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Implications of online education

A theory is a set of principles, statements, and ideas relating to a specific subject. A theory
conceptualizes a phenomenon by describing, analyzing, explaining, and predicting it. Sometimes
a theory is referred to as a model, and the terms can be interchangeably used. But a model
commonly implies a visual representation of a concept or reality. Studies have revealed the benefit
of student engagement in predicting learner outcomes after engaging in online learning. This is a
key area of research since it is evident that many students from the low economic class and
participating in online learning are not fully engaged in distance learning because of the challenges
they encounter. Thus, a theory is required to analyze the factors that hinder students from poor
backgrounds from fully benefiting from online pedagogy on their transition from institutions of
higher learning.
After analyzing various sources, the theory of Cognitivism is seen as a “reaction to the rigid
emphasis by behaviorists on predictive stimulus and response." Theorists suggested the idea that
the mind takes a central role in learning. The mind is required to concentrate on what occurs
between the happenings of surrounding stimuli the reaction by a student. The importance of
Cognitivism theory is its focus on the cognitive mental process that cannot be observed in the
physical world. The theory is interdisciplinary and correlates with biology, computer science,
neuroscience, and philosophy, and explains brain workings and cognitive level developments.
These are basic tools for learning and knowledge acquisition hence explaining the development of
Cognitivism in many learning fields. Behaviorism is an important aspect of Cognitivism which
developed six taxonomies of learning. They are several steps in the learning process. Benjamin
Bloom established the taxonomy of learning and related it to intellectual skills, stress, and the
essence of solving problems. The following are the six steps of taxonomies of learning:
Creating: Using generating, organizing, or creating, bringing pieces together to make a
cohesive or functioning whole, and rearranging elements into the structure.
Evaluating: Using checking and criticizing to make decisions based on criteria and
Analyzing: Using distinguishing, organizing, and attributing techniques, break down
the material into component pieces and determine how the parts connect to a larger
structure or aim.
Applying: Implementing or executing a technique to carry it out or use it.
Understanding: Using interpreting, demonstrating, categorizing, summarizing,
implying, comparison, and explaining to create meanings from spoken, written, and
visual signals.
Remembering: Getting information out of long-term memory, identifying it, and
recalling it.
Azerbaijan, like other countries, instituted an emergency shutdown following the COVID19 outbreak in 2020, which had a huge impact on everyone's job and social connections.
Traditional schools and colleges were compelled to switch from a mostly face-to-face strategy
to a wholly online style almost overnight. This needed a significant shift in key teaching and
evaluation methods. This upheaval changed the higher education environment and had a
significant influence on learner learning experiences. Because traditional instruction and
learning methods were no longer viable, an age of emergency online learning was born.
Without necessary basic facilities or technical support to cope with the changing teaching
environment, traditional institutions were in strong conflict with distant education institutions
Gulnur,2021). In many cases, teaching institutions were obliged to change their instructional
materials to allow online material delivery without training or support. Even evaluation
procedures must be updated for online applications compared to traditional test rooms with
examiners. The outbreak forced professors to make tough adaptations. They were, however,
significantly more challenging for students, who must just not just to a new way of studying,
but to a host of different situations that affected their experience learning. For some children,
for example, it isn't easy to learn at home, which might be due to their socioeconomic status
(Gulnur, 2021). Also, because accessibility to study materials needed a computer and Internet
connection, this was a problem for some students and had a substantial impact on their learning
The above studies relate to the difficulties that the students in the country experienced,
especially those from lower social classes. These students experienced a series of problems
that impacted their cognitive response to learning processes. These effects can be analyzed
using the six steps of taxonomies of learning as accounted for below (Luisa and Alison, 2021);
Creating: Students in a fix to attend online class due to lack of internet may not relate
to what the instructor lectured because they may have failed to attend the class or
suffered poor connections.
Evaluating: A student who did not attend a class may not evaluate what the instructor
delivered during an online class.
Analyzing: the student will have a problem analyzing lectures' work due to difficulties
experienced in joining the online class.
Applying: where some techniques are relied on in the online session, the student may
not apply them when needed.
Understanding: the student will experience difficulty understanding a lecture presented
in their absentia.
Remembering: they may not store the lecture for a long time and hence have difficulty
in remembering.
Picciano, A. G. (2021). "Chapter 5 Theories and Frameworks for Online Education". In A Guide
to Administering Distance Learning. Leiden, the Netherlands: Brill.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004471382_005
Gulnur Kazimova. (2021). Azerbaijan’s Children Let Down by Online Learning. Retrieved
from: https://iwpr.net/global-voices/azerbaijans-children-let-down-online-learning
Luisa Bunescu, Alison Robinson Canham. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on access to online
and offline education in the EaP countries. https://eap-csf.eu/wp-content/uploads/Theimpact-of-COVID-19-on-access-to-online-and-offline-education.pdf