Uploaded by Dominique Banks

Ch 16 key terms and review questions

Key Terms
1. ascertainable criteria- peacemaking criminology term that
states that everyone involved in a criminal justice process should
understand the rules and procedures employed by the system
2. categorical imperative- term associated with the philosopher
Immanuel Kant. When applied to peacemaking, it means that
every decision should be logical enough to be applied to other
cases at other times
3. correct means- peacemaking criminology term coined by
Gandhi that describes how the problems of crime can only be
attained using processes that embody peacemaking principles
4. peacemaking criminology- theoretical perspective that focuses
on nonviolence, social justice, and reducing the suffering of both
the victim and the offender
5. thought crime- term coined by George Orwell in his novel
1984, in which the act of thinking about breaking a law is a
criminal offense
Review Questions
1. How is the war metaphor problematic for dealing with social
War metaphors become problematic due to being viewed as a
military tactic used to control or end a social issue such as war on
drugs or war on citizens. Neither of the “war terms' ' gives an
actual goal or external enemy to address.
2. How are the police and the military different, and how has
terrorism affected this difference?
Police are local enforcement which protects the peace and its
citizens. They’re jurisdiction is stipulated according to city or
county lines. The military is a national group used to protect and
enforce the laws of the United States in its home country and
abroad. Terrorism has changed the way both sets of law
enforcement protect the citizens in their city, state and country.
Police are now tasked with protecting citizens and identifying
domestic or international threats without the same training,
equipment, expertise or information used by the national
government. The military is tasked with coming up or staying
active to protect citizens against biological and now technological
weapons that may be used by their enemies.
3. How did September 11, 2001, affect the U.S. criminal justice
9/11 changed many things within the U.S. criminal justice system
such as the passing of the Patriot Act. This act allows the
government to protect and identify potential domestic and
international threats by taking more precautions such as how we
conduct ourselves prior to boarding airplanes and information
collected about citizens. Also, the Department of Homeland
Security was reorganized and other agencies received increased
responsibility to help with terrorist threats such as training,
equipment and funding.
4. What two sweeping and controversial components of the USA
Patriot Act concern criminal justice students?
Criminal justice students are concerned with the newfound power
given to government agencies over U.S. citizens. The
restructuring of agencies allows information to be collected about
citizens and weakens the rights given to citizens under the
5. How has terrorism affected local criminal justice agencies?
Terrorism left states to scrambling to find ways to deal with
terrorist and potential threats. Cities had to create contingency
plans of what to do and how to respond to a terrorist act. This
also left local governments with a need for more funding to
facilitate this action.
6. What three intellectual traditions did peacemaking criminology
develop from?
The three intellectual traditions that were developed by
peacemaking criminology were religion, feminism and critical
traditions. Religion is viewed as a meaningful contribution to the
communities and holds transformative power. Feminism desires a
system free of gender and that treats all individuals equally.
Critical traditions such as social class, age and race are a part of
the way to understand how to mend or create peace between two
7. What are the steps of the peacemaking pyramid?
Nonviolence, violence is minimal and should only be used as a
last resort.
Social justice, the power of those who enforce and enact laws
that don’t serve the interest of all people.
Inclusion, a peacemaking solution that requires the criminal
justices to seek cooperation from both parties to obtain peace.
Correct means, principles used to obtain a good solution to a
problem of crimes
Ascertainable criteria, a clear understanding of the process the
criminal justice system employs.
8. What is restorative justice?
Restorative justice is an alternative approach to dealing with the
harm done by offenders. Instead of traditional criminal courts,
community programs are used to respond to crime. A solution is
found to accomodate all parties instead of the usual mean used
by the criminal justice system.