Exam I Chapter 1 – 3 Study Guide Chapter 1 What is Biology? Be able to list and explain the characteristics of living things and be able to identify examples What are the levels of biological organization in order and know the definitions of each level? What is the purposeod the scientific method? Know the steps of the scientific method in order and explain each Know the hierarchical taxons in order Why the taxon, domain, considered the most inclusive? Why is species considered the most exclusive? What are the 3 domains? Know the basic characteristics of each What are the 4 kingdoms in domain eukarya? Know their basic characteristics of each What is the binomial naming system and which taxons are important for generating the scientific name? What is the scientific method? Know the steps in order and what occurs/definitions of each step. Compare control versus test/experimental groups. Why are control groups important? What do scientists due with the data and conclusions from experiments? What is a theory in science? Is it the same as laments terms? How much weight does a theory hold in the science community? Chapter 2 What is the basic functional unit of matter? Recall what is the basic unit of life? Note: don’t confuse a cell with an atom. An atom is the basic unit of all matter…living and nonliving…cells are the basic unit of life. Non-living things atoms/molecules are not organized into cells. Living things are made of atoms that form molecules that DO organize themselves into cells. Hence why cells are considered the basic unit of LIFE What 4 elements make up 95% of living things? Describe basic atomic structure. What are the subatomic particles, their location, charge and mass? What is the atomic number of an atom? (its equal to the number of ______________) How is the periodic table arranged in reference to the atomic number? What is the mass number of an element? How can we calculate the number of neutrons in an element if we know the element in question? What are isotopes? Do isotopes if the same element have the same mass or a different mass? Why? Compare and contrast groups and periods? Know that atoms in the same period have the same binding characteristics and reactivity as they have the same number of valence electrons What are electron shells? How many electrons can the innermost shell accommodate? How many electrons can all other shells accommodate? What are valence electrons? Explain the octet rule? Compare and contrast the 3 types of chemical bonding? What is an ion? Differentiate between a cation and an anion? Explain the steps in the formation of the ionic bond that forms sodium chloride Differentiate between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds List examples of polar and non polar compounds What are hydrogen bonds? What are the properties of water? Differentiate between a solvent, solute, and solution Differentiate between hydrophilic and hydrophobic? Relate a substances relationship with water to its polarity Differentiate between cohesion and adhesion Explain surface tension. Relate it to hydrogen bonding between water molecules. What does it mean that water has a high heat capacity and how does that relate to homeostasis of living things? Compare and contrast acids and bases in relation to the numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions that produce in solution? Water is neutral. What does that mean in relation to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions? Describe the ph scale The lower the pH below 7 the more hydrogen ions are present in solution The higher the pH above 7 the more hydroxyl ion are present in solution What is a buffer and why are they important to living things? Define an organic molecule and be able to identify them What are the 4 categories of biological molecules and their functions? Differentiate between monomers and polymers know what the monomers and polymers are called for each category of biological molecule What are the function of carbohydrates? What are the varieties of lipids? Explain the difference in saturated and unsaturated fats Explain the structure of a phospholipid and how they aggregate to form the plasma membrane of cells. What part of the phospholipid is hydrophilic, what part is hydrophobic? What are the functions of proteins What are the monomers of proteins? What are the 4 levels of protein structure and briefly explain each one What are the 2 varieties of nucleic acids and what are their functions? What are nucleic acids made of? What are nucleotides made of? How are nucleotides arranged to form DNA? Explain the rules of complementation of DNA? Chapter 3 Recognize the key components of the cell plasma membrane. How are the phospholipids arranged in the plasma membrane? What is the function of the plasma membrane? Explain how the plasma membrane regulates the passage of molecules into and out of the cell. Identify the characteristics common to all cells. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Identify the general function of the organelles in a eukaryotic cell. Compare and contrast active versus passive transport? Explain concentration gradients and relate that to passive and active transport. Compare and contrast the types of passive transport that can be used by cells. Osmosis is the diffusion of ____________, not solute. Explain osmosis and the effect it has on cells in environments of different tonicities. What is a hypotonic environment for a cell? What are the consequences in plant and animal cells? What is a hypertonic environment for a cell? What are the consequences in plant and animal cells? What is an isotonic environment for a cell? What are the consequences? Describe how active transport is accomplished.