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1 Jamestown Roanoke Southern Colonies PPT

Colonial America
Chapter 3
Section 1: The Southern Colonies
Several European nations took
part in the race to claim lands
in the Americas. Their next
step was to establish colonies
in the lands that they claimed.
The first English colonies were
started in the late 1500s but
failed. Even in successful
colonies, colonists faced
hardships and challenges.
The Mystery of Roanoke
1584 Queen Elizabeth I gave Sir Walter Raleigh the
right to claim land in North America
His scouts said a place called Roanoke Island was a
good place for a colony (present-day North Carolina,
but Raleigh called it Virginia at the time)
Raleigh sent settlers there twice – 1st in 1585 which
they gave up and left after a tough winter; 2nd in
1587 Raleigh sent 91 men, 17 women, and 9
John White led the second group; his granddaughter,
Virginia Dare, was the first English child to be born in
North America
White had to leave for supplies, when he returned
the colony was deserted and the only clue was a tree
with the word Croatoan carved in it.
Queen Elizabeth I (left), Sir Walter
Raleigh (middle), and John White
Settlements in Jamestown
1605 - Joint-stock company of English merchants, The
London Company, asked King James I for the right to
found a settlement
1606 – King James I granted the request of the company
to settle in a region called Virginia
1607 (April 26) – First 105 colonists arrived in America.
1607 (May 14)- Colonists established the first
permanent English settlement, Jamestown 40 miles up
the James River
Many were unprepared and did not have skills in
farming and carpentry.
Two-thirds of the original settlers died by winter.
Powhatan Confederacy
1608 – John Smith took control of colony and
built a fort
He made people work harder and implemented a
rewards system that would reward the harder
workers with food.
Colonists received help from the Powhatan
Confederacy of Native Americans.
1609 – 400 more settlers arrived in
1610 – only 60 settlers remained due to
disease, famine.
Jamestown made no profit until John Rolfe
introduced a new type of tobacco that sold
well in England.
Powhatan, paramount
chief of the Powhatan
John Smith (top) and
John Rolfe (bottom)
Pocahontas – Debunking the Disney Myth
She was born around 1595 to the Powhatan Chief.
Her birth name was Matoaka. Pocahontas was a nickname
which meant “the naughty one” or the “spoiled one.”
She was a child (about age 10) at the time of John Smith’s
arrival and did not have a romance with him.
In his original writing, John Smith said he had a great feast
with the Powhatan chief after he sat and spoke with him. In
his letter to Queen Anne, he stated that Pocahontas saved
him. Scholars now believe he was pretentious in his writings
to gain notoriety in England.
Pocahontas went to the Jamestown settlement often to help
settlers when food supply was low.
Debunking the Disney Myth
On April 13, 1613, she was captured by Samuel Argall during one of
her visits, and held for ransom for some English planters being held
prisoner by her father.
John Rolfe took a “special interest” and conditioned her release upon
her marrying him. Rolfe was 29-years-old, Pocahontas about 17-19
years old.
Pocahontas was baptized under the name Rebecca Rolfe.
She went to England with Rolfe. She was used as propaganda to gain
support for the Virginia colony.
Pocahontas had one son, Thomas Rolfe.
She died in 1617 after becoming ill on her way back to Virginia from
England. She was buried in St. George’s Church in Gravesend, United
War in Virginia
1614 – John Rolfe married teenager Pocahontas, daughter of the
Powhatan leader
Their marriage helped ease relations between the English and
the Powhatan.
1617 – Pocahontas died while visiting England with John Rolfe.
1622 – colonists killed a Powhatan leader and they responded by
attacking the Virginia settlers later that year.
Fighting lasted for 20 years.
1624- The English Crown could not protect the English settlers,
and therefore canceled the London Company’s charter.
Virginia became royal colony under the authority of a governor
appointed by the king.
Daily Life in Virginia
People lived in scattered farms; tobacco farmers
established plantations.
Tobacco was so valuable was used as money sometimes
Headright System – colonists who paid their own way to
Virginia were given 50 acres of land; could earn another
50 acres for each additional person they brought over.
High death rates = labor shortages; majority of workers
were indentured servants – servants who signed
contracts to work for 4 to 7 years for those who paid for
their journey.
Expansion of Slavery
1619 – Dutch ship brings first Africans to Virginia.
Some Africans were servants; others were enslaved.
Some Africans became successful farmers when they’re contract was up
and even had slaves.
Anthony Johnson -The most prominent African American former
indentured servant to acquire freedom, wealth, and slaves.
The moment when the trend of slavery becoming race-based was
in a case with white indentured servants and a black servant
plotted to run away and stole food and gun powder.
Born c. 1600 in Angola and died in 1670.
The men were given variations of punishments, but the black man
was sentenced to life of servitude, establishing the first legal
instance of race-based slavery.
Bacon’s Rebellion
Jamestown economy began to grow due to
plantations; and officials asked for more taxes
 Mid-1600s – Poor colonists protested the taxes and
did not think the colony was well protected against
 1676 – Nathanial Bacon and some former indentured
servants launch attacks on friendly Native
 He
believed that colonists should be able to take the NA’s
 The governor, William Berkeley tried to stop him; Bacon
and his followers burned down Jamestown
 Bacon controlled most of the colony at one point, then
died of fever and rebellion ended.
Impact of Bacon’s Rebellion
Bacon’s Rebellion showed that whites and blacks could come
together to overthrow the elite and powerful.
 Before the rebellion, poor whites and blacks (slave or not)
interacted with each other as equals.
 After the rebellion, indentured servitude declined due to
finishing their servitude and going back to England, and the
African slave trade increased dramatically as their labor was
more profitable than indentured servants.
 The elite class was terrified, and began to move towards racebased slavery and labor. Militia jobs, such as plantation
overseers and slave catchers, were created for poor whites to
police people, mainly slaves.
Having poor whites given jobs to control slaves gave them a direct investment in
slavery, and eliminated the possibility of poor whites and black alliancing to
overthrow the elite, wealthy, plantation-owning class. (According to Michelle
Alexander’s book “The New Jim Crow)
Other Southern Colonies
1620s – the first Lord Baltimore George Calvert asked King
Charles I for a charter to establish a colony for Catholics in
King Charles issued the charter to his son Cecilius, the second Lord
Named it Maryland in honor of England’s queen Henrietta Maria.
Located just north of Virginia in Chesapeake Bay area
Maryland was a propriety colony meant that the owners
of the colony would control the government.
In 1634, 200 English Catholics came to Maryland
Maryland colonists learned lessons from Jamestown; raised corn,
cattle and hogs for food; then grew tobacco for profit
Maryland: Religious Tolerance
Catholics founded Maryland; but many Protestants begin moving
there in the 1640s
Religious conflicts arose between the two groups.
Resolution: Lord Baltimore presented a bill to the colonial
assembly known as the Toleration Act of 1649
The bill made it a crime to restrict the religious rights of
The Carolinas
In 1663, English king Charles II gave much of the land
between Virginia and Spanish Florida to eight of his
First there was Carolina, a single colony.
It was hard to manage due to things being far apart
1712 – the colony separated into North and South Carolina
N. Carolina mostly consisted of farmers that moved
south from Virginia
S. Carolina primarily had settlers from Europe.
Those who paid their own way received large grants of
land, and some brought enslaved Africans with them
By 1730 about 20,000 enslaved Africans were living in the
colony compared to 10,000 white farmers.
Carolinas were originally propriety colonies, but
the proprietors mismanaged the government
and were overthrown in 1719
The Crown bought North and South Carolina and
made them royal colonies in 1729
King George I granted a charter to James Oglethorpe and
other trustees to found Georgia in 1732
Oglethorpe wanted a new place for debtors, who had been
jailed for their debts in England
Oglethorpe and 120 colonists, mostly from England, founded
the city of Savannah.
Oglethorpe wanted many small farms instead of large
plantations owned by a few wealthy in Georgia
He outlawed slavery and limited the size of land grants.
Settlers grew unhappy with Oglethorpe’s strict rules and the
British government made GA a royal colony
Soon the coast was filled with large rice plantations worked
by thousands of slaves.
Types of Colonies
 Charter
– Charter Colonies were governed by
joint-stock companies or community
 Propriety
- Proprietary Colonies were
established in territories which had been
granted by the English Crown to one, or
more, proprietors who had full governing
 Royal
– Royal Colonies were ruled directly by
the English monarchy
Economies of the Southern States
Economy depended on agriculture
Other profits were made from exporting shipbuilding materials (wood
and tar) and deerskin trading with the Native Americans
Farmers in the South enjoyed warm climates and long growing seasons.
Many farmers grew cash crops (crops for profit) such as
tobacco, rice and indigo (a plant used to make blue dye)
Slavery was the main source of labor
Slavery was viciously brutal; Olaudah Equiano, a former
slave, recorded his experience.
Most southern states passed slave codes (laws to control
The more slaves in the colony, the stricter the slave codes
Some slaveholders were not allowed to free their slaves.