Module 06 (Part I) THE SEXUAL SELF Also known as sexual selfhood •How one thinks about himself or herself as a sexual individual • Constitutes of sexual behavior, response and orientations • Affected by physical, psychological, spiritual and cultural factors. • Sexual body parts are called “white meat/dark meat” •Women should not experience sexual pleasure; if they do, there is something wrong • Ejaculation is viewed to have negative effects such as blindness, insanity and death. Psychological Perspective • Sexuality also involves emotions, thoughts and beliefs other than physicality • Sigmund Freud became one of the most prominent people to explain sexuality •Humans need to satisfy their need for general pleasure (libido) through sex instinct • Erogenous Zones – areas of the body containing sexual energy • Erogenous zones vary depending on the person‘s psychosexual stage. 20th century up to present discussion of Sexuality is slowly accepted in the PERSPECTIVES ON society HUMAN SEXUALITY Separation of church and state reduced the Historical Perspective (6) influence of religion on sexuality Ancient Greece Pregnancy is naturally and males are considered artificially controlled Psychosexual Stages of dominant. Increase in cases of sexually Development Penis is associated with fertility transmitted diseases • Oral Stage – mouth; through eating and male physique is greatly Feminism is established. and sucking admired. • Anal Stage – anus; through defecation Females are seen as property Biological Perspective (8) • Phallic Stage – genitals; through Females also have no legal, civil and political rights; • Brain is the source of sexual behavior autoerotic sexual activity • Latency Stage – no erogenous zone; • Puberty affects the sexuality of the They were just seen as bearers activities focus on sociality person of children. • Genital Stage – genitals; through • Ova – egg cells produced by ovaries Middle Ages (476 – 1450) (Church had sexual activity with others. • Spermatozoa – live sperm cells strong influence to sexuality.) Also; produced by testicles Sexual acts that do not lead to As for social learning theory, • Fertilization may occur during procreation are considered sexuality develops from intercourse and pregnancy (gestation “evil”. behavior learned from others. period) begins • Females were labeled either • Biological sexuality is determined as temptress (Eve) or a woman Religious Perspective (5) within 16th to 18th weeks of gestation of virtue (Virgin Mary) period Protestant Reformation of the 16th Judaism • Females have XX chromosomes century (1483 – 1546) the movement •marital sex is blessed by God and is against the corruption of church was led • Males have XY chromosomes. pleasurable for both sexes by Martin Luther, John Calvin and others Sociobiological/Evolutiona • Sexual connection improves Sexuality is a natural part of life spirituality ry Sexual acts are for Islam, sexual abstinence within Perspective (5) strengthening the physical and marriage is prohibited Sexual behavior starts from emotional bond physical attraction 17th and 18th century (Puritans Muslim Sexual preferences have became discontented with the Church • Men are allowed to have up to 4 evolutionary influences of England) Big breasts produce more milk for wives Premarital sex is considered • Muslim women are only allowed to offspring’s survival immoral have 1 husband Muscled males ensure safety and Victorian Era (1837 – 1901) • Extramarital sex is not allowed. security of the child homosexuality and prostitution were Love, care and responsibility considered threats to social order. Taoism provide good life for the offspring • People are not comfortable using terms such as breasts and buttocks • Sex is a sacred union necessary for overall well-being • Sexual union is a way to balance male and female energy. Hinduism •Sexuality is a spiritual force. • Sex is a way of transcending oneself. Catholicism •Marriage is purely for intercourse and procreation •Homosexual orientation is not sinful •Homosexual acts are considered sinful • Artificial birth control and abortion are opposed • Natural family planning is supported. Module 6 ( Part II) SEXUAL TERMINOLOGIES Terminologies on Sexuality •Hypersexual – person with excessive interest in sex which cause problems. PHASES OF HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE Human Sexual Response Cycle Developed by William Masters and Virginia Johnson Has 4 stages of erotic responses: 1. Excitement – initial physical response to sexual arousal; increased heart rate and blood pressure, heightened muscle tone 2. Plateau – sexual excitement before orgasm;intensification of physical response 3. Orgasm – waves of intense pleasure (climax); vaginal contractions and ejaculation 4. Resolution – body returns to nonexcited state. Triphasic Model of Sexual Response • Developed by Helen Singer Kaplan • Sex – came from Latin word secare (to • Includes only sexual desire, divide); biological indicator (i.e., male excitement and orgasm and female) • Sexual Identity – sexual orientation Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory (homosexual/heterosexual), • Developed by David Reed management of sexual feelings and • Focuses on Psychological aspects of behavior sexual response • Gender – label of sexuality that 1. Seduction – physical attractiveness is involve personal perspective (e.g., enhanced for the person woman, lesbian) 2. Sensation – arousal becomes • Gender Role – set of expectations on affected by sexes by the society. sensed sound, touch and smell • Gender Assignment – initial 3. Surrender – the person “loses itself” assignment of being male or female upon orgasm. that occurs before birth; natal gender 4. Reflection – evaluation of sexual • Gender Reassignment – change of experience. gender • Gender Identity – set of CHEMISTRY OF LUST, LOVE characteristics regarding sexuality that AND involves one‘s subjective sense of being ATTRACTION a man or woman Lust and Attraction • Masculinity – qualities and behavior • Lust – intense physical attraction associated to men • Attraction – characteristic that causes • Femininity – qualities and behavior pleasure or interest by appealing to a associated to women. Androgyny – combination of masculine person‘s desires, and causes one to be drawn to the other and feminine traits. • The desire for beauty is naturally • Asexual – person who does not developed and exists even in infants experience sexual drives or attractions • Images of beauty are automatically processed by the brain •Universal hallmarks of beauty include symmetry, averageness, skin, hair, eyes, height, weight and age. Love • Love is not merely an emotion • It is an addiction and motivation • When we experience love, the dopamine system of the body is activated – which is responsible for anticipation of reward and pleasure • Dopamine is also linked to addiction and cravings to certain substances • Unlike other emotions, love is not associated with any specific facial expressions • Emotions blended with love come and go but motivation remains with love • Sex is not the best thing about love. Theories of Love Three Phases of Romantic Love (Helen Fisher et al.) 1. Lust Phase – intense craving for sexual contact 2. Attraction Phase – couples are infatuated and pursue a relationship 3. Attachment Phase – long-term bond between partners; feeling of security, comfort and emotional union. John Lee’s Love Styles 1. Eros – physical attraction and sexual desire; prone to love at first sight; quickly fall in and out of love 2. Agape – unconditional and selfless love 3. Storge – friendship and nonsexual affection; love grows gradually and prioritizes commitment, stability and comfort 4. Ludus – sees love as a game and source of entertainment; no jealousy, commitment and intimacy; manipulative 5. Mania – obsessive and possessive love; intense jealousy; easily taken advantage by ludus. 6. Pragma – practical; logical and based on appropriateness; neutral intensity of love. Triangular Theory of Love (Robert Sternberg) Love has 3 components: • Intimacy – desire to give and receive emotional closeness, support and care • Passion – physical attraction and sexual desire • Commitment – decision to maintain relationship. Love has 7 types that is consisting the component(s): • Liking (intimacy) – friendly relationship • Infatuation (passion) – love at first sight; fades quickly • Empty Love (commitment) – couple that stays together just for other important reasons such as children • Romantic Love (passion + intimacy) – emotional intensity and sexual excitement; first phase of relationship. •Companionate Love (intimacy + commitment) – more durable than romantic love and experienced by long deeply committed friends and marriage where passion is lost • Fatuous Love (passion + commitment) – felt by couples who had short time of courtship and suddenly decided to be married. •Consummate Love (intimacy + passion + commitment) – experienced by couples ideal for each other. Chemistry of Love •Dopamine – responsible for motivation and pleasure-seeking behavior • Norepinephrine – responsible for attention and physiological reactions such as faster heart beat • Serotonin – responsible for regulation of emotions and decreases during infatuation • Phenylethylanine – increases dopamine and norepinephrine; considered as the “love drug” because it is associated with happiness in couples as well as in orgasm. •Oxytocin – responsible for trust and social bonding; also increases during orgasm • Vasopressin – responsible also for bonding as well as social behavior and memory formation • Endorphins – responsible for euphoria, security and peace •Behavioral Reinforcement Theory - a positive feelings arise whenever we experience rewards due to behavior, and behavior tends to be repeated based on how intense the feelings are • Physiological Arousal Theory – body experiences physiological change first, then people assign an emotion for that • Evolutionary Theory – love is a result of sociobiological need for survival • Love is affected by physical attractiveness, reciprocity, proximity and similarities. • Bisexual – sexually oriented to both male and female. • Pansexual – sexual orientation is towards all genders; more fluid than bisexual • Transgender – broad spectrum of individuals who identify themselves with a gender different from their natal gender • Transsexual – individuals who had undergone gender/sexual reassignment • Gender Dysphoria – mental disorder associated with significant distress between one‘s expressed gender and assigned gender. Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) • Human Immunodeficiency Virus – causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); attacks and destroys the immune system; lessens the intensity by antiretroviral therapy • Genital Herpes – caused by herpes Sexual Behavior and Orientation simplex virus; causes sore, pain and itching on genital area Types of Sexual Behavior • Genital Warts – caused by human • Sociosexual Behavior – sexual act papillomavirus; characterized by warts involving more than one person that causes pain and itching in genitals • Solitary Behavior – self-masturbation • Gonorrhea – caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae; discharge in penis and or -stimulation with the intention of burning sensation during urination for causing arousal, pleasure and orgasm males, and irritating vaginal discharge in • Children may masturbate at a very females. young age unless taught to inhibit this •Syphilis – caused by Treponema solitary behavior pallidum; causes genital pain, skin • Self-stimulation relieves stress and rashes and even blindness, mental lowers blood pressure as well as disorders and death improvement of man’s fertility and • Chlamydia – caused by Chlamydia reduction of risk for prostate cancer trachomatis; no serious symptoms on • Perspective about masturbation the initial stage but can damage differs between cultures. female‘s reproductive system if left untreated. Person‘s preference regarding sexual behavior, emotional attachment or Contraceptions physical attraction to one or both sexes; •Used to prevent unwanted pregnancy • Can be natural or artificial. • Homosexual – sexual orientation is towards the same sex Methods of Contraceptions • Lesbian – female to female • Hormonal Method of Contraception – • Gay – male to male prevents the release of egg cells or • Heterosexual – sexual orientation is ovulation towards the opposite sex • Oral Contraceptives – pills that contain estrogen and progestogen, or progestin • Patch – small patch that is sticked on skin which releases estrogen and progestogen • Ring – small plastic ring that is inserted to the vagina monthly • Implants – small flexible rod that is inserted in the skin of the upper arm • Injectables – injection that lasts long •Barrier Methods – physically or chemically blocks the sperm from reaching the egg cell • Diaphragm – covers the cervix and can be used up to 30 hours • Cervical Caps – similar to diaphragm but are smaller and can be used up to 72 hours • Male and Female Condoms – covers the penis or vagina • Spermicides– applied to the vagina and kills sperm cells. Behavioral Methods -prevents pregnancy by controlling sexual behavior • Rhythm or Calendar Method – charting the menstrual cycle to determine woman‘s date of infertility • Abstinence or Celibacy – avoidance to sexual intercourse • Outercourse – sexual activity that does not include insertion of penis into the vagina • Withdrawal or Coitus Interruptus – removal of penis and ejaculates outside the vagina. Sterilization -procedures that make one to be permanently infertile • Tubal Ligation/Sterilization – surgery for women wherein the fallopian tubes are tied to prevent the eggs from travelling to the uterus • Vasectomy – surgery for men which involves the cutting of upper part of the scrotum and blocking of the vas deferens. • Intrauterine Device (IUD) – small device placed in the uterus • Emergency Contraception – method • Self-expressive Functions that is used toprevent pregnancy after reflections of a person’s uniqueness. unprotected sex has already occurred. ECONOMIC SELF PRESENTATION AND IDENTITY Economics is a science that Module 07 deals with production, exchange and THE MATERIAL/ ECONOMIC consumption of various commodities. - How people make use of things they SELF have, and of making the right decisions. MATERIAL SELF Economic self-sufficiency – PRESENTATION AND IDENTITY ability of individual and family to consistently sustain their John Heskett suggested that needs. designs of an object used by a Economic Identity person represents its identity. Your concept of self as reflected Involves categorization of economic status. in a total of all the tangible things you own Ex Watch, glass, Professional development, self determination, motivation and make up and etc. values affect the economic identity of an individual. ROLAND BARTHES • Popularized the field of Semiology SYMBOLIC MOTIVES • The study of objects as signs STATUS • Sign is anything that conveys the extent to which people believe meaning. they can derive a sense of recognition or achievement from owning and using the right kind of TWO ELEMENTS OF SIGN product. Materialism – importance ascribed to SIGNIFIER the ownership of material goods in o Physical form of an object. achieving life goals. SIGNIFIED o Mental concept or interpretation. AFFECTIVE MOTIVES Affect (emotions) that serves as a SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS motivator of pre-environmental A method to interpret meanings behind symbols and how the meanings behavior. Anticipated affect – an expectation are created. to feel good or guilty when doing something. THEORY OF THE MEANING OF MATERIAL POSSESSIONS (4) ROLE OF CONSUMER Suggests that material goods can CULTURE ON THE SENSE OF fulfill a range of instrumental, social, SELF AND IDENTITY symbolic and affective functions. Consumer Identity – the pattern of • Instrumental Functions – consumption that describes the functional properties of product. consumer. Pertains how useful the material is. Consumerism – preoccupation towards • Societal Symbolic Functions – buying consumer goods in eversocial status and gender role. Ex increasing amount. Iphone • Categorical Functions – group membership to return. : • Whatever happens to the soul also happens to the body • Soul is not found in a specific part of the body, but the soul is the whole body itself Module 08 THE PRACTICE OF RELIGION • The soul of a baby is weak, so they are prone to “usug” – the unintentional transfer of disturbing vapors from a • Religion involves the belief in strong soul to a weaker one by holding, supernatural beings – any being that can’t be explained by the laws of nature talking or looking. and above all creatures in the Bisayan Dungan natural world (e.g., gods and ghosts) • Has a secondary meaning of “willpower” THE PRACTICE OF RELIGION • Constant companionship of two • Church goers are more people motivated to behave in a may lead to spiritual competition and socially acceptable way the defeated soul will be sick • Such actions are encouraged • They also believe that the separated by the church in addition to soul from a dead person waits until it deepening of faith can find another body to enter. THE CONCEPT OF SPIRIT • Animism – from the Latin word anima RITUALS AND CEREMONIES (meaning breath or soul), it is a belief • Ritual – religious activity that every object has its own soul consisting of series of actions in • In Filipino, spirit or soul is known as “kaluluwa”, “ikararuwa”, or “kararuwa” a prescribed order (e.g., killing a goat as an offering to the – derived from “duwa” which means gods) two. • These are formalized behaviors that allow communities to THE CONCEPT OF SPIRIT explore and develop their • The soul has two parts, the physical religiosity and the spiritual part •Rites – spoken words used in rituals that convey meaning Ibanags and value. •Soul is the principle of life • As long as the body and soul are one, •Ceremony – formal movements or gestures expressing feelings or beliefs the person is alive beyond the limitations of speech (e.g., • Death entails the separation of the wedding and graduation) soul from the body. • Wizard – person who has knowledge in the secrets of the supernatural world • Necromancer – the one who makes contact with the dead • Mambabarang (sorcerer) – a person who uses small insects to infest a body, causing the intestine, liver, stomach and lungs to swell during high tides and shrink during low tides. •Mangkukulam (witch) – person who uses black magic towards the victim which results to illness or misfortunate events. •Albulario/Mananambal (witch doctor) – person who uses various traditional medicines and rituals to reverse the black magic given by the witch, which leads to the recovery of the person from “kulam” Most Filipinos also believe in the existence of mythical creatures such as “kapre”, “aswang”, “manananggal”, “tiyanak” and other beings • Stories about the encounter with such creatures are passed from generations to the next, which results in folklores RELIGION, SPIRITUALITY AND IDENTITY • Religion – organized set of beliefs, practices, rituals and symbols that increases a person’s connection to sacred being(s) • Religiousness – degree of how much Ilonggos MAGIC AND WITCHCRAFT one is affiliated with a religion in terms •Soul or “dungan” is of itsparticipation, commitment invisible but can sometimes show itself • Magic – supernatural power that and faith. in the form of an insect or small animal influences the course of events • Spirituality - very personal and • Magician – the one who performs individual journey into the inner terrain Bisayans • Soul may voluntarily leave the body magic such as casting a spell that makes of one’s own soul and existence which the weather rainy. benefits self and others. when sleeping • Sorcerer – uses magical • The sleeping person must not be potions, drugs and poisons awakened quickly in order for the soul • Spiritual Identity –persistent sense of self that addresses the ultimate questions about nature, purpose and meaning of life. FINDING AND CREATING THE MEANING IN LIFE Logotherapy – devised by Victor Frankl, this aims to help one to search for the meaning of its existence Meaning can be discovered by the following ways: • Creative – by creating a work or deed • Experiential – by encountering someone or experiencing something • Attitudinal – by the attitude we take towards unavoidable suffering THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES IN LOGOTHERAPY • Meaning in Life – existence is experiencing ups and downs • Suffering is inevitable • Finding the meaning in life does not mean becoming perfect • Will to Meaning – people have the primary motivation to find meaning and this allows us to endure pain and suffering • Freedom to Will – people always have the freedom to find their own meaning in life whatever the situation they face.