicalnewstoday.com. (2017). Scurvy: Symptoms, causes, treatment, and
prevention. [online] Available at:
www.youtube.com. (n.d.). Crohn’s Disease Nursing | Crohns Symptoms,
Pathophysiology, Treatment, Diet NCLEX - YouTube. [online] Available at:
https://youtu.be/WG8m66Hg5No [Accessed 3 Feb. 2021].
www.youtube.com. (n.d.). Crohn’s Disease: Pathophysiology, Symptoms, Risk
factors, Diagnosis and Treatments, Animation. - YouTube. [online] Available at:
https://youtu.be/Qm4XjKNVSzc [Accessed 3 Feb. 2021].
Cafasso, J. (2015). Iron Deficiency Anemia. [online] Healthline. Available at:
www.medicalnewstoday.com. (n.d.). Scurvy: Symptoms, causes, treatment, and
prevention. [online] Available at:
www.youtube.com. (n.d.). All About “Vitamin C” and “Scurvy” - YouTube. [online]
Available at: https://youtu.be/fstgOxlHxN4 [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
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