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B. Com. Part-III : Advance Accountancy Paper-I (Old) Paper-III (New)
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-VI
Unit No. 2
Material Issue Pricing
Objectives : After studying this unit students should be able to i) Understand the meaning of pricing of material Issues.
ii) Know the most important and useful methods of issue of material
iii) Maintain store Ledger Account
Structure : 2.1
Methods of pricing of material issues
First in First out Method
Last in First out Method
Simple Average Method
Weighted Average Method
Self Assessment Questions
Fill in the blanks
Short Notes
Further Readings
2.1 Meaning :
Materials purchased are kept in stores and issued to different jobs or work orders. These
jobs or work crders are charged with the cost of materials issued to them. This is called pricing
of material issues.
Prices paid for purchases made at different times may be different. While issuing these
materials, it is essential to consider the price at which it should be charged to jobs or work
There are different methods of pricing materials issues. The selection of a proper method
of pricing of material issues depends on many factors e.g.
1) Nature of businees.
2) Frequency of purchase of materials
3) Durability of stock
4) Length of inventory turnover period
5) Range of price fluctuations etc.
2.2 Methods of Pricing Material Issues :
Some important and mostly used methods of pricing of material issues are as follows.
2.2.1 First in First out (FIFO) Method :
This method of pricing the issues is based on the assumptiion that the materials purchased
and received first in store are issued first to the job. It means the materials are issued in the
order in which they are received. The price of the earliest lot of purchase is taken first and
when that is exhausted, the price of the next lot of purchase is adopted and so on. In other
words, the materials are issued at the oldest cost price. The closing stock is valued at latest or
current price.
This method is suitable when prices are falling. It is also useful if transactions are few and
prices of material remain stable. In case of perishable materials this method is best applicable.
Advantages :
The following are the advantages of FIFO method.
i) It is simple to understand and easy to operate.
ii) It is based on logical and sound principle that materials are issued in order of purchase.
iii) The closing stock is valued at a more recent price.
iv) Materials are priced at actual cost hence no unrealised profit or loss arises.
v) Deterioration and obsolescence can be avoided by exhausting oldest materials at the
time of issue.
Disadvantage :
This method suffers from the following disadvantages.
i) The calculation becomes difficult and complecated when purchases are made very
frequently at different prices.
ii) Issue price does not reflect current market price.
iii) Cost of production tends to be high during the period of falling prices.
iv) The pricing of material returns is difficult.
v) Cost comparision between two similar job becomes difficult when issues are priced
2.2.2 Last in First out (LIFO) Method :
This method is exactly opposite of FIFO method. It is based on the assumption that the
material purchased and received last in store are issued first to the job. Under this method the
cost of last lot of materials purchased is used for pricing the material issues. Thereafter the
price of next earlier lot is taken and so on. In other words, the materials are issued at the latest
cost price. The closing stock of materials are valued at the oldest cost price.
In case of a rising price LIFO method is suitable because material is issued at current
Advantages :
The following are the advantages of LIFO method.
i) It is simple to operate and easy to understand.
ii) It is appropriate for matching cost and revenue.
iii) Closing stock will be valued at earlier price and will not, therfore show unrealised
iv) It shows real income in times of rising prices.
v) It is good method of avoiding tax.
Disadvantage :
The main disadvantages of LIFO method are as followes.
i) Calculations become complicated when rates of receipts are highly fluctuating.
ii) Closing stock are not valued at current market price. It is valued at unreal and outdated
iii) The stocks require to be adjusted during falling prices.
iv) Due to variation of prices, comparision of cost of similar job is not possible.
v) This method is not useful in case of perishable materials.
2.2.3 Simple Average Method :
Under this method materials are issued at the average price of materials on hand on the
date of issue. The simple average price is calculated dividing the total of all rates of material in
hand by the number of rates. The lot which is exhausted, based on FIFO method is excluded in
computing the average.
Total of Different Rates
Rate of Issue =
No. of Rates
This method is useful when the materials are received in uniform quantities and purchase
prices are normally stable.
Advantages :
Following are the advantages of simple average method.
i) This method is easy to operate.
ii) It gives reasonably accurate results if prices are stable.
Disadvantage :
Following are the disadvantages of simple average method.
i) Materials are not priced at actual costs.
ii) It does not take into account the quantity of materials purchased.
iii) Varification of closing stock becomes difficult.
iv) When price and quantity of different lots are widly fluctuates, this method gives incorrect
2.2.4 Weighted Average Method :
This method gives due importance to quantity of material in stock. Under this method
issue price of material is calculated by dividing the value of materials in stock by the quantities
of material in stock
Value of material in stock
Rate of Issue =
quantities of material in stock
Weighted average rate is calculated each time when a fresh lot is received. It remains the
same till the next lot is received. Thus issue price are calculated at the time of receipt of
material and not all the times of issue of material.
This method is useful, where the purchase price and quantities of material are widely
Advantages :
i) Easy to calculate and operate.
ii) Closing stock value is acceptable.
iii) When prices fluctuate considerably, it smooths out the fluctuations.
iv) This method is more logical than the simple average method.
Disadvantages :
i) The issues are not priced at current market price.
ii) Issue price of materials does not represent actual cost price and therefore a profit or
loss may arise.
iii) It involves considerable amount of clerical work.
Illustration - 1
The following is a summary of the recepits and issues of materials in a factory during the
month of April.
Rate per unit
Prepare a statement showing the pricing of issues on the basis of a) FIFO method
b) LIFO method
c) Simple Average method
d) Wighted Average method
Solution :
Material code .................. Bin No. .............. Maximum Level ...................
Type / Size .................... Location code ........... Minimum Level ....................
Ref. Qty. Rate
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
2000 10
2000 10
10 12000 800
8000 100
2400 200
1200 100
1400 300
Material code .................. Bin No. .............. Maximum Level ...................
Type / Size .................... Location code ........... Minimum Level ....................
Ref. Qty. Rate
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
2000 10
2000 10
9000 1100 10
1100 10
8000 300
2200 300
Material code .................. Bin No. .............. Maximum Level ...................
Type / Size .................... Location code ........... Minimum Level ....................
Ref. Qty.
Rate Amt.
Rs. Rs.
Ref. Qty.
Amt. Qty. Rate Amt.
1200 10+12
13200 1100
= 11
12000 300
2467 400
200 12+14+11
d) STORES LEDGER ACCOUNT (Weighted Average)
Material code .................. Bin No. .............. Maximum Level ...................
Type / Size .................... Location code ........... Minimum Level ....................
Ref. Qty. Rate
1300 10.84 14088
1000 10.84 10840 300
2300 10.26 23600
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
Rs. Rs.
1200 10.26 12312 1100
600 10.91 6548
200 10.91 2182 400
Illustration - 2
The following transactions took place in respect of material x during the month of January
1 - Opening stock 50 tons at Rs. 1000 per ton
2 - Issued 30 tons
6 - Received 60 tons at Rs. 1100 per ton
9 - Issued 25 tons (Stock verification reveals loss of one ton)
10 - Received back from orders 10 tons (previously issued at Rs. 990 per ton)
11 - Issued 40 tons
22 - Received 22 tons at Rs. 1200 per ton
31 - Issued 33 tons.
You are required to write up the stores ledger Account under the - a) FIFO Method
b) LIFO Method
Solution :
Material code .....X........ Bin No. .............. Maximum Level ...................
Type / Size .................... Location code ........... Minimum Level ....................
Ref. Qty. Rate
ton Rs.
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
ton Rs. Rs. ton Rs.
50 1000 50,000
1000 30000 20 1000 20000
1100 66000
20 1000 20000
1000 20000
1100 5500
1100 1100
60 1100
54 1100
54 1100
1100 44000 14 1100
1200 26400
14 1100
22 1200 26400
1100 15400
990 9900
1200 10800 13 1200 15600
Material code .....X........ Bin No. .............. Maximum Level ...................
Type / Size .................... Location code ........... Minimum Level ....................
Jan 2010
Ref. Qty. Rate
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
Rs. Rs.
1100 66000
20 1000 20000
1100 27500 20 1000 20000
1100 1100
34 1100
20 1000 20000
1000 30000 20 1000 20000
60 1100
50 1000 50,000
990 9900
20 1000 20000
1100 33000
1200 26400
20 1000 20000
22 1200 26400
1200 26400
1100 4400
1000 7000
13 1000 13000
Illustration - 3
Prepare a statement showing the pricing of issues on the basis of (a) simple Average and
(b) Weighted Average Methods from the following information during a month.
Date 1 - purchased 100 units @ Rs. 10.00 each
2 - purchased 200 units @ Rs. 10.20 each
5 - Issued 250 units to joab A vide MR. No. 1
7 - purchased 300 units @ Rs. 10.50 each
10 - purchased 200 units @ Rs. 10.80 each
13 - Issued 200 units to job B vide MR No. 2
18 - Issued 200 units to job c vide MR No. 3
20 - purchased 100 units @ Rs. 11.00 each
25 - Issued 150 units to job D vide MR No. 4
a) STORES LEDGER ACCOUNT (Simple Average Method)
Ref. Qty. Rate
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
Rs. Rs.
100 10.00 1000
200 10.20 2040
MR 250 10.10 2525
300 10.50 3150
200 10.80 2160
MR 200 10.50 2100 350
MR 200 10.65 2130 150
MR 150 10.90 1635 100
100 11.00
Notes - Issue Rates
1) MR No. 1 -
10.00 + 10.20
2) MR No. 2 -
= 10.10
10.20 + 10.50 + 10.80
3) MR No. 3 -
10.50 + 10.80
4) MR No. 4 -
10.80 + 11.00
= 10.50
= 10.65
= 10.90
While calculating simple Average price we have to taken into consideration only those
prices of goods which are in the stock.
b) STORES LEDGER ACCOUNT (Weighted Average Method)
Ref. Qty. Rate
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
100 10.00 1000
100 10.00 1000
200 10.20 2040
300 10.13 3040
250 10.13 2533
50 10.13
300 10.50 3150
350 10.45 3657
200 10.80 2160
550 10.58 5817
MR 200 10.58 2116 350 10.58 3701
MR 200 10.58 2116 150 10.58 1585
100 11.00
250 10.74 2685
MR 150 10.74 1611 100 10.74 1074
Notes - Issue Rates
1) MR No. 1 -
3) MR No. 3 -
= 10.13
2) MR No. 2 -
= 10.58
4) MR No. 4 -
= 10.58
= 10.74
Illustration - 4
During Jan 2011, the Parag Engineering co.Ltd. effected the purchase of a certain items
of stores as under Date -
Total Amount Rs.
During the same period the details of the issues of the item were as under Date -
Besides on 1-1-2011 there was an opening balance of 160 units valued for Rs. 200.
Enter the above transactions in the stores Ledger under the following methods of pricing
a) Weighted Average
b) Last - in - First - out.
a) STORES LEDGER ACCOUNT (Weighted Average method)
Ref. Qty. Rate
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
Rs. Rs.
160 1.25
260 1.50
210 1.50
360 1.80
260 1.80
Notes - Issue Rates are calculated as under 1) On 8th Jan. -
2) On 20th Jan. -
= 1.50
= 1.80
Jan 2011
Ref. Qty. Rate
Ref. Qty. Rate Amt. Qty. Rate
Rs. Rs.
160 1.25
160 1.25
100 1.90
160 1.25
160 1.25
150 2.22
160 1.25
2.4 Self Study Questions :
2.4.1 Fill in the blanks.
a) FIFO method assumed the material ............... first is issued first.
b) First in First out method is suitable in times of ................
c) LIFO method assumed the material received Last is issued ..................
d) LIFO method is suitable in times of .................
e) For perishable material ................ method is suitable for pricing of issues.
2.4.2 Write short note on.
a) First in first out Method
b) Last in First out Method
c) Simple Average Method
d) Weigthted Average Method.
2.5 Exercies :
Exercise - 1
Prepare a store ledger Account showing the receipts and the issues of Material X for
March 2010 pricing the material issued on the basis of a) FIFO method and b) LIFO method
Receipts :Date 1-3-2010
Rate per unit Rs.
2000 units
3000 units
1000 units
Issues :Date 4-3-2010
1000 unis
500 units
2500 units
1000 units
Exercise - 2
From the following transactions, prepare separatly the stores Ledger Accounts, using thea) FIFO method and b) LIFO method
Jan. 1 - Opening balance 100 units @ Rs. 5 each
Jan. 5 - Received 500 units @ Rs. 6 each
Jan. 20 - Issued 300 units
Feb. 5 - Issued 200 units
Feb. 6 - Received 600 units @ Rs. 5 each
Mar. 10 - Issued 300 units
Mar. 20 - Issued 250 units.
Exercise - 3
The following is a summary of the receipts and issues of materials in a factory during a
Date 1 - Opening balance 500 units at Rs. 25 per unit
2 - Issued 70 units
4 - Issued 100 units
8 - Issued 80 units
13 - Received 200 units at Rs. 24.50 per unit
14 - Returned to store 15 units at Rs. 24 per unit
16 - Issued 180 units
20 - Received 240 units at Rs. 24.75 per unit
24 - Issued 304 units
25 - Received 320 units at Rs. 24.50 per unit
26 - Issued 112 units
27 - Returned to store 12 units at Rs. 24.50 per unit
28 - Received 100 units at Rs. 25 per unit.
Work out on the basis of FIFO method. It was revealed that on 15th there was a shortage
of 5 units and on 27th of 8 units.
Exercise - 4
The following transactions took place in respect of material item during the month of
Receipt Qty.
Issue Qty.
Prepare the stores Ledger Account, pricing the issue at the a) simple Average Rate and
b) Weighted Average Rate.
Exercise - 5
The following particulars have been extracted in respect of Material X prepare a store
Ledger Account showing the receipts and issue, pricing the material issued on the basis of :
a) Simple Average Basis
b) Weighted Average Basis
Receipts :1-10-2011
Opening Stock
200 units at Rs. 3.50 per unit
300 units at Rs. 4.00 per unit
900 units at Rs. 4.30 per unit
600 units at Rs. 3.80 per unit
Issues :4-10-2011
400 units
600 units
600 units
6.6 Further Reading :
1) Bhar B. K.
Cost Accounting - Method and problems
2) Jain S. P;
Narang K. L.
Cost Accounting
3) Jawaharlal
Cost Accounting
4) V. H. Krishnudwala :
& others
Cost Accounting
5) The Istitute of Company secretaries of India Company Account, Cost and Management Accounting
(Study material - Madule I)
B. Com. Part-III : Advance Accountancy Paper-II (Old) Paper-IV (New)
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-VI
Introduction to Service Tax
Objectives :
After studying this unit the students should be able to understand i)
the concept of Service Tax
how the value of taxable service is determined
iii) the rate of service tax
iv) who is liable to pay service tax
the concept of VAT
Introduction :
Taxation is the main source of obtaining funds to the Government. There are two different
views regarding increasing the funds from taxes. One is to raise the tax rate of current taxes
and another is to find out new areas of taxation and to bring more and more people under the
tax net. In the age of LPG it would not be feasible to increase the tax rate so the Government
has chosen the second way that is to introduce new taxes. So Service Tax was introduced for
the first time in India in 1994 under the Finance Act of 1994.
There is another reason to introduce Service Tax in India and that is, increasing importance
of service sector in Indian economy. Share of service sector increased from 28% of GDP in
1950 to about 70% of GDP in 2010.
Service Tax in India :
The Tax Reforms Committee headed by Dr. Raja Chelliah recognized the revenue potential
of the service sector in India and recommended introduction of Service Tax on select services.
On the basis of these recommendations Dr. Manmohan Singh, the then Union Finance Minister,
introduced the new concept of Service Tax under Chapter V of the Finance Act, 1994.
Service Tax is a tax levied on notified services provided or to be provided in India, except
in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. It is chargeable on providing service or services but
payable only on receipt of taxable service from the customer or client before, during or after
rendering the services. It is an indirect tax. It was introduced for the first time on 3 services and
subsequent Finance Acts have added more and more services for tax purpose. As on 01/05/
2011 there were 119 services are under the tax net.
Value of Taxable Service :
As service tax is to be charged on the value of taxable service provided or to be provided,
it is necessary to know how the value of taxable service is to be determined.
As per section 67, the valuation of taxable service shall be determined under the following
two situations a) Service tax is separately charged in the Bill.
b) Service tax is included in the Bill Value.
Service tax is separately charged in the Bill :
The valuation of taxable service is depending on the type of consideration of service. It is
explained as follows i) Whether the provision of service is for a consideration in money:
Gross amount charged by the service provider in the bill is the value of taxable service.
ii) Whether the provision of service is for consideration partly in money and
partly in kind or wholly in kind:
The amount of money and the market value of consideration received in kind is the value
of taxable service.
iii) Whether the provision of service is for a consideration which is not
The valuation of taxable service shall be the amount to be determined in prescribed manner.
Service tax is included in the Bill Value:
If the gross amount charged by a service provider is inclusive of service tax payable, the
value of such taxable service shall be determined by deducting the amount of service tax from
the gross amount charged. In this situation the service tax is calculated on the basis of reverse
Charging Service Tax :
Section 66 is the charging section of the Act and provides as under i) Service tax is charged @ 10% of gross value of taxable service, but in certain cases,
abatement is provided for material component of the transaction.
Though service tax is levied at the basic rate of 10 %, in certain cases an alternative rate
is also provided.
ii) An Education Cess @ 2 % is to be charged on the service tax on all taxable services
vide the Finance No. (2) Act, 2004 with effect from 10/09/2004.
iii) The Secondary and Higher Education Cess ( SHEC ) @ 1% shall also be charged on
the service tax on all taxable services vide the Finance Act, 2007 with effect from 11/05/2007.
Thus, the current rate of service tax is 10% of the gross value of service plus education
cess @ 2% of the service tax and SHEC @ 1% of the service tax. Therefore the effective rate
of service tax is 10.3% of the gross value of taxable services.
iv)The tax is levied only on those taxable services which are referred to in various subclauses of clause (105) of section 65. There is no tax on free services.
v) There is no particular definition of taxable service/s. Taxable services means those
services which are included in various sub clauses of section 65 (105). The following are the
some of the essential characteristics of services a ) existence of two parties - service provider and service recipient.
b ) service as distinct to sale
c ) service provided should be a taxable service
d ) consideration for the service
vi) There are also certain exemptions from service tax.
Rate of Service Tax :
The rate of service tax from the introduction was as follows:
i) The rate of service tax was 5% on gross value of taxable service, from 01/07/1994 to
ii) The rate of service tax was 8% on gross value of taxable service, from 14/05/2003 to
iii) The rate of service tax was 10% on gross value of taxable service and education cess
was at 2% of the service tax, from 10/09/2004 to 17/04/2006.
iv)The rate of service tax was 12% on gross value of taxable service and education cess
was at 2% on the service tax, from 18/04/2006 to 10/05/2007.
v) The rate of service tax was 12% on gross value of taxable service; education cess was
at 2% on the service tax and SHEC at 1% on the service tax, from 11/05/2007 to 23/02/2009.
vi)The rate of service tax was 10% on gross value of taxable service; education cess was
at 2% on the service tax and SHEC at 1% on the service tax, from 24/02/2009 to 31/03/2012.
vii) The rate of service tax was 12% on gross value of taxable service; education cess
was at 2% on the service tax and SHEC at 1% on the service tax, from 01/04/2012 onwards.
Person who has to pay Service Tax :
The service tax is required to pay as per the provisions of rule 6 of the Service Tax Rules,
1994. The general principle is that the person providing a taxable service is liable to pay service.
In certain specific situations, section 68(2) permits the government to notify person other than
the person providing the taxable service to be liable for payment of service tax .The exceptions
to general principle are as fallows.
Sr. No.
Persons liable for Payment
General Insurance
Insurance Company
Insurance Auxiliary
Insurance Company
Any service provided from outside
India and Received in India
Receiver of service in India
Goods Transport Agency (GTA)
Person making payments of
freight I.e. receiver of the
service in organized sector or
GTA i.e. provider of service in
other case
Sponsorship Services
Person sponsoring the event if
he is located in India
Business auxiliary services of
distribution of mutual fund
Mutual fund
Value Added Tax (VAT) :
Value Added Tax (VAT) is a broad based tax levied of multiple stage with tax on inputs
credited against taxes on output VAT was firstly introduced in the 1950’s but it remained confined
to handful number of countries till the 1980’s .As many as 30 Countries have switched over to
VAT since 1980 and the total number of countries who have adopted VAT presently reached to
more than 130. India has been slow in adoption of VAT. In domestic trade taxes, it adopted
excise duty at the Central level and sales tax at State level for this purpose.
The Central Government attempted reforms in the central excise duty by introducing the
principles of VAT in 1986 through the introduction of MODVAT. Over the period the rates have
been rationalized exemption have been reduced and coverage has been extended to almost all
the commodities commencing MODVAT has now been converted into a central VAT coined
and called CENVAT.
The state Government had been indifferent in understanding any reforms in the sales tax
system .The task force known as Kelkar Committee was appointed to study this issue and it
opined that it is necessary that state VAT should be the tax to unify all the state level taxes i.e.
Sales Tax, Purchase Tax, Turnover Tax, Work Contract Tax, Entry Tax, Special Additional Tax
etc. should all be covered under State VAT. The efforts were initiated towards introduction of
VAT since last many years.
Concept of VAT :
VAT is a Tax, which is charged on the increase in value of goods and services at each
stage of production and circulation. It is also chargeable on the value of all imported goods. It is
charged by registered VAT business/ persons/ Tax payers. VAT has replaced a number of
other taxes and its introduction has not resulted in either increased prices to final consumers or
reduced profitability of business. VAT is levied on the difference between the sale price of the
goods produced on the services rendered and the cost their of that is the difference between
the output and the input.
In other words Ø It is nothing but multi point Sales Tax.
Ø It is collected on value addition only at each stage.
Ø Tax paid by the dealer is deducted from the tax payable collected at every point of sale
and the tax already paid
Difference between Sales Tax & VAT :
Sales Tax
Tax is levied at the stage of the first
sale or at the final stage.
Tax is levied and collected at every
point of sale.
Tax is charged on goods only.
A large numbers of forms are required.
Tax is charged on goods & services
Computation of tax liability is complex
At the most a few forms are required.
Assessment is done by the department
It is transparent and easier
Penalties for defaulter/evaders are not
Self -Assessment is done by dealer.
Penalties will be stricter.
Dealer reselling tax paid goods will have
to collect tax &VAT, file returns and
pay VAT at Every Stage of sale.
Dealer reselling tax paid goods do not
collected any tax on resale and file nil
Sales tax is not levied at the time of 8.
purchase against statutory forms but
there is misuse of such forms resulting
in tax evasion.
Returns and challans are filed separately
and the dealer have to give numerous
VAT dispenses with such forms and sets
off all tax paid at the amount of tax
payable on sale
The returns & the Challans are filed
together in a simple format after self
assessment done by the dealer himself.
Key Terms :
i) Service Tax - Service Tax is a tax levied on notified services provided or to be provided
in India, except in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
ii) VAT - VAT is a Tax, which is charged on the increase in value of goods and services
at each stage of production and circulation.
Self Assessment Questions :
1) Objective Type: Chose the correct alternative:
i) Service Tax was introduced in India in the year:
a) 1991
c) 1994
b) 2000
ii) Service tax was introduced first time on:
a) 3 services
c) 4 services
b) 6 services
d) 5 services
iii) Service tax is a charge on:
a) Taxable service provided
b) Taxable service to be provided
c) Taxable service provided or to be provided
d) Any service provided or to be provided
iv) The provisions relating to valuation of taxable services are included:
a) In section 65 of the Finance Act, 1994
b) In section 67 of the Finance Act, 1994
c) In section 65A of the Finance Act,1994
d) None of the above
2) Short Answer Questions:
a. What is Service Tax?
b. How the value of taxable service is determined?
c. How the service tax is charged?
d. Who has to pay the service tax?
e. Explain the concept of VAT.
f. Give the difference between Sales Tax and VAT.
Further Readings:
1. Dr. Ahuja Girish, Dr. Gupta Ravi: Systematic Approach to Income Tax, Service Tax
and VAT, Bharat Law House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Manoharan T.N., Hari N.V.: Students Handbook on Income Tax, VAT and Service
Tax, Snow White Pub., Mumbai.
3. Dr. Patil J.F., Dr. Patil V.S. (Ed.) : Service Tax, Shivaji University, Kolhapur.
4. Singhania, Vinod K. & Singhania, Monika: Taxmann Students Guide to Income Tax
including Service Tax/VAT, Taxmann Publications, New Delhi
5. www.servicetax.gov.in
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R>odrXmam§À`m VgoM H$O©Xmam§À`m ~±H$ ì`dhmamMo ì`dñWmnZ H$aUmao BboŠQ´>m°{ZH$ V§ÌkmZmMo Vo EH$ Anyd© Ago
Cn`moOZ Amho. E.Q>r.E_., S>o~rQ> H$mS>©, H«o${S>Q> H$mS>© B. Mr nwT>rb gwYm[aV Amd¥Îmr åhUOo ñ_mQ>© H$mS>© hmo`.
AmJm_r H$mimV {H$aH$moi dñVy d godm àmá H$ê$Z KoÊ`mÀ`m ~m~VrV Ë`mMm Imobda n[aUm_ {XgyZ `oB©b.
J«mhH$m~ÔbMr g§nyU© _m{hVr Ë`mV Agë`m_wio EH$ àH$mao ñ_mQ>© H$mS>© ho ~±H$ J«mhH$mMo gdmª{JU ñdê$nmMo
AmoiInÌ Amho Ago åhQ>ë`mg `mo½` hmoB©b.
ñ_mQ>©H$mS>©À`m _XVrZo H$mS>©YmaH$ a¸$_ H$mT>Uo, a¸$_oMo hñVm§VaU d XoUr XoUo B. godm§Mm H$moUË`mhr
{R>H$mUr dmna H$ê$ eH$Vmo d Amnbo ì`dhma doJmZo nyU© H$ê$ eH$Vmo. H$mS>©YmaH$ Ooìhm ~±Ho$er ì`dhma H$aVmo
Voìhm Vmo BboŠQ´>m°{ZŠg nÕVrZo AmoiIbm OmVmo d Ë`mMdoir Ë`mMo gd© ì`dhma BboŠQ´>m°{ZH$ nÕVrZo Zm|Xbo
OmVmV. ñ_mQ>©H$mS>©Mm dmna Ho$ë`mZ§Va J«mhH$mMo gd© ì`dhma A{Ve` gwb^nUo VnmgyZ KoVm `oVmV.
ñ_mQ>© H$mS>©Mm _moR>çm à_mUmV dmna gwê$ Pmë`mg ~±H$ J«mhH$m§Mr dmT>Vr g§»`m ~±H$s¨J ì`dhmamMr JVr
dmT>dob, A{YH$ nmaXe©H$Vm {Z_m©U hmoB©b VgoM {heo~ Zm|XUr gmonr-gwQ>gwQ>rV d J{V_mZ hmoB©b.
ñ_mQ>©H$mS>©Mm AmUIr EH$ àJV àH$ma åhUOo Stored Value Card `mMm EH$ àH$ma Am°ñQ´>o{b`m_Ü`o
Trans card `m ZmdmZo AmoiIbm OmVmo. gmÜ`m eãXmV ñ_mQ>© H$mS>© ho ~±H$s¨J d BVa àJV g§nH©$ ì`dñWoMo
EH$ gmYZ åhUyZ bjmV ¿`mdo bmJob.
AXm AmXoe (Pay Order)
gm_mÝ`V: dñVy d godm§Mo {dH«o$Vo Am{U nwadR>mXma Ë`m§Mr `oUo a¸$_ aoIm§{H$V {S>_m§S> S´>mâQ> d aoIm§{H$V
MoH$Ûmao ñdrH$maVmV. na§Vw H$mhrdoim Aer n[apñWVr CX²^dVo H$s, MoH$ (YZmXoe) dQ>Ê`mgmR>r {db§~ bmJVmo.
Ë`m_wio ì`mnmar ì`dhma H$aUmè`m§À`m g_moa AënH$mbrZ amoIVoMm J§^ra àíZ {Z_m©U hmoVmo. hr g_ñ`m
gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r ~±H$ ì`dñWmnH$ "AXm AmXoe' (Pay Order) À`m _mÜ`_mVyZ J«mhH$mbm VmËH$mi a¸$_
{_iÊ`mgmR>r _XV H$aVmo. Ë`m_wio ~±H$ J«mhH$ Amnbr a¸$_ VmËH$mi {_i{dVmo d Amnbr amoIVoMr JaO nyU©
H$ê$ eH$Vmo. AWm©V `mgmR>r ~±H$ d J«mhH$ `m§À`mV nañna {dídmg d gwg§dmX `m§Mr JaO AgVo. g§~§{YV
~±H$ J«mhH$mMo ~±Ho$er AgUmao Am{W©H$ ì`dhma CÎm_ àH$maMo AgVrb Va J«mhH$mbm `m gw{dYoMm bm^ {_iy
~±Ho$Mm ì`dñWmnH$ "AXm AmXoe' XoVmZm g§~§{YV ì`{ŠVMr qH$dm CÚmoJg§ñWoMr Am{W©H$ nV H$m` Amho
Vo nmhÿZ `m~ÔbMm {ZU©` KoVmo. amoIVoMr g_ñ`m gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r `m gmYZmMm Cn`moJ hmoVmo.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : àJV ~±H$s¨J nona-1
^maVmVrc ~±H$s¨JMo H$m`Xo Am{U ì`dhma
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 7 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
A) Loans and Advances - Meaning, Definitions, Principles of Sound Lending
H$O} Am{U A{J«_o
H$O© d A{J«_o XoUo ho ì`mnmar ~±H$m§Mo EH$ _hÎdmMo H$m`© Amho. XoemVrb CÚmoJnVr, CÚmoOH$, ì`mnmar,
ì`mdgm{`H$ Am{U ~±H$ J«mhH$m§Zm {d{eîQ> H$aUm§gmR>r H$O} {Xbr OmVmV. AWm©V Ë`mgmR>r H$O©XmamH$Sy>Z `mo½`
Vo VmaU KoVbo OmVo. H$O© {Xë`m_wio ~±Ho$bm CËnÞmMr àmár hmooVo.
gm_mÝ`V: ì`mnmar ~±H$m doJdoJù`m loUrVrb H$O©Xmam§Zm Aën_wXVrMo H$O© d A{J«_m§Mr _§Oyar XoVmV.
~±H$m§Mm IM© (R>odrXmam§Zm Úmdo bmJUmao ì`mO + H$_©Mmè`m§Mm nJma + godm§~ÔbMo XoUo + H$a) Am{U H$O©
d A{J«_m§darb ì`mOmnmgyZ {_iUmao CËnÞ VgoM godm nwa{dë`m~ÔbMo CËnÞ `mVrb \$aH$mdê$Z ~±H$m§Mm Z\$m
{ZpíMV hmoVmo. dmñV{dH$ nmhVm OmñVrVOmñV Z\$m {_i{dUo ho ì`mnmar ~±H$m§Mo à_wI C{Ôï> AgVo. VgoM H$O©
d A{J«_m§Mr a¸$_ åhUOo {Zamù`m ^mfoV gm§Jm`Mo Pmë`mg ~±H$m§Zr CgZdma {Xbobr H$Om©D$ a¸$_ hmo`.
H$O© d A{J«_o XoÊ`mMr VÎdo :
Iao nmhVm, R>odrXma§mMr R>od d _mJVmjUrM naV H$aÊ`mMr ~±Ho$Mr j_Vm H$m` Amho `mdarb R>odrXmam§Mm
{dídmg hmM g§nyU© ~±H$ ì`dgm`mÀ`m `emMm _hÎdmMm ^mJ Amho. åhUyZ ~±H$m§Zr H$O© XoVmZm H$mhr {ZpíMV
VÎdm§Mm Adb§~ H$aUo JaOoMo Amho. H$maU H$Om©D$ a¸$_ åhUOo R>odrXmam§Zm H$mhr H$mbmdYrZ§Va naV H$amdr
bmJUmar a¸$_ Amho.
AmYw{ZH$ H$mimV H$Om©g _§Oyar XoVmZm ~±H$m àm_w»`mZo nwT>rb XjVm KoVmV. `mVrb n{hbm ^mJ åhUOo
_hÎdmMr VÎdo :
(1) gwa{jVVm
(2) amoIVm
(3) bm^Vm
H$O© _w»`V: R>odtÀ`m AmYmao {Xbo OmVo. åhUyZ H$O© XoVmZm a¸$_ gwa{jV Amho H$m Vo nm{hbo OmVo.
gwa{jVVm nwT>rb XmoZ à_wI _wÔçm§da AmYm[aV AgVo.
(1) H$O©XmamZo VmaU {Xbobr _mb_Îmm
(2) H$O© naV\o$S> H$aÊ`mMr H$O©XmamMr j_Vm
VgoM `mo½` àH$maMo VmaU, H$O©XmamMo Mm[aÍ`, nV, Am{W©H$ j_Vm, ì`mO {Z`{_V XoUo B. KQ>H$m§Mm
gwa{jVVo_Ü`o g_mdoe hmoVmo.
amoIVm åhUOo R>odrXmam§Zr _mJVmjUrM Ë`m§Mr R>od naV H$aÊ`mMr ~±Ho$Mr j_Vm hmo`. VmaU _mb_ÎmoMo
H$moUVohr ZwH$gmZ Z hmoVm {VMo amoI n¡emV ê$nm§Va H$aÊ`mMr ~±Ho$Mr j_Vm åhUOo amoIVm hmo`. `m_Ü`o ~±Ho$bm
An`e Ambo Va _mÌ R>odrXmam§Mm ~±Ho$darb {dídmg Zmhrgm hmoVmo Am{U ~±H$ Am{W©H$ g§H$Q>mV gmnS>Vo.
H$O© XoÊ`mMo AmUIr EH$ VÎd åhUOo bm^Vm hmo`. bm^VoMo VÎd gmÜ` hmoÊ`mgmR>r gwa{jV _mb_ÎmoMo
ñdê$n, H$O© KoÊ`mMm hoVy, H$O© naV\o$S>rMm H$O©XmamMm _mJ© H$moUVm ho _hÎdmMo AgVo. CÚmoJ ì`dgm`mgmR>r
Á`m§Zm H$O© {Xbo Amho, Ë`m§À`mH$Sy>Z ~±Ho$Zo `mo½` d gwa{jV Ago VmaU KoVbo nm{hOo. `mo½` H$maUmgmR>r H$O©
{Xbo nm{hOo. VgoM H$O© naV\o$S>rMo `mo½` {Z`moOZ Ho$bo nm{hOo.
H$O© XoÊ`mMo AmUIr EH$ Mm§Jbo VÎd åhUOo Ë`mV YmoŠ`m§Mo {d^mOZ Aem [aVrZo gmYbo nm{hOo H$s
~±Ho$Zo {d{dY H$maUm§gmR>r doJdoJù`m H$O©Xmam§Zm H$O© XodyZ Omo{I_ H$_r Ho$br nm{hOo.
AIoarg ~±Ho$Zo H$O© XoVmZm CËnmXH$VoMmgwÕm {dMma Ho$bm nm{hOo. Am{W©H$ KS>m_moS>rVrb CËnmXH$Vm hm
EH$ _hÎdmMm KQ>H$ Amho.
gd©gmYmaUnUo H$O© d A{J«_m§Mo XmoZ _w»` àH$ma nS>VmV.
(1) Agwa{jV H$O} : Á`m H$Om©gmR>r H$moUË`mhr n«H$maMo VmaU KoVbo OmV Zmhr, Ë`mg Agwa{jV H$Oo
Ago åhUVmV. H$O© _§Oya H$aVmZm ~±H$ H$O©XmamMo ì`{ŠVJV d Am{W©H$ ñdê$nmMo Mm[aÍ`, Am{W©H$ j_Vm,
Ë`mÀ`m OdiMo ^m§S>db `mdê$Z ì`mOmgh H$O© naV\o$S>rMr j_Vm Amho H$m Vo VnmgVo. CÚmoJ ì`mdgm{`H$m§Zm
H$O© XoVmZm Ë`mMr ì`mdgm{`H$ nV, ì`dgm`mdarb Ë`mMr {Zð>m, Zmdbm¡{H$H$ d Ë`m§Mr Mm§Jbr Am{W©H$
nmíd©^y_r nm{hbr OmVo.
(2) gwa{jV H$O} d A{J«_o : gmYmaUnUo CÚmoJ ì`mdgm{`H$m§Zm H$O} d A{J«_o _§Oya H$aVmZm Vr
O{_Z, B_maV, `§Ìgm_J«r, dñVy B. gwa{jV d dmñVd _mb_ÎmoÀ`m AmYmamda {Xbr OmVmV. `m~m~VrV
àm_w»`mZo nwT>rb XmoZ ~m~tMm {dMma H$aÊ`mV `oVmo.
(A) VmaU {Xbobr _mb_Îmm hr dmñVd _mb_Îmm Agmdr.
(~) _mb_ÎmoMo ~mOma_yë` ho H$Om©D$ a¸$_onojm OmñV Agm`bm hdo.
~±H$m gm_mÝ`V: H$Om©À`m AmYmao {dH$V KoVbobr _mb_Îmm VmaU åhUyZ _mJVmV. `mbmM àmW{_H$
VmaU Ago åhQ>bo OmVo. BVa VmaUm§Mm C„oI g§~§{YV VmaU (Co-lateral) Agm Ho$bm OmVmo.
A{J«_m§Mo àH$ma :
A{J«_m§Mo _w»`V: nwT>rb Mma àH$ma {XgyZ `oVmV.
(1) H$O©
(2) amoI H$O© nÕVr (Cash Credit)
(3) A{YH$f© gdbV (Over Draft)
(4) hþ§S>r IaoXr / dQ>{dUo.
`m àH$mam§Mo WmoS>Š`mV ñnï>rH$aU nwT>rbn«_mUo H$aVm `oB©b.
(1) H$O© : {ZpíMV H$mbmdYrgmR>r, {ZpíMV ì`mOXamZo H$O©Xmambm Or a¸$_ {Xbr OmVo Ë`mg H$O©
Ago åhUVmV. H$O© ho amoI ñdê$nmV {Xbo OmVo qH$dm H$O©XmamÀ`m H$O© ImË`mda VodT>r a¸$_ O_m Ho$br OmVo.
JaOoZwgma H$O©Xma a¸$_ CMby eH$Vmo. na§Vw ì`mOmMr AmH$maUr _mÌ g§nyU© H$O© a¸$_oda Ho$br OmVo.
ì`dgm`mVrb IoiË`m ^m§S>dbmMr JaO ^mJ{dÊ`mgmR>r AënH$mimV _mJUr H$O© CMbbo OmVo. _mJUr H$O©
ho _mJUr H$aVmjUr {Xbo OmVo.
_wXV H$O© ho gmYmaV: _Ü`_ _wXVrMo AgVo. (1 Vo 5 df©). XrK© _wXVrMo H$O© 5 dfm©nojm OmñV
H$mbmdYrMo AgVo. _Ü`_ _wXV H$Om©À`m _XVrZo {Q>H$mD$ `§Ìgm_J«r d CnH$aUo `m§Mr IaoXr Ho$br OmVo. Va
XrK©_wXV H$Om©À`m ghmæ`mZo B_maVrMo ~m§YH$m_, ZdrZ `§Ìgm_J«rMr IaoXr d H$maImÝ`mMo AmYw{ZH$sH$aU
Ho$bo OmVo.
(2) amoI H$O© nÕVr : amoI H$O© åhUOo EH$m {d{eï> _`m©Xon`ªV Ho$ìhmhr Am{U {H$Vrhr a¸$_
CMbÊ`mg ~±Ho$Zo H$O©Xmambm {Xbobr nadmJZr hmo`. {deofH$ê$Z ~±H$ Amnë`m {Z`{_V Am{U {dídmgmh©
J«mhH$mbm Aer gw{dYm CnbãY H$ê$Z XoVo. `m H$O© ImË`mVyZ a¸$_ H$Yrhr H$mT>Vm `oVo d O_m H$aVm `oVo.
CMbboë`m H$O© a¸$_oda ì`mO AmH$mabo OmVo. H$mhrdoiog H$O©XmamZo _§Oya H$O© _`m©Xm dmnabr Zmhr Va ~±H$
Z CMbboë`m H$O© a¸$_oda gwÕm "~m§{YbH$s ewëH$' AmH$mê$ eH$Vo.
(3) A{YH$f© gdbV : Ooìhm ~±H$ J«mhH$mbm Amnë`m O_m a¸$_onojm OmñV a¸$_ {d{eï> _`m©Xon`ªV
Mmby ImË`mda H$mT>Ê`mMr nadmZJr XoVo Voìhm Ë`mg A{YH$f© gdbV Ago åhUVmV. A{YH$f© gdbV hr
_mb_ÎmoÀ`m VmaUmÀ`m AmYmao {Xbr OmVo. `m àH$maMo H$O© ho AënH$mimgmR>r (EH$/XmoZ _{hZo) {Xbo OmVo.
\$ma Va EH$ df©n`ªV H$mbmdYr AgVmo. CMb Ho$boë`m C¸$_odaM ì`mO AmH$mabo OmVo. amoI H$O© ho dfm©À`m
_wXVrgmR>r AgVo Va A{YH$f© gdbV ho EH$/XmoZ _{hZo Aem AëH$mimgmR>r AgVo. åhUOoM àmg§{JH$
ñdê$nmMo AgVo.
B. Com. Part-III : Advanced Banking Paper-I
Law and Practice of Banking
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-V
Unit-4 Sub point (B) Smart Card And Pay Order
Smart Card
Smart Card is the latest advance in modern trends in banking. It is one of the novel
application of electronic technology to the management of banking transactions of the depositers
as also borrowers. Smard Card is in a way a further refinement of ATM / Credit Card / Debit
Card. It is in a sense a total identity card of the bank customer with the use of Smart Card the
card holder can avail of any bank service - withdrawal, Transfer and Payment any where in a
fast manner.
The Smart Card holder is electronically identifed and all his banking transaction are
symultaniously recorded in electronic fashion. The record can be examined, verified and
reconciled in a very user friendly manner. Greater use of Smart Card by increasing a number of
banking customers enhances the speed of banking transaction, gives full transperency and easy
as well as fast accounting.
A further variation of the Smart Card is in the form of stored value card, One of which is
known as trans card in circulation in Australia. Infact Smart Card is a very advanced multipurpose
vehicle for banking transaction as well as communication transaction.
Pay Order
Normally sellors of Goods and Providers of services get their payment in the form of
Demand Drafts and crossed cheques. Sometimes realization and enchashment of such crossed
DD or cheques take sometime, which may create a short-term problem of liquidity, for the
In such circumstances he can take recourse to the method of pay order through which the
person is paid cash at a certain discount immediately pending realization of cheque or DD in
normal course of time.
The Pay Order of a customer of the bank is accepted on the basis of customers creditibility,
credit and also reputation of the issuer firm or individuals credit and of course the bank in
whose name the DD or cheque is issued.
B. Com. Part-III : Advanced Banking Paper-I
Law and Practice of Banking
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-VI
Unit-7 Sub point
A) Loans and Advances - Meaning, Definitions, Principles of Sound Lending
Loans And Advances
One of the major functions of commercial banks relates to granting loans and making
advances to industrialists, businessmens, traders and customers for specific purposes on the
basis of material security or personal security of the borrower. It is this function which creates
a source of income for the banks. In fact, this source of income is the major source of income
for the banks.
Normally commerical banks give short term loans and advances to various categories of
borrowers. The difference between expenditure on (Interest paid to the depositers + staff
salary + salary + service charges + taxes) and the income received by the bank from interest
on loans & advances and other service charges constitutes roughly the profit of the bank.
Naturally profit maximization is the objective of the commercial banks. In common words loans
and advances is expressed as lending by the bank.
Principles of Lending
The entire banking business depends for its success on the faith of the depositer's in the
ability of the bank to pay cash on demand. It is therefore necessary for banks to follow certain
principles while lending funds to borrowers because the funds belong to basically the depositer's.
In the modern context the banks follow a set of principles while making loans & advances.
These principles can be divided into two groups. The first group covers three cardinal principles
of lending.
(1) Safety
(2) Liquidity
(3) Profitability.
As loans are made on the basis of deposits which belong to the depositer. The bank must
make laons and advances on the basis of safety considerations. The safety of a loan depends
on (I) The Security given by the borrower.
(II) The repaying capacity of the borrower.
Which also includes the payment of interests. In other words reasonable security and
integrity, character, credit & capacity of the borrowers are major conditons which determine
safety of the loan.
Liquidity means ability and ease of converting an asset into cash without loss as and when
required, every bank must always be prepared to repay cash on demand to the depositers
immeditely. Failure to do this adversly affect faith and confidence of the depositers which may
land the bank in real financial crisis.
The other principles of lending include profitability, the nature of security, the purpose of
loan, source of repayment of the borrower. A borrower who borrows money for business must
have proper security, the right purpose for laon, must have a proper planning for repayment.
Another principle of lending involves diversification of risks. While making loans & advances
the bank must ensure that the funds are advanced to different kinds to borrowers which normally
minimizes risks.
Finally a banker must think about the productivity of loan also. It is not only character,
credit & capacity of the borrower, but also the productivity of the economic activity for which
the loan is taken which must be considered as a very important principle of lending.
Normally there are two kinds of loans and advances.
(1) Unsecured advances : This is loan or advance for which no security is obtained
Generally the banker takes into consideration character, capacity and capital of the borrower
which determine his ability of timely repayment with interest. A banker may make loans and
advances to a businessman who has integrity, business reputation and a fairly good financial
(2) Secured Loans and Advances : Normally loans & advances are made to businessmen
on the basis of security of tangible assets like Land, Building, Machinary, Goods or Documents
of title to goods, While making such secured advances basically two considerations are kept in
(a) The asset to be given as security must be a tangible asset.
(b) The market value of such security or asset must be clearly more than the amount of
loan granted.
The bankers normally require primary security that is the asset which has been bought
with the help of bank finance. All other securities are described as co-lateral security, which
are other than the asset bought with the help of bank finance.
Forms of Advances
There are basically four forms of advances. These are (1) Loans
(2) Cash Credit
(3) Over Draft
(4) Bills purchased and discounted.
These are explained briefly as below.
(1) Loans : Loan is a lump-sum amount advanced to a certain borrower for a certain
period at arranged rate of interest. The loan is paid either in cash or credit in the borrowers
current account. The interest is charged on entire loan amount. A loan can be a demand loan
which is granted to meet short term working capital needs. Such demand loan is payable on
demand. There can be term loans involving medium term (1 to 5 years) and long term (more
than 5 years) medium term loans are made for the purchase of durable valuable machines and
equipments. Where as long term loan is made for construction of building, purchase of new
machinary and modernization of plants.
(2) Cash Credit : Cash Credit is an arrangement which enables a customer to borrow
money up to certain limit from the bank. The banker generally makes this facility available to
their regular and reliable customers. The cash credit account is a running account from which
cash can be withdrawn and where surplus can be deposited. Interest is charged only on the
credit made available against pledge or hypothiketion of goods. Some times a bank may ask for
a commitment charge if the customer does not use the cash credit limit fully.
(3) Overdraft : When a bank allows a customer to withdraw over and above his credit
balance in the current account upto a certain limit, it is known as overdraft. It is a temporary
facility granted against security. The interest is charged only on the amount withdrawn. Cash
credit is a regular longterm business arrangement where as overdraft is occasional and for
short term needs only. Sometimes temporary overdrafts are permitted to customer who have
reliable sources of repayment of borrowed amount.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : àJV ~±H$s¨J nona-2
~±H$m Am{U {dÎmr` g§ñWm
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 5 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$.3 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
aonmo aoQ> d [aìhg© aonmo aoQ>
^maVr` ZmUo~mOmamV AënH$mbrZ d XrK©H$mbrZ {ZYtMo {Z`§ÌU H$aÊ`mgmR>r AmYw{ZH$ ~±qH$J_Yrb
H$mhr ZdrZ nÕVtMm dmna H$aÊ`mV `oV Amho. A{bH$S>rb H$mimV ~±H$s¨J {gÕm§V Am{U ì`dhmamV aonmo aoQ>
ho EH$ _hÎdmMo nV{Z`§ÌUmMo g§»`mË_H$ gmYZ g_Obo OmVo.
AënH$mimV A{Ve` Vrd« Aem Am{W©H$ AS>MUrÀ`m àg§Jr ì`mnmar ~±H$m§Zm JaOoà_mUo {ZYr CnbãY
Ho$bm OmVmo. Voìhm _Ü`dVu ~±H$ Ë`m {ZYrda Omo ì`mOXa AmH$maVo Ë`mg "aonmo aoQ>' Ago åhUVmV. ZmUo~mOmamVrb
AënH$mbrZ amoIVoMo {Z`_Z H$aÊ`mgmR>r [aPìh© ~±H$ Am°\$ B§{S>`m "aonmo aoQ>' Am{U "[aìhg© aonmo aoQ>' `m
gmYZm§Mm Cn`moJ H$aVo.
aonmo ho 'Repurchase obligation' (nwZaIaoXrMo ~§YZ) `m eãXmMo g§{já ê$n Amho. XoemVrb ~±H$m§Zm
AënH$mbrZ {ZYr CnbãY H$ê$Z XoÊ`mgmR>r _Ü`dVu ~±H$ Omo ì`mOXa AmH$maVo Ë`mg "aonmo aoQ>' Ago åhUVmV.
`mCbQ> XoemVrb ì`mnmar ~±H$m§H$Sy>Z AënH$mimgmR>r Ë`m§À`mOdirb A{V[aŠV [e„H$ {ZYr Á`m ì`mOXamZo
[aPìh© ~±H$ Am°\$ B§{S>`m pñdH$maVo Ë`mg "[aìhg© aonmo aoQ>' Ago åhUVmV.
Aem n«H$mao [aPìh© ~±H$ Am°\$ B§{S>`m XoemVrb ì`mnmar ~±H$m§À`m amoIVoÀ`m JaOm§gmR>r g_Ýd`
gmYÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aVo. VgoM g§»`mË_H$ nV{Z`§ÌUmMo gmYZ åhUyZ [aPìh© ~±H$ Am°\$ B§{S>`m `m gmYZm§Mm
à^mdr [aVrZo Cn`moJ H$ê$Z KoV Amho. gm_mÝ`V: aonmo aoQ> hm [aìhg© aoQ> nojm 0.5% Zoh_r OmñV AgVmo. gÜ`m
åhUOoM _mM© 2012 _Ü`o Amnbo {V_mhr nVYmaoU Om{ha H$aVmZm [aPìh© ~±Ho$Zo aonmo aoQ> 8.5% d [aìhg© aonmo
aoQ> 8% EdT>m amhrb Ago ñnï> Ho$bo Amho.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : àJV ~±H$s¨J nona-2
~±H$m Am{U {dÎmr` g§ñWm
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 8 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
g§K{ZYr nÕVr : ñdê$n d H$m`}
OJmVrb EH$ àJV AW©ì`dñWm ho A_o[aHo$Mo ñWmZ 21 ì`m eVH$mVgwÕm H$m`_ Agë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo.
OmJ{VH$ nmVirda Am{W©H$ dM©ñd Agë`m_wio A_o[aH$Z ZmUo~mOma hm Am§Vaamï´>r` ZmUo~mOmamMo à_wI H|$Ð
åhUyZ AmoiIbm OmVmo. A_o[aHo$Mm ZmUo~mOma hm "Ý`y`m°H©$ ZmUo~mOma' åhUyZ gd©Ì AmoiIbm OmVmo.
Ë`mM~amo~a ^¸$_ AW©ì`dñWoMo nmR>~i d _w~bH$ gwdU©gmR>m `m_wio "A_o[aH$Z S>m°ba' ho OJmVrb EH$ à_wI
Am§Vaamï´>r` MbZ ~Zbo Amho.
A_o[aHo$Vrb ~±H$ ì`dgm`mVrb {dñH$irVnUm Xya H$ê$Z MbZ ì`dñWoV ZdrZ gwYmaUm gwMdÊ`mgmR>r
"Z°eZb ~±qH$J H${_eZ'Mr {Z`wŠVr H$aÊ`mV Ambr. `m H${_eZÀ`m {e\$maer pñdH$maÊ`mV Amë`m d
Ë`mMm n[aUm_ åhUyZ 1913 Mm "g§K{ZYr H$m`Xm' ApñVËdmV Ambm. 1913 `m dfu "g§K{ZYr nÕVr'
Federal Reserve System hr _Ü`dVu ~±H$o Mr `§ÌUm A_o[aHo$V ApñVËdmV Ambr. A_o[aH$Z ~±H$ ì`dgm`mVrb
1913 Z§VaMm H$mbI§S> hm EH$ ZdrZ Q>ßnm _mZbm OmVmo. H$maU `mZ§Va Iè`m AWm©Zo ~±H$ ì`dgm`mbm Zdo
diU bmJbo.
"g§K {ZYr nÕVr' hr A_o[aHo$À`m ZmUo~mOmamVrb _Ü`dVu ~±H$ hmo`. g§K{ZYr nÕVrMo _w»` H$m`m©b`
dm°qe½Q>Z `oWo Amho. g§nyU© A_o[aH$m XoemMo 12 {Oëøm_Ü`o {d^mOZ H$aÊ`mV Ambo d àË`oH$ {OëømgmR>r EH$
"g§K{ZYr ~±H$' ñWmnZ H$aÊ`mV Ambr. A_o[aHo$V EHy$U 12 g§K{ZYr ~±H$m AgyZ Ë`mVrb Ý`y`m°H©$, {eH$mJmo
d g°Z \«$mpÝgñH$mo `m VrZ ~±H$m gdm©V _moR>çm AmhoV. g§K{ZYr ~±H$ g^mgX ~±H$m§Zm H$O© XoÊ`mMo H$m`© H$aVmV.
VgoM _Ü`dVu ~±H$ åhUyZ Amdí`H$ H$m`}gwÕm H$aVmV.
g§K{ZYr nÕVrMo ñdê$n :
1. g§K{ZYr {Oëho : 1913 À`m g§K{ZYr H$m`ÚmZwgma A_o[aHo$Mo 12 g§K{ZYr {Oëøm_Ü`o {d^mOZ
H$aÊ`mV Ambo. àË`oH$ {OëømVrb EH$m ehamg "g§K{ZYr {gQ>r'Mm XOm© XoÊ`mV Ambm Amho. Aem arVrZo
A_o[aHo$V 12 _Ü`dVu ~±H$m ñWmnZ H$aÊ`mV Amë`m AmhoV. nwT>rb ehamV _Ü`dVu ~±H$m§Mr H$m`m©b`o AmhoV.
(1) ~m°ñQ>Z (2) Šbrìhb±S> (3) {eH$mJmo (4) H°$ÝgZ {gQ>r (5) Ý`y`m°H©$ (6) [aM_ÝS> (7) g|Q> ë`wB©g
(8) S>„mg (9) {\$bmS>o{ë\$`m (10) A°Q>bmÝQ>m (11) {_{Z`mnm°{bg (12) g°Z \«$mpÝgñH$mo
darbn¡H$s Ý`y`m°H©$ Am{U {eH$mJmo `m eham§Zm g|Q´>b [aPìh© {gQ>r Ago g§~moYÊ`mV `oVo.
2. g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Mo ^mJ^m§S>db : àË`oH$ g§K{ZYr {OëømVrb gd© amï´>r` ~±H$m§Zm ñdV:Mo dgyb
^m§S>db Am{U amIrd {ZYrÀ`m 6% Jw§VdUyH$ g§K{ZYr ~±Ho$À`m ^mJ^m§S>dbmV H$amdr bmJVo. Vgo H$m`Xoera
~§YZ gd© amï´>r` ~±H$m§da Amho. `mZ§VagwÕm g§K{ZYr ~±Ho$Mo ^mJ^m§S>db {e„H$ am{hbo Va Ë`m {OëømVrb
ZmJ[aH$ d gaH$ma `m§Zm ^mJ^m§S>db {dH$Ê`mV `oVo.
3. g§K{ZYr _§S>i : g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§À`m ì`dñWmnZmMr O~m~Xmar g§K{ZYr _§S>imda AgVo. ZdrZ
MbZ {Z{_©VrÀ`m H$m`m©da XoIaoI, {heo~ nwñVH$m§Mr VnmgUr B. ì`mnH$ A{YH$ma _§S>imbm AmhoV.
_§S>imÀ`m gXñ`m§Zm nyU©doi ì`dñWmnZmMo H$m_ H$amdo bmJV Agë`m_wio Ë`m§Zm doVZmMr VaVyX Ho$br Amho.
_§S>imMo gXñ` åhUyZ AW©ì`dñWoÀ`m {d{dY joÌmVrb ì`ŠVtMr {ZdS> Ho$br OmVo. A_o[aHo$À`m Q´>oP[aÀ`m
goHo«$Q>ar d H§$Q´>moba Am°\$ H$aÝgr ho _§S>imMo nX{gÕ gXñ` AgVmV. Va A_o[aHo$Mo AÜ`j ghm gXñ`m§Mr
{Z`wŠVr H$aVmV.
4. g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr H$m_o : A_o[aHo$Vrb ~±H$ ì`dñWoda {Z`§ÌU R>odUmar CƒñVamdarb `§ÌUm
åhUOo g§MmbH$ _§S>i hmo`. _§S>imMr à_wI H$m_o nwT>rbà_mUo gm§JVm `oVrb. gd© g§K ~±H$m§da XoIaoI R>odUo,
Ë`m§Mo {heo~ VnmgUo, A_o[aHo$Vrb gd© g§K ~±H$m§À`m AÜ`j d CnmÜ`j {Z`wŠVrg _mÝ`Vm XoUo, g§K ~±H$m§À`m
amIrd {ZYrMo à_mU R>a{dUo, MbZ{Z{_©Vrda XoIaoI R>odUo B. H$m_o g§MmbH$ _§S>img H$amdr bmJVmV.
5. g§K g„mJma n[afX : àË`oH$ g§K{ZYr ~±H$ Xadfu EH$mMr {ZdS> g§K g„mJma n[afXogmR>r H$aVo.
dm°qe½Q>Z `oWo g§K g„mJma n[afXoMr dm{f©H$ g^m ~mobmdbr OmVo. g§K {ZYr ~±H$m§Zm `mo½` Vo _mJ©Xe©Z g„mJma
n[afX H$aVo.
6. g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Mr _Îmm : g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Mr gdm©{YH$ _hÎdmMr _Îmm åhUOo A_o[aH$Z gaH$maMo
H$O©amoIo hmo`. Ë`m§Mo à_mU OmñV Amho. VgoM XñVEodOm§Zm ñdrH¥$Vr XodyZ _Îmm {Z_m©U Ho$br OmVo. gwdU©amoIo,
Eg. S>r. Ama. Mr à_mUnÌo d naH$s` MbZ `m§Mmhr _Îmo_Ü`o g_mdoe hmoVmo.
7. g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Mo Xm{`Ëd : g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§À`m Xm{`ËdmV àm_w»`mZo g^mgX ~±H$m§À`m R>odr,
gaH$maÀ`m R>odr, g§K{ZYr ~±H$oVrb R>odr d MbZr ZmoQ>m `m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Mr H$m`} :
A_o[aHo$Vrb _Ü`dVu ~±H$ åhUyZ g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Zm nwT>rb H$m_o H$amdr bmJVmV.
1. H$mJXr MbZ {Z{_©Vr : gaH$mar H$O©amo»`m§À`m VmaUmda H$mJXr ZmoQ>m§Mr {Z{_©Vr H$ê$Z Ë`mMo
{dVaU Ho$bo OmVo. `m H$mJXr ZmoQ>m§Mo Xm{`Ëd g§K{ZYr ~±Ho$da AgVo.
2. gaH$maMr ~±H$ : A_o[aHo$Vrb H|$Ð gaH$ma d amÁ` gaH$maMr ~±H$ åhUyZ g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Zm H$m_
H$amdo bmJVo. H|$Ð d amÁ` gaH$maMr `oUr Ë`m§À`m ImË`mda O_m Ho$br OmVmV. VgoM Ë`m§Mr XoUr g§K{ZYr
~±H$m§_m\©$V {Xbr OmVmV.
3. g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§À`m emIm : g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Zm g§K{ZYr {OëømV emIm CKS>Vm `oVmV. Ë`mgmR>r
"g§K{ZYr _§S>imH$Sy>Z' nadmZJr ¿`mdr bmJVo.
4. bm^m§emMo dmQ>n : A_o[aHo$Vrb g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Zm Ë`m§À`m ì`dhmamVyZ àË`oH$ dfu Z\$m {_iVmo.
g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§À`m EHy$U CËnÞmVyZ gd© IM© dOm Ho$ë`mg Ë`m a¸$_oVyZ dgyb ^m§S>dbmda OmñVrVOmñV 6%
bm^m§e ^mJYmaH$m§Zm {Xbm OmVmo. _mÌ g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§À`m CËnÞmda H$moUË`mhr àH$maMm H$a AmH$mabm OmV
5. hþ§S>çm§Mr IaoXr-{dH«$s : A_o[aHo$Vrb g§K{ZYr ~±H$m§Zm Xoe d naXoemV ì`ŠVr, H§$nÝ`m d ì`mnmar
~±H$m§H$Sy>Z hþ§S>çm IaoXr H$aÊ`mMm VgoM Ë`m§Mr {dH«$s H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Amho.
6. g^mgX ~±H$m§Mm amIrd {ZYr : g§K{ZYr {OëømVrb gd© g^mgX ~±H$m§Zr g§K{ZYr ~±Ho$V Amnbo
ImVo CKS>bo nm{hOo. Amnë`m ImË`mV Ë`m ~±H$m§Zr {ZpíMV Pmbobm amIrd {ZYr O_m H$aUo Amdí`H$ Amho.
7. AmonZ _mH}$Q> H${_Q>r : A_o[aHo$Vrb Iwë`m ~mOmamVrb ì`dhmamda {Z`§ÌU R>odÊ`mgmR>r ~mam
gXñ`m§Mr "AmonZ _mHo$Q> H${_Q>r' {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mV Ambr. gaH$maMo amoIo, XñVEodO `m§Mr Iwë`m ~mOmamV
IaoXr-{dH«$s H$ê$Z ì`mnmar ~±H$m§À`m nV{Z{_©Vrda g§K{ZYr nÕVr {Z`§ÌU R>odVo.
Aem àH$mao A_o[aHo$Vrb g§K{ZYr ~±H$m BVa XoemVrb _Ü`dVu ~±H$m§à_mUo H$m_o H$aVmV.
B. Com. Part-III : Advanced Banking Paper-II
Banks and Financial Institutions
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-V
Unit-3 Sub point
Repo Rate & Reverse Repo Rate
In modern banking some new methods of controlling short term and longterm funds in the
money market are being used. In the earlier banking theory and practice which even now
continues bank rate is supposed to be the important quantitative weapon of credit control.
It is the rate of interest charged by the central bank for the funds made available to a
commercial bank in severe financial difficulty. However in modern times central banks, (Reserve
Bank of India) make use of Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, as methods of regulating short
term liquidity in the money market.
Repo means Repurchase option. Repo Rate means the rate of interest at which Reserve
Bank of India makes short term funds available to banking institutions. Where as Reverse
Repo Rate means the rate of interest at which Reserve Bank of India is willing to accept short
term surplus fund from banking institution to enhance their profitability and to balance their
liquidity requirements. Normally Repo Rate is higher than Reverse Repo Rate with a difference
of 0.5%. At present RBI applies Repo Rate at 8.5% and Reverse Repo Rate is 8% in March
B. Com. Part-III : Advanced Banking Paper-II
Banks and Financial Institutions
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-VI
Unit-6 Sub point
Federal Reserve System - Nature and Functions :
United States of America has been and continues to be a highly developed economy in the
world. As USA dominates world economic order, American money market has naturally becomes
the centre of International money market. American money market is known as New York
money market. Similarly because of its strong economy and large Gold stock, American Dollar
has become an international currency.
During the biginning of 20th Century 'National Banking Commission' was appointed to
remove disorder in American banking and to suggest reforms in monetary system. The
recommenditions of National Banking Commission were accepted and as a result of that Federal
Reserve Act was Passed in 1913. This was supposed to work as a Federal System. In fact it
became The Central Bank of The American economy. With this started a new phase in American
economic history and reorganisation of the American monetary system. This became a turning
point in the banking business and history of America.
Federal Reserve System Acts as The Central Bank in the American money market. The
Federal Reserve System has its head office at Washington. The entire American country is
divided into 12 districts or divisions and for each division a federal reserve bank is established.
As a result there are 12 Federal Reserve Banks in America. The Federal Reserve Banks at
New York, Chicago and Sanfransisco are relatively large Federal Reserve Bank. Federal Reserve
Banks lend money to member banks and also carry out other central banking functions.
The Nature of Federal Reserve System.
(1) Federal Reserve District : As per the provisions of Federla Reserve Act 1913
there are 12 Federal Reserve Districts. In each Federal District a major city is identified as
Federal Reserve City. Thus there are 12 Central banks in America. They are located at Boston,
Cleveland, Chicago, Cansas, New York, Richmond, Saint louis. Dallas, Philadelphia, Atlanta,
Minioplis. Sanfransisco. Of these cities New York and Chicago are called as Central Reserve
(2) The Share Capital of Federal Reserve Banks : All commercial banks in a federal
reserve district are required to contribute 6% of their Reserve and paid up capital of Federal
reserve bank of the district. This is a legal binding. If there is surplus of Federal Reserve Banks
Share capital beyond this contrbution the remaining share capital is sold to the citizens of the
district or the American Government.
(3) Federal Reserve Board : Federal Reserve System is managed by a Federal Reserve
Board. The Federal Reserve Board supervises fresh money supply maintains and Audit books
of accounts and excersies overall control of the concerned Federal reserve bank. The members
of the board work full time and receive regular salary. Normally experts from different fields
are appointed as board members. The treasurry secretary of the American Government and
Controller of Currency are ex-officio members of the board. The President of USA nominates
6 members on the Federal Reserve Board.
The Federal Reserve Board is the highest management body. It exersises control on all
Federal Reserve Banks. The president and vice-president of different federal reserve banks
are appointed by the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve Board also decides additional
money supply and reserve ratio.
(4) Federal Reserve Advisary Board : Each Federal Reserve bank elects one member
on federal advisary board. The Federal Advisary Board meets in Washington as and when
required. Federal Advisary Board gives guidance to the Federal Reserve Board as well as
federal reserve banks, as and when required.
(5) The Assets of Federal Reserve Banks : The securities of Govt. of USA constitute
the main Asset of the federal reserve banks simillarly financial documents are also as assets,
Gold securities, SDR and Foreign currency are also included in the assets of the federal reserve
(6) Liabilities of Federal Reserve Banks : Deposits of the member banks, Deposits
of Govt., other deposits and currency notes are liabilities of the federal reserve banks.
The Functions of the Federal Reserve Bannks :
As Central banking agency in the American economy the federal reserve bank performs
following functions :
(1) Supply of paper currency : The Federal reserve system supplies Dollars against the
Govt. securities and distributes same among different district banks. This is the major liability of
the federal reserve system.
(2) Government Bank : The Federal Rreserve banks function as banker to federal
Govt. and Govt. of the state units. They receive Govt. income and pay for Govt. expenses.
(3) Branches : With prior permission of the Federal Reserve Board the federal reserve
banks can open branches in their respective districts.
(4) Distribution of Dividend : The federal reserve banks make profits and pay at the
most 6% dividend from the net profit to the shareholder. The federal reserve banks income
does not attract any taxation.
(5) Open Market Operations : The federal reserve banks are empowered to buy and
sell bills from or to individuals, companies and commercial banks within the country and abroad.
(6) Reserve Funds : All commercial banks in a reserve district have to open their
accounts with respective federal reserve banks and keep a certain minimum reserve in that
(7) Open Market Committee : The federal Reserve system has an Open market
committee with 12 members. This committee advices federal reserve system in the buying and
selling of Govt. securities and financial papers in the open market, in order to regulate credit
It is thus clear that in America the federal reserve system comprising 12 federal reserve
banks functions as a central bank and carries out different functions of a central bank as in
other countries.
B. Com. Part-III : Advanced Costing Paper-II (Old) Paper-IV (New)
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-VI
4.0 Learning Objectives :
After studying this unit you be able to i) Know meaning, importance, advantages of Integrated Accounts
ii) Understand the features of Integrated Accounts
iii) Understand the accounting entries and ledger accounts maintained under the Integrated
Accounting system.
4.1 Introduction :
Maintenance of two sets of accounts for cost and financial accounting entails a lot of
expenditure and effort, quite apart from the time involved in its presentation. Much of this can
be avoided if the books of accounts are suitable designed in favour of a unified account which
will meet the purposes of both financial and cost accounting. Two systems are dovetailed in
such a way that one basic record keeping meets the purposes of the both the systems and
consequently avoids the duplication of records and need for reconciliation. Such a system is
referred to as "Integrated or Integral accounting". The degree of integration must be determined
in advance. Many firms integrate the cost and financial accounts completely while other firms
integrate the two only up to the stage of prime cost or factory cost. The present chapter deals
with the meaning, definition, advantages and the necessary journal entries to be passed under
integrated accounting system.
4.2 Presentation of subject mater :
4.2.1 Meaning and Definition :
The integrated accounts give full information regarding the cost of each product, job,
process or operation. It gives the full information in such a way that the profit and the loss
account and the balance sheet can be prepared according to the requirements of law and the
management maintains full control over the liabilities and assets of its business. Integrated
accounting system does not recoginze the need for separate sets of accounts. It is single,
comprehensive accounting system without any distinction between cost and financial accounts.
The two separate systems are combined into one system. There is no need to reconcile the
profits as shown by the two sets of accounts. Profit as per financial accounts is the profit as per
cost accounts.
Definition :
The Institute of Cost and Management Accountants, England, defines an Integrated
Accounting system as "a system in which the financial and cost accounts are interlocked to
ensure that all relevant expenditure is absorbed into the cost accounts."
Above definition indicates very clearly that under this system only one set of accounts is
operated. The accounts are so prepared that the information required by both accounting (i. e.
cost and financial) is available from the same set of books. Thus integral or integrated accounting
is a system of recording financial and costing trransactions in one self-contained ledger called
integrated ledger.
4.2.2 Interlocking and Integrated Accounts :
There are various types of cost accounting. In spite of those two systems are widely
recoginzed and those are 'Interlocking' and 'Integrateed' accounting systems. Interlocking
accounting system is defined by the C. I. M. A. Terminology as, "A system in which the cost
accounts are distinct from the financial accounts, the two sets of accounts being kept continuously
in agreement by the use of control accounts or reconciled by other means."
Integrated accounting system is defined as, "A set of accounting records which provides
financial and cost accounts using a common input of data for all accounting purposes."
Above definitioins indicate that in interlocking accounting system the record of cost and
financial accounts are maintained independently of each other. The same transactions are
recorded in both sets of books on the basis of double entry. However, a few items of financial
accounts will not appear in cost accounts. Similarly, there are many items from cost accounts
which will not find place in financial accounts.
4.2.3 Advantages of Integrated Accounting :
Integrated Accounting has the following advantages :
1. In this system the reconciliation statement is not prepared as there is only one set of
accounts and the profit or loss figure is same. This saves administrative expenses in the form of
clerical labour.
2. The accounting work is considerably reduced by eliminating the maintenance of
unnecessary duplicate reocrds in the cost as well as in the financial ledger. This system is quite
3. This system is simple to prepare and easy to understand. The process of preparing
interim or final accounts is simplified.
4. It attempts to co-ordinate the activities and processes of various sections of the accounting
department, since all efforts are integrated and directed towards achieving a common aim of
maintaining a high level of efficiency. This helps in achieving better coordination in the activities
of cost and financial accounting staff.
5. Centralization of accounts is possible and this results in economy.
6. This system facilitates mechanized accounting.
7. The knowledge of cost and financial accounting may be combined together to achieve
better results.
8. The system tends to broaden the outlook of the accounting staff and in return they
appreciate the entire accounting system.
Disadvantages :
Besides the merits this system suffers from following disadvantages :
1. This system of accounting is not suitable for large scale organizations, as these require
the through and separate information of cost and financial accounting.
2. In the organization where full integration system is not followed needs reconciliation
between the two accounts.
3. A system which is expected to provide costing as well as financial information is quite
cumbersome and complicated and requires the services of experts.
4.2.4 Features of Integrated Accounting :
Integrated Accounting system has the following distinctive features :
1. The management has to decide the extent of integration of the two sets of books hence
the degree of integration may differ between firms.
2. There is no need to open a Cost ledger control Account as it is possible to complete
double entry without this account.
3. Under this method a General Ledger is maintained which contains both cost and financial
4. Cost analysis is made in respect of materials, wages and overheads, which are posted
in the stores, wages and overhead control accounts and the totals are transferred to the Work
in progress account at the end of the period by crediting various control accounts.
5. The balances in the Store account, WIP account and Finished goods accounts are the
closing stock values, the analysis of which would be found in the subsidiary books.
6. Capital expenditure is separated in the process of cost analysis by debiting sundry
assets account and crediting the control account.
7. All advance payments are credited and accruals are debited to the respective control
accounts as contra entries in the prepayments and accrual accounts.
4.2.5 Ledger Accounts :
Under this method a General Ledger is maintained which contains both cost and financial
accounts. Entries in the General ledger are made in consolidated form from Subsidiary ledger
where detailed day to day postings are recorded. The General Ledger contains Control accounts
of each Suhbsidiary ledger and also personal accounts, cash and bank accounts etc. In short,
when cost accounts are maintained independently of financial accounts, the two are interlocked
through total or control accounts maintained in each ledger. Transactions are recorded in detail
in individual accounts in each ledger and are also entered in summary form in the control
accounts. At the end of accounting period, the sum of the balances in the individual accounts
should agree with the balances on the control account.
4.2.6 Journal Entries :
In integrated system there is no need for a cost ledger control account because separate
books for cost and financial accounts are not maintained. In place of cost ledger control accounts
other relevant financial accounts e. g. cash, bank, debtors, creditors etc. are prepared. Following
journal entries are passed under integrated accounting system for the transactions :
Account Debited
Account Credited
Material purchased for cash
Store control A/c
Cash A/c
Material purchase on credit
Store control A/c
Creditors A/c
Material purchase for specific job
Work-in-Progress A/c Cash or creditors A/c
Purchase of material for immediate Production overhead
repaires work
Creditors or Cash A/c
Control A/c
Direct Material issued to production Work-in-progress
Store Ledger Control
Control A/c
Indirect Material issued to
Production overhead
Store ledger control
control A/c
Material returned to supplier
Creditors A/c
Store ledger control
Material returned to stores
Store ledger control
Work in progress
Indirect Material returned to store
Store ledger control
Production overhead
Material transferred from job to job No entry
Payment of wages
Wages control A/c
Insurance, tax, wages
A/c payable (if wages
to be paid cash A/c)
Allocating to direct wages
Work in progress
control A/c
Wages control A/c
Allocating to indirect wages as
factory, admn and selling and
distribution overhead
Factory overhead
control, administer.
Overhead control,
selling & distribution
overhead control A/c
Capital Asset
Indirect overheads incurred
Respective overhead
control A/c
Cash or Creditors A/c
Absorption of production overheads Work in progress
control A/c
Factory overhead
control A/c
Absorption of administration
Work in progress
control A/c
Admn. Overhead
control A/c
Absorption of selling &
distribution overheads
Cost of sales A/c
Selling & distribution
control A/c
Over absorption of overheads
Respective overhead
Overhead adjustment
or P & L A/c
Under absorption of overheads
Overhead adjustment Respective overhead
a/c or P & L a/c
control a/c
Finished goods produced
Finished goods
control a/c
work in progress
control a/c
Recording cost of goods sold
Cost of sales a/c
Finished goods
control a/c
Sales return
Cost of sales a/c
Debtors a/c
Repair work
Overhead control a/c
Work in progress
control a/c
Recording sales
Cash or debtors a/c
Profit and loss a/c
Capital work
Sundary asset a/c
Work in progress
control a/c
Abnormal wastage in production
Profit and loss a/c
Work in progress
control a/c
Repair work for special order
Overhead control a/c
Work in progress
control a/c
No entry
No entry
4.2.7 Practical Problems :
1. Journalise the following transactions in the integrated books :
1.Credit purchases
2. Wages paid
3. Productive wages
4. Unproductive wages
5. Stores issued to production order
6. Works expenses paid
7. Works expenses charged to production
8. Works expenses outstanding
9. Finished goods transterred from
production order
10. Administration expenses paid
11. Administration expenses charged
to production
Solution :
F. Debit
Store Ledger Control A/c................. Dr
To Creditors A/c ..................... Cr
(being goods purchased on credit)
Wages A/c .....................Dr
To Cash A/c ...........Cr
(being wages paid)
Work-in-progress A/c .....................Dr
To Wages A/c ....................... Cr
(being wages charged to production)
Works Expenses Control A/c ................Dr
To wages A/c ...............................Cr
(being unproductive wage transferred
to works expenses control A/c)
Work-in-progress A/c .....................Dr
To Stores control A/c...............Cr
(being the stores issued to production
Works expenses control A/c................Dr
To cash A/c ...............................Cr
(being the works expense paid)
Work-in-progress A/c ............................Dr
To works Expense Control A/c .......Cr
(being the works expenses incurred
during the year)
Works Expenses Control A/c..................Dr
To O/s Works Expenses A/c ......... Cr
(being works expenses are still unpaid)
2. Journalise the following transactions under integrated system.
2. Cash
3. Direct wages
4. Indirect wages
5. Stores issued against Production order
6. Works expenses paid
7. Works expenses incurred on jobs
8. Administration expenses paid
9. Outstanding administratiion expenses
10. Administration expenes incurred on jobs
11. Finished goods transterred
Solution : (Alternative Method)
Store Ledger Control A/c................... Dr
To Creditors A/c ....................... Cr
To Cash A/c ............................. Cr
(being raw material purchased on
credit and cash)
Wages Control A/c .............................Dr
To Cash A/c ...............................Cr
(being wages paid)
Work-in-progress Control A/c ..............Dr
To Wages Control A/c ................ Cr
(being direct wages charged to
Works Expenses Control A/c ...............Dr
To Wages Control A/c .................Cr
(being indirect wage transferred
to works overhead)
Work-in-progress Control A/c ..............Dr
To Stores Ledger control A/c........Cr
(being the stores issued to production)
Works Expenses Control A/c..................Dr
To cash A/c ....................................Cr
(being the works expenses incurred)
Work-in-progress Control A/c ................Dr
To works Expense Control A/c..........Cr
(being the works expenses charged
to production)
Administration Expenses Control A/c......Dr
To cash A/c.....................................Cr
(being administration expenses incurred)
Administration expenses Control A/c ......Dr.
To O/s Administration expenses A/c...Cr.
(being administration expenses unpaid)
Work-in-progress Control A/c ................Dr
To Administration Expenses Control A/c.......Cr
(being the administration expenses
charged to production)
Finished goods control A/c......................Dr
To Work-in-progress Control A/c......Cr
(being goods completed and transferred
to finished goods account)
3. Following are the extracts of balances of M and Co. Ltd. in its integrated
Ledger on 31-3-2009.
Debit Rs.
Store Control Account
Finished goods Account
Work-in-progress Control Account
Creditors Account
Credit Rs.
Cash at Bank
Debtors Account
Fixed Assets Account
Profit and loss Account
Depreciation Provision Account
Share capital Account
Transactions for the year ending 31-3-2007 were :
Wages - Indirect
Stores Purchased on Credit
Stores issued to production
Stores issued to repair order
Goods finished during the period at cost
Goods sold at Cost
Goods sold at sales value (on cost)
Production overhead recovered
Production overheads
Administratiion overheads
paid for by cheque
Selling and distribution overheads
Depreciation (works)
Payment from customers
Payment for suppliers
Purchase of fixed Asset in cash
Fine Paid
Income Tax
Charitable donations
Rates prepaid included in production overhead incurred
Interest on bank loan
You are required to wirte up the accounts in Integral Ledger and take out a Trial balance.
The Administration overhead is written off to profit and loss Account.
Solution :
Stores Control Account
To balance bld
To Creditors A/c
By WIP control A/c
By Prod. overhead
Control A/c
By balanced
Wages Control Account
31-3-2007 To Bank A/c
By WIP control A/c
By Productiion overhead
Control A/c
Production Overhead Control Account
To Wages Control A/c
To Store Control A/c
To Bank A/c
To Depreciation
Provision A/c
By Prepaid Rent A/c
By Work in Progress
Control A/c
Administratiion Overhead Control Account
To Bank A/c
By Costing P& L A/c
Selling and Distributiion Overhead Control Account
To Bank A/c
By Costing P & L A/c
Work-in-Progress Control Account
To balance b/d
To Wages Control A/c
To Stores Control A/c
To Production
Overhead A/c
By Finished
goods A/c
By balance c/d
Finished goods A/c
1-4-2006 To balance b/d
31-3-2007 To Work-in-Progress
Control A/c
By Cost of sales A/c
By balance c/d
Cost of Sales A/c
To Finished goods A/c
To Selling & Distribution
O/h Control A/c
To Costing P&L A/c
By Debtors A/c
Costing Profit and Loss A/c (For the year ended 31-3-2007)
To Administrative over
head Control A/c
To P&L A/c
By Cost of Sales
Profit and Loss A/c
(For the year ended 31-3-2007)
To Children donations
To Interest on bank loan
To Fines
To Income Tax
To N/p C/d
By balance b/d
By Costing P &L A/c
Prepaid Rent A/c
To Production
Overhead Control A/c
By balance c/d
Depreciation Provision Account
To balance c/d
By balance b/d
By Production o/h
Control A/c
Debtors Account
1-4-2006 To balance b/d
31-3-2007 To Cost of sales A/c
By Bank A/c
By balance c/d
Creditors Account
To Bank
To balance c/d
By balance b/d
By Stores Control A/c
Fixed Assets Account
1-4-2006 To balance b/d
31-3-2007 To Bank A/c
By balance c/d
Share Capital Account
To bal. c/d
By bal. c/d
Bank Account
1-4-2006 To balance b/d
31-3-2007 To Debtors A/c
By wages Control A/c
By Fixed Asset A/c
By Production o/h
Control A/c
By Administration
o/h Control A/c
By Selling & Distribution o/h Control A/c
By Creditors A/c
By Charitable
donation A/c
By Fines A/c
By Interest on bank loan
By Income Tax
By balance c/d
Trial balance (as on 31-3-2007)
Dr. Rs.
Stores Control Account
Control Account
Cr. Rs.
Finished goods Accounts
Cash at Bank
Creditors Account
Debtors Account
Prepaid Rent A/c.
Fixed Assets Account
Depreciation Provision Account
Profit and Loss Account
Share capital Account
4.3 Summary :
Integrated or integral accounting is a system of accounting in which both cost and financial
accounts are kept in the same set of books. These two set of books are maintained under nonintegrated system of accounting (i.e. one set for cost accounting and another set for financial
accounting) are merged into composite system. Hence the reconciliation of cost and financial
accounts is not necessary. Profit and loss account for financial and costing purposes are discarded
in favour of unified accounting which serves financial and costing purposes. Records and
accounts are managed in such a way that unnecessary accounts such as cost ledger control
account, general ledger adjustment account, purchase account etc. are eliminated and at the
same time provide objective analysis. Integral accounting offers scope for better understanding
and coordination as cost and financial accounting functions work complementary to each other
rather than as separate watertight compartment and widens the outlook of the accounting
function to appreciate the entire accounting system. In the process, knowledge of cost and
financial accounting may be pooled together for better accounting system, procedure and
presentation of account.
4.4 Check your progress :
(A) State the following statements are true or false :
1. Reconciliation statement is necessary under integrated accounting system.
2. Integration of cost and financial accounts can be done by Third entry system.
3. There is only one figure of profit under integral accounting.
4. Integrated accounts eliminate the necessity of operating the General Ledger Control
5. Loss on the sale of furniture is not included in integrated accounts.
6. No accounts for debtors and creditors are opened in integrated accounts.
(B) Fill in the gaps :
1. Under integrated accounting the cost and financial accounts are ........... in one ledger.
2. Under integral accounting there will be only ............ figure of profit.
3. .......... records are avoided in integral accounts.
4. There is ........... of reconciling cost and financial accounts under integrated accounts.
5. There will be ............ status of cost accountants and financial accountants under
integrated accounts.
6. ............. Control account is debited and ............... account is credited for purchase
of stores under integral accounting system.
7. For recording sales under integrated accounting ........... is debited and ........... is
4.5 Exercise :
(A) Write short answer for the following questions.
1. What do you understand by Integral Accounting ?
2. Enumerate the advantages of Integrating Accounting.
3. State three principles of integral accounting.
4. Write a brief note on integrated accounting system.
(B) Give journal entries for the following transactions under integrated accounting
1. Material purchased on credit.
2. Payment to creditors.
3. Issue of direct materials issued for production.
4. Payment of wages.
4.6 Code Key :
(A) 1. False
2. True
3. True
4. True
(B) 1. Merged 2. One 3. Duplication
7. Debtors or cash, Sales.
5. False
4. No need
6. False
5. Equal
6. Stores, Creditors
4.7 Further References :
1) M. N. Arora
Cost Accounting Principles and Practice (2007)
Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., Noida.
2) Jawaharlal
Cost Accounting (1998)
Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co, Ltd., New Delhi.
3) S. P. Iyengar
Cost Accounting (1989)
Sultan-chand and sons, New Delhi.
4) M. Y. Khan and
P. K. Jain
Cost Accounting and Financial Management (2005)
Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
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6. n`m©daU : (A) XoemVrb dZo d O§Jbm§Mo à_mU 5% Zo dmT>{dUo.
(~) WTO Zo {ZpíMV Ho$bobo hdm ewÕVoMo à_mU 2011-12 n`ªV gd© ehamV àñWm{nV H$aUo.
(H$) 2011-12 n`ªV ehar gm§S>nmÊ`mMr ì`dñWm H$ê$Z gd© ZÚm ñdÀN> H$aUo d nmUr, àXwfU H$_r
(S>) D$Om© j_Vm 20% dmT>{dUo
11 ì`m `moOZoV _w»`V: nwT>rb Jmoï>r H$amd`mÀ`m hmoË`m (vision)
1) ObX Am{W©H$ {dH$mgm_wio XoemVrb Xm[aÐç H$_r hmoD$Z amoOmJa dmT> KSy>Z `oB©b.
2) J[a~m§gmR>r {ejU d Amamo½` godm CnbãY H$ê$ZXoUo.
3) {ejU d Hw$ebVm {dH$mgmÛmao {dH$mg KS>dyZ AmUUo.
4) amoOJa `moOZmMm {dñVma H$aUo. amï´>r` amoOJma h_r H$m`©H«$_ am~{dUo.
5) n`m©daU ajU H$aUo.
6) ór-nwéf {df_Vm H$_r H$aUo.
7) ì`dñWmnZ gwYmaUm H$ao.
11 ì`m `moOZoVrb g_J«bjr KQ>H$mVrb Am{W©H$ ~Xb :
11 ì`m `moOZoVrb (amÁ` d H|$Ð {_iyZ) gmd©O{ZH$ joÌmda 36,44,718 H$mo. é. IM© H$aÊ`mV `oVrb,
Ë`mn¡H$s H|$Ð gaH$ma 21,56571 H$mo. é. (59.2%) d amÁ` gaH$mam§Mm dmQ>m 14,88147 H$mo. é. (40.8%)
* 11 ì`m `moOZoV 10 ì`m `moOZonojm gaH$maMm IM© 120% Zo OmñV Agob.
* 11 ì`m `moOZoV gaH$maMm gmd©O{ZH$ joÌmdarb IM© EHy$U Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZmÀ`m (GDP) 13.54%
BVH$m am{hb, Vmo 10 ì`m `moOZoV 9.46% BVH$m hmoVm.
Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXdmT>rMo bú` :
11 ì`m `moOZo Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZdmT>rMm Xa 9% JmR>Uo ho bú` R>a{dÊ`mV Ambo. Vmo 2007-08 _Ü`o
8.5% Vo 2011-12 _Ü`o 10% BVH$m JmR>Uo. XaS>moB© Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZdmT>rMm Xa à{Vdfu 7.6% amIUo d
Z{OH$À`m 10 dfmªV Vmo XwßnQ> dmT>{dUo hmo`.
joÌr` {dH$mg dmT>rMo Xa :
11 ì`m `moOZoV ho Xa nwT>rbà_mUo JmR>Ê`mMo bú` Amho.
11 dr `moOZm
10 Vo 11%
V¥Vrj joÌ / godm joÌ
9 Vo 11%
`m `moOZoV CÚmoJ d godm joÌmÀ`m dmT>rMm Xa XmoZ AmH$S>r JmR>Ê`mMo bú` R>a{dÊ`mV Ambo.
VŠVm H«$. 1
~MVrMm Xa
Mmby ImË`mdarb VyQ>
^m§S>db CËnmXZ JwUmoÎma
Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZdmT>rMm Xa
(Or. S>r. nr. À`m %)
10 dr `moOZm
11 dr `moOZm
ñÌmoV : B§{S>`Z BH$m°Zm°_r, XÎm gw§Xa_².
gmd©O{ZH$ joÌ d ImOJr joÌmVrb J§VdUyH$ :
11 ì`m `moOZoV ImOJr joÌmVrb Jw§dUyH$ 28.5% Zo dmT>oO Agm A§XmO H$aÊ`mV Ambm. Va gmd©O{ZH$
joÌmVrb J§wVdUyH$ 8.0% Zo dmT>ob. Ë`m_wio XoemVrb EHy$U Jw§VdUH$sMm Xa 36.7% amhrb Agm A§XmO
dV©{dÊ`mV Ambm.
VŠVm H«$. 2
Jw§VdUyH$sMm Xa
gmd©. joÌ
ImOJr joÌ
9 dr `moOZm
10 dr `moOZm
11 dr `moOZm
ñVmoÌ : B§{S>`Z BH$m°Zm°_r, XÎm gw§Xa_².
VŠVm H«$. 3
11 ì`m `moOZoVrb gmd©. joÌmVrb gmYZ gm_J«rMo joÌ {Zhm` dmQ>n
1) eoVr d g§b¾ joÌo
2) J«m_rU {dH$mg
10 dr `moOZm
11 dr `moOZm
(2002-07) (H$mo.é.) (2007-12) (H$mo.é.)
60702 (3.8)
137710 (8.5)
136381 (3.7)
301069 (8.3)
3) {deof joÌo H$m`©H«$_
4) qgMZ d nya {Z`§ÌU
EHy$U eoVr joÌ (1 Vo 4)
5) D$Om©
6) CÚmoJ d I{ZOo
7) dmhVyH$
8) XiZdiZ
9) {dkmZ, V§ÌkmZ d n`m©daU
10) gd©gmYmaU Am{W©H$ godm
11) gm_m{OH$ godm
12) gd©gmYmaU godm
16423 (1.0)
112415 (6.9)
3,27,250 (20.2)III
363635 (22.4) II
64655 (4.0)
263934 (16.3)
82945 (5.1)
28673 (1.8)
30349 (1.9)
436529 (27.0) I
20489 (1.3)
26329 (0.7)
210326 (5.8)
674105 (18.5)III
854123 (23.4) II
153600 (4.2)
572413 (15.7)
95380 (2.6)
87933 (2.4)
62523 (1.7)
1102327 (30.9) I
42283 (1.2)
1618460 (100)
3644718 (100.00)
H§$gmVrb AmH$S>o EHy$U IMm©Mo à_mU Xe©{dVmV.
gm_m{OH$ godmV nwT>rb godm g_m{dï> AgVmV.
{ejU, ii) gmd©O{ZH$ Amamo½`, iii) nmUrnwadR>m d ñdÀN>Vm, Kao, ehar {dH$mg dJ¡ao
ñÌmoV : B§{S>`Z BH$m°Zm°_r, XÎm gw§Xa_².
11 ì`m `moOZoV gdm©V OmñV IM© gm_m{OH$ godm§da (30.9%) H$aÊ`mMo R>a{dbo Amho, Ë`mZ§Va
COm©joÌmda (23.4%) Va eoVr joÌmMm H«$_ {Vgam bmJVmo (18.5%). 10 ì`m `moOZoV XoIrb gmYZgm_J«rÀ`m
dmQ>nmMm H$b (IM©) AZwH«$_o gm_m{OH$ godm, D$Om© d eoVr joÌ AgmM hmoVm. na§Vw 11 ì`m `moOZoV 10 ì`m
`moOZonojm gm_m{OH$ godm§darb IMm©Mo d D$Om© joÌmdarb IMm©Mo à_mU dmT>ë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo. gm_m{OH$
godm§darb IM© 27% dê$Z 30.9% Va D$Om© joÌmdarb IMm©Mo à_mU 22.4% dê$Z 23.4% Ago
dmT>ë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo, Va eoVr joÌmdarb IMm©Mo à_mU _mÌ 20.2% dê$Z 18.5% Ago KQ>ë`mMo {XgyZ `oVo.
eoVr joÌmdarb IMm©Vrb KQ>rMo à_mU XoemÀ`m Am{W©H$ {dH$mgmda à{VHy$b n[aUm_ KS>dyZ AmUUmao
_wb^yV godm§darb IM© : dmhVyH$ d XiUdiZmdarb IMm©Mo à_mU 16.3 + 5.1 = 21.4% déZ
11 ì`m `moOZoV 15.7 + 2.6 = 18.3% Ago _moR>o am{hbo. `mMm AW© Ë`mda OmJ{VH$sH$aUmMm à^md {XgyZ
VŠVm H«$. 3
11 ì`m `moOZoVrb amoOJmadmT>rMm A§XmO
amoOJma g§Yr
~oamoOJmam§Mr g§»`m
~oamoOJmarMm Xa
(Xe bj)
ñÌmoV : B§{S>`Z BH$m°Zm°_r, XÎm gw§Xa_².
11 ì`m `moOZoV ~oamoOJmarMm Xa 8.36 dê$Z 4.83% JmR>Ê`mMo C{Ôï> R>a{dÊ`mV Ambo.
VŠVm H«$. 5
joÌ{Zhm` amoOJma dmT>
1) eoVr
2) ImUH$m_-ì`dgm`
3) dñVy-CËnmXZ
4) drO, nmUr BVa
5) ~m§YH$m_
6) ì`mnma, hm°Q>oëg d
7) dmhVyH$, gmR>dUyH$ d
8) {dÎm, {d_m, ñWmda
_mb_Îmm d ì`mnmar godm
9) gm_w{hH$, gm_m{OH$ d
ì`{ŠVJV godm
(Xe bj)
10 ì`m `moOZoVrb g\$bVm
11 ì`m `moOZoVrb A§XmO
8.84 -II
8.64 - III
10.70 - I
11.94 - II
11.92 - II
17.40 - I
ñÌmoV : B§{S>`Z BH$m°Zm°_r, XÎm gw§Xa_².
10 ì`m `moOZoV gdm©V OmñV amoOJma ì`mnma, hm°ëQ>oëg d aoñQ>ma§Q> joÌmV 10.70 X. bj amoOJma {Z_m©U
Pmbm. Ë`mZ§Va eoVr joÌ (8.84 X. b.) d H$maImZXmar-dñVy CËnmXZ joÌmMm (8.64 X. bj) AZwH«$_o
{ÛVr` d V¥Vr` H«$_ bmJVmo.
11 ì`m `moOZoV nwÝhm ì`mnma, hm°Q>oëg d aoñQ>ma§Q> joÌmV gdm©V OmñV (17.40 X.bj), Ë`mZ§Va
H$maImZXmar dñVy CËnmXZ joÌmV (11.94 X. bj) d ~m§YH$m_ joÌmV (11.92 X. bj) amoOJma{Z{_©VrMm
A§XmO dV©{dÊ`mV Ambm Amho. Va eoVr joÌmVrb amoOmJa {Z{_©Vr 8.84 Xebjmdê$Z 0.00 J¥hrV Yabr
Amho. hm A§XmO `mo½` dmQ>V Zmhr.
Xm[aÐç {Z_y©bZ :
11 ì`m `moOZoV Xm[aÐçmMo à_mU 10% Zo H$_r H$aÊ`mMo C{Ôï> R>a{dÊ`mV Ambo Amho. Vo 28% nmgyZ
18% H$_r H$aUo. ho Xm[aÐç aofoImbrb (BPL) bmoH$m§Mo à_mU {ZpíMV H$aÊ`mgmR>r XaS>moB© IMm©Mm {ZH$f
dmnabm J«m_rU ^mJmVrb bmoH$m§gmR>r XaS>moB© Xa _{hZm IM© 356 é. d ehar bmoH$m§gmR>r 458 é. 2004-05
_Ü`o {ZpíMV H$aÊ`mV Ambm hmoVm. hm {ZH$f AmVm bmJy nS>V Zmhr. H$maU bmoH$m§À`m Cn^moJ IMm©V dmT>
Pmbr Amho. Ë`m_wio {Z`moOZ _§S>imZo hm {ZH$f ~XbÊ`mgmR>r Vk JQ>mMr Zo_UyH$ Ho$br Amho. Xm[aÐç aofm
R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r Vmo {ZH$f dmnabm OmUma Amho. Oa `m VkJQ>mZo Xm[aÐçaofm R>a{dÊ`mgmR>rMm XaS>moB© Xa_hm
Cn^moJ IMm©V dmT> Ho$br Va ^maVmVrb Xm[aÐçaofoImbrb bmoH$g§»`oMo à_mU _moR>o am{hb.
àmXo{eH$ Ag_Vmob Xya H$aUo : 11 ì`m `moOZoV XoemVrb gd© amÁ`m§gmR>r EHy$U Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZdmT>rÀ`m
XamMr C{Ôï>o (GDP growth rates) R>adyZ {Xbr AmhoV, Ë`mZwgma àË`oH$ amÁ`mZo Vr C{Ôï>o JmR>mdrV åhUOo
^maVmMm Xem§VJ©V CËnmXZ dmT>rMm 9% Xa 11 ì`m `moOZoV àñWm{nV H$aVm `oB©b. Ë`m_wio àmXoerH$ Ag_Vmob
Xya hmoÊ`mg _XV hmoB©b.
_yë`_mnZ : 11 ì`m `moOZoZo (faster & more inclusive) "ObX d A{YH$ gd©g_mdoeH$' ho _w»`
C{Ôï> J¥hrV Yê$Z `moOZm§Mr AmIUr Ho$br Amho. na§Vw `m `moOZoZo J¥hrV Yabobo bú`o (Targets) {H$VnV
g\$b hmoVrb? `mMm AmT>mdm KoUo Bð> R>aVo.
1) Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZdmT>rMm 9% Xa JmR>Uo H$R>rU : eoVrjoÌmMm Xa 4%, H$maImZXmar joÌmMm Xa
10 Vo 11% d godmjoÌmMm Xa 9 Vo 11% J¥hrV Yabm Amho. na§Vw eoVrjoÌmMm 4% JmR>Uo eŠ` hmoB©b H$s Zmhr
ho gm§JUo H$R>rU H$m_ Amho. 10 ì`m `moOZoV Vmo 2.1% am{hbm. VgoM AmOÀ`m Am{W©H$ _§XrÀ`m H$mimV
H$maImZXmar joÌmMm Xa 10 Vo 11% amIUo XoIrb eŠ` Zmhr. Ë`m_wio `m `moOZoV XoemÀ`m Am{W©H$ {dH$mgmMm
Xa 9% Xa amIUo gme§H$ Amho. Am{W©H$ {dH$mgmMm Xa eoVrÀ`m Xamda Adb§~yZ Amho, eoVrjoÌmMm 4%
{dH$mg Xa JmR>bm ZmhrVa XoemÀ`m Am{W©H$ {dH$mgmMm 9% Xa JmR>Vm `oUma Zmhr. AmOXoIrb 58%
bmoH$g§»`oMr àË`j d 10% bmoH$m§Mr AàË`j Cn{O{dH$mg eoVrda Adb§~yZ Amho, åhUOo XoemVrb 68%
bmoH$g§»`m Oa {dH$mgmnmgyZ d§{MV am{hbr Va `m `moOZobm "A{YH$ gd©g_mdoeH$' (more inclusive)
`moOZm åhUVm `oB©b H$m ?
2) Xm[aÐç {Z_y©bZ : Ooìhm XoemVrb Xm[aÐç doJmZo H$_r Pmbo VaM `m `moOZobm A{YH$ gd©g_mdoeH$
`moOZm åhUVm `oB©b. `m `moOZoV 2017 n`ªV Xm[aÐçmMo à_mU 28% déZ 18% åhUOo 10% Zo H$_r
H$aÊ`mMo C{Ôï> Amho. `mMm AW© Xadfu 1% Zo Xm[aÐç H$_r Ho$bo OmB©b. Xm[aÐçmVrb KQ>rMo à_mU ho à_mU
1973-74 dfm©nojm H$_r Amho. Oa Xm[aÐç aofoMr ì`m»`m ~Xbbr d Am§Vaamï´>r` ì`m»`m XaS>moB© XaamoOMm
IM© 2 S>m°bg© J¥hrV Yabm Va ^maVmVrb 80% OZVm X[aÐr R>aob. Ë`m_wio Xm[aÐç {Z_y©bZ `moOZm hmñ`mñnX
3) ~oamoOJmar H$_r H$aUo : `m `moOZoV 58 bj amoOJmag§Yr CnbãY H$ê$Z XoÊ`mMo bj R>a{dÊ`mV
Ambo Amho. `moOZmH$mimV 45 X. bj ZdrZ H$m_Jmam§Mr EHy$U H$m_Jmag§»`oV ^a nS>ob, VgoM _mJMo ~oH$ma
35 Xebj H$m_Jma AmhoV åhUOo 80 Xebj H$m_Jma ~oH$ma AmhoV Ë`mn¡H$s 58 Xebj H$m_Jmam§Zm amoOJma
`m `moOZoV {Xë`mg ~oamoOJmarMm Xa 8.36% dê$Z 4.83% BVH$m H$_r hmoB©b Ago J¥hrV Yabo Amho. Vo Iao
R>aUma Zmhr.
4) eoVr joÌmMm 4% Xa JmR>Uo H$R>rU : `m `moOZoV eoVrjoÌmÀ`m dmT>rMm Xa 4% J¥hrV Yabm Amho.
Vmo JmR>Uo eŠ` dmQ>V Zmhr. H$maU eoVrjoÌmÀ`m dmT>rgmR>r, H$O©nwadR>m, Mm§Jë`m qH$_Vr, gmd©O{ZH$ Jw§VdUyH$
dmT>, qgMZ gmo`r, J«m_rU {dÚwVrH$aU, _wb^yV gmo`tMm {dH$mg H$aUo, Adf©UàdU joÌmMm {dH$mg BË`m{X
Cnm` `moOmdo bmJUma AmhoV. na§Vw `m gd© Jmoï>r hmoVrbM Ago Zmhr. eoVr joÌmVrb YmoHo$ d A{ZpíMVVm
dJ¡ao_wio eoVr joÌmÀ`m {dH$mgmMm 4% Xa JmR>Uo H$R>rU Amho.
g§X^© :
1) R. Datta &
KPM Sundaram
: "Indian Economy" S. Chand & Company Ltd,
New Delhi (2009)
2) Planning Commission : "An approch to the 11th Fine Year Plan"
3) Planning Commission : "11th Five Year Plan" Vol. I, II & III
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : ì`mdgm{`H$ n`m©daU
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 6 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
(H$) 12 ì`m n§Mdm{f©H$ `moOZoMr C{Ôï>o (2012-2017)
1 E{àb 2012 nmgyZ ^maVmMr 12 dr n§Mdm{f©H$ `moOZm gwê$ Pmbr. {Z`moOZ _§S>imZo 20 Am°JñQ>
2011 amoOr Pmboë`m ~¡R>H$sV `m `moOZobm _Ý`Vm {Xbr. VgoM 20 gßQ>|~a 2011 amoOr H|$Ð gaH$maZo `m
`moOZobm _mÝ`Vm {Xbr. n§VàYmZ S>m°. _Z_mohZ qgJ `m§À`m AÜ`jVoImbr Zdr {X„r `oWo 22 Am°ŠQ>mo~a 2011
amoOr amï´>r` {dH$mg n[afXoMr 56 dr ~¡R>H$ Pmbr, Ë`m_Ü`o H$mhr AQ>tda hr `moOZm pñdH$maÊ`mV Ambr. `m
`moOZoMr à_wI C{Ôï>o nwT>rb hmoV.
C{Ôï>o :
1) ObX, gd©g_mdoeH$ d {Q>H$mD$ Am{W©H$ {dH$mg ho `m `moOZoMo _wi C{Ôï> Amho.
2) XoemÀ`m Am{W©H$ dmT>rMm Xa 9% BVH$m (EHy$U Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZmÀ`m) JmR>Uo.
3) `m `moOZmH$mimV eoVrjoÌmÀ`m {dH$mgmMm 4% Xadfu JmR>Uo.
4) XoemVrb Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dH$mgmMm Xa àVrdfu 9.6% JmR>Uo.
5) godmjoÌmÀ`m {dH$mgmMm Xa àVrdfu 10% àñWm{nV H$aUo.
6) Xoem§VJ©V Jw§VdUyH$sMm Xa àVrdfu EHy$U Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZmÀ`m 38.7% BVH$m amIUo.
7) XoemV§J©V ~MVrMm Xa àVr dfu EHy$U Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZmÀ`m 36.2% BVH$m àñWm{nV H$aUo.
8) Oam{dVr` VyQ> EHy$U Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZmÀ`m 3.25% amIUo.
9) KmCH$ qH$_V {ZX}em§H$ Xadfu 4.5 Vo 5% Xaå`mZ R>odUo.
10) n¸$m_mb CËnmXZ H$aUmè`m H$maImÝ`m§À`m (_°Ý`w\°$ŠM[a¨J joÌ) dmT>rMm Xa àVrdfu 11 Vo 12%
Xaå`mZ R>odUo.
11) `m joÌmV Xadfu 2 Xebj A{YH$Mm amoOJma {Z_m©U H$aUo.
12) _mÜ`{_H$ {ejUmMo gmd©{ÌH$saU H$aUo.
Cƒ {ejUmVrb EHy$U nQ>Zm|XUr JwUmoÎma 2017 n`ªV 20% d 2022 n`ªV 25% n`ªV dmT>{dUo.
13) Amamo½`godmdarb H|$Ð d amÁ` gaH$mam§Mm IM© 1.3 Vo {H$_mZ 2% n`ªV dmT>{dUo, eŠ` Pmë`mg
`m `moOZm AIoa hm IM© EHy$U Xoem§VJ©V CËnmXZmÀ`m 2.5 n`ªV dmT>{dUo.
14) ñdÀN> {nÊ`mMo nmUr, ñdÀN>Vm, KZH$Mam ì`dñWmnZ, A{YH$ Mm§Jbm Amhma, _wbm§Mr {ZJm dJ¡ao
~m~tMr Mm§Jbr A§_b~OmdUr H$aUo.
15) 12 ì`m `moOZoAIoarg XoemVrb drOoMo CËnmXZ 1,00000 _oJ°d°Q>n`ªV dmT>{dUo.
16) nmUr, JQ>mao, ñdÀN>Vm, Kao, gmd©O{ZH$ dmhVyH$ BË`m{X gmo`rV ehar Jar~mgmR>r dmT> H$aUo.
12 dr n§Mdm{f©H$ `moOZoMo darb C{Ôï>o à_wI hmoV. hr C{Ôï>o gmÜ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r eoVr joÌmMm {dH$mg
ObX amoOJma {Z{_©Vr, Amamo½` gmoB©V gwYmaU, {ejU d V§ÌkmZ {dH$mg, Jar~m§gmR>rÀ`m `moOZm§Mm {dH$mg,
gm_m{OH$Ñï>çm _mJmgboë`m JQ>m§gmR>r H$m`©H«$_ am~{dUo, _mJmgboë`m {d^mJm§gmR>r {deof H$m`©H«$_ am~{dUo
dJ¡ao Cnm`m§Mm Adb§~ H$amdm bmJob.
B. Com. Part-III : Business Environment
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-V
Unit 6 : Sub point
b) 11th Five Year Plan (1st April 2007 to 30th March 2012)
Introduction :
The National Development Council has approved the draft plan of 11th five year plan of
India, on December 2006 and it was named as "Towards faster and more inclusive growth."
According to the determined objectives of ths plan it was told to planning commission of India
to prepare a draft plan of resource allocation. This plan was finally sanctioned by National
Development Council on December 2007.
Structure of 11th Plan : While preparing the economic draft plan, it was noted that
during the period of 10th plan rate of economic growth was remained 7.6% of the GDP, and it
was remained more than of any previous plan. During the last 4 years of 10th plan rate of
growth of GDP was remained 8.6%. So, It was stated that Indian economy is one of the fastest
developing economy in the world. The Rate of Internal investment and saving was also increased.
Industrial sector of the economy has successfully faced to the world competition & hence it
was became more competitive in the world. It was resulted into rise in anxiousness of the the
foreign Investors to invst in Indian economy. This was the sucess of 10th plan in India.
However, the economic growth achieved in 10th plan by Indian economy didn't reach up
to the all people. Some groups didn't received it's social and economic benifits, they are deprived
from these benefits. Socially & economically back wards didn't benefited from the progress
achieved in 10th plan. Following social groups didn't benifited from this progress.
1) During the period of 1993 to 2004-05 proportion of poverty in India was declined
from 36% to 28% but due to the rise in population absolute poverty was not declined e. g. In
respect of schedule tribes, the total no. of poors was 320 millions in the year 1993-94. It was
declined up to 302 millions in 2004-05. It means that during the period of 12 years only 18
millions have came out of poverty. This decline in poverty was very less. During the same
period poverty was not declined equal to the proportional rate of growth of GDP. Decline in
poverty was remained equal to the level of poverty prevailing in the year 1973-74 and in the
same year per capita income was very law.
2) Large proportion of population was deprived from minimum standard of living:
(A) In the year 2005-06, The children of age group 0-3 didn't get sufficient diet. Large
proportion of children were malnourished. However the rate of malnutirition was 47% in
1998, it was not declined but remained constant.
(B) Humand development indicators like literacy, material and infant mortality rates also
show slow progress and India lags behind several other countries. In the year 2001 literacy
rate was 64.8%. Today total no of illiterates was more than 304 millions. Life expectancy of
male and femal respectively prevailing was 66.9 and 63.9 years on an average. In China it was
72 years. So, it is less than China. Male-female ratio was 1000:933, so, it was not good. Infant
mortality rate in India was more than east Asia countries.
3) Agricultural growth rate was sluggish and it was 2.1% during the 10th plan. Despite a
target of 4% per year.
4) Current daily status unemployment rate was increased from 7.3% to 8.3% during the
period of 1999-2000 to 2004-05. Despite the higher rate of growth 7.6% unempolyment rate
was not remained satisfactory. The employment was generated only in unorgainzed sector. It
was declined in organised sector.
In this scenario the 11th plan was started.
Objectives :
Following were the prime objectives of 11th plan.
1) The rate of growth of GDP was determined 9% per annum. This implies that per capita
GDP would grow 7.5% per year.
2) The plan document states that the target is not only the faster growth but also inclusive
In order to achieve the above objectives following targets were fixed.
Targets :
1) To increase the GDP and for removal of poverty, it was decided that :
(a) The rate of growth of GDP should be achieved 9% per year.
(b) The growth rate of Agricultural sector is to be achieved 4% per year.
(c) To create employment opportunities to 5 cror 80 lakh of people.
(d) The rate of unemployment in educated would be reduced upto 5%.
(e) To increase the real wages of unskilled workers 20%.
(f) Proportion of per capita poverty is to be reduced by 10%.
2) Education :
(a) As compare to the year 2003-04, the drop out ratio of children in schools was to be
reduced from 52.2% to 20%.
(b) To improve the quality and standard of primary education at it's minimum level.
(c) Literacy rate should be increased upto 85% in 2011-12.
(d) Till 2011-12 difference between the literacy rate between male and female should be
reduced upto 10%.
(e) Those who are willing to Join the higher education their proportion is increased from
10% to 15% up to 2011-12.
3) Health :
(a) Infant mortality rate is reduced upto 28% and mortality rate per thousand up to 1%
until the yer 2011-12.
(b) Reproduction rate is reduced upto 2.1% still the year 2011-12.
(c) Pure drinking provided to all up to the year 2009.
(d) Proportion of child malnutrition is to be reduced to the half of the existing level
(e) The proportion of Anemia is reduced to the half of the present level in children and
4) Women and Children :
(a) The sex ratio between the age group 0-6 in Male-female children is increased from
935 to 950 since 2011-12 to 2016-17.
(b) Minimum benefit of the government schemes is provided up to 33% to the women
and grils.
(c) Prevention of child labour.
5) Infrastructural Development :
(a) Electricity supply to all the rural poors below poverty line up to the year 2009 and at
the end of 11 the plan.
(b) All villeges of total population 1000 and the villeges of popuation of 500 in hilly
regions are connected by roads.
(c) Up to the year 2012 very village is made available the facility of telephone.
(d) Till the year 2012 housing facility is provided to all and houses construction programme
is to be facilitated for poors up to the year 2016-17.
6) Environment :
(a) Increase in forestry proportion by 5%.
(b) To achieve the proportion of air purification as decided by WTO up to 2011-12.
(c) To treat all Urban waster wate by 2011-12 to clean river waters.
(d) To increase energy efficiency by 20%.
Vision for the 11th Plan :
Following compenents are included in broad vision of 11th plan.
1) Rapid economic growth will cause to reduce the poverty and create employment
2) Provision of essential services in health and education especially for the poor.
3) Empowerment through education and skill development.
4) Extension of employment opporturnity with the help of Natonal Rural Employment
Guarantee Programme.
5) Sustainability of Environment.
6) Reduction of gender inequality.
7) Improvement of governance.
Macro-Economic demensions of the 11th Plan :
During the 11th plan, both centre and state government public sector outlay estimated ws
Rs. 3644718 crore out of that centre would spent Rs. 2156571 crore and state governments
should spent Rs. 1488147 crore i. e. 59.20% and 40.80% respectively.
During the 11th plan government expenditure would be more than 120% as compare to
the 10th plan. During this plan total outlay on public sector would be remained 13.54% of the
GDP. It was 9.46% in the 10th plan.
Target of GDP :
During the 11th plan growth rate of GDP was fixed 9% of the GDP. In the year 2007-08
it's target was 8.5% and in the year 2011-12 it was to be achieved 10% of the GDP. Moreover
the percapita GDP growth would be achieved 7.6% per year and this will double in next 10
Sectoral Growth Rates :
The sectoral growth rate was targeted in this plan as follows.
11th plan
Agriculture Sector
Industrial sector
Tertiary Sector
10 to 11%
9 to 11%
During this plan Industrial and tertiary sector's growth rate would be targeted in double
Table No. 1
Other Macro economic parameters (% of GDP)
10th Plan
11th Plan
Investment Rate
Domestic Saving Rate
Current Account Deficit
Capital out put Ratio
GDP growth Rate
Source : Indian Economy - R. Datt & KDM Sundhram.
Public Sector and Private Sector Investment :
It was estimated that During the 11the plan private sector investment would increased by
28.5% and public sector investment by 8.0%. Therefore rate of Investment would be reamained
Table No. 2
Rate of Investment
Public Sector
Private Sector
9th plan
10th plan
11th plan
Source : Indian Economy - R. Datt & KDM Sundhram.
Table No. 3
Sectoral allocations during 10th & 11th plan (Rs. crore)
10th plan
11th plan
60702 (3.8%)
136381 (3.7)
137710 (8.5%)
301069 (8.3)
16423 (1.0%)
26329 (0.7)
4. Irrigation & Flood control
112415 (6.9%)
210326 (5.8)
Total Agricultre (1 to 4)
327250 (20.2%)
674105 (18.5)
363635 (22.4%)
854123 (23.4)
64655 (4.0%)
153600 (4.2)
263934 (16.3%)
572413 (15.7)
82945 (5.1%)
95380 (2.6)
27672 (1.8%)
84933 (2.4)
30349 (1.9%)
62523 (1.7)
436529 (27.0%)
1102327 (30.9)
20489 (1.3%)
42283 (1.2)
1618460 (100%)
3644718 (100%)
1. Agricultural & allied
2. Rural Development
3. Spl. area programmes
5. Energy
6. Industry and Minerals
7. Transport
8. Communications
9. Science, Technology
& Environment
10.General economic
11.Social Services
12.General Services
(Bracket in figures show proportion of expenditure.)
Table No. 3 shows that the proportion of expenditure alloted on social services was
remained highest 30.9% as compare to the other items. Energy sector following it by showing
23.4% of Expenditure and ranked second and agriculture sector ranked 3rd by showing 18.5%
of Expenditure. During the 10th Plan also similar Trend of resource allocation ws found. In
11th Plan proportion of expenditure on social services and energy sector was found increased
as comparred to the 10th plan. The proportion of expenditure on social services was increased
from 27% to 30.9%, on Energy sector it was remained 22.4% to 23.4%, but on agricultural
sector proportion of expenditure was declined from 20.2% to 18.5% during the same period. It
will adversely affect the economic development of India.
Expenditure on Infrastryctural Development :
In 10th plan Transport and communication proportion of expenditure was 16.3 + 5.1 =
21.4%. It was increased in 11th plan os 15.7 + 2.6 = 18.3%. It shows the globalization Impact.
Table No. 4
Forecast of Employment increase in 11th plan
Total force
Employment opportunities
Unempoloyment Rate
Source : Indian Economy - R. Datt & KDM Sundhram.
During the 11th Plan rate of unemployment targetted to reduce from 8.36% to 4.83%.
Table No. 5
Sectorwise generation of Additional Employment
10th Plan Achievement
11the Plan Projection
Agriculture ...............................
Mining and Quarrying ................
Manufacturing ..........................
Electricity, water ek...................
Trade, Hotels & Restaurant .......
Transport, storage & communication
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate
and Business Services...............
Community, Social & Personal
Total .......................................
In the 10th plan higest employment was created in Trade, Hotels and Resturant i. e. 10.70
millions. Agricultural sector following it as 8.84 millions and manufacturing sector remained
3rd by showing 8.64 millions of employments.
In 11th Plan Trade, Hotels & Resturant showed highest employment estimation, (17.40
millions). Manufacturing sector was following it (11.94 millions) & construction sector
setimated 11.92 millions employments. However, employment creation in agriculture shows
declining trend of estimation as 8.84 millions to 0.0. This estimation is not found realistic.
Poverty Eradication : During the periiod of 11th Plan target of poverty removal
determined by 10%. It means it was reduced from 28% to 18%. In order to determine the
population below poverty line per capita expenditure criterion was used. This criterion was
determined Rs. 356 and Rs. 458 per month respectively to the rural and urban people in the
year 2004-05. Today it is not applicable due to rise in consumption expenditure of the people.
So, planning commission of India is thinking to change this criterion. If the same criterion is
used it will lead to increase the total population below poverty line in India.
Removal of Regional Imbalances :
The target of GDP rate was determined in the 11th Plan. If every state has tried to achieve
this 9% of GDP rate per year, it will help to removal of regional imbalances in India.
Evaluation of 11th Plan : The basic objective of this plan is faster and more inclusive
growth. Keeping ahead this object this plan has fixed it's different targets.
Review of success of these targets is taken as follows :
1) Difficult to achieve 9% of GDP growth rate : In order to achieve 9% rate of GDP
growth, this plan had assumed 4%, 10 to 11% and 9 to 11% rate of growth of agricultural,
Industrial and service sector. But it is difficult to achieve the 4% rate of agricultural growth. It
was remained 2.1% during the 10the Plan. Woldwide recession is existing so, Industrial secto
and tertiary sectors growth rate also doubtful to achieve. If these rates are not achieved, it is
difficult to achieve the 9% GDP growth rate. So it is not possible to achieve the faster and
more inclusive growth.
2) Removal of Poverty : When the poverty prevailing in economy may rapidly be declined,
then it is called more inclusive growth. This plan aims to remove the poverty from 28% to
18% still 2017. It means that reduction of poverty per year is 1%. It is less than the proportion
of poverty in the year 1973-74. If the International definition of poverty is applied 2 per capita
expenditure per day India's 80% of population will come under the sphere of poverty. So,
poverty removal programme would not be successed.
3) Removal of Unemployment :This plan aims to create 58 lack of employment
opportunities. During the period of 11the plan there will be addition of 45 millions of new
work force. 35 millions labours were already unemployed. This will sum up 80 milliions of
unemployed workers. Out of those only 58 millions were get jobs and remaing will be get
unemployed. Hence the target of this plan to decline the rate of unemployment from 8.36% to
4.83% would not become successful at the end of this plan.
4) Difficult to achieve 4% of agricultural growth rate : This plan aims to achieve the
4% of growth rate per year of agricultural sector. It requires various measures as supply of
credit, remunerative prices, public Investment, Irrigation facilities, Rural Electrification and
Infrastructural development, Watershed development etc. A part from these measure agricultural
sector having high risks and uncertainties. If above measures are not applied & risks &
uncertainties would become dominant, it is hard to achieve the targetted rate of growth 4% per
References :
1. R. Datta & KDM
Indian Economy, S Chand & Co. Ltd, New Delhi
2. 'Planning Commission' -
An Approach to the 11th five year plan (2006)
3. 'Planning Commission' -
"11th five year Plan" Vol I, II & III. (2007)
B. Com. Part-III : Business Environment
Unit 6 : Sub point
C) Objectives of 12th Plan (2012-2017)
India's 12th five year plan was commenced from 1st April 2012. Planning Commissiion
has accepted this plan in it's meeting held on 20th August 2011 and approved by the Central
Government in the meeting held on September 2011. The 56th meeting of National Development
Council headed by Priminister Dr. Manmohansingh held at New Delhi on 22nd October 2011,
it was accepted with some conditons. It's main objectives are as follows.
Objectives :
1. Basic objective of 12th plan is faster,
2. To achieve the 9% rate of growth of GDP.
3. In order achieve the 9% of GDP rate of growth Agricultural rate of growth is to be
achieved 4% per year.
4. Industrial growth rate should be actieved 9.6% per year.
5. Service sector's growth rate should be achieved 10% per annum.
6. The Rate of Investment is to be achieved 38.7% per annum of GDP.
7. The rate saving to GDP is to be achieved 36.2% per year.
8. Fiscal deficit is to be reduced up to 3.25% of the GDP.
9. Wholesale price Index should be kept in the range of 4.5 to 5% per annum.
10. Manufacturing sector should grow at 11 to 12% per year and create 2-million additional
Jobs per year.
11. Universalisation of secondary education by 2017.
12. It aims to raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in higher education to 20% by
2017 and 25% by 2022.
13. Expenditure on health by centre and states should increase from 1.3% to at last 2% of
GDP and upto 2.5% of GDP by the end of 12th Plan.
14. Clean drinking water, Sanitation and better nutrition, childcare etc is needed.
15. A Target to achieve 100000 MW capacity of power sector in 12th Plan.
16. Provision of Based urban services as water, sewerage, sanitation, housing, public
Transport etc. especailly to urban poors.
These are some important objectives of 12th Five Year Plan in India.
In order to achieve these objectives better performance in agriculturre, faster jobs creation
particulary in manufacturing sector, stronger efforts at health, education and skill development,
Improve effectiveness of programmes directly aimed to the poor, special programmes for socially
vulnerable groups, special plans for backward regions are needed.
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åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o H$amaH$m`Xm, _mb{dH«$sMm H$m`Xm, ^m{JXmar g§ñWmMm H$m`Xm, MbZj_ XñVEodO H$m`Xm,
ghH$mar g§ñWmMm H$m`Xm, H§$nZr H$m`Xm, J«mhH$ g§ajU H$m`Xm BË`m{X H$m`Úm§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. ì`mnmar
H$m`Xo hr H$m`ÚmMr ñdV§Ì Aer emIm ZgyZ Vmo ZmJar H$m`Úm§Mm EH$ ^mJ Amho. Vmo EH$ ñdV§Ì Agm H$m`Xm
ZgyZ Vmo da Z_yX Ho$ë`mà_mUo H$m`ÚmMm g§M Amho. `mV ì`dgm`mer g§~§{YV Aem AZoH$ H$m`ÚmMm g_mdoe
hmoVmo. ì`mdgm{`H$ H$m`Xo ho {d{dY ì`dgm{`H$m§Zm Amnbo ì`dhma H$go H$amdoV `m~m~V _mJ©Xe©Z H$aVmV.
`mg§X^m©V ì`mnmar H$m`ÚmMo ñdê$n ho {dñV¥V Amho. Aem {d{dY H$m`ÚmH$Sy>Z XoemVrb ì`mnma, CÚmoJ Am{U
ì`dgm` `m§Mo {Z`§ÌU Am{U {Z`_Z Ho$bo OmVo åhUyZ `m§Zm ì`mnmar H$m`Xo Ago g§~moYVmV. `m§Mr ì`m»`m
nwT>rb {dMmad§Vm§Zr {Xë`m AmhoV.
1. ñQ>°ba : `m§À`m _Vo CÚmoJ, ì`mnma, ì`dgm` BË`mXr joÌm_Ü`o ì`mnmar Am{U ì`dgm{`H$m§_Ü`o Oo
ì`dhma hmoVmV, Ë`m ì`dhmam§_YyZ {Z_m©U hmoUmè`m h¸$m§À`m Am{U H$V©ì`m§À`m g§X^m©V H$m`ÚmMm Omo ^mJ
dmnabm OmVmo Ë`mg ì`mnmar H$m`Xo Ago åhUVmV.
2. Ho$. goZ : `m§À`m _Vo, ì`mnmar H$m`Úm_Ü`o Aem gd© H$m`Úm§Mm d {Z`_m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo H$s
Oo ì`mnmar, ì`mdgm{`H$ Am{U ~±H$m `m§À`m_m\©$V hmoUmè`m gd©gm_mÝ` ì`dhmam§er g§~§Y AgVmo Am{U
ì`mnmajoÌmV H$m`© H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVr_Ü`o g§~§Y àñWm{nV Ho$bm OmVmo.
3. àm. Ohm±Jra, E_. Oo. goR>Zm : `m§À`m _Vo ì`mnmar H$m`Xo åhUOo ì`mnmè`m§Mo H$m`Xo H$s Á`m
ì`mnmè`m§À`m ì`dhmamVrb gd© KQ>Zm§er g§~Y§ AgVmo. `mV ì`mnmamer {ZJ{S>V AZoH$ {df`m§À`m H$m`Úm§Mm
g_mdoe hmoVmo Am{U ì`mnmamVrb àË`oH$ ì`dhmamda {Z`§ÌU Am{U n[aUm_ H$aUmè`m H$m`Xoera VÎdm§Mm g_mdoe
`mdarb ì`m»`m§dê$Z Ago ñnï> hmoVo H$s, ì`mnmè`m§_Yrb nañnam§Mo g§~§Y {Z`§ÌU Am{U {Z`_Z
H$aUmè`m H$m`Úm§Zm ì`mnmar H$m`Xo Ago åhUVmV. WmoS>Š`mV ì`mnma{df`H$ ì`dhmamg§~§Yr emgZg§ñWoZo
Ho$boë`m {Z`_m§Zm ì`mnma{df`H$ H$m`Xo åhUyZ AmoiIbo OmVo.
ì`mnmar H$m`Úm§À`m {Z{_©VrMo _mJ©
(Sources of Business Law)
^maVm_Yrb ì`mnmar H$m`Xo ho àm_w»`mZo B§J«Or ì`mnmar H$m`ÚmnmgyZ V`ma Ho$bo Jobobo AmhoV. _yiÀ`m
B§J«Or ì`mnmar H$m`ÚmVrb H$mhr ^mJ dJiyZ Am{U H$mhr ^mJmV ^maVmVrb àmá n[apñWVrg Cn`wŠV R>aVrb
Aem gwYmaUm H$ê$Z ^maVr` ì`mnmar H$m`Xo V`ma H$aÊ`mV Ambo AmhoV. Aem ^maVr` ì`mnmar H$m`Úm§À`m
{Z{_©VrMo _mJ© (ñÌmoV) Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
ì`mnmar H$m`Úm§À`m {Z{_©VrMo _mJ©
B§J«Or ì`mnma
^maVr` d¡Ym{ZH$
_mJrb Ý`m`mb`rZ
Ý`m` {ZdmS>o
ì`mnmar ê$T>rna§nam
1. B§J«Or ì`mnmar H$m`Xo (English Mercantile Laws) : B§J«Or ì`mnmar H$m`Xo ho ^maVr` ì`mnmar
H$m`Xo {Z{_©VrMo à_wI ñÌmoV AmhoV. B§J«Or ì`mnmar H$m`Xo ho _w»`Ëdo B§½b§S>_Yrb ì`mnmè`m§À`m ì`dhmamVrb
ê$T>r, na§nam, g§Ho$V, B§½bre H$m°_Z bm°, amo_Z bm°, g_mZVoMo VÎd, {~«Q>re g§gXoMo n[a{Z`_ Am{U B§J«Or
Ý`m`mb`mMo Ý`m`{ZdmS>o `mda AmYmabobo AgVmV, Ago B§J«Or ì`mnmar H$m`Xo ho ^maVr ì`mnmar H$m`ÚmMo
à_wI AmYma AmhoV. ^maVmV {~«Q>rem§Mo emgZ AgVmZm gd©àW_ ì`mna{df`H$ H$m`Xo g§_V H$aÊ`mMm à`ËZ
H$aÊ`mV Ambm. `mVyZM ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm 1872 ApñVËdmV Ambm. `m H$m`ÚmÀ`m {Z{_©Vrnydu 1781
nmgyZ ^maVmVrb _Ðmg, H$bH$Îmm Am{U _w§~B© `oWrb Ý`m`mb`mV Xmì`mVrb njm§À`m d¡`ŠVrH$ H$m`Úm§À`m
AmYmao Ý`m` {ZdmS>m Ho$bm OmV hmoVm. VgoM OoWo A{YH¥$V d¡`ŠVrH$ H$m`ÚmMm dmna H$aUo AeŠ` Ago
Ë`m{R>H$mUr B§J«Or H$m`ÚmMm dmna H$ê$Z Ý`m`{ZdmS>m H$aÊ`mV `oV Ago.
2. ^maVr` d¡Ym{ZH$ H$m`Xo (Indian Statutory Laws) : ^maVm_Ü`o gd© àMbrV H$m`Xo g§_V
H$aÊ`mMm H|${Ð` nmVirda A{YH$ma ^maVr` g§gXobm qH$dm bmoH$g^obm AgyZ amÁ`nmVirda H$m`Xo g§_V
H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma amÁ` Ý`m` H$m`Xo_§S>img AmhoV. ^maVr` g§gXoZo EImÚm {df`mda ñdV§Ì H$m`Xm g§_V
H$ê$Z Á`m H$m`ÚmMr {Z{_©Vr H$aÊ`mV `oVo Ë`mg d¡Ym{ZH$ H$m`Xm Ago åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm
1872, _mb {dH«$s H$m`Xm 1930, MbZj_ XñVEodO H$m`Xm 1881, ^maVr` [aPìh© ~±H$ H$m`Xm 1935,
`w{ZQ> Q´>ñQ> Am°\$ B§{S>`m `m H$m`Xm 1962 BË`mXtMm g_mdoe hmoVmo. Ago ho gd© d¡Ym{ZH$ H$m`Xo ^maVr`
ì`mnmar H$m`Úm§À`m {Z{_©VrMo _mJ© AmhoV. 1950 _Ü`o ^maV àOmgÎmmH$ Pmë`mZ§Va gd© H$m`Xo ho bmoH$g^ooZo
_§Oya Ho$bo d Ë`mZ§Va Amdí`H$VoZwgma Ë`mV doimodoir Xwê$ñË`m Ho$ë`m Joë`m.
3. _mJrb Ý`m`mb`rZ Ý`m` {ZdmS>o (Past Judicial decisions) : ^maVr` KQ>ZoZwgma Or {ÌñVar`
Ý`m`mb`rZ ì`dñWm ApñVËdmV Amho Ë`mVrb gdm}ƒ Ý`m`mb`, Cƒ Ý`m`mb`o Am{U Xwæ`_ Ý`m`mb`o `m§Zr
doJdoJù`m IQ>ë`mÀ`m gwZmdUr_Ü`o {Xbobo _mJrb Ý`m`mb`rZ {ZH$mb Am{U B§J«Or Ý`m`mb`mZo IQ>ë`m_Ü`o
{Xbobo _mJrb {ZH$mb ho XoIrb ^maVr` ì`mnmar H$m`ÚmÀ`m {Z{_©VrMo à_wI AmYma _mZbo OmVmV. Ooìhm
EImÚm Ý`m`mb`mnwT>o gwZmdUrgmR>r Amboë`m IQ>ë`mV EImÚm {df`mda H$m`Xm åhUUo gm§JV Zgob Va
Ý`m`m{YemZo Amnbr gX²gX²{ddoH$ ~wÕr OmJ¥V R>odyZ Aem IQ>ë`mMm {ZH$mb _mJrb Ý`m`mb`rZ {ZH$mbnÌm§À`m
AmYmao Ý`m`VÎdmda {Xbm nm{hOo. Agm Ý`m`VÎdmda {ZH$mb XoVmZm Ë`m§Zr _mJrb IQ>ë`mVrb {Xboë`m
{ZU©`m§Mo AZwH$aU H$ê$Z Ë`m§À`m g_moa Amboë`m IQ>ë`m§Mm {ZH$mb XoUo Ano{jV AgVo.
4. ì`mnmar éT>r-na§nam (Customs and Usages) : XoemVrb ì`mnma nÕVr_Ü`o àM{bV Agboë`m
ê$T>r-na§nam qH$dm àWm `m XoIrb ^maVr` ì`mnmar H$m`Úm§À`m {Z{_©VrMo à_wI ñÌmoV AmhoV. `m ì`mnmar
ê$T>r-na§nam Am{U g§Ho$V ho ì`mnmè`m§Zr Ë`m§À`m ì`mnmamVrb ì`dhma H$go H$amdoV `mMo {Z`_ Xe©{dVmV.
Aem ê$T>r-na§nam§Mm H$m`ÚmÀ`m {Z{_©Vr_Ü`o _hÎd ñnï> H$aÊ`mgmR>r ^maVr` H$m`Xo_§S>imZo H$mhr H$m`ÚmMo
ñnï> C„oI H$ê$Z ê$T>r-na§namda ZdrZ H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXtMm H$mhrhr n[aUm_ hmoUma Zmhr Ago Z_yX Ho$bo Amho.
Ooìhm Aem ê$T>r-na§nam H$moQ>m©H$Sy>Z _mÝ` Ho$ë`m OmVmV Am{U Ë`m§Mm Ý`m`mb`rZ {ZH$mbnÌm_Ü`o g_mdoe
H$aÊ`mV `oVmo V|ìhm Ë`m ê$T>r-na§nam `m H$m`ÚmMm A{d^mÁ` ^mJ ~ZVmV d Ë`m§Zm H$m`Xoera _mZÊ`mV `oVo.
^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmMo ñdê$n Am{U H$amam§Mo àH$ma :
OJm_Ü`o H$moUVrhr ì`ŠVr dm amï´> ho ñd`§nUy © ZmhrV H$maU àË`oH$ ì`ŠVrg Am{U amï´>mg Amnë`m JaOm
nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r Xwgè`m ì`ŠVr dm amï´>mer H$ama H$aUo An[ahm`© R>aVo. H$amam_wiMo ì`mnma A{ñVËdmV `oVmo Am{U
amï´>mamï´>m_Ü`o dñVy Am{U godm§Mr XodmU-KodmU hmodZy ì`ŠVrMo, g_mOmMo Am{U n`m©`mZo amï´>mM§ o OdrZ gwIr d
g_¥Õ ~ZVo. ^maVm_Ü`o gßQ>~| a 1872 nmgyZ ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm A§_bmV Ambm Amho. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm
hm Ho$di ì`mnmar H$amamgmR>r Cn`wŠV Zmhr Va Vmo ì`ŠVtÀ`m X¡Z{§ XZ OrdZmVrb AZoH$ ì`dhma nma nmS>Ê`mgmR>r
Cn`wŠV R>aVmo. H$maU AmnUmn¡H$s àË`oH$ ì`ŠVr hr Amnë`m X¡Z{§ XZ OrdZmV H$iV AWdm Z H$iV AZoH$
àH$maMo H$ama H$arV AgVo. Aem H$amam_Ü`o gwgÌy Vm Am{U {Z`_~ÕVm AmUÊ`mgmR>r àË`oH$ XoemÀ`m gaH$maZo
H$mhr H$m`Xo g§_V Ho$bo AmhoV Ë`m§Zm H$ama H$m`Xo Ago åhUVmV. `m H$m`Úm_Ü`o H$amam§Mr {Z{_©Vr H$er hmoV,o
H$amam§Mr nyVV© m H$er Ho$br OmVo d H$ama g_márVyZ ì`ŠVrMr _wŠVVm H|$ìhm hmoVo VgoM EImÚm ì`ŠVrZo H$ama^§J
Ho$bm Va {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrg Xmofr ì`ŠVr{déÕ H$moUË`m H$m`Xoera Cnm``moOZm CnbãY AgVmV `m {df`rMo {Z`_
gm§{JVbobo AmhoV. `mM~amo~a H$mhr {d{eï> àH$maMo H$ama H$go nma nmS>mdoV `m~m~VMo {Z`_ gm§{JVbobo AmhoV.
1. H$ama åhUOo H$m` ?
H$ama H$m`ÚmZo ì`ŠVtZm H$ama H$aÊ`mMo ñdmV§Í` {Xbo Amho. åhUOo ì`ŠVr `m Amnë`m BÀN>oà_mUo
H$amamVrb AQ>r R>ady eH$VmV. _mÌ H$ama H$m`ÚmZo ì`ŠVtÀ`m `m ñdmV§Í`mda H$mhr _`m©Xm KmVë`m AmhoV.
Ogo H$s H$amamV XmoZ gkmZ ì`ŠVr Agmì`mV, Ë`m§Mr _wŠV g§_Vr Agmdr, Ë`m§Zm H$ama H$aÊ`mnmgyZ
H$moUË`mhr H$m`ÚmZo à{V~§Y Ho$bobo Zgmdo Am{U Vmo ì`W© Zgmdm. Ooìhm `m AQ>r R>amdmH$Sy>Z nyU© hmoVmV V|ìhmM
H$ama ApñVËdmV `oVmo d Vmo H$m`Xoera hmoVmo. Aem H$m`Xoera H$amam§Mr ^maVr` Ý`m`mb`mH$Sy>Z A§_b~OmdUr
Ho$br OmVo. Oo R>amd `m AQ>tMr nyV©Vm H$arV ZmhrV Ë`m§Zm ì`W© H$ama g_OVmV d Aem H$amam§Mr H$m`ÚmZo
A§_b~OmUr Ho$br OmV Zmhr. Imbrb à{gÕ H$m`XoVkm§Zr H$amamÀ`m ì`m»`m {Xë`m AmhoV.
1. ga nmobm°H$ : H$m`ÚmZo Á`m R>amdm§Mr Am{U dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm Ho$br OmVo Ë`mg H$ama Ago åhUVmV.
2. gmb_§S> : Á`m R>amdm_wio ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U Ho$bo OmVmV Am{U Ë`mVyZ O~m~Xmè`m
{ZpíMV H$aÊ`mV `oVmV Ë`m R>amdm§Zm H$ama Ago åhUVmV.
3. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm - 1872 : ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm H$b_ 2 (h) à_mUo, Á`m R>amdm§Mr
H$m`ÚmZo A§_b~OmdUr H$aVm `oVo Aem gd© R>amdm§Zm H$ama Ago åhUVmV. Xwgè`m eãXmV gm§Jmd`mMo Pmë`mg
Á`m R>amdm§Mr Ý`m`mb`mV A§_b~OmdUr H$aVm `oVo Am{U Oo R>amd ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aVmV
AemM R>amdm§Zm H$ama åhUVmV.
`m darb ì`m»`m§À`m {díbofUmdê$Z Ago AmT>iyZ `oVo H$s, H$amam§Mo XmoZ à_wI KQ>H$ AgVmV.
1. XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Yrb R>amd - An Agreement
2. R>amdm§Mr H$m`ÚmZo A§_b~OmdUr hmoUo - A Enforceability of an agreement)
åhUyZ, H$ama = R>amd + R>amdmMr H$m`Xoera A§_b~OmdUr.
XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o R>amd hmoÊ`mgmR>r EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg EImXo H¥$Ë` H$aÊ`mgmR>r AWdm Z
H$aÊ`mgmR>r àñVmd Ho$bm nm{hOo. Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrZo Ë`m àñVmdmg Amnbr g§_Vr {Xbr nm{hOo. åhUOo àñVmd
Am{U àñVmdmMr pñdH¥$Vr åhUOo R>amd hmo`. Aem R>amdmMr H$m`Úmà_mUo A§_b~OmdUr hmoUo åhUOo R>amdmMo
H$amamV ê$nm§Va hmoUo hmo`. R>amdm§Mr H$m`ÚmZo A§_b~OmdUr H$aUo åhUOo Ý`m`mb`m§Zr g§~§{YV ì`ŠVtZm
H$amamV {Xboë`m dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mg ^mJ nmS>Uo qH$dm R>amdmVrb ì`ŠVtZr {Xboë`m dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm
Ho$br Zmhr Va g§~§{YV dMZ nyU© Z H$aUmè`m Xmofr ì`ŠVrg {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrbm ZwH$gmZ^anmB© XoÊ`mg ^mJ
nmS>Uo hmo`. àË`oH$ R>amd hm XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aUmam Agbm n{hOo VaM Vmo R>amd
A§_b~OmdUrÀ`m `mo½`VoMm g_Obm OmVmo. `mdarb Vn{ebmdê$Z AmnUmg Ago åhUVm `oB©b H$s H$amam§Mr
nwT>rbà_mUo XmoZ _hÎdmMr d¡{eï>ço AgVmV R>iH$ H$b_o - 1. XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Yrb R>amd, 2. R>amd H$m`ÚmZwgma A§_b~OmdUrMr `mo½`Vm.
2. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm 1872 - ñdê$n :
ì`mdgm{`H$ OJVm_Ü`o {d{dY ì`dhma hmoV AgVmV. CÚmoOH$, H$m_Jma, ~±H$m, {dÎmg§ñWm, Jw§VdUyH$Xma,
{d_m H§$nÝ`m, dmhVyH$ H§$nÝ`m, Om{hamV g§ñWm BË`mXr AmnmngmV {d{dY ì`dhma H$arV AgVmV. `m
ì`dhmamVyZ Oer H$m`Xoera O~m~Xmar {Z_m©U hmoVo VgoM H$mhr A{YH$magwÕm {_iVmV. àË`oH$ ì`ŠVrZo qH$dm
g§ñWoZo Amnbr H$m`Xoera O~m~Xmar nma nmS>mdr, Am{W©H$ ì`dhmam§Zm ñW¡`©, gwa{jVVm bm^mdr d ì`dhma
H$aUmè`m§Zm Ano{jV \$m`Xm ìhmdm åhUyZ H$ama H$m`ÚmMr aMZm Am{U {Z{_©Vr H$aÊ`mV Ambr Amho.
^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm 1 gßQ>|~a 1872 amoOr Oå_y-H$mí_ra dJiVm g§nyU© ^maV^a bmJy H$aÊ`mV
Ambm. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Úm_Ü`o EHy$U 1 Vo 238 H$b_o AmhoV. H$ama H$m`Úm§Mr XmoZ ^mJmV {d^mJUr
Ho$bobr Amho. `mVrb H$b_ 1 Vo 75 `m n{hë`m ^mJmV H$amam§Mr {Z{_©Vr, H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm Am{U H$amam§Mr
g_már `m§Mo {Z`_ Am{U VÎdo {Xbr AmhoV. `m§ZmM gd©gmYmaU H$amam§Mr _ybVÎdo Ago åhUVmV. hr gd© VÎdo
ì`ŠVr_Yrb gd© n«H$maÀ`m H$amam§Zm ~§YZH$maH$ hmoVmV. Xwgè`m ^mJmV H$b_ 124 Vo 238 _Ü`o {deof
H$amam§Mr _ybVÎdo g_m{dï> H$aÊ`mV Ambobr AmhoV. `m_Ü`o ZwH$gmZ^anmB© Am{U h_rMo H$ama, {ZjonmMo d
VmaUmMo H$ama Am{U A{^H$V¥©Ëd qH$dm à{V{ZYrËdmMo H$ama `m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. `m {deof H$amam§Zm
gd©gmYmaU H$amamMr VÎdo bmJy hmoV ZmhrV åhUyZ hr gd©gmYmaU H$amam§À`m {Z`_mnmgyZ doJir Ho$bo AmhoV.
3. H$amam§Mo àH$ma
(Classification of Contracts)
H$amam§Mr ì`m»`m g_OmdyZ KoVë`mZ§Va H$amam§Mo àH$ma Aä`mgUo Amdí`H$ Amho. H$amam§Mo dJuH$aU
ho Imbrbà_mUo Ho$bo OmVo.
H$amam§Mo dJuH$aU
H$m`Xoera A§_b~OmdUrZwgma
H$m`Xoera H$ama
ì`Á`©Zr` H$ama
ì`W© H$ama
~oH$m`Xoera H$ama
A§_b~OmdUr `mo½`
Zgbobm H$ama
ì`ŠV H$ama
J¥{hV H$ama
Am^mgr H$ama
nyVV© m Pmbobm H$ama
nyVV© m
ìhmd`mMm H$ama
A§eVm nyVV© m Pmbobm
d ìhmd`mMm H$ama
(A) H$m`Xoera A§_b~OdUrZwgma H$amam§Mo àH$ma
(On the basis of Enforceability)
H$amam§Mr H$m`ÚmZwgma A§_b~OmdUr hmoV Agob qH$dm A§_b~OmdUr hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm Agob Va Ë`m
H$amam§Zm H$m`Xoera AW© AgVmo. Aem A§_b~OmdUrÀ`m Ñ{ï>H$moUmVyZ H$amam§Mo nwT>rb àH$ma AmhoV.
1) H$m`Xoera H$ama (Valid Contract) : Á`m H$amam§Mr H$m`Úmà_mUo A§_b~OmdUr H$aVm `oVo Am{U
Oo H$ama ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aVmV Ë`m§Zm H$m`Xoera H$ama åhUVmV. H$m`Xoera H$amamg d¡Y
H$ama Agohr åhUVmV. Ë`mV H$amamMr gd© _yb^yV VÎdo g_m{dï> AgVmV.
2) dÁ`©Zr` H$ama (Voidable Contract) : Ooìhm EImÚm H$amamMr A§_b~OdUr H$aUo qH$dm
A§_b~OmdUr Z H$aUo ho H$amamer g§~§{YV EH$m njmÀ`m BÀN>oda Adb§~yZ AgVo, na§Vw Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg/
njmg Vgm A{YH$ma ZgVmo Voìhm Ë`mg dÁ`©Zr` H$ama Ago åhUVmV. Á`m H$amam_Ü`o ì`ŠVtMr g§_Vr hr
~bà`moJ, AZw{MV à^md, H$nQ> Am{U AgË` {dYmZ `m H$maUmZo {_i{dbobr AgVo V|ìhm Vmo dÁ`©Zr` H$ama
hmoVmo. Ë`m_wio Á`m ì`ŠVrMr g§_Vr `m H$maUmZo {_i{dbobr AgVo Ë`mM ì`ŠVrg H$ama A_bmV AmUÊ`mMm
qH$dm aÔ H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ àmá hmoVmo. Oa Aem ì`ŠVrZo H$ama aÔ Ho$bm Zmhr Va Vmo H$ama H$m`Xoera hmoVmo. Aem
H$amam_Ü`o H$mama ì`ŠVrMr g§_Vr hr _wŠV AgV Zmhr.
3) ì`W©/ ewÝ` H$ama (Void Contract) : Á`m H$amam§Mr H$m`ÚmZo A§_b~OmdUr H$aVm `oV Zmhr
Am{U Omo H$ama ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$moUVohr H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$arV Zmhr Ë`mg ì`W©/eyÝ` H$ama Ago
åhUVmV. O|ìhm EImÚm H$amamMr A§_b~OmdUrMr `mo½`Vm g§nVo V|ìhm Vmo H$ama ì`W© hmoVmo. Aem H$amam§Mr
A§_b~OmdUr H$amamVrb XmoÝhr ì`ŠVr H$ê$ eH$V ZmhrV Am{U Ý`m`mb`m§Zm Aem H$amam§À`m nyV©VoMm AmJ«h
YaVm `oV Zmhr. `mV AkmZmMo H$ama, à{V\$bm{edm` AgUmao H$ama, ~oH$m`Xoera CÔoe AgUmao R>amd,
MyH$sMr g§_Vr {Xbobo R>amd, n¡OoMo R>amd, A{ZpíMV AWm©Mo R>amd BË`mqXMm g_mdoe hmoVmo. ho gd© R>amd ì`W©
H$ama g_OÊ`mV `oVmV.
4) ~oH$m`Xoera H$ama (Illegal Contract) : Á`m R>amdm§Mo CÔoe Am{U à{V\$b ~oH$m`Xoera AgVmV
A{U ^maVmVrb àM{bV H$m`ÚmZwgma à{V~§{YV (Prohibited) H¥$Ë`o H$aUo qH$dm g_mO{hV {damoYr H¥$Ë`o
H$aÊ`mMo AgVmV Ë`m§Zm ~oH$m`Xoera H$ama åhUVmV. gd© ~oH$m`Xoera H$ama ho ì`W© H$ama AgVmV. CXm. {OV|Ð
Am{U Y_]Ð `m§Zr byQ>_marMm ì`dgm` gwê$ H$aÊ`mMm H$ama Ho$bm. hm H$ama àM{bV H$m`ÚmÀ`m {damoYmV
Agë`mZo ~oH$m`Xoera VgoM ì`W© hmoVmo.
5) A§_b~OmdUr `mo½` Zgbobm H$ama (Unenforceable Contract) : Oo H$ama _ybV: H$m`Xoera
AgVmV na§Vw H$mhr Vm§{ÌH$ Xmofm_wio Aem H$amam§Mr A§_b~Odr H$aVm `oV Zmhr Aem H$amam§Zm A§_b~OmdUr
`mo½` Zgbobo H$ama Ago åhUVmV. CXm. H$ama boIr ZgUo, H$amamMr Zm|XUr Z H$aUo, H$amamg `mo½` a¸$_oMo
_wÐm§H$ ZgUo, H$mi_`m©XoÀ`m H$m`ÚmZwgma H$amamÀ`m A§_b~OmdUrMm H$mbmdYr g§nUo BË`m{X Vm§{ÌH$
~m~t_wio H$amamMr H$m`Úmà_mUo A§_b~OmdUr H$aUo eŠ` hmoV Zmhr. Agm Vm§{ÌH$ Xmof Xya Ho$ë`mZ§Va
H$m`Úmà_mUo Aem H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm H$aVm `oVo.
(~) H$amam§À`m {Z{_©VrZwgma H$amam§Mo àH$ma
(Classification on the basis of formation)
H$ama {Z{_©Vr hr EH$ {ZpíMV à{H«$`m Amho. Á`m_Ü`o àñVmd gmXa H$aUo, àñVmdmMo g§dhZ, àñVmdmMr
pñdH¥$Vr, pñdH¥$VrMo g§dhZ, R>amd d Ë`mMr H$m`Xoera A§_b~OmdUr `m nÕVrZo H$ama ApñVËdmV `oVmo d
g_má hmoVmo. Aem `m H$ama {Z{_©VrÀ`m Ñ{ï>H$moUmVyZ H$amamMo nwT>rb àH$ma nS>VmV.
1) ì`ŠV / ñnï> H$ama (Express Contract) : Á`m H$amam_Ü`o H$ama ApñVËdmV `oVmZm Aem
H$amamÀ`m AQ>r ñnï>nUo boIr qH$dm Vm|S>r ñnï> Ho$boë`m AgVmV V|ìhm Ë`mg ì`ŠV qH$dm ñnï> H$ama Ago
åhUVmV. CXm. g§nVamdmZo Amnbr ñHy$Q>a 10000 é. qH$_Vrg b§nQ>amd `m§Zm {dH$Ê`mMo boIr nÌ nmR>{dbo.
b§nQ>amdm§Zr Ë`mg boIr g§_VrXe©H$ nÌ nmR>{dbo. `m R>amdmÀ`m AQ>r ñnï>, XmoÝhr njm§Zm _mÝ` Agë`mZo Ë`mg
ì`ŠV / ñnï> H$ama Ago åhUVm `oB©b.
2) J¥{hV / Üd{ZV H$ama (Implied Contract) : Á`m R>amdm§Mr {Z{_©Vr boIr AWdm Vm|S>r dMZm§Zr
ì`ŠV hmoV Zmhr Va R>amdmer g§~§{YV njmMr dmJUyH$ dm H¥$Vr `m§À`m _mÜ`_mVyZ hmoVo V|ìhm Ë`m R>amdmg
Üd{ZV AWdm J¥hrV H$ama Ago åhUVmV. CXm. EImÚm ~wQ>nm°{be H$aUmè`m _wbJm Vwåhmg Z {dMmaVm
~wQ>nm°bre H$aVmo d Vwåhr Ë`mg {damoY Z H$aVm Vgo H$é XoVm `mMmM AW© Ë`mÀ`m ~wQ>nm°{be H$aÊ`mÀ`m
àñVmdmg Vw_À`m H¥$VrVyZ g§_Vr AgVo Ë`m _wbmMo Oo H$mhr n[al{_H$ Agob Vo XoUo Vw_À`mda ~§YZH$maH$
hmoVo. `m_Ü`o àñVmd gmXarH$aU, àñVmdmg {Xbobr g§_Vr d R>amdmMr A§_b~OmdUr `m gd© ~m~r H¥$VrÀ`
_mÜ`_mVyZ H$aÊ`mV `oVmV. åhUyZ Aem R>amdm§Zm Üd{ZV / J¥{hV H$ama åhUVmV.
3) Am^mgr / aMZmË_H$ H$ama (Quasi Contract) : O|ìhm H$ama Pmbobm ZgVmZm {d{eï> n[apñWVrV
XmoZ njm_Ü`o H$amamgmaIo g§~§Y {Z_m©U hmoVmV d àM{bV H$m`Xm Aem g§~§YmZm _mÝ`Vm XoVmo d g§~§{YV
njmda H$amamMr A§_b~OmdUr H$aÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar nS>Vo. H$ama aMZmË_H$ / Am^mgr H$ama AgVmo. V|ìhm
Ë`mg Am^mgr H$ama ho ì`ŠV qH$dm J¥{hV Agy eH$VmV. CXm. AkmZ ì`ŠVrg OrdZmdí`H$ dñVy§Mm nwadR>m
H$aUo, hadbobr dñVy gmnS>br Va Ë`mÀ`m Iè`m _mbH$mMm emoY KodyZ Vr dñVy Ë`mg naV H$aUo BË`mXr
Am^mgr H$amamMr CXmhaUo AmhoV.
(H$) nyV©VoZwgma H$amam§Mo dJuH$aU
(Classification on the basis of Execution)
H$ama ApñVËdmV Amë`mZ§Va Aem H$amamMr nyV©Vm H$ama ì`ŠVr `m H$er H$aVmV `mdê$Z H$amamMo
nwT>rbà_mUo àH$ma nS>VmV.
1) nyV©Vm Pmbobm H$ama (Executed Contract) : Á`m H$amamV H$amamer g§~§{YV XmoÝhr ì`ŠVr
H$amamVrb Amnmnbr dMZo nyU© H$aVmV åhUOoM H$amamZwgma {Z_m©U Pmbobr O~m~Xmar nyU©V: nma nmS>VmV
V|ìhm Ë`mg nyV©Vm Pmbobm H$ama åhUVmV. CXm. amOrdZo nwñVH$ {dH«o$Ë`mg 100 én`o XodyZ gm_mÝ` AÜ``ZmMo
nwñVH$ IaoXr Ho$bo hm nyV©Vm Pmbobm H$ama Amho.
2) nyV©Vm ìhmd`mMm H$ama (Executory Contract) : Á`m H$amam_Ü`o H$amamer g§~§{YV XmoÝhr
nj H$amamVrb Amnmnbr dMZo AÚmn nyU© Ho$bobr ZgVmV qH$dm Ë`m§Zr H$moUVrM O~m~Xmar AÚmn nma
nmS>bobr ZgVo V|ìhm Aem H$amamg nyV©Vm ìhmd`mMm H$ama Ago åhUVmV. CXm. S>m°. gmR>o `m§Zr gwaoe
`mg é. 2000 à{V _{hZm nJmamda _XVZrg åhUyZ Zo_bo d nwT>À`m _{hÝ`mÀ`m EH$ VmaIonmgyZ
H$m_mda éOy hmoÊ`mg gm§{JVbo.
3) A§eV: nyV©Vm Pmbobm d A§eV: nyV©Vm ìhmd`mMm H$ama (Partly Executed and Partly
Executory Contract) : Á`m H$amam_Ü`o H$amamer g§~§{YV EH$ ì`ŠVr hr H$amamVrb Amnbo {Xbobo dMZ nyU©
Ho$bobo AgVo Am{U Xwgar ì`ŠVr hr Amnbo dMZ AÚmn nyU© Ho$bobo AgV Zmhr V|ìhm Aem H$amamg A§eV:
nyV©Vm Pmbobm Am{U A§eV: nyV©Vm ìhmd`mMm H$ama åhUVmV. CXm. aoëdo Hw$brZo àdmem§Mo gm{hË` aoëdo
ñQ>oeZdê$Z CMbyZ Q>°Šgr_Ü`o R>odbo åhUOo aoëdo Hw$brZo Amnë`m dMZmMr nyV©Vm Ho$br. AmVm àdmembm Ë`m
aoëdoHw$brbm Ë`À`m l_mMm `mo½` _mo~Xbm XodyZ Amnë`m dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$amdr bmJob.
H$m`Xoera H$ama Am{U H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r (Valid Contract and its
essentials) :
H$m`Xoera H$ama : H$amamMr gdm©V n{hbr nm`ar åhUOo àñVmd hmo`. Ooìhm EH$ ì`ŠVr Xwgè`m
ì`ŠVrMr g§_Vr {_i{dÊ`mÀ`m hoVyZo EImXr H$m`Xoera H¥$Vr H$aUo, Z H$aUo qH$dm H¥$Vr H$aÊ`mnmgyZ A{bá
amhUo `m~m~V BÀN>m àH$Q> H$aVo Ë`mg àñVmd åhUVmV. Xwgar ì`ŠVr `m àñVmdmg A§_b~OmdUr H$aÊ`mÀ`m
hoVyZo g§_Vr XoVo V|ìhm R>amd ApñVËdmV `oVmo. `m R>amdmVyZ {Z_m©U hmoUmao CÎmaXm{`Ëd O|ìhm R>amdmer g§~§{YV
nj nma nmS>VmV Voìhm Vo H$m`Xoera H$amamMr A§_b~OmdUr H$arV AgVmV. EImXm nj H$amamZwgma {Z_m©U
Pmbobr O~m~Xmar nma nmS>rV Zgob qH$dm nma nmS>Ê`mg ZH$ma XoV Agob Va Xwgam nj Ë`mÀ`mda H$m`Xoera
H$m`©dmhr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. H$maU `m XmoÝhr njmV H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U Pmbobo AgVmV. `mCbQ> Ym{_©H$,
gm_m{OH$ qH$dm Z¡{VH$ ñdê$nmMo R>amd H$m`ÚmZwgma A§_bmV AmUVm `oV ZmhrV H$maU Aem R>amdm_Ü`o
ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$moUVohr H$m`Xoera g§§~§Y {Z_m©U hmoV ZmhrV. CXm. EImÚm {_ÌmZo _¡ÌrnmoQ>r OodZmgmR>r {Xbobo
Am_§ÌU qH$dm d{S>bm§Zr _wbmg _moQ>magm`H$b IaoXr H$ê$Z XoÊ`mMo {Xbobo dMZ, hr dMZo H$m`Xoera
O~m~Xmar {Z_m©U H$ê$ eH$V ZmhrV. dMZ _moS>bo åhUyZ {_Ìmda H$m`Xoera H$madmB© H$aVm `oUma Zmhr H$maU
{_Ìm§{_Ìm§_Ü`o, dS>rb-_wbJm `m§À`m_Ü`o _¡ÌrMo, ào_mMo, ñZohmMo g§~§Y AgVmV Vo H$m`Xoera hmoV ZmhrV.
åhUyZ Á`m R>amdm§Mm CÔoe R>amdmer g§~§{YV ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aUo hm AgVmo Ë`mM
R>amdm§Zm ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmZgma H$ama åhUVmV åhUyZ Ago åhQ>bo OmVo H$s, gd© H$ama R>amd AgVmV,
na§Vw gd© R>amd H$ama AgVrbM Ago Zmhr. Ooìhm EImXm R>amd H$ama H$m`ÚmVrb H$b_ 10 _Yrb {Xboë`m
AQ>r nyU© H$aVmo V|ìhmM Ë`m R>amdmMo H$m`Xoera H$amamV ê$nm§Va hmoVo. åhUyZ H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 10
_Ü`o H$m`Xoera H$amamMr ì`m»`m Imbrbà_mUo {Xbr Amho.
H$m`Xoera H$amamMr ì`m»`m - H$ama H$m`Xm H$b_ 10 :
""Oa XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Yrb R>amd H$amanmÌ ì`ŠVtZr Amnë`m _wŠV g§_VrZo Ho$bm Agob, R>amdmMo CÔoe d
à{V\$b H$m`Xoera Agob Am{U Vmo R>amd H$moUË`mhr H$m`ÚmZo ì`W© R>a{dbm Zgob Va Agm R>amd H$m`Xoera
H$ama hmoVmo. VgoM Vmo R>amd boIr Agmdm dm Zm|X{dbobm Agmdm Aer AQ> Agob Va Vmo boIr dm Zm|X{dbobm
Agbm nm{hOo.
`m darb ì`m»`odê$Z Ago åhUVm `oB©b H$s, H$m`Xoera H$amamZo H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 10 _Ü`o
{Xboë`m gd© AQ>r nyU© Ho$ë`m nm{hOoV.
H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r
XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o
H$m`Xoera g§~§Y
R>amd hmoUo
{Z_m©U H$aÊ`mMm CÔoe
R>amd ì`W©
Zgbm nm{hOo
R>amd {ZpíMV
AWm©Mm Agmdm
R>amdmVrb AQ>rMr
nyV©Vm eŠ`
~m~tMr nyV©Vm
1. XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o R>amd hmoUo (An Agreement) : H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m {Z{_©VrgmR>r XmoZ
ì`ŠVr_Ü`o R>amd ApñVËdmV Ambm nm{hOo. `mgmR>r EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg àñVmd Ho$bm nm{hOo.
Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrZo Ë`m àñVmdmbm g§_Vr XodyZ pñdH$mabm nm{hOo. àñVmd H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg àñVmdH$ Am{U
àñVmdmbm pñdH¥$Vr XoUmè`m qH$dm Á`mbm àñVmd H$aÊ`mV Ambm Amho Ë`mg àñVmdVm åhUVmV. àñVmd
Am{U àñVmdmMr pñdH¥$Vr `m XmoÝhr ~m~r H$m`Xoera Agë`m nm{hOoV. O|ìhm àñVmdH$mMm àñVmd àñVmdVm
pñdH$maVmo V|ìhm XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o R>amd ApñVËdmV `oVmo. àñVmd Am{U àñVmdmMr pñdH¥$Vr H$m`Xoera
hmoÊ`mgmR>r H$m`ÚmVrb AQ>r nyU© Ho$ë`m nm{hOoV. àñVmd hm {dZmAQ> {ZpíMV ñdê$nmV àñVmdË`mbm
H$i{dbm nm{hOo Am{U àñVmdË`mZo n«ñVmdmMr pñdH¥$Vr àñVmdH$mg H$i{dbr nm{hOo VaM XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o
R>amd ApñVËdmV `oVmo.
2. H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aUo (Intention to create legal relationship) : R>amdm§Mr H$m`Xoera
A_b~OmdUr H$aVm `oÊ`mgmR>r R>amdmer g§~§{YV XmoÝhr ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U hmoUo Amdí`H$
AgVo. åhUyZ H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m {Z{_©Vr_Ü`o R>amdmer g§~§{YV XmoÝhr njm§Mm nañnam_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y
{Z_m©U H$aUo hm CÔoe Agbm nm{hOo. Oa R>amdmMm CÔoe hm Z¡g{J©H$ ào_, {Oìhmim, _¡ÌrnyU© g§~§Y, `mda
AmYm[aV Agob Va Aem R>amdm§Mr H$m`Xoera A§_b~OmdUr H$aUo eŠ` ZgVo. _¡ÌrUrÀ`m Kar OodUmg
OmÊ`mMm R>amd qH$dm nVrZo nËZrgmR>r gmS>r AmUÊ`mMm R>amd H$m`Xoera hmoV ZmhrV. H$maU {_Ì, nVr-nËZr
`m§À`mV Z¡g{J©H$ ào_mMo g§~§Y AgVmV Vo H$m`Xoera g§~§Y hmoV ZmhrV. åhUyZ Aem R>amdm§Zm H$m`Xoera H$ama
åhQ>bo OmV Zmhr. XmoZ ì`ŠVr O|ìhm ì`mnmar H$ama H$aVmV V|ìhm Ë`m§À`mV H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U hmoVmV
AemM R>amdm§Mr H$m`ÚmZwgma A§_b~OmdUr H$aUo eŠ` AgVo åhUyZ àË`oH$ R>amdmMm CÔoe H$amamer g§~§{YV
ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aUmam Agbm nm{hOo.
3. H$amanmÌ ì`ŠVr (Capacity to Contract) : H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m {Z{_©Vr_Ü`o R>amdmer g§~§{YV
XmoÝhr ì`ŠVr `m H$ama H$aÊ`mg nmÌ Agë`m nm{hOoV. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 11 _Ü`o H$amanmÌ
ì`ŠVrMr ì`m»`m nwT>rbà_mo {Xbr Amho.
""H$amanmÌ ì`ŠVr åhUOo Or ì`ŠVr d`mZo gkmZ AgyZ {OMr ~wpÜX_Îmm gwk Amho Am{U {Obm àM{bV
H$moUË`mhr H$m`ÚmZo H$ama H$aÊ`mg AnmÌ R>a{dbobo Zmhr Aer ì`ŠVr hmo`.'' `m ì`m»`oà_mUo H$ama
H$aUmar ì`ŠVr H$ama H$aÊ`mg Am{U H$amamMr O~m~Xmar nobÊ`mg gj_ AgUo Amdí`H$ Amho. Á`m
ì`ŠVrZo d`mMr 18 df} nyU© Ho$br AmhoV Vr gkmZ åhUyZ AmoiIbr OmVo. Á`m ì`ŠVrg H$amamÀ`m AQ>r
H$iVmV Am{U H$ama Amnë`m \$m`ÚmMm qH$dm VmoQ>çmMm Amho `mMm gmamgma {dMma H$aÊ`mMr eŠVr
AgVo Ë`mg gwk ~w{Õ_ÎmoMr ì`ŠVr _mZVmV. VgoM àM{bV H$m`ÚmZwgma H$ama H$aÊ`mg AnmÌ åhUyZ
Kmo{fV Ho$boë`m ì`ŠVr Zgmì`mV. H$ama H$m`ÚmZo naH$s` eÌy, naXoemVrb amOXyV, gmd©O{ZH$ H§$nÝ`m
Am{U Vwa§JdmgmVrb H¡$Xr `m§Zm H$ama H$aÊ`mg à{V~§Y Ho$bm Amho. Aem ì`ŠVr gmoSy>Z BVa gd© ì`ŠVr
`m H$ama H$aÊ`mg nmÌ g_Oë`m OmVmV. VgoM AkmZ ì`ŠVr, doS>r qH$dm _yI© ì`ŠVr, ZeoV Yw§X amhUmar
qH$dm A{VAmOmamZo ~oewÕ AgUmar qH$dm VmËnwaVr ewÕ hanbobr ì`ŠVr `m AnmÌ g_Oë`m OmVmV d
`m§À`mer Pmbobm H$ama hm ì`W© g_OÊ`mV `oVmo.
4. _wŠV g§_Vr (Free Consent) : _wŠV g§_Vr hm H$m`Xoera H$amamMm _w»` AmYma AgVmo. R>amdmer
g§~§{YV XmoÝhr ì`ŠVtMr R>amdmg _wŠV g§_Vr Agdr bmJVo. H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 13 _Ü`o g§_VrMm AW©
nwT>rbà_mUo {Xbm Amho. O|ìhm XmoÝhr H$ama ì`ŠVr `m R>amdmÀ`m EH$mM {df`mda EH$mM {dMmagaUrZo Am{U
EH$mMdoir gh_Vr Xe©{dVmV V|ìhm Ë`mMr H$amamg g§_Vr Amho Ago åhUVmV. WmoS>Š`mV R>amdmer g§~§{YV
ì`ŠVtMo àñVm{dV H$m`m©~m~V, R>amdmÀ`m AWm©~m~V, R>amdmVyZ {Z_m©U hmoUmè`m O~m~Xmar~m~V EH$_V
AgUo åhUOo g§_Vr hmo`. H$m`Xoera H$amamgmR>r \$ŠV g§_Vr AgyZ MmbV Zmhr Va Vr g§_Vr _wŠV Agmdr
bmJVo. H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 14 _Ü`o _wŠV g§_VrMm AW© nwT>rbà_mUo {Xbm Amho.
""Á`m R>amdmg ì`ŠVrZr {Xbobr g§_Vr hr ~bà`moJ, AZw{MV à^md, H$nQ>, AgË`{dYmZ Am{U MyH$
`m H$maUm{edm` {Xbobr AgVo V|ìhm Vr _wŠV hmoVo. Á`mdoir `m H$maUm§Zr g§_Vr {_i{dÊ`mV `oVo V|ìhm Vr
_wŠV AgV Zmhr Am{U Agm R>amd H$m`Xoera H$ama Z hmoVm Vmo dÁ`©Zr` H$ama hmoVmo.'' `m H$maUm§Mm AW©
Imbrbà_mUo gm§{JVbm OmVmo.
(A) ~bà`moJ (Coersion) - YmH$ qH$dm ~bà`moJ åhUOo EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrda X~md
AmUyZ qH$dm ^rVr XmIdyZ H$ama H$aÊ`mg àd¥Îm H$aUo hmo`. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm H$b_ 15 à_mUo ^maVr`
\$m¡OXmar H$m`ÚmZo à{V~§Y Ho$bobo H¥$Ë` H$ê$Z qH$dm H$aÊ`mMm YmH$ XmIdyZ EH$ ì`ŠVr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg
H$ama H$aÊ`mg ^mJ nmS>Vo qH$dm Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrZo R>amd H$amdm åhUyZ Ë`m ì`ŠVrMr _mb_Îmm ~oH$m`Xoera[aË`m
AS>dyZ qH$dm AS>dyZ R>odÊ`mMr ^rVr KmbyZ Ë`m ì`ŠVrMr H$amamg g§_Vr {_i{dVo V|ìhm Vr YmH$mZo qH$dm
~bà`moJmZo {_i{dbobr g§_Vr hmoVo Vr _wŠV AgV Zmhr. Ë`m_wio Vmo dÁ`©Zr` H$ama hmoVmo.
(~) AZw{MV à^md qH$dm Z¡{VH$ dOZ (Undue Influence) - AZw{MV à^md qH$dm Z¡{VH$ dOZ
åhUOo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrH$Sy>Z AdmOdr \$m`Xm H$ê$Z KoÊ`mgmR>r EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m _Zmda à^md
Q>mHy$Z Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg H$ama H$aÊ`mg ^mJ nmS>Uo hmo`. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm H$b_ 16 Zwgma O|ìhm ì`ŠVrì`ŠVr_Ü`o Aem àH$maMo g§~§Y AgVmV H$s EH$ ì`ŠVr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m BÀN>oda ({dMmagaUrda) ghOnUo
à^md Q>mHy$ eH$Vo Am{U Ë`mnmgyZ AZw{MV bm^ Kody eH$Vo `mbmM AZw{MV à^mdmZo H$ama KS>dyZ AmUbm
Ago åhUVmV. Vmo H$m`Xoera hmoV Zmhr, Vmo dÁ`©Zr` H$ama hmoVmo H$maU g§_Vr hr _wŠV ZgVo.
(H$) H$nQ> qH$dm \$gdUyH$ (Fraud) - H$nQ> åhUOo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrMr \$gdUyH$ H$aÊ`mÀ`m CÔoemZo
ImoQ>o ~mobUo d BVam§Zm \$g{dUo hmo`. H$amamer g§~§{YV EH$ ì`ŠVr EImXr Jmoï> Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrnmgyZ bndyZ
R>odrV Agob Am{U R>amdmg Ë`mMr g§_Vr KoV Agob Va Agm R>amd dÁ`©Zr` H$ama hmoVmo. ^maVr` H$ama
H$m`Xm H$b_ 17 à_mUo, Ooìhm H$amamMr EH$ ì`ŠVr qH$dm Ë`mMm à{V{ZYr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg qH$dm Ë`mÀ`m
à{V{ZYrg \$g{dÊ`mÀ`m CÔoemZo EImXr Jmoï> ImoQ>r Amho ho _m{hV AgVmZm Vr Iar Amho Ago gm§JVmo qH$dm
dñVwpñWVr _wÔm_ bndyZ R>odVmo qH$dm dMZmMo nmbZ H$amd`mMo Zmhr `m hoVyZo dMZ XoVmo qH$dm H$m`ÚmZwgma
EImXr Jmoï> CKS> H$aÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar AgVmZm Vr Jmoï> CKS> H$arV Zmhr qH$dm b~mS>r H$aVmo V|ìhm Aem
H¥$Ë`mg H$nQ> Ago åhQ>bo OmVo. H$nQ>mZo à^m{dV g§_Vr _wŠV ZgVo. Á`m ì`ŠVrMr g§_Vr H$nQ>mZo {_i{dbobr
AgVo Aem ì`ŠVrg H$ama aÔ H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ AgVmo H$maU Vmo dÁ`©Zr` R>amd hmoVmo.
(S>) AgË` {dYmZ / J¡aà{VnmXZ (Mis-representation) - H$ama H$aÊ`mg àd¥Îm H$aÊ`mÀ`m hoVyZo
H$ama H$aVmZm AWdm H$amamnydu H$amamÀ`m _hËdmÀ`m {df`mg§~§Yr EH$ ì`ŠVr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg ImoQ>r qH$dm
AdmñVd _m{hVr XoV Agob Va Ë`mg AgË` H$WZ qH$dm J¡aà{VnmXZ Ago åhUVmV. AgË`H$WZ ho ñnï>nUo
~mobyZ, {bIrV ñdê$nmV qH$dm H¥$VrVyZ Ho$bo OmVo. `m_Ü`o H$WZ H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrMm CÔoe Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrMr
\$gdUyH$ H$aUo hm AgV Zmhr. Va {dYmZ H$aUmar ì`ŠVr hr AZmdYmZmZo EImXo {dYmZ ImoQ>o AgVmZm Vo
Iao Amho Ago H$WZ H$aVo. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm H$b_ 18 à_mUo O|ìhm EImXr ì`ŠVr EImXo {dYmZ R>m_nUo
Iao Amho, Ago gm§JVo na§Vw dmñVdmV Vo {dYmZ ImoQ>o AgVo Vo§ìhm Ago {dYmZ H$aUo åhUOo AgË` H$WZ hmo`.
AgË` H$WZmMm CÔoe hm R>amdmg g§_Vr KoÊ`mMm Agbm nm{hOo. AgË` H$WZmda {dœmg R>odyZ g§_Vr XoUmar
ì`ŠVr H$ama aÔ H$ê$ eH$Vo qH$dm BÀN>m Agë`mg H$amamMr A§_b~OmdUr H$ê$ eH$Vo.
(B) MyH$ (Mistake) - EImÚm Jmoï>r~m~V, {df`m~m~V MyH$sMm g_O åhUOo MyH$ hmo`. O|ìhm
H$amamMm {df`M ApñVËdmV ZgVmo qH$dm Zï> Pmbobm AgVmo Am{U XmoÝhr H$ama ì`ŠVtZm hr ~m~ R>amd
H$aVmZm _m{hV ZgVo V|ìhm R>amd H$aÊ`mV XmoÝhr ì`ŠVtMr MyH$ Pmbr Ago åhUVmV. H$amamMm EH$ qH$dm
AZoH$ nj H$amamMr {df`dñVy qH$dm H$m`ÚmMr MyH$ H$arV AgVrb Va H$amambm {Xbobr g§_Vr _wŠV ZgVo.
H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 20 à_mUo O|ìhm R>amdmÀ`m _hÎdmÀ`m {df`mg§~§Yr XmoÝhr H$ama ì`ŠVtMr MyH$ hmoVo
V|ìhm Agm R>amd ì`W© hmoVmo.
CXm. A Zo ~ Mm KmoS>m {dH$V KoÊ`mMm R>amd Ho$bm. R>amdmÀ`mdoir KmoS>m _`V hmoVm `mMr _m{hVr A
Am{U ~ XmoKm§Zmhr ZgVo åhUyZ Agm R>amd ì`W© hmoVmo. MyH$s_wio H$ama aÔ AWdm ì`W© hmoÊ`mgmR>r Imbrb
AQ>r nyU© ìhmì`m bmJVmV.
1. MyH$ hr XmoÝhr ì`ŠVtMr Agmdr bmJVo.
2. MyH$ hr R>amdmÀ`m _hÎdÀ`m {df`mg§~§Yr Agbr nm{hOo.
3. ^maVmV àM{bV Agboë`m H$m`Úm~m~V MyH$ hmoVm H$m_m Z`o.
4. dñVy§À`m qH$_Vr~m~V A§XmO MyH$bm H$s H$ama aÔ hmoV Zmhr.
5. {dXoer H$m`Úm~m~V MyH$ Pmbr Agob Va H$ama aÔ hmoVmo.
6. ñdV:À`m H$m`Xoera h¸$m~m~V Pmboë`m MyH$s_wio R>amd Ho$bm Va R>amd aÔ hmoVmo.
5. H$m`Xoera CÔoe (Lawful object) : H$m`Xoera H$amaÀ`m {Z{_©VrgmR>r R>amdmMm CÔoe hm
H$m`Xoera Agbm nm{hOo. Oa H$amanmÌ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o _wŠV g§_VrZo R>amd hmoV Agob Am{U Ë`mMm CÔoe
H$m`Xoera Agob VaM Vmo R>amd H$m`Xoera H$ama ~ZVmo. H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 23 _Ü`o R>amdmMm CÔoe d
à{V\$i ~oH$m`Xoera H|$ìhm AgVmV ho gm§{JVbo Amho. åhUyZ `m H$b_m_Ü`o gm§{JVboë`m R>amdm§Mo CÔoe gmoSy>Z
BVa gd© R>amdm§Mo CÔoe ho H$m`Xoera _mZÊ`mV `oVmV. Oa R>amdmMo C{ÔîQ> ho 1. Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrMr \$gdUyH$ H$aUmao Agob qH$dm
2. H$m`ÚmZo à{V~§Y Ho$bobo H¥$Ë` H$aÊ`m~m~V Agob qH$dm
3. H$m`ÚmVrb {Z`_m§Mm ^§J H$aUmao Agob qH$dm
4. Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg AWdm Ë`mÀ`m _mb_Îmog YmoH$m nmohM{dUmao Agob qH$dm
5. AZ¡{VH$ AWdm gm_m{OH$ YmoaUm{déÕMo Agob Va Vo ~oH$m`Xoera g_OÊ`mV `oVo. åhUyZ R>amdmMo
C{Ôï> ho darb 1 Vo 5 `m CnH$b_mV gm§{JVë`mà_mUo Zgob VaM R>amd H$m`Xoera H$ama hmoVmo.
6. H$m`Xoera à{V\$b (Lawful Consideration) : à{V\$b hm H$m`Xoera H$amamMm nm`m _mZbm
OmVmo. à{V\$b åhUOo H$ama H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVtZm H$amamnmgyZ {_iUmam _mo~Xbm hmo`. H$ama H$aUmè`m àË`oH$
ì`ŠVrbm H$amamnmgyZ _mo~Xbm hm {_imbmM nm{hOo. H$amamVrb àñVmdH$ Am{U àñVmdVm `mn¡H$s EH$mgOar
H$amamnmgyZ _mo~Xbm {_imbm Zmhr Va Ë`m§À`mÑï>rZo H$ama ì`W© hmoVmo. EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg Ë`mZo
Ho$boë`m dMZnydVuMm _mo~Xbm åhUyZ H$mhrVar XoUo åhUOo à{V\$b hmo`. à{V\$b ho dmñVd, H$m`Xoera Agbo
nm{hOo, VgoM Vo _m¡ë`dmZ Agbo nm{hOo dMZnyVu åhUyZ EImXr H¥$Vr H$aUo, H¥$Vr Z H$aUo, dñVy§Mr qH$_V
XoUo AWdm godm XoUo `m ñdê$nmV à{V\$b Agy eH$Vo. à{V\$b ho EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrMo dMZ {dH$V
KoÊ`mgmR>r {Xbobr qH$_V AgVo. CXm. a_oeZo Am¡fY XwH$mZmVyZ 25 é. XodyZ P§Sy>~m_ {dH$V KoVbm Va `oWo
a_oebm 25 én`m§À`m ~Xë`mV P§Sy>~m_ {_imbm Va Am¡fY {dH«o$Ë`mg Ë`m~Xë`mV n¡go {_imbo. `mbmM
à{V\$b Ago åhUVmV. åhUyZ gd©gmYmaU {Z`_ Amho H$s n«{V\$bm{edm` AgUmao H$ama ì`W© AgVmV. `m
{Z`_mg H$mhr AndmX AmhoV. AndmXmË_H$ H$amam_Ü`o à{V\$bm{edm` H$ama H$m`Xoera hmoVmo. à{V\$bm_wioM
ì`ŠVr `m H$ama H$aÊ`mg ào[aV hmoVmV. à{V\$b ho Zoh_r H$m`Xoera Agbo nm{hOo. Oa R>amdmMo à{V\$b ho
darb H$m`Xoera C{Ôï>mÀ`m CnH$b_ 1 Vo 5 `m àH$maMo Agob Va Vo à{V\$b ~oH$m`Xoera g_OÊ`mV `oVo.
7. R>amd ì`W© Zgbm nm{hOo (No expressely declared to bevoid) : H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m
{Z{_©VrgmR>r XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o Pmbobm R>amd hm ì`W© Zgbm nm{hOo. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmZo H$mhr R>amd ho ì`W©
R>a{dbo AmhoV. Oar Ago R>amd H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m BVa AQ>r nyU© H$arV Agbo Var Vo ì`W© g_OÊ`mV `oVmV
Vo H$m`Xoera hmoV ZmhrV. H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 26 Vo 30 _Ü`o Imbrb R>amd ho ì`W© R>amd åhUyZ Kmo{fV
Ho$bo AmhoV.
1. {ddmh à{V~§YH$ R>amd
6. n¡OoMm R>amd
2. ì`mnmaY§Xm à{V~§YH$ R>amd
7. H$ama H$aÊ`mg AnmÌ AgUmè`m ì`ŠVrMm R>amd
3. Ý`m`XmZmÀ`m H$m_mV hñVjon H$aUmam R>amd 8. à{V\$bm{edm` AgUmao R>amd
4. A{ZpíMV AWm©Mo R>amd
9. ~oH$mXoera CÔoe d ~oH$m`Xoera à{V\$b AgUmao
5. AeŠ` H¥$Ë` H$aÊ`m~m~VMm R>amd
`m darb R>amdm§Mr H$m`XoeranUo A§_b~OmUr H$aVm `oV Zmhr.
8. R>amd {ZpíMV AWm©Mm Agmdm (Meaning of agreement must be certain) : H$moUË`mhr
R>amdmMr H$m`XoeranUo A§_b~OmdUr H$aÊ`mgmR>r Vmo R>amd {ZpíMV AWm©Mm Agbm nm{hOo. ^maVr` H$ama
H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 29 à_mUo Á`m R>amdmMm Ame` {ZpíMV ZgVmo qH$dm {ZpíMV H$aVm `oÊ`mgmaIm ZgVmo
Ë`m§Mr H$m`ÚmZwgma A§_b~OmdUr hmody eH$V Zmhr. Á`m R>amdm§Mr eãXaMZm g§{X½Y, Añnï> Am{U R>amdmMm
hoVy ñnï> H$aUmar Zgob Va Ë`mg A{ZpíMV AWm©Mo R>amd åhUVmV. H$m`Xoera H$amamgmR>r R>amd {Zg§{X½Y d
{ZpíMV AWm©Mm Agbm nm{hOo. CXm. A Zo ~ bm Amnë`m eoVmVrb {d{dY Am§ã`m§À`m àH$mam§n¡H$s H$mhr Am§~o
{dH$Ê`mMm R>amd Ho$bm. hm R>amd g§{X½Y Amho H$maU H$moUË`m àH$maMo Am§~o {H$Vr à_mUmV d Ë`m§Mr qH$_V
H$m` `m ~m~r ñnï> Zgë`mZo Aem R>amdmMr A§_b~OmdUr hmoUma Zmhr.
9. R>amdmVrb AQ>rMr nyV©Vm eŠ` Pmbr nm{hOo (Possibility of Performance) : H$m`Xoera
H$amamÀ`m {Z{_©VrgmR>r XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o Pmboë`m R>amdmVrb AQ>r/dMZo hr nyV©Vm H$aVm `oÊ`mgmaIr Agbr
nm{hOoV. H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 56 à_mUo Oo R>amd nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mg AeŠ` R>aVmV Vo ì`W© g_Obo OmVmV.
CXm. A Zo ~ bm Ago dMZ {Xbo H$s ~ Zo A bm 5000 é. {Xbo Va A ~ bm AmH$memVrb Vmao AmUyZ XoB©b.
`m R>amdm_Ü`o AmH$memVyZ Vmao O{_Zrda AmUUo ho AeŠ` H¥$Ë` Agë`mZo Vmo R>amd ì`W© hmoVmo.
10. H$m`Xoera ~m~tMr nyV©Vm (Legal Formalities) : H$ama hm boIr AWdm Vm|S>r Agy eH$Vmo na§Vw
Oa H$m`ÚmZo Amdí`H$ Ho$bo Agob Va Vmo boIr Agbm nm{hOo d Ë`mMr arVga Zm|XUr Ho$br nm{hOo. H$ama
{bIrV ñdê$nmV à_m{UV d Zm|XUrH¥$V Agob Va XmoZ njm_Ü`o H$ama Pmë`mMm H$m`Xoera nwamdm CnbãY
AgVmo. Oa EImÚm njmZo H$ama nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mg ZH$ma {Xbm Va boIr d Zm|XUrH¥$V H$amamÀ`m AmYmao Ë`m
njmda Xwgam nj H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. VgoM H$mhr H$m`ÚmZr H$ama ho boIr ñdê$nmVM Agbo
nm{hOoV Ago ~§YZ KmVbo Amho. CXm. H$mb_`m©Xog§~§YrÀ`m H$m`ÚmZwgma _wXV~mø H$Om©À`m naV\o$S>rMm R>amd
boIr Agbm nm{hOo. VgoM Z¡g{J©H$ ào_ Am{U dmËgë`mnmoQ>r ~jrg XoÊ`mMm R>amd boIr Am{U Zm|X{dbobm
Agmdm. `m{edm` bdmX A{Y{Z`_ 1940, g§nÎmr hñVm§VaU H$m`Xm 1882 d MbZj_ XñVEodO H$m`Xm
1881 AZwgma hmoUmao H$ama {bIrV à_m{UV Am{U Zm|XUrH¥$V AgUo A{Zdm`© Ho$bo Amho.
H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm / A§_b~OmdUr (Performance of Contract) :
AW© : H$m`Xoera H$ama Am{U H$m`Xoera H$amamÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r `m{df`r g{dñVa _m{hVr KoVë`mZ§Va
H$amamÀ`m _yb^yV VÎdm_Yrb Xwgar nm`ar åhUOo H$amam§Mr A§_b~OmdUr / nyV©Vm hmo`. XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o
H$m`Xoera H$ama ApñVËdmV Amë`mZ§Va Ë`mMr A§_b~OmdUr H$er H$amdr `m§À`m _yb^yV VÎdm§Mr _m{hVr `m
àH$aUmV `oVo. H$m`Xoera H$amam_wio H$ama ì`ŠVtÀ`m_Ü`o Oo H$m`Xoera g§~§Y {Z_m©U hmoVmV Am{U `mVyZ
H$m`Xoera H$V©ì`o `oVmV Vr H$V©ì`o ì`ŠVtZr H$er nma nmS>mdrV `mMm Aä`mg H$amam§À`m nyV©Vo_Ü`o `oVmo.
gm_mÝ`nUo H$amamÀ`m XmoÝhr njm§Zr H$amamVrb Amnmnë`m dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$aUo `mg H$amanyV©Vm Ago åhUVmV.
^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 37 _Ü`o H$amanyV©VoMm AW© Imbrbà_mUo {Xbm Amho.
""^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmImbr qH$dm BVa H$m`ÚmImbr EImÚm dMZmMr nyV©Vm aÔ hmoÊ`mnydu qH$dm H$ama
ì`ŠVtZm H$amanyV©VoÀ`m O~m~XmarVyZ _m\$s {_iÊ`mnydu H$ama ì`ŠVtZr H$amamVrb dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm Ho$br
nm{hOo qH$dm H$amanyV©VoMr BÀN>m àX{e©V Ho$br nm{hOo `mg H$ama nyV©Vm åhUVmV.''
H$ama nyV©Vm _mJUr H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma àñVmdË`mg Am{U dMZm§Mr (H$amamMr) nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mMr
O~m~Xmar n«ñVmdH$mda AgVo.
H$ama nyV©VoMr àH$ma : H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm hr Imbrb XmoZ n«H$mam§Zr hmody eH$Vo.
H$ama nyV©VoMo àH$ma
àË`j H$ama
H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m
Am{U V`mar Xe©{dUo
1. àË`j H$ama nyV©Vm (Actual Performance) : Á`mdoir àñVmdH$ hm H$amamVrb Amnbo dMZ nyU©
H$aÊ`mg V`ma AgVmo Ë`mMdoir àñVmdZm Ë`mMr pñdH¥$Vr H$aVmo V|ìhm H$amam§Mr àË`j nyV©Vm Pmbr Ago
åhUVmV. åhUOoM O|ìhm H$ama ì`ŠVr `m R>aë`mà_mUo Amnmnë`m dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$ê$Z O~m~Xmar nma
nmS>VmV V|ìhm H$amamMr àË`j A§_b~OmdUr Pmbr Ago åhUVmV.
2. H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m Am{U V`mar Xe©{dUo - H$b_ 38 (Tender as to performance of
contract) : Oo§ìhm àñVmdH$ Amnë`m dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mMr BÀN>m Am{U V`mar àñVmdË`mbm Xe©{dVmo
Am{U àñVmdVm _mÌ Ë`mMm ñdrH$ma H$arV Zmhr V|ìhm Ë`mg H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m Am{U V`mar Xe©{dUo Ago
åhUVmV. CXm. j Zo ` bm 1000 nmoVr Jhÿ {dÊ`mMm H$ama Ho$bm. H$amamà_mUo 1 Am°ŠQ>mo~a amoOr j ` H$S>o
1000 nmoVr Jhÿ nmR>{dbm _mÌ ` Zo Vmo pñdH$maÊ`mMo ZmH$mabo d Jìhmg pñdH¥$Vr {Xbr Zmhr. `oWo
H$m`Úmà_mUo j Zo Amnbo dMZ nyU© Ho$bo _mÌ ` Zo Ë`mg pñdH¥$Vr {Xbr Zmhr. Va j Zo H$amanyV©VoMr BÀN>m
Am{U V`mar Xe©{dbr Ago _mZyZ j hm H$amanyV©VoÀ`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoVmo. H$maU H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m
Am{U V`mar `mg àË`j H$ama nyV©Vm _mUyZ àñVmdH$ Amnë`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoVmo. Ë`mZ§Va dMZmMr
nyV©Vm H$amdr bmJV Zmhr. CbQ> àñVmdË`{déÕ H$ama^§JmÀ`m ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©gmR>r H$moQ>m©V Xmdm bmdë`mMm
h¸$ àmá hmVmo. àñVmdH$mMr H$amanyV©VoMr BÀN>m dm V`mar H$m`Xoera Agmdr bmJVo. Vr H$m`Xoera hmoÊ`mgmR>r
Imbrb AQ>r nyU© Ho$ë`m nm{hOoV.
H$m`Xoera H$ama nyV©VoÀ`m BÀN>m d V`marÀ`m AQ>r
`mo½` doi
`mo½` {R>H$mU
`mo½` g§Yr
`mo½` ì`ŠVrg
g§nyU© V`mar
`mo½` ñdê$n
g§`wŠV àñVmdË`mn¡H$s EH$mH$S>o
(A) {dZmAQ> V`mar Xe©{dUo - àñVmdH$mZo H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m Am{U V`mar {dZmAQ> Xe©{dbr
nm{hOo. EImXr AQ> KmbyZ V`mar Xe©{dbr Va Vr geV© V`mar hmoVo. {dZmAQ> g_Obr OmV Zmhr.
(~) `mo½`doir V`mar Xe©{dUo - H$amanyV©VoMr BÀN>m Am{U V`mar àñVmdH$mZo `mo½`doir àX{e©V
Ho$br nm{hOo. `mo½` doi åhUOo H$m_mH$mOmMr doi hmo`.
(H$) `mo½` {R>H$mUr V`mar Xe©{dUo - Oa {d{eï> {R>H$mUr H$ama nyV©Vm H$aUoMo R>abo Agob Va Ë`mM
{R>H$mUr H$amanyV©VoMr BÀN>m d V`mar àñVmdH$mZo Xe©{dbr nm{hOo. Oa {R>H$mU R>abo Zgob Va àñVmdVm R>adyZ
XoB©b Ë`m {R>H$mUr H$amanyV©VoMr BÀN>m d V`mar àñVmdH$mZo Xe©{dbr nm{hOo.
(S>) àñVmdË`mg `mo½` g§Yr XoUo - O|ìhm H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m Am{U V`mar _mb nmR>{dÊ`mÀ`m
g§X^m©V AgVo V|ìhm àñVmdH$mZo àñVmdË`mH$S>o nmR>{dboë`m dñVy gm§{JVboë`m JwU d¡{eï>çmà_mUo AmhoV H$s
ZmhrV `mMr VnmgUr H$aÊ`mMr nwaogr g§Yr àñVmdË`mg {Xbr nm{hOo.
(B) g§nyU© V`mar Xe©{dUo - àñVmdH$mZo H$amamÀ`m nyV©VoVrb H$mhr ^mJmMr åhUOo A§eV: H$ama nyU©
H$aÊ`mMr BÀN>m d V`mar Xe©{dbr Va Vr H$m`Xoera hmoV Zmhr. g§nyU© H$amamVrb dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mMr
V`mar Xe©{dbr nm{hOo.
(\$) `mo½` ñdê$nmV V`mar Xe©{dUo - H$ama nyV©VoMr V`ma Xe©{dVmZm àñVmdH$mZo àñVmdË`mg Xo`
AgUmar a¸$_ `mo½` ñdê$nmV åhUOo H$mJXr ZmoQ>m qH$dm MbZr ZmÊ`m§À`m ñdê$nmVM XoÊ`mMr V`mar Xe©{dbr
nm{hOo Vr MoH$Zo XodyZ MmbUma Zmhr.
(J) `mo½` ì`ŠVrg V`mar Xe©{dUo - àñVmdH$mZo H$amanyV©VoMr BÀN>m Am{U V`mar hr àñVmdË`mH$S>o
qH$dm àñVmdË`mÀ`m A{YH¥$V à{V{ZYrH$S>o àX{e©V Ho$br nm{hOo. Vr {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVrH$S>o àX{e©V H$ê$Z
MmbUma Zmhr.
(_) g§`wŠV àñVmdË`mn¡H$s EH$mH$S>o àX{e©V H$aUo - Á`m H$amam_Ü`o g§`wŠV àñVmdVo AgVmV
Aemdoir H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m d V`mar àñVmdH$mZo g§`wŠV àñVmdË`mn¡H$s H$moUË`mhr EH$m àñVmdË`mH$S>o
àX{e©V Ho$br Va Vr H$m`Xoera hmoVo.
3. H$ama H$moUr nyU© Ho$bo nm{hOoV (Who should Perform Contract) (H$b_ 37, 40, 41 d
42) : gmYmaUnUo H$amamZwgma dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar dMZXmË`mda (àñVmdH$mda) AgVo.
H$ama H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVtZrM H$amamVrb dMZm§Mr àË`j nyV©Vm Ho$br nm{hOo qH$dm H$ama nyV©VoMr BÀN>m d V`mar
Xe©{dbr nm{hOo. `mg§X^m©V H$b_ 37, 40, 41 d 42 _Ü`o nwT>rb {Z`_ {Xbo Amho.
H$ama H$moUr nyU© Ho$bo nm{hOoV
H$m`Xoera dmag
{VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr
g§`wŠV àñVmdH$
(A) àñVmdH$ - Oa H$amamÀ`m ñdê$nmdê$Z Agm hoVy ñnï> hmoV Agob H$s H$amamVrb dMZ ho
àñVmdH$mZoM nyU© Ho$bo nm{hOo Va Aem H$amamMr nyV©Vm hr ñdV: àñVmdH$mZoM Ho$br nm{hOo. Oa H$amanyV©Vonydu
àñVmdH$mMm _¥Ë`y Pmbm H$s Agm H$ama aÔ hmoVmo. åhUyZ Á`m H$amam§À`m nyV©Vo_Ü`o ì`ŠVrMo d¡`ŠVrH$
JwUd¡{eï>ç, H$g~ gm_mdbobo AgVo Ago H$ama ñdV: àñVmdH$mZo nyU© Ho$bo nm{hOoV.
(~) H$m`Xoera dmag - H$amam_Ü`o Agm ñnï> hoVy Agob H$s H$amamVrb dMZ ho àñVmdH$mZo nyU© Ho$bo
Zmhr Var Mmbob åhUOoM Á`m H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm hr ì`ŠVtÀ`m H$bmJwUmda Adb§~yZ ZgVo. Aem H$amamVrb
dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm hr àñVmdH$ _`V Pmbm Var Ë`m dMZmMr nyV©Vm hr àñVmdH$mÀ`m H$m`Xoera dmagmda `oVo.
(H$) à{V{ZYr - H$amamÀ`m ñdê$nmdê$Z qH$dm hoVydéZ H$ama ì`ŠVtZrM H$amamMr nyV©Vm Ho$br nm{hOo
Ago ~§YZ Zgob Va H$ama nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r Xwgè`m `mo½` ì`ŠVrMr à{V{ZYr åhUyZ {Z`wŠVr H$ê$Z Ë`m
à{V{ZYr _m\©$V H$ama nyV©Vm H$ê$Z KoVm `oVmo.
(S>) {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr - Oa àñVmdH$mÀ`m dVrZo EImÚm {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVrZo H$amamMr nyV©Vm Ho$br
àñVmdË`mZo Ë`mg _mÝ`Vm {Xbr Va Aem {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVrg H$ama nyV©VoMm A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmo. àñVmdË`mbm
nwÝhm àñVmdH$mH$S>o H$ama nyV©Vm _mJUr H$aVm `oUma Zmhr.
(B) g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ - Á`mdoir XmoZ qH$dm A{YH$ àñVmdH$ EH$m àñVmdË`mer g§`wŠV H$ama H$aVmV
V|ìhm Aem H$amamMr nyV©Vm hr gd© g§`wŠV àñVmdH$m§Zr Amnë`m h`mVrV Ho$br nm{hOo. `m§À`mn¡H$s EImXm
g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ _`V Pmbm Va Ë`mMm H$m`Xoera dmag Am{U BVa g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ `m§Zr {_iyZ H$amamMr
nyV©Vm Ho$br nm{hOo. Oa gd©M g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ H$amanyVunydu _`V Pmbo Va Ë`m§À`m H$m`Xoera dmagm§Zr
g§`wŠVnUo dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm Ho$br nm{hOo.
4. g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ Am{U Ë`m§Mr H$amanyV©VoMr O~m~Xmar (Joint Promisor and Devolution of
joint liabilets) (H$b_ 42, 43, d 44) :
g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ (Joint Promisor) (H$b_ 42) : Á`m H$amam_Ü`o XmoZ àñVmdH$ Am{U EH$
àñVmdVm qH$dm EH$ àñVmdH$ Am{U XmoZ qH$dm A{YH$ àñVmdVo AgVmV V|ìhm Ë`mg g§`wŠV àñVmd (Joint
Promise) Ago åhUVmV. O|ìhm XmoZ qH$dm A{YH$ àñVmdH$ g§`wŠVnUo EH$m {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVrer H$ama H$aVmV
V|ìhm Vo g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ åhUyZ AmoiIbo OmVmV.
CXm. j Am{U ` `m§Zr g§`wŠVnUo H$ H$Sy>Z é. 10000 H$O© KoVbo. `oWo j Am{U ` ho g§`wŠV àñVmdH$
~ZVmV d Agm H$ama g§`wŠV àñVmd åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVmo.
g§`wŠV àñVmdH$m§Mr H$amanyV©VoÀ`m O~m~XmarMo ñdê$n
g§`wŠVrH$ d d¡`{ŠVH$
g_mZ n«_mUmV
H$amanyV©Vm _mJUr H$aUo
Ag_W© g§`wŠV
àñVmdH$mMm {hñgm
BVam§Zr dmQy>Z KoUo
g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mn¡H$s
EH$mg _m\$s
{_imë`mMm n[aUm_
^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 43 Am{U 44 _Ü`o g§`wŠV àñVmdH$m§À`m H$ama nyV©VoÀ`m O~m~XmarMo
ñdê$n Imbrbà_mUo amhrb (A) g§`wŠV àñVmdH$m§Mr H$ama nyV©VoMr O~m~Xmar g§`wŠVrH$ Am{U d¡`{ŠVH$ - g§`wŠV
àñVmdH$m§Mr H$ama nyV©VoMr O~m~Xmar hr g§`wŠVrH$ Am{U d¡`{ŠVH$ AgVo, åhUOoM g§`wŠV àñVmdH$m§Zr
gdmªZr {_iyZ Amnbm H$ama nyU© Ho$bm nm{hOo qH$dm H$moUË`mhr EH$m g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mZo g§nyU© H$amamMr nyV©Vm
Ho$br nm{hOo. CXm. A_a, AH$~a Am{U A°ÝWmoZr `m§Zr amOoeH$Sy>Z KoVboë`m 15000 é. H$Om©Mr naV\o$S>
H$aÊ`mMo dMZ {Xbo. `oWo amOoe `m {VKm§H$Sy>Z qH$dm EH$m H$Sy>Z Ë`mZo {Xbobo H$O© dgyb H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
(~) g_mZ à_mUV H$ama nyV©Vm _mJUr H$aUo - O|ìhm g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mn¡H$s EH$m g§`wŠV
àñVmdH$mg g§nyU© H$amamMr nyV©Vm H$aUo ^mJ nS>Vo Voìhm Vmo àñVmdH$ BVa g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mH$Sy>Z g_mZ
à_mUmV H$amanyV©Vm _mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. CXm. darb CXmhaUmV lr. amOoe `m§Zm A_aZo g§nyU© 15000 én`o
{Xbo AgVrb Va A_aZo AH$~a Am{U A°ÝWmoZr `m BVa g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mH$Sy>Z àË`oH$s 5000 é. dgyb H$ê$
(H$) Ag_W© g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mÀ`m {hññ`mMr a¸$_ BVa àñVmdH$m§Zr dmQy>Z KoUo - g§`wŠV
àñVmdH$mn¡H$s EImXm àñVmdH$ {XdmiImoa R>abm Am{U Amnë`m g_mZ {híemMr a¸$_ XoÊ`mg Ag_W© Agob
Va Ë`mÀ`m {híemMr a¸$_ BVa g§`wŠV n«ñVmdH$m§Zr g_mZ dmQy>Z KoVbr nm{hOo.
CXm. darb CXmhaUmV lr. amOoe `m§Zm A_aZo 15000 é. {Xbo AgVrb Va A_a AH$~a Am{U A°ÝWmoZr
`m§À`mH$Sy>Z àË`oH$s 5000 én`o dgyb H$a eHo$b. _mÌ `mVrb A°ÝWmoZr hm {XdmiImoa R>abm Va Ë`mÀ`m
{híemMo 5000 é. A_a Am{U AH$~a `m§Zr g_mZ dmQy>Z KoVbo nm{hOoV. åhUyZ A_a \$ŠV 7500 é.
AH$~aH$Sy>Z _mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
(S>) g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mn¡H$s EH$mg _m\$s {_imë`mMm n[aUm_ - Ooìhm H$amam_Ü`o g§`wŠV
àñVmdH$ AgVmV V|ìhm àñVmdË`mZo g§`wŠV àñVmdH$mn¡H$s EImÚm n«ñVmdH$mg dMZnyVuÀ`m O~m~XmarVyZ
_wŠV Ho$bo Var BVa g§`wŠV àñVmdH$ dMZnyVuVyZ _wŠV hmoV ZmhrV. VgoM _wŠVVm {_imbobm g§`wŠV àñVmdH$
BVam§À`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoV Zmhr.
CXm. darb CXm._Ü`o lr. amOoe `m§Zr A°ÝWmoZr `mg H$Om©À`m O~m~XmarVyZ _m\$s {Xbr Va A_a Am{U
AH$~a ho g§`wŠV H$Om©À`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoV ZmhrV VgoM _m\$s {_imbobm A°ÝWmoZr hm g§`wŠV àñVmdH$
A_a Am{U AH$~a `m§À`m g§`wŠV O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoV Zmhr.
5. H$amanyV©VoMr _wXV Am{U {R>H$mU
(Time and Place of Performance)
(H$b_ 46 Vo 50):
Ooìhm H$ama H$aVmZm H$ama ì`ŠVrZr H$ama nyV©VoMr doi Am{U {R>H$mU {ZpíMV Ho$bo Agob Va Ë`mMdoir
Am{U R>aboë`m {R>H$mUr H$amamMr nyV©Vm Pmbr nm{hOo. na§Vw H$ama nyV©VoMr doi Am{U {R>H$mU ho H$amamZo R>adyZ
{Xbobo ZgVo V|ìhm Imbrb {Z`_mZwgma H$ama nyV©Vm Ho$br nm{hOo.
H$amanyV©VoMr doi Am{U {R>H$mU `m~m~VMo {Z`_
doi Am{U OmJm
Z_yX Ho$br Agob
doi d OmJm
Z_yX Ho$br Zgob
{dMmaUm H$ê$Z
Z_yX Ho$bëo `m
doiVo nyVV© m
Z Pmë`mg
{db~mZo nyVV© go
XmoÝhr nj H$ama
nyVV© Mo r doi
_hÎdmMr ~m~
(A) H$ama nyVuMr doi d OmJm Z_yX Ho$br Agob$ - Oa H$amamV dMZnyVuMr doi Am{U {R>H$mU
ñnï>nUo Z_yX Ho$bo Agob Va Ë`mMdoir Am{U ñWir H$amamMr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mV Ambr nm{hOo.
(~) H$amanyVuMr doi Am{U {R>H$mU Z_yX Ho$bo Zgob - Oa H$amamV dMZnyVuMr doi Am{U
{R>H$mU Z_yX Ho$bo Zgob Va `mo½`doir Am{U `mo½` {R>H$mUr H$amamMr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mV Ambr nm{hOo. `mo½`doi
åhUOo H$m_H$mOmMr doi Am{U `mo½` {R>H$mU åhUOo H$m_H$mOmMo ñWi qH$dm XwH$mZ qH$dm H$m`m©b` hmo`.
(H$) àñVmdË`mg {dMmaUm H$ê$Z H$ama nyV©Vm - àñVmdH$mZo àñVmdË`mg H$amanyVuMo {R>H$mU
Am{U doi `m~m~V ñnï>nUo {dMmaUm H$ê$ZM H$amanyV©Vm Ho$br nm{hOo.
(S>) H$amamV Z_yX Ho$boë`m doioV nyV©Vm Z Pmë`mg - Oa H$amamV Z_yX Ho$boë`m doioV H$amamMr
nyV©Vm Z Pmë`mg Agm H$ama àñVmdË`mÀ`m BÀN>oZwgma dÁ`©Zr` H$ama hmoVmo. Vmo àñVmdH$mda H$ama^§Jm~Ôb
H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. {db§~m~Ôb ZwH$gmZ^anmB© _mJy eH$Vmo.
(B) {db§~mZo H$amanyV©Vog àñVmdË`mMr _mÝ`Vm {_imë`mg - Oa H$amamV {ZYm©[aV Ho$boë`m
doioV qH$dm `mo½` doioV H$amanyV©Vm Pmbr Zmhr Am{U Varhr àñVmdVm {db§~mZo àñVmdH$mg H$amanyVuVoMr
_mÝ`Vm XoV Agob Va àñVmdVm H$amanyV©Vog hmoUmè`m {db§~m~Ôb ZwH$gmaZ^anmB© _mJy eH$V Zmhr.
(\$) XmoÝhr nj H$amanyVuVoMr doi _hÎdmMr ~m~ _mZV AgVrb - Oa H$amamVrb XmoÝhr nj
ho H$amanyV©VoMr doi hr A{V_hÎdmMr ~m~ g_OVmV qH$dm ì`dhmamMo ñdê$n Ago Agob H$s H$amanyV©Vm hr
doiodaM Pmbr nm{hOo Va Aem n[apñWVrV doioda H$ama nyV©Vm Pmbr nm{hOo AÝ`Wm H$ama aÔ hmoVmo.
H$amam§Mr g_már
H$ama g_már åhUOo H$m` ? : H$amamÀ`m _yb^yV VÎdm_Yrb H$ama {Z{_©Vr, H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm `m XmoZ
AdñWmZ§Va H$ama g_már hr eodQ>Mr {Vgar AdñWm Amho. H$amamVyZ H$amamÀ`m njm§Zm H$mhr A{YH$ma
{_iVmV VgoM Ë`m§À`mda H$mhr H$m`Xoera O~m~XmaMmgwÕm {Z_m©U hmoVmV. H$amamer g§~§{YV AgUmè`m
ì`ŠVtZr Amnmnbr O~m~Xmar nma nmS>br åhUOo H$amamMr g_már (eodQ>) hmoVmo. H$mhr doim H$amamV ì`ŠVr
`m H$amam§VyZ {Z_m©U Pmbobr O~m~Xmar nma nmS>rV ZmhrV qH$dm nma nmS>Ê`mg ZH$ma XoVmV Voìhm H$ama g§nwï>mV
(Discharge of Contract)
`oVmo. O|ìhm H$amamZo {Z_m©U Ho$bobr ì`ŠVr_Yrb H$m`Xoera O~m~Xmar g§nwï>mV `oVo Voìhm H$amamMr g_már Pmbr
Ago åhUVmV. Oo§ìhm H$amamMr g_már hmoVo V|ìhm XmoZ H$ama ì`ŠVr_Yrb H$amam_wio {Z_m©U Pmbobo h¸$ Am{U
H$V©ì`o g§nwï>mV `oVmV d H$ama ì`ŠVr `m H$amamÀ`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoVmV. H$amamMr g_már hr H$ama
nyV©VoVyZ qH$dm H$ama^§Jm_wio hmody eH$Vo. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmV Imbrbn¡H$s H$moUË`mhr EH$m nÕVrZo
(_mJm©Zo) H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
H$ama g_márÀ`m nÕVr
H$amanyVV© m
H$amanyVV© m
H$amanyVV© Mo m
h¸$mM§ o
H$ama ì`ŠVrMm
~Xb H$aUo
H$ama aÔ
H$amanyVV© Vo
gdbV XoUo
h¸$ Ë`mJ
`wÕ Kmo{fV
{d{eï> KQ>Zm
{df` Zï> hmoUo
H$ama ì`ŠVrMm
nyVV© m AeŠ`
H$amamMm ^§J
àñVmdH$ d
àñVmdVm EH$M ì`ŠVr
VS>OmoS> d
H$ama g_márÀ`m {d{dY nÕVr :
1. H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm Pmë`mZo (H$b_ 37) (By Performance) : H$amamMo XmoÝhr nj O|ìhm
H$amamàVr Agbobr Amnbr O~m~Xmar nyU©nUo nma nmS>VmV V|ìhm H$amamMr g_már hmoVo. H$amamMr nyV©Vm
H$aÊ`mMo XmoZ àH$ma AmhoV.
(A) àË`j H$amanyV©Vm - Oo§ìhm H$amamVrb AQ>rà_mUo H$ama ì`ŠVr `m Amnë`m H$m`Xoera O~m~Xmè`m
nyU© H$aVmV V|ìhm Ë`mg àË`j H$amanyV©Vm Pmbr Ago åhUVmV. ~hþVm§er H$ama ho `m nÕVrZo g_má Ho$bo
OmVmV. A§eV: H$amamMr nyV©Vm hr H$ama g_már hmody eH$V Zmhr.
(~) H$ama nyV©VoMm à`ËZ - H$ama nyV©VoÀ`m à`ËZmg H$ama H$m`Úm_Ü`o àË`j H$ama nyV©Vm _mZVmV.
O|ìhm àñVmdH$ H$amamVrb Amnbo dMZ nyU© H$aÊ`mMr àñVmdË`mg BÀN>m Am{U V`mar Xe©{dVmo _mÌ àñVmdVm
Ë`mMm pñdH$ma H$arV Zmhr V|ìhm Ë`mg H$amanyV©VoMm à`ËZ Ago åhUVmV. H$amanyV©VoÀ`m à`ËZm_wio àñVmdH$
hm H$amamVrb dMZnyVuÀ`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoVmo d Ë`mg nwÝhm H$amamVrb dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$amdr bmJV
2. nañna g§_VrZo H$ama g_már (Discharge of Contract by Mutual Agreement) :
Á`mà_mUo H$ama hm ì`ŠVr_Yrb nañna R>amdmZo ApñVËdmV `oVmo Ë`mà_mUo H$ama ì`ŠVr `m nañna g§_VrZo
EopÀN>H$ H$ama H$ê$Z H$amamMr g_már H$ê$ eH$VmV. nañnam_Ü`o R>amd H$ê$Z Imbrbn¡H$s EImÚm _mJm©Zo
H$ama g_má H$aVm `ody eH$Vmo.
(A>) H$amamMo ZwVZrH$aU (Novation) : H$amamVrb ì`ŠVr `m O|ìhm ApñVËdmV Agboë`m H$amamÀ`m
OmJr ZdrZ H$ama H$aVmV V|ìhm Ë`mg H$amamMo ZwVZrH$aU Ago åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o OwÝ`m H$amamMr OmJm ZdrZ
H$amamH$Sy>Z KoVbr OmVo d OwZm _yi H$ama g_má hmoVmo. _yi H$ama g_má hmoÊ`mgmR>r ZdrZ H$amamMr nyV©Vm
hmoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. ZdrZ H$amamV H$amamÀ`m _yi ì`ŠVr `m Ë`mM amhVmV qH$d ì`ŠVr_Ü`o ~Xb hr hmody
(~) H$amamVrb ~Xb (Alteration) : O|ìhm H$amamVrb XmoÝhr ì`ŠVr `m nañnam§À`m g§_VrZo H$amamVrb
AQ>rV ~Xb H$aVmV V|ìhm Ë`mg H$amamVrb ~Xbm_wio H$ama g_már åhUVmV. Aem ~Xbm_wio _yi H$ama g_má
hmoVmo Am{U ZdrZ H$ama ApñVËdmV `oVmo.
(H$) H$ama aÔ H$aUo (Rescission) : H$amamVrb ì`ŠVr `m AmnmngmV R>adyZ H$ama aÔ H$ê$ eH$VmV.
H$ama aÔ Pmë`mZ§Va H$amamer g§~§{YV njm§Mr O~m~Xmar g§nwï>mV `oVo d H$ama g_má hmoVmo.
(S>) H$ama nyV©VoMr gdbV XoUo ( Remission) : H$ama ì`ŠVtZm H$amamZwgma {ZpíMV A{YH$ma
AgVmV O|ìhm àñVmdVm hm àñVmdH$mH$Sy>Z H$amamV R>aboë`m à{V\$bmnojm H$_r à{V\$b pñdH$maVmo qH$dm
H$amamMm H$mhr^mJ ñdoÀN>oZo gmoSy>Z XoVmo V|ìhm Ë`mg H$ama nyV©Vog gdbV XoUo Ago åhUVmV.
(B) h¸$ Ë`mJ H$aUo ( Waiver) : O|ìhm H$amamVrb EImXr ì`ŠVr Ë`mg H$amamZwgma Agbobm
A{YH$ma OmUyZ~wOyZ gmoSy>Z XoVo Ë`mg h¸$ Ë`mJ H$aUo åhUVmV. EH$m njmZo ñdoÀN>oZo Amnbm A{YH$ma Ë`mJ
Ho$bm åhUOo Xygar ì`ŠVr Amnë`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoVo.
(\$) VS>OmoS> Am{U g_mYmZ (Accord and Satisfaction) : O|ìhm àñVmdH$mg H$amamVrb AQ>rà_mUo
Amnbo dMZ nyU© H$aUo AeŠ` hmoVo V|ìhm Vmo àñVmdË`mnwT>o VS>OmoS>rMm àñVmd R>odVmo. `m àñVmdm_Ü`o
àñVmdH$ H$amamV {Xboë`m dMZmÀ`m _mo~Xë`mV H$_r à{V\$b pñdH$maÊ`mMr àñVmdË`mg {dZ§Vr H$aVmo.
O|ìhm hr {dZ§Vr àñVmdVm pñdH$maVmo V|ìhm XmoÝhr njmV VS>OmoS> Pmbr Ago åhUVmV. `m VS>OmoS>rà_mUo
àñVmdH$ O|ìhm Amnë`m dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$aVmo V|ìhm XmoÝhr njm§Mo g_mYmZ hmodyZ Am{U H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
3. H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXr_wio (By Operation of Law) : àMbrV H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXr_wio Imbrb
KQ>Zm KS>ë`mg AmnmoAmn H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
(A) àñVmdH$mMr {XdmiImoar (Insolvancy of Promisor) : H$amamer g§~§{YV EImÚm ì`ŠVrg
(àñVmdH$mg) Ý`m`mb`mZo {XdmiImoa åhUyZ Kmo{fV Ho$bo Agob Va Vmo {XdmiImoar Kmo{fV hmoÊ`mÀ`m
VmaIon`ªVÀ`m H$amamÀ`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠV hmoVmo åhUOoM Ë`mZo Ho$bobo gd© H$ama aÔ hmoVmV.
(~) h¸$m§Mo {dbZrH$aU (Merger) : O|ìhm EImÚm bhmZ H$amamMo _moR>çm H$amamV énm§Va hmoVo V|ìhm
N>moQ>m H$ama aÔ hmoVmo Am{U ZdrZ H$ama ApñVËdmV `oVmo. CXm. A ~ À`m KamV ^mS>çmZo ahmV hmoVm. A Zo
~ er Ë`mMo Ka {dH$V KoÊ`mMm H$ama Ho$bm. `m_wio Ka ^mS>çmZo KoÊ`mMm H$ama aÔ hmoVmo d Ka IaoXrMm ZdrZ
H$ama ApñVËdmV `oVmo.
(H$) H$ama ì`ŠVrMm _¥Ë`y (Death of Promisor) : O|ìhm EImÚm H$amamÀ`m nyV©Vo_Ü`o ì`ŠVrMo
JwU-H$m¡eë` gm_mdbobo AgVo V|ìhm Aem H$amamMr nyV©Vm ñdV: àñVmdH$mZo Ho$br nm{hOo. Oa H$amanyVu nydu
àñVmdH$mMm _¥Ë`y Pmbm Va H$ama aÔ hmoVmo.
(S>) àñVmdH$ Am{U àñVmdVm EH$M ì`ŠVr AgUo (Identity of Promisor and Promisee) :
O|ìhm àñVmdH$ hm àñVmdVm ~ZVmo V|ìhm Aem H$amamVrb BVa ì`ŠVr§Mr H$amamÀ`m O~m~XmarVyZ _wŠVVm hmoVo
d H$ama g_má hmoVmo. CXm. A Zo ~ da ì`mnmar hþ§S>r H$mT>br Ë`mg ~ Zo pñdH¥$Vr {Xbr. Ë`mZ§Va A Zo Vr hþ§S>r
H$ bm hñVm§Va Ho$br. H$ Zo Z§Va Vr ~ bm hñVm§Va Ho$br Va `oWo ~ hm àñVmdH$ Am{U àñVmdVm ~ZVmo åhUyZ
`m H$amamVrb BVa ì`ŠVtMr H$amamVyZ _wŠVVm hmoVo.
4. H$amamVrb _hÎdmÀ`m ~Xbm_wio (By Material Alteration) : {b{IV H$amamVrb EImXo
_hÎdmMo H$b_ EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ` g§_Vr{edm` ~Xbbo Va gd© H$ama g_má hmoB©b. H$ama hmoV
AgVmo V|ìhm H$amamVrb _hÎdmMo H$b_, Ogo aH$_oMm AmH$S>m, dñVy§À`m XOm©Mm AmH$S>m, dñVy XoÊ`mMr VmarI
BË`mXr EH$m ì`ŠVrZo ~Xbbo Va Agm ~Xb _hÎdmMm ~Xb g_Obm OmVmo d Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m Ñï>rZo Vmo
H$ama ì`W© hmoVmo. CXm. YZmXoemÀ`m YmaH$mZo _yi aH$_oV \o$a~Xb nañna Ho$bm qH$dm ~ZmdQ> ghr Ho$ë`mg
Ë`m YZmXoemMr a¸$_ dgyb H$aVm `oUma Zmhr. `mMmM AW© Agm {b{IV H$ama aÔ hmoB©b.
5. H$mb_`m©Xm g§në`mZo (By Lapse of Time) : ^maVr` H$mb_`m©Xog§~§YrMm H$m`Xm 1963
à_mUo H$ama EH$m {ZpíMV H$mbmdYrV nyV©Vm H$amdm bmJVmo. `m H$m`ÚmZwgma H$ama ApñVËdmV Amë`mZ§Va
Ë`m H$amamMr A§_b~OmdUr VrZ dfm©À`m AmV Pmbr nm{hOo. Oa A§_b~OmdUr VrZ dfm©V Pmbr Zmhr qH$dm
àñVmdË`mZo H$amanyV©Vm Pmbr Zmhr åhUyZ H$moUVrhr H$m`©dmhr Ho$br Zmhr Va Vmo H$ama H$mb~mø hmoVmo. `mZ§Va
Ë`mH$amamMr A§_b~OmdUr AeŠ` ~ZVo. CXm. A Zo ~ `mg EH$ dfm©gmR>r 20000 é. Mm _mb CYmarda
{dH$bm. EH$ dfm©Mr _wXV g§në`mZ§Va ~ Zo CYmarMr a¸$_ {Xbr Zmhr. `mZ§VaÀ`m VrZ dfm©V A Zo ~ H$S>o
n¡emMr _mJUr Ho$br Zmhr. H$mb_`m©Xm H$m`ÚmZwgma a¸$_ dgyb H$aÊ`mMr _wXV VrZ df} g§në`mZo A Am{U
~ `m§À`mVrb H$ama aÔ hmoB©b.
6. H$amamMr nyV©Vm AeŠ` Pmë`mZo (By Impossibility of Performance) : H$ama H$arV
AgVmZm H$amamÀ`m nyV©VogmR>r Amdí`H$ Agbobo gd© KQ>H$ AZwHy$b AgVmV. na§Vw H$ama ApñVËdmV
Amë`mZ§Va H$mhr AZno{jV Am{U AmH$pñ_H$ KQ>Zm KSy>Z Amë`m_wio H$amamMr nyV©Vm H$aUo AeŠ` ~ZVo V|ìhm
Agm H$am ì`W© ~ZVmo d AmnmoAmn aÔ hmoVmo. H$amanyV©VoÀ`m AeŠ`Vobm níMmV AeŠ`Vm qH$dm Z¡amí`oÛmao
H$amamMr g_már Ago åhUVmV. H$ama Pmë`mZ§Va nwT>rb H$maUm_wio H$amamMr nyV©Vm AeŠ` hmoVo.
(A) H$amamMm {df` Zï> hmoUo (Destruction of subject matter) : H$amamMr {df`dñVy H$moUË`mhr
njmMm Xmof ZgVmZm Zï> hmoV Agob Va H$ama AmnmoAmn g§nwï>mV `oVmo. CXm. A Zo Amnbr {hamo hm|S>m
_moQ>magm`H$b ~ bm 30000 én`m§g {dH$Ê`mMm H$ama Ho$bm. _moQ>magm`H$b Mmoarg Joë`m_wio A Am{U ~
`m§À`mVrb H$ama aÔ hmoB©b.
(~) H$ama ì`ŠVrMm _¥Ë`y AWdm Ag_W©Vm (Death or Personal Incapacity) : EImÚm H$amamMr
nyV©Vm hr ì`ŠVrÀ`m H$bm JwUmda Am{U H$m¡eë`mda AmYmabobr AgVo Aem ì`ŠVrMm H$amanyV©Vonydu _¥Ë`y
Pmbm qH$dm Vr ì`ŠVr emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$ÑîQ>çm H$amanyV©Vog Ag_W© R>abr Va H$ama aÔ hmoVmo. CXm. amYm
Am{U H¥$îU `m§Zr {ddmhmMm H$ama Ho$bm. na§Vw {ddmhmÀ`m {VWrAmYrM amYm doS>r Pmbr hm H$ama ì`W© hmoVmo.
(H$) H$m`ÚmVrb ~Xb (Change in Law) : H$ama Pmë`mZ§Va àMbrV H$m`ÚmV ~Xb Pmë`mg nydu
H$m`Xoera Agbobm H$ama ~oH$m`Xoera hmoVmo. Agm H$ama AmnmoAmn aÔ hmoVmo. CXm. A Zo ~ bm Amnbr
eoVO_rZ {dH$Ê`mMm H$ama Ho$bm. H$ama Pmë`mZ§Va gaH$maZo A Mr O_rZ gmd©O{ZH$ H$m_mgmR>r Amnë`m
Vmã`mV KoVbr. Ë`m_wio A Am{U ~ `m§À`mVrb H$ama H$m`ÚmVrb ~Xbm_wio aÔ hmoVmo.
(S>) `wÕ Kmo{fV hmoUo (Outbreak of War) : `wÕOÝ` n[apñWVrV eÌyamï´>mVrb ZmJ[aH$m§er Ho$bobo
H$ama ì`W© hmoVmV Am{U `wÕmMr KmofUm hmoÊ`mnydu Pmbobo H$ama ñW{JV hmoVmV.
(B) {d{eï> KQ>Zm Z KS>ë`mg (Non-existance of Particular state of thing) : H$ama ApñVËdmV
Amë`mZ§Va EImÚm H$amamMr nyV©Vm {d{eï> KQ>ZoÀ`m KS>Ê`mda Adb§~yZ AgVo. Vr KQ>Zm KS>Uo AeŠ`
Pmë`mg H$ama ì`W© ~ZVmo Am{U H$amamMr g_már hmoVo. CXm. A Am{U ~ `m§Zr {ddmh H$aÊ`mMm R>amd Ho$bm.
{ddmhmÀ`m VmaIonydu A qH$dm ~ `mn¡H$s EH$ doS>m Pmbm `m_wio H$ama ì`W© hmoB©b.
7. H$ama^§Jm_wio (By Breach of Contract) : O|ìhm EImXr ì`ŠVr / nj H$amamZwgma {Z_m©U Pmbobr
Amnbr O~m~Xmar nyU© H$arV Zmhr qH$dm nyU© H$aÊ`mg ZH$ma XoVmo V|ìhm Ë`mg H$ama^§J åhUVmV. H$ama^§Jm_wio H$ama
g_má hmoVmo. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 39 à_mUo H$ama^§JmMo nwT>rbà_mUo XmoZ àH$ma AmhoV.
(A) àË`j H$ama ^§J (Actual Breach of Contract) : O|ìhm H$ama nyV©VoÀ`m doiog H$amamÀ`m XmoZ
ì`ŠVr n¡H$s H$moUr EH$mZo Amnbo dMZ nyU© Ho$bo Zmhr qH$dm dMZnyV©Vm H$aÊ`mg ZH$ma {Xbm V|ìhm Ë`mg
àË`j qH$dm dmñV{dH$ H$ama^§J åhUVmV. CXm. A Zo Amnbr gmoÝ`mMr MoZ 20000 én`mg ~ bm {dH$Ê`mMm
H$ama Ho$bm. R>aë`mà_mUo A Zo ~ bm gmoÝ`mMr MoZ XoÊ`mMo ZmH$mabo `m_wio A Am{U ~ `mVrb H$ama aÔ hmoVmo.
(~) _wXVnyd© H$ama^§J (Anticipatory Brcach of Contract) : O|ìhm àñVmdH$ H$ama nyV©VoMr doi
`oÊ`mnyduM Amnbo dMZ nyU© H$aÊ`mMo boIr AWdm Vm|S>r ZmH$maVmo qH$dm Amnë`m dV©ZmZo H$amamMr nyV©Vm hmoUo
AeŠ` H$aVmo V|ìhm Ë`mg _wXVnyd© qH$dm Ano{jV H$ama^§J Ago åhUVmV. _wXVnyd© H$ama^§Jm_Ü`o àñVmdH$m§Mm
H$amamVrb dMZ nyU© Z H$aÊ`mMm CÔoe ñnï> AgVmo. Á`mdoir _wXVnyd© H$ama^§J hmoVmo V|ìhm àñVmdË`mbm
Amnë`m dMZnyVunmgyZ _m\$s {_iVo d XmohmoVrb H$ama g_má hmoVmo.
CXm. lr. nmQ>rb `m§Zr EH$m ^mOrnmbm {dH«o$Ë`mg 10 OyZ amoOr ^mOrnmbm nwa{dÊ`mMm H$ama Ho$bm. na§Vw
Ë`mnyduM 1 OyZ amoOr lr. nmQ>rb `m§Zr AmnU ^mOrnmbm nwady eH$V Zmhr Ago g§~§{YV {dHo«$Ë`mg boIr
H$i{dbo. `oWo lr. nmQ>rb `m§Zr ñnï>nUo H$amanyV©VoMr VmarI `oÊ`mnyduM Amnbo dMZ nyU© H$aÊ`mg ZH$ma
{Xbm Amho. hm _wXVnyd© H$ama ^§J hmoVmo. Aem _wXVnyd© H$ama^§Jm_wio àñVmdË`mg àñVmdH$m{déÕ nwT>rb XmoZ
A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmV.
1. _wXVnyd© H$ama^§JmV àñVmdVm Amnë`m dMZ nyVuVyZ _wŠV hmoVmo. Ë`mbm àñVmdH$m{déÕ VmËH$mi
H$ama^§Jm~Ôb H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$aVm `oVo Ë`mgmR>r Ë`mbm H$amanyV©VoMr VmarI `oB©n`ªV Wm§~Ê`mMr JaO
2. àñVmdVm VmËH$mi H$ama aÔ Z H$aVm H$amamÀ`m nyV©VoÀ`m VmaIon`ªV Wm§~yZ Z§Va H$ama^§Jm~Ôb
àñVmdH$m{déÕ H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
H$ama^§Jm~Ôb Cnm``moOZm
(Remedies for Breach of Contract)
AW© : XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o H$ama Pmbm åhUOo Ë`m§À`m_Ü`o H$ama nyU© H$aÊ`mMr H$m`Xoera O~m~Xmar {Z_m©U
hmoVo. àË`oH$ H$ama ì`ŠVr `m Amnbo H$amamVrb dMZ nyU© H$aÊ`mg H$m`ÚmZo O~m~Xma AgVmV. O|ìhm
H$amaì`ŠVr H$amam§VJ©V Agbobr Ë`§mMr O~m~Xmar nma nmS>Ê`mg ZH$ma XoVmV qH$dm nma nmS>rV ZmhrV V|ìhm
Ë`mg H$ama^§J Ago åhQ>bo OmVo. H$ama^§Jm_wio Á`m ì`ŠVrMo ZwH$gmZ hmoVo Ë`mg j{VJ«ñV ({ZXm}fr) ì`ŠVr
Ago åhUVmV. Á`m ì`ŠVrZo H$ama^§J Ho$bobm AgVmo Ë`mg Xmofr ì`ŠVr Ago åhUVmV. H$ama^§Jm~Ôb
j{VJ«ñV ì`ŠVrbm Xmofr ì`ŠVr{déÕ H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr / H¥$Vr H$aÊ`mMm Omo A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmo Ë`mg
H$ama^§Jm~Ôb Cnm``moOZm Ago åhUVmV. H$ama^§Jm_wio {ZXmo©fr (j{VJ«ñV) ì`ŠVrg Xmofr ì`ŠVr{déÕ nwT>rb
Cnm` (A{YH$ma) CnbãY AmhoV.
H$ama^§Jm~ÔbÀ`m Cnm``moOZm
H$ama aÔ H$aUo
ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©
ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©
gmR>r Xmdm bmdUo
{deof ZwH$gmZ
H$moQ>mV© Xmdm bmdyZ
H$ama nyVV© Mo r _mJUr
ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©
ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©
OodT>o {_i{dbo
VodT>Mo `m VÎdmÀ`m
AmYmao Xmdm bmdUo
ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©
_ZmB© AmXoe
H$moQ>mH© $Sy>Z _ZmB©
ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©
_ZmB© AmXoe
1. H$ama aÔ H$aUo (Rescission of Contract) : O|ìhm H$amamVrb EH$ ì`ŠVr H$ama^§J H$aVo V|ìhm
Xwgar ì`ŠVr H$ama aÔ H$ê$ eH$Vo. `m {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrbm Amnbo dMZ nyU© H$aÊ`mMr Amdí`H$Vm ZgVo, Aer
{ZXm}fr ì`ŠVr H$ama^§Jm~Ôb Xmofr ì`ŠVrH$Sy>Z ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$aÊ`mÀ`m CÔoemZo H$m`Xoera
H$m`©dmhr H$ê$ eH$Vo. Ý`m`mb`mZo H$ama aÔ Pmë`mMm {ZU©` {Xë`mZ§Va Ý`m`mb`mÀ`m AmXoemZwgma {ZXmo©fr
ì`ŠVrg ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© {_iy eH$Vo.
2. ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©gmR>r Xmdm bmdUo (Suit for Damages) : EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Amnë`m dMZmMm ^§J
Ho$ë`mZ§Va Aem H$ama^§JmMm ghm{OH$ Am{U àË`j n[aUm_ åhUyZ Oo ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b Vo Xmofr ì`ŠVrZo ^ê$Z
Úmdo bmJob. j{VJ«ñV ì`ŠVr ZwH$gmZ àmá H$ê$ eH$Vo. AWm©VM `mgmR>r Ë`mbm ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©Mm Xmdm
XmIb H$amdm bmJVmo. àË`j OodT>o ZwH$gmZ Pmbo Agob VodT>rM ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© n¡emÀ`m ñdê$nmV {_iy
eH$Vo. Aem ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© XoÊ`mMo nwT>rbà_mUo n«H$ma nS>VmV.
(A) gd©gmYmaU ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© (Ordinary Damages) : H$ama^§J Pmë`mg gmYmaU n[apñWVrV
H$moUVo Am{U {H$Vr àË`j ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b `mMr H$ënZm H$amamÀ`m XmoÝhr ì`ŠVtZm AgVo. Aem ZwH$gmZrÀ`m
^anmB©bm gmYmaU ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o àË`j Pmbobo ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© H$aÊ`mMm CÔoe AgVmo.
CXm. A Zo ~ bm EH$m {d{eï> {Xder EH$m {ZpíMV qH$_Vrg 100 nmoVr gmIa {dH$V XoÊ`mMm H$ama Ho$bm.
A Zo Amnbo dMZ nmibo Zmhr Ë`m_wio ~ bm hr gmIa H$amamVrb qH$_Vrnojm Á`mXm qH$_V XodyZ {dH$V ¿`mdr
bmJbr. ~ bm OodT>r qH$_V dMZ^§Jm_wio Á`mXm _moOmdr bmJbr VodT>rM a¸$_ A H$Sy>Z dgyb H$ê$ eHo$b.
(~) {deof ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© (Special Damages) : H$ama^§Jm_wio ì`ŠVrMo H$moUË`m àH$maMo
AàË`j ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b `mMo kmZ H$amamÀ`m Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg Agob Am{U Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrZo H$ama^§J Ho$bm Va
Aem {deof ZwH$gmZr~Ôb àmá hmoUmè`m ^anmB©g {deof ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© Ago åhUVmV. CXm. A Zo ~ bm EH$
q¹$Q>b ñQ>rb 30000 é. qH$_Vrg {dH$Ê`mMm R>amd Ho$bm. ~ bm doioda pñQ>bMm nwadR>m ìhmdm åhUyZ A
Zo H$ bm Vgo ñnï> gm§JyZ H$ ~amo~a 1 {Šd§Q>b pñQ>b 25000 é. IaoXr H$aÊ`mMm R>amd Ho$bm. H$ Zo pñQ>bMm
nwadR>m Z Ho$ë`mZo A ~ bm doioda pñQ>b nwadR>m H$ê$ eH$bm Zmhr. ~ Zo H$ama aÔ Ho$bm. ~ Zo H$ama aÔ
Ho$ë`m_wio A Mo 5000 (3000-25000) ZwH$gmZ Pmbo. A H$ H$Sy>Z ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
(H$) {ejmË_H$ / X§S>mË_H$ ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© (Exemplary or Vindictive Damages) : H$ama^§J
H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg {ejm XoÊ`mMr VaVyX H$ama H$m`ÚmV Zmhr. na§Vw H$ama^§Jm_wio ì`ŠVrÀ`m à{Vð>obm AWdm
Zmdbm¡{H$H$mg ~mYm nmohMUma Agob Va g§~§{YV Xmofr ì`ŠVrg {ejm ìhmdr `m CÔoemZo Aer ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©
_mJUr Ho$br OmVo. {ddmhmÀ`m H$amamMm ^§J Pmë`mg VgoM J«mhH$mÀ`m ImË`mV nwaogo n¡go {e„H$ AgVmZm
~±Ho$Zo J«mhH$mbm YZmXoe AZmXa Ho$bm Va Ý`m`mb` Xmofr ì`ŠVtZm X§S>mË_H$ ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© XoÊ`mMm AmXoe
Xody eH$Vo.
(S>) Zm__mÌ ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© (Nominal Damages) : O|ìhm H$ama^§Jm_wio {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrMo Pmbobo
ZwH$gmZ AË`ën AgVo V|ìhm Ý`m`mb` Xmofr ì`ŠVrg Ë`mZo Ho$boë`m H$ama ^§Jm~Ôb O~m~Xma YaÊ`mgmR>r
Zm__mÌ ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© XoÊ`mMm AmXoe XoVo. Aem àH$maMr ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© XoÊ`mMm AmXoe hm {ZXm}fr
ì`ŠVrg Ý`m` XoUo hm AgVmo.
(B) J¡agmo`r~m~V ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© (Damages for Inconvenience) : H$ama^§Jm_wio EImÚm
ì`ŠVrMr J¡agmo` hmoV Agob qH$dm Ë`mbm Ìmg ghZ H$amdm bmJV Agob Va Ë`m~Ôb Xmofr ì`ŠVrH$Sy>Z
Pmboë`m J¡agmo`r~m~V {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVr ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
(\$) A§XmOo {ZpíMV Ho$bobr ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© (Liquidated damages) : O|ìhm H$amamÀ`m XmoÝhr
ì`ŠVr `m H$amamÀ`mdoirM H$ama^§J Pmbm Va Xmofr ì`ŠVrZo {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrg {H$Vr ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© Úmdr ho
{ZpíMV H$aVmV V|ìhm Ë`mg A§XmOo {ZpíMV Ho$bobr ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© Ago åhUVmV. H$amamZwgma OodT>r ZwH$gmZ
^anmB©Mr a¸$_ {ZpíMV Ho$br OmVo VodT>rM a¸$_ {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrg Xmofr ì`ŠVrH$Sy>Z _mJUr H$aVm `oVo.
3. H$moQ>m©V Xmdm bmdyZ {d{eï> H$amanyV©VoMr _mJUr H$aUo (Specific Performance) :
H$amamZwgma _mÝ` Ho$boë`m dMZm§MrM nyV©Vm åhUOo {d{eï> H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm hmo`. AgmYmaU n[apñWVrV
H$ama^§J Pmë`mg Xmofr ì`ŠVrZo H$amamVrb AQ>rà_mUo dMZmMr nyV©Vm H$amdr Ago AmXoe H$moQ>m©H$Sy>Z ìhmdoV
Agm Xmdm bmdyZ H$amanyV©VoMr _mJUr {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrbm H$aVm `oVo. {d{eï> dMZnyVu H$ê$Z _mJÊ`mMm
A{YH$ma gd© H$amam§À`m ~m~VrV bmJy hmoV Zmhr. Va Oo H$ama Xw{_©i d Eo{Vhm{gH$ dñVy§À`m g§X^m©V AgVmV
Am{U H$ama^§Jm_wio {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrMo Pmbobo ZwH$gmZ n¡emV ì`ŠV H$aVm `oV Zmhr qH$dm n¡emÀ`m ñdê$nmV
ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© XoUo eŠ` ZgVo AemMdoir H$amamMr nyV©Vm àñVmdH$mZo Ho$brM nm{hOo Agm AmXoe (Decrce)
Ý`m`mb` Xody eH$Vo.
CXm. Ë`mZ§Va A Zo ~ bm EH$ Xw{_©i V¡b{MÌ 50000 én`mg {dH«$s H$aÊ`mMm H$ama Ho$bm. Ë`mZ§Va
A Zo Vo Xw{_©i V¡b{MÌ ~ bm {dH$Ê`mMo ZmH$mabo åhUyZ ~ A {déÕ H$moQ>m©V Xmdm bmdyZ {d{eï> H$amamMr
nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mMr _mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. Imbrb n[apñWVrV H$moQ>m©V Xmdm bmdyZ {d{eï> H$amamMr nyV©Vm _mJUr
H$aVm `oV Zmhr.
H$ama^§JmnmgyZ Pmbobo ZwH$gmZ n¡emÀ`m ñdê$nmV ì`ŠV H$aVm `oVo.
H$ama ho ì`ŠVrJV ñdê$nmMo ZgVmV.
H§$nZrZo KQ>ZmnÌH$mÀ`m A{YH$maH$jo~mhoaMo H$ama H$aVo.
H$moQ>m©g H$amanyV©Voda ZOa R>odUo AeŠ` AgVo.
H$amamVrb EImXr ì`ŠVr AkmZr AgVo.
4. OodT>o {_i{dbo VodT>oM _mJUr H$aÊ`mgmR>r Xmdm bmdUo (Suit for Quantum-merit) :
O|ìhm EImÚm H$amam_Ü`o H$m_ nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va _mo~Xbm XoÊ`mMm H$ama AgVmo Am{U Agm H$ama Xwgè`m
ì`ŠVrH$Sy>Z H$m_ nyU© hmoÊ`mAJmoXa ^§J Ho$bm OmVmo qH$dm AmH$pñ_H$ H$maUm_wio Vo H$m_ nyU© hmody eH$bo Zmhr
Va {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVr hr Xmofr ì`ŠVrH$Sy>Z Ë`mZo nyU© Ho$boë`m H$m_mÀ`m à_mUmV _mo~Xbm _mJy eH$Vo qH$dm AnyU©
am{hboë`m H$m_m~Ôb ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vo. `mbmM OodT>o {_i{dbo VodT>oM _mJUr H$aUo
(Quantum of merit) VÎd Ago åhUVmV.
CXm. A Zo ~ bm Amnë`m H$m`m©b`mV _XVZrg åhUyZ ZmoH$arg R>odbo ~ Zo n§Yam {Xdg H$m_ Ho$ë`mZ§Va
ZmoH$ar gmoS>br Va ~ bm OodT>o {Xdg H$m_ Ho$bo VodT>çmM {Xdgm§Mm åhUOo 15 {XdgmMm nJma _mJUr H$aVm
`oB©b. Imbrb n[apñWVrV H$m_ H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg OodT>o {_i{dbo Agob VodT>oM `m VÎdmZwgma _mo~Xbm
_mJUr H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ AgVmo.
1. O|ìhm H$ama ì`W© hmoVmo Voìhm EH$m ì`ŠVrZo H$amamà_mUo Ho$boë`m H$m_mMm \$m`Xm Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg
{_iVmo V|ìhm Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrZo H$m_ H$aUmè`m n{hë`m ì`ŠVrg Ë`mÀ`m H$m_mMm `mo½` _mo~Xbm {Xbm nm{hOo.
2. O|ìhm EImXo H¥$Ë` {dZm_mo~Xbm Ho$bo OmV Zmhr Am{U Ë`m H¥$Ë`mMm \$m`Xm Xwgar ì`ŠVr KoVo V|ìhm
Aem ì`ŠVrZo Vo H¥$Ë` H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg Ë`m H¥$Ë`m~m~VMm _mo~Xbm {Xbm nm{hOo.
3. O|ìhm H$ama nyU© hmoÊ`mAJmoXaM aÔ H$aÊ`mV `oVmo.
4. O|ìhm Pmbobo H$m_ AnyU© am{hboë`m H$m_mnmgyZ doJio H$aVm `oVo V|ìhm nyU© Pmboë`m H$m_mMm
_mo~Xbm _mJVm `oVmo.
5. O|ìhm Ag_mYmZH$maH$ nÕVrZo H$ama nyU© Ho$bm OmVmo Vo§ìhm H$ama nyV©Vo~Ôb àñVmdH$mbm nyU©
_mo~Xbm {_iÊ`mMm h¸$ AgVmo. na§Vw Ag_mYmZH$maH$ H$amanyV©Vm Ho$ë`m~Ôb {_iUmè`m _mo~Xë`mVyZ H$mhr
a¸$_ dOmdQ> H$aÊ`mMm àñVmdH$mg h¸$ AgVmo.
5. H$moQ>m©H$Sy>Z _ZmB© AmXoe {_i{dUo (Granting of Injunction) : _ZmB© / à{V~§YmË_H$ AmXoe
åhUOo Agm Ý`m`mb`rZ AmXoe H$s Á`mÛmao EH$m {d{eï> ì`ŠVrg {d{eï> H$m`© H$aÊ`mg à{V~§Y H$aUo hmo`.
O|ìhm H$amamer g§~§{YV AgUmar EH$ ì`ŠVr H$amamMm ^§J H$arV Amho qH$dm H$aÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm Agob Va
Aem ì`ŠVrZo H$ama^§J H$ê$ Z`o `mgmR>r Ý`m`mb`mH$S>o AO© XmIb H$ê$Z _ZmB© / à{V~§YmË_H$ AmXoe
{_i{dVm `oVmo.
CXm. EH$m gwà{gÕ A{^ZoÌrZo df©^a EH$m {d{eï> {Z_m©Ë`mH$S>o H$m_ H$aÊ`mMm H$ama Ho$bm Agob d Vr
A{^ZoÌr Ë`mM doir Xwgè`m {Z_m©Ë`mH$S>o H$m_ H$aÊ`mMo dMZ {Xbo Agob Va n{hë`m {Z_m©Ë`mZo Ë`m A{^ZoÌrZo
Xwgè`m {Z_m©Ë`mH$S>o H$m_ H$ê$ Z`o `mgmR>r H$moQ>m©H$Sy>Z à{V~§YmË_H$ AmXoe {_idy eH$Vmo. Agm _ZmB© AmXoe
{_i{dÊ`mMo XmoZ àH$ma nS>VmV.
(A) VmËnwaVm _ZmB© AmXoe (Temporary Injuction) : Á`m _ZmB© AmXoemV H$amamVrb AQ>rà_mUo
H$m_ nyU© hmoB©n`ªV à{V~§YmË_H$ AmXoe {Xbm OmVmo Ë`mg VmËnwaVm _ZmB© AmXoe åhUVmV.
(~) H$m`_Mm _ZmB© AmXoe (Perpetual Injunction) : Á`m _ZmB© AmXoemV Xmì`mMm A§{V_ {ZH$mb
bmJon`ªV Ý`m`mb`mH$Sy>Z à{V~§YmË_H$ AmXoe {_i{dbm OmVmo Ë`mg H$m`_Mm _ZmB© AmXoe åhUVmV.
1.3 g§H$ënZm Am{U gmam§e :
1.3.1 g§H$ënZm :
1. àñVmd (Proposal) : O|ìhm EH$ ì`ŠVr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrMr g§_Vr {_i{dÊ`mÀ`m hoVyZo EImXo H¥$Ë`
H$aÊ`m~m~V Am{U Z H$aÊ`m~m~V Amnbr BÀN>m Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg_moa ì`ŠV H$aVo V|ìhm n{hë`m ì`ŠVrZo
Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg àñVmd Ho$bm Ago åhUVmV.
2. à{VàñVmd (Counter Proposal) : àñVmdmg pñdH¥$Vr XoVmZm àñVmdmVrb EImÚm AQ>rV ~Xb
Ho$bm Va Vr àñVmdmMr pñdH¥$Vr Z hmoVm CbQ> àñVmdË`mH$Sy>Z àñVmdH$mbm Ho$bobm à{VàñVmd hmoVmo.
3. àñVmdmMr pñdH¥$Vr (Acceptance of Proposal) : Á`m ì`ŠVrg àñVmd H$aÊ`mV Ambm Amho
Ë`m ì`ŠVrZo àñVmdmg Amnbr g§_Vr {Xbr Va àñVmdmMr pñdH¥$Vr Pmbr Ago åhUVmV.
4. dMZ (Promise) : pñdH¥$Vr {Xboë`m àñVmdmg dMZ Ago åhUVmV åhUyZ àñVmd + àñVmdmMr
pñdH¥$Vr = R>amdmMo dMZ.
5. àñVmdH$
: Or ì`ŠVr àñVmd H$aVo Ë`mg àñVmdH$ åhUVmV.
6. àñVmdVm
(Promisee) :
Á`m ì`ŠVrg àñVmd H$aÊ`mV Ambm Amho qH$dm Or ì`ŠVr àñVmdmg
Amnbr g§_Vr ì`ŠV H$aVo Ë`mg àñVmdVm Ago åhUVmV.
7. à{V\$b (Consideration) : H$ama ì`ŠVtZm H$amamnmgyZ {_iUmam _mo~Xbm hm à{V\$b AgVmo.
Vmo n¡emÀ`m ñdê$nmV, dñVyÀ`m ñdê$nmV, Z\$m, ì`mO, Ë`mJ BË`m{X ñdê$nmV AgVmo.
8. R>amd
: àË`oH$ dMZmg Am{U EH$_oH$m§Mo à{V\$b AgUmè`m dMZm§À`m g§Mmg
R>amd Ago åhUVmV. àñVmdmg pñdH¥$Vr {Xbr H$s Ë`mMo R>amdmV ê$nm§Va hmoVo.
(Set of promises)
9. H$ama (Contract) : Á`m R>amdm§Mr H$m`Xoera A§_b~OmdUr H$aVm `oVo Ë`mg H$ama åhUVmV. åhUyZ
H$ama = R>amd + R>amdmMr H$m`ÚmZo A§_b~OmdUr.
10. Am^mgr / VmÑí` H$ama (Quasi Contract) : H$m`ÚmÀ`m ZOaoVyZ g_Obm OmUmam H$ama qH$dm
H$m`ÚmgmaIo g§~§Y AgUmam H$ama.
11. H$ama^§J (Breach of Contract) : O|ìhm H$amaì`ŠVr `m H$amam§VJ©V Agbobr Ë`m§Mr O~m~Xmar
nma nmS>rV ZmhrV qH$dm nma nmS>Ê`mg ZH$ma XoVmV V|ìhm Ë`mg H$ama^§J åhUVmV.
12. H$amanyV©Vm (Performance of Contract) : EImÚm H$amamVrb dMZmMr nyV©Vm aÔ hmoÊ`mnydu
qH$dm H$amaì`ŠVtZm H$amanyV©VonmgyZ _m\$s {_iÊ`mnydu H$amamVrb {Xboë`m dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm H$aUo qH$dm
dMZnyVuMr BÀN>m àX{e©V H$aUo `mg H$amanyV©Vm åhUVmV.
1.3.2 gmam§e :
ì`mnmar H$m`Úm§Mr {Z{_©Vr hr àm_w»`mZo B§J«Or ì`mnmar H$m`ÚmnmgyZ Pmbr Amho. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm
hm n{hbm ì`mnmar H$m`Xm 1 gßQ>|~a 1872 amoOr Oå_y H$mí_ra gmoSy>Z g§nyU© ^maV^a bmJy H$aÊ`mV Ambm
Amho. gXa H$m`Úm_Ü`o EHy$Z 1 Vo 238 H$b_o AmhoV. `m§Mr XmoZ ^mJmV {d^mJUr Ho$br Amho. H$b_ 1 Vo
75 `m n{hë`m ^mJmVrb H$ama H$m`ÚmMr _yb^yV VÎdo hr gd© àH$maÀ`m H$amam§Zm bmJy Ho$br AmhoV. H$amamMr
_ybVÎdo hr VrZ ^mJmV {d^mJUr Ho$br AmhoV. n{hë`m ^mJmg H$ama {Z{_©VrMr _yb^yV VÎdo, Xwgè`m^mJ H$ama nyV©VoMo {Z`_ Am{U {Vgam ^mJ hm H$ama g_márMr _ybVÎdo Agm Amho. n{hë`m ^mJm_Ü`o H$ama
{Z{_©VrgmR>r H$moUË`m ~m~r Amdí`H$ AgVmV. H$m`Xoera H$ama H$gm ApñVËdmV `oVmo Ë`mÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r
H$moUË`m AmhoV `m ~m~tMm g_mdoe Ho$bm Amho. Xwgè`m nm`arV H$amam§Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mMo {Z`_ {Xbo AmhoV
Á`m_Ü`o àË`j H$amanyV©Vm, H$amanyV©VoMm à`ËZ, H$ama H$moUr nyU© Ho$bo nm{hOoV, g§`wŠV àñVmdm_Ü`o g§`wŠV
àñVmdH$m§Mr H$amanyV©VoMr O~m~Xmar H$er AgVo Am{U H$ama nyV©VoMr doi Am{U {R>H$mU `m~m~VMo {Z`_
gm§{JVbobo AmhoV. _yb^yV H$amam§À`m {Vgè`m ^mJmV H$ama g_márMo {d{dY àH$ma gm§{JVbo AmhoV. H$ama
g_már hr H$amamMr nyV©Vm Pmë`mZo hmoVo VgoM H$ama ^§J Pmbm Var H$ama g_má hmoVmo _mÌ H$am^§Jm_wio H$ama
g_már Pmbr Va jVrJ«ñV ({ZXm}fr) ì`ŠVrbm Xmofr ì`ŠVr{déÕ ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$aÊ`mÀ`m H$m`Xoera
H$moUË`m Cnm``moOZm CnbãY AmhoV `mMo {Z`_ XoIrb {Xbo AmhoV. `m {Z`_mZwgmaM {ZXm}fr ì`ŠVrg H$moQ>m©V
Xmdm bmdyZ ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$aVm `oVo. Xwgè`m ^mJmVrb H$b_ 124 Vo 238 _Ü`o {deof H$amam§Mm
g_mdoe H$aÊ`mV Ambm Amho. `m_Ü`o ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© d h_rMo H$ama, {Zjon Am{U VmaUmMo H$ama, A{^H$V¥©Ëd
/ à{V{ZYrËdmMo H$ama `m {deof H$amam§Mm g_mdoe Amho, åhUyZ `mg {deof H$amam§Mr _ybVÎdo Ago åhUVmV.
ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ :
1. ì`mnmar H$m`ÚmÀ`m {Z{_©VrMo _mJ© gm§Jm.
2. "gd© H$ama R>amd AgVmV na§Vw gd© R>amd H$ama AgVrbM Ago Zmhr' `m {dYmZmer gh_V AmhmV
3. H$m`Xoera H$amaÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r ñnï> H$am.
4. H$amam§Mo dJuH$aU ñnï> H$am.
5. A§_b~OmdUrZwgma H$amam§Mo {H$Vr àH$ma nS>VmV ?
6. _wŠV g§_Vr åhUOo H$m` ?
7. H$amanyV©Vm åhUOo H$m` ? H$amanyV©VoMo àH$ma gm§Jm.
8. H$ama nyV©VoVrb g§`wŠV àñVmdH$m§Mr O~m~Xmar ñnï> H$am.
9. H$ama g_már åhUOo H$m` ?
10. H$ama g_márÀ`m {d{dY nÕVr H$moUË`m ?
11. H$ama^§J åhUOo H$m` ? H$ama^§JmMo àH$ma gm§Jm.
12. H$ama^§J~Ôb AgUmè`m Cnm`moOZm gm§Jm.
13. ZwH$gmZ ^anmB©Mo {d{dY n«H$ma H$moUVo ?
14. H$moUË`m H$maUm_wio H$ama nyV©VoÀ`m AeŠ`Vo_wio H$ama g_má hmoVmo ?
1.5 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r gm{hË` :
1. S. S. Gulshan,
Mercantile Law, Excel Book, New Delhi.
2. N. D. Kapoor
Mercantile Law, Sultanchand & Sons, New Delhi.
3. Dr. Manmohan Prasad
Principles of Business Law and
Management, Himalaya Publishin House.
~r. S>r. Omoer
ì`mnma{df`H$ Am{U Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$m`Xo
AZ_mob àH$meZ, nwUo.
5. http/wwwanswers.com/topic/contracts-legal.
6. www.expertlaw.com.Expert law library.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : ì`dgm` {Z`_Z H$m`Xo{df`H$ aMZm
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 5 H$[aVm
{deof H$ama (Special Contracts)
{ZjonmMm H$ama Am{U {Zjon H$amamÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r
{ZjonXmË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
{ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
{Zjon H$amam§Mr g_mßVr
VmaU, VmaU H$amamMr ì`m»`m Am{U d¡{eï>ço
VmaUXmË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
VmaUJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
{Zjon Am{U VmaU H$ama `mVrb \$aH$
A{^H$Vm© H$amamMr ì`m»`m, {Z{_©Vr Am{U g_mßVr
2.2.10 A{^H$Vm© Am{U àYmZ `m§Mo h¸$ Am{U H$V©ì`o
g§H$ënZm Am{U gmam§e
ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ
A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r g§X^© J«§W
C{Ôïç>o :
àñVyV KQ>H$mMm Aä`mg Ho$ë`mZ§Va {dÚmÏ`mªZm ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm 1872 _Yrb {deof H$amamn¡H$s
{Zjon d VmaUmMo H$ama Am{U à{V{YËdmMo H$ama `m~m~mVÀ`m VaVyXtMr _m{hVr hmoÊ`mg _XV hmoB©b.
1. {Zjon H$amamMr ì`m»`m Am{U bjUo `m§Mr _m{hVr hmoB©b.
2. {ZjonXmË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o H$iVrb.
3. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o bjmV `oB©b.
4. {Zjon H$amam§À`m g_mßVrMm n[aM` hmoB©b.
5. VmaU, VmaU H$ama Am{U VmaU H$amamMr d¡{eï>ço gm§JVm `oVrb.
6. VmaUXmË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o g_OÊ`mg _XV hmoB©b.
7. VmaUJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o `m§Mm n[aM` hmoB©b.
8. {Zjon Am{U VmaU H$ama `mVrb \$aH$ H$iob.
9. A{^H$Vm© H$amamMm AW©, {Z{_©Vr Am{U g_mßVrÀ`m nÕVr `m§Mr _m{hVr g_OÊ`mg _XV hmoB©b.
10. A{^H$Vm© Am{U àYmZ `m§Mo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`m§Mo ñdê$n bjmV `oB©b.
àñVmdZm :
^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm 1872 _Yrb H$b_ 124 Vo 238 _Ü`o gm§{JVbobo {Z`_ Am{U Ho$boë`m VaVyXr
`m \$ŠV {d{eï> àH$maÀ`m H$amam§Zm bmJy hmoVmV åhUyZ `m§Zm {deof H$amam§Mr _ybVÎdo (Principles of special
contracts) Ago åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o ZwH$gmZ^anmB©, h_rMo H$ama, {ZjonmMo H$ama, VmaUmMo H$ama Am{U
A{^H$V©¥Ëd/ à{V{ZYrËdmMo H$ama `m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. àñVwV àH$aUm_Ü`o {deof H$amamn¡H$s {Zjon, VmaU
Am{U A{^H$V©¥ËdmMo {deof H$ama `m H$amam§Mr _m{hVr Aä`mgmgmR>r {Xbr Amho. {ZjonmMo d VmaUmMo H$ama
ho {deof H$ama AmhoV H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 148 Vo 181 _Ü`o {Zjon Am{U VmaUmÀ`m H$amamg§~§Yr VaVyXr
gm§{JVboë`m AmhoV. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 182 Vo 238 _Ü`o A{^H$V¥©ËdmÀ`m H$amamg§~§Yr VaVyXr
{Xboë`m AmhoV. àñVwV àH$aUmV AmnU {ZjonmMo H$ama, VmaUmMo H$ama, A{^H$Vm© àYmZ `m§À`m d¡Ym{ZH$
A{YH$ma{df`r Am{U O~m~Xmè`m{df`r Aä`mg H$aUma AmhmoV.
2.2 {df`-{ddoMZ :
`m ^mJm_Ü`o {deof H$amamn¡H$s {ZjonmMo H$ama, VmaUmMo H$ama Am{U A{^H¥$V©dmMo H$ama `m§Mr _m{hVr
H$ê$Z KoUma AmhmoV.
2.2.1 {ZjonmMm H$ama Am{U {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamMr d¡{eï>ço / bjUo :
{ZjonmMm H$ama (Contract of Bailment) : B§J«OrVrb Bailment hm eãX \«|$M _Yrb _yi eãX
'baillier' `m eãXmnmgyZ ~Zbobm Amho. `m eãXmMm AW© 'To deliver' åhUOoM Xwgè`mg gmon{dUo Agm hmoVmo.
EH$m {d{eï> CÔoemZo Amnë`m dñVy§Mm Vm~m Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg gmon{dUo åhUOo {Zjon hmo`. Amnë`m X¡Z§{XZ
ì`dhmam_Ü`o {Zjon hm \$magm àM{bV Zgbobm eãX _mÌ ì`dhmamV _moR>çm à_mUmda dmnabm OmV Agë`mMo
AmT>iyZ `oVo. CXm. J«§Wmb`mVyZ EImXo nwñVH$ Aä`mgmgmR>r KoUo åhUOo {Zjon hmo`. nwñVH$mMo dmMZ
Pmë`mZ§Va Vo nwÝhm J«§Wmb`mV O_m H$aVmo. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 148 _Ü`o {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamMr
ì`m»`m nwT>rbà_mUo {Xbr Amho, ""{ZjonmMm H$ama åhUOo Agm H$ama H$s, Á`mZwgma EH$ ì`ŠVr {d{eï> hoVyZo
Amnbr dñVy ñdoÀN>oZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m Vmã`mV XoVo d hoVy nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va Vr dñVy naV KoVo qH$dm Ë`m dñVyMm
{d{Z`moJ bmdÊ`mMr gyMZm Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg XoVo.''
CXm. ~§Q>rZo Amnbo KS>çmi XwéñVrgmR>r ~~brH$S>o {Xbo. KS>çmi XwéñV Pmë`mZ§Va ~§Q>rZo ~~brbm
200 é. _Oyar {Xbr Am{U KS>çmi naV KoVbo. `m_Ü`o XmoZ nj AgVmV. dñVy§Mo àXmZ (dñVy§Mm Vm~m)
XoUmè`m ì`ŠVrg {ZjonXmVm (Bailor) Ago åhUVmV. Á`m ì`ŠVrg dñVy§Mm Vm~m {Xbm OmVmo Ë`m {ZjonJ¥{hVm
(Bailee) Ago åhUVmV. ñdoÀN>oZo dñVyMo àXmZ H$aÊ`mÀ`m ì`dhmamg {Zjon (Bailment) Ago åhUVmV.
{ZjonmÀ`m H$amamÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r/d¡{eï>ço :
{ZjonmÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r
{df` dñVy
dñVy§Mm Vm~m
CÔoe nyVuZ§Va dñVy naV KoUo
1. R>amd (Agreement) : {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamgmR>r {ZjonXmVm Am{U {ZjonJ¥{hVm `m§À`m_Ü`o R>amd hmoUo
Amdí`H$ Amho. hm R>amd boIr AWdm Vm|S>r Agbm Var MmbVmo. H$mhrdoim H$m`ÚmÀ`m VaVyXrVyZ J¥{hV {Zjon
R>amd ApñVËdmV `oVmo. CXm. ha{dbobr dñVy gmnS>bobr ì`ŠVr Am{U dñVyMm _mbH$ `m§À`mV H$m`ÚmÀ`m
ZOaoVyZ {ZjonmMm R>amd ApñVËdmV `oVmo.
2. {df` dñVy (Subject Matter) : {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamgmR>r {df`dñVy hr MbdñVy Agbr nm{hOo.
MbdñVy `m g§H$ënZoV n¡gm d n¡go dgyb H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ (Actionable claims) gmoSy>Z Á`m dñVy§Mo EH$m
{R>H$mUmhÿZ Xwgè`m {R>H$mUr ñWbm§Va H$aVm `oVo Ë`m gdmªMm `mV g_mdoe hmoVmo. Aem MbMrM Amdí`H$Vm
{ZjonmdñVy§gmR>r AgVo.
3. dñVy§Mm Vm~m (Delivery of goods) : {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamgmR>r EH$m ì`ŠVrZo ñdoÀN>oZo Amnë`m
dñVy§Mm Vm~m Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrH$S>o XoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. _mbH$mZo Amnë`m dñVy ZmoH$amÀ`m Vmã`mV {Xë`mg
Vmo {Zjon hmoV Zmhr. VgoM Aem dñVy§Mm Vm~m Ë`m dñVy§Mo àË`j àXmZ qH$dm aMZmË_H$ nÕVrZo XoUo Amdí`H$
4. CÔoe (Purpose) : {ZjonmMm H$ama hm {d{eï> H$mbmdYrgmR>r d {d{eï> CÔoemgmR>r Ho$bm OmVmo.
{ZjonmMo CÔoe ho gwa{jVVogmR>r, dñVyÀ`m dmnamgmR>r, VmaUmgmR>r, dmhVyH$sgmR>r, XwéñVrgmR>r d ^mS>çmZo
dmnamgmR>r, gewëH$ Am{U {Z:ewëH$ BË`mXr AgVmV. Aem {ZjonmÀ`m CÔoemZwgma dñVyda à{H«$`m Ho$br Omdy
eH$Vo. dñVyMo ñdê$n ~Xbbo Omdy eH$Vo qH$dm dñVy _yi ñdê$nmV naV Ho$ë`m Omdy eH$VmV.
5. CÔoenyVuZ§Va dñVy naV KoUo (Return of specific goods) : {Zjonm_Ü`o EH$m ì`ŠVr {d{eï> hoVyZo
Amnbr dñVy ñdoÀN>oZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m Vmã`mV {Xbobr AgVo. hoVy nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va dñVyMo hñVm§VaU H$aUmar
ì`ŠVr Vr dñVy nwÝhm Amnë`m Vmã`mV KoVo qH$dm dñVyMr {dëhodmQ> bmdÊ`mMr gyMZm Á`m ì`ŠVrg dñVyMm
Vm~m {Xbobm AgVmo Ë`mg XoVo.
{ZjonXmË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
(Rights and Daties of Bailor)
(A) {ZjonXmË`mMo A{YH$ma / h¸$ (Rights of Bailor ) - H$b_ 152 Vo 163 :
{ZjonXmË`mMo A{YH$ma
{ZîH$miOrnyd©H$ ZwH$gma
^anmB© _mJUr H$aÊ`mMm
H$ama aÔ
H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma
AZ{YH¥$V dñVy§À`m
ga{_gimgmR>r ZwH$gmZ
^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo
dñVy§À`m AZm{YH¥$V
dmnam~m~V ZwH$gmZ
^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo
dñVyV hmoUmar
dmT> àmá H$aUo
{Z:ewëH$ {Zjo{nV
dñVy naV KoUo
dñVy Vmã`mV
1. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m {ZîH$miOrnUmgmR>r ZwH$gmZ^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo : {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m
~ondm©B©_wio, {ZîH$miOrnUm_wio {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ Pmë`mg Ë`mMr ^anmB© {ZjonJ¥{hË`mH$Sy>Z H$ê$Z
KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma {ZjonXmË`mg AgVmo.
2. {ZjonmMm H$ama aÔ H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo {ZjonrV dñVy§Mm MyH$sÀ`m nÕVrZo
qH$dm H$ama~mø CÔoemgmR>r dmna H$arV Agob Va {ZjonXmVm {ZjonmMm H$ama aÔ H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
3. AZm{YH¥$V dñVy§À`m ga{_gimgmR>r ZwH$gmaZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo : {ZjonJ¥{hVm Amnë`m
ñdV:À`m dñVy Am{U {ZjonXmË`mZo {Zjon H$amamgmR>r Ë`mÀ`m Vmã`mV {Xboë`m dñVy `m§Mr AZm{YH¥$VnUo
ga{_gi H$arV Agob Va Ë`m_wio {ZjonXmË`mMo Oo ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b Ë`mMr ^anmB© Vmo {ZjonJ¥{hË`H$Sy>Z _mJUr
H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
4. dñVy Vmã`mV KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : Á`m CÔoemgmR>r {ZjonXmË`mZo {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV dñVy
{Xboë`m AgVmV Vmo {ZjonmMm CÔoe g§në`mZ§Va qH$dm {ZjonmMm H$mbmdYr g§në`mZ§Va Amnë`m dñVy Vmã`mV
KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma {ZjonXmË`mg AgVmo.
5. dñVy§À`m AZm{YH¥¥$V dmnam~m~V ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo : {ZjonJ¥{hVm {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mm
AZm{YH¥$VnUo {ZjonXmË`mÀ`m g§_Vr{edm` dmna H$arV Agob d Ë`m_wio {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ hmoV
Agob Va {ZjonJ¥Ë`mH$Sy>Z ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© H$ê$Z KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma {ZjonXmË`mg AgVmo.
6. dñVyV hmoUmar dmT> àmßV H$aUo : {Zjo{nV dñVy {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV AgVmZm Ë`m dñVy§_Ü`o
H$mhr dmT> hmoV Agob Va Aer dmT> àmá H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma {ZjonXmË`mg AgVmo.
7. {Z:ewëH$ {Zjo{nV dñVy naV KoUo : {Z:ewëH$ {Zjon Agob Va {ZjonXmVm {Zjo{nV dñVy `m H|$ìhmhr
naV Kody eH$Vmo. Aem dñVy `m {d{eï> H$mbmdYrgmR>r qH$dm CÔoemgmR>r {Xë`m Agë`m Var {Z:ewëH$ {Zjon
doiÀo `m AmYr H|$ìhmhr aÔ H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma {ZjonXmË`mg AgVmo. na§Vw {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo hmoUmao ZwH$gmZ Ë`mZo
^ê$Z {Xbo nm{hOo. VgoM EImXm {VèhmB©V {Zjo{nV dñVyZ§ m BOm nmohM{dV Agob qH$dm ~iO~arZo {ZjonJ¥{¥ hË`mH$Sy>Z
dñVyMm Vm~m KoV Agob Va Aem {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVrda H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Amho.
(~) {ZjonXmË`mMr H$V©ì`o (Duties of Bailor ) : {ZjonXmË`mMr H$V©ì`o qH$dm O~m~Xmè`m nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
{ZjonXmË`mMr H$V©ì`o
{Zjo{nV dñVy_Yrb
Xmof CKS> H$aUo
Agm_mÝ` ñdê$nmMm
IM© ghZ H$aUo
{Z:ewëH$ {Zjon _wXVnyd©
aÔ Ho$ë`mg ZwH$gmZ
^anmB© XoUo
dñVy naV
àmá H$aUo
H$ê$Z XoUo
Xmofm~m~V hmoUmao
ZwH$gmZ^anmB© H$aUo
1. {Zjo{nVdñVy_Yrb Xmof CKS> H$aUo : {ZjonXmË`mZo {d{eï> hoVygmR>r {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV
dñVy XoVmZm Ë`m dñVy_Yrb _m{hV Agoboë`m Xmofm§Mr _m{hVr {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg {Xbr nm{hOo. {ZjonXmË`mZo
OmUrdnyd©H$ dñVy_Yrb Xmof CKS> Ho$bo ZmhrV Ë`m_wio {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ Pmë`mg Aem ZwH$gmZrMr
^anmB© H$ê$Z XoÊ`mMr Om~~Xmar {ZjonXmË`mda `oVo. VgoM {Zjon gewëH$ Agob Va {ZjonXmË`mZo Ë`mÀ`m
dñVy_Yrb Xmof _m{hV Agmo dm Zgmo, Agm Xmof CKS> Z Ho$ë`m~Ôb {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo Oo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b
Ë`mMr ^anmB© H$aÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar {ZjonXmË`mda AgVo. VgoM dñVy Oa ñ\$moQ>H$ AgVrb Va Ë`mMr
nyd©H$ënZm {ZjonJ{hË`mg XoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo.
2. Agm_mÝ` ñdê$nmMm IM© ghZ H$aUo : {ZjonmMm H$ama hm gewëH$ Agob Va {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo
{ZjonmÀ`m g§X^m©V Omo Agm_mÝ` IM© Ho$bm Agob Ë`mMr ^anmB© H$ê$Z XoÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar {ZjonXmË`mda
AgVo. gd©gmYmaU IM© hm {ZjonJ¥¥{hË`mg H$amdm bmJVmo. `mCbQ> {Zjon {Z:ewëH$ Agob Am{U {Zjo{nV
dñVyda H$mhr à{H«$`m H$amdr bmJV Agob AWdm dñVy gwa{jV R>odÊ`mgmR>r `m gm_mÝ` IM© {ZjonXmË`mZo
{ZjonJ¥{hË`mg ^ê$Z {Xbm nm{hOo.
3. {Z:ewëH$ {Zjon _wXVnyd© aÔ Ho$ë`mg ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© H$aUo : Oa {Zjon {Z:ewëH$ Agob Va
{ZjonXmVm Agm {Zjon H|$ìhm§hr aÔ H$ê$ eH$Vmo. Oa {ZjonXmË`mZo Agm {Zjon _wXVnyd© aÔ Ho$bm Va
{ZjonJ¥¥{hË`mMo Oo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b Ë`mMr ^anmB© H$ê$Z XoUo ho {ZjonXmË`mMo H$V©ì` AgVo. CXm. A Zo
Amnbr H$ma ~ bm EH$ _{hÝ`mgmR>r _mo\$V dmnaÊ`mg {Xbr. ~ Zo _moQ>ma XwéñVrgmR>r é. 5000 IM© Ho$bo.
A Zo EH$m AmR>dS>çmZ§Va Amnbr H$ma naV KoVbr. `m_wio ~ Mo ZwH$gmZ Pmbo. Ë`mbm H$maMm nwaonya \$m`Xm
KoVm Ambm Zmhr Ë`m_wio ~ Zo Ho$bobm IM© ^ê$Z XoÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar A da am{hb.
4. dñVy naV àmá H$aUo : {ZjonmMm CÔoe nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va AWdm {ZjonmMm H$mbmdYr g_má
Pmë`mZ§Va {ZjonJ¥{hVm {Zjo{nV dñVy naV H$arV Agob Va {ZjonXmË`mZo Ë`m dñVy§Mm naV pñdH$ma Ho$bm
nm{hOo. Oa {Zjon XmË`mZo dñVyMm naV pñdH$ma Ho$bm Zmhr Va dñVyMm gm§^mi H$aUo, dñVy gwa{jV R>odUo
`mH$[aVm Omo Omo Amdí`H$ IM© {ZjonJ¥{hVm H$arb Ë`m gd© Amdí`H$ Am{U AmH$pñ_H$ IMm©Mr ^anmB©
H$aÊ`mgmR>r {ZjonXmVm O~m~Xma AgVmo.
5. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© H$ê$Z XoUo : {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamZwgma {ZjonrV dñVy_Yrb
YmoŠ`mMr O~m~Xmar ñdV: {ZjonXmË`mZo pñdH$mabr nm{hOo. {ZjonrV dñVy~m~V `mo½` I~aXmar {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo
KodyZ XoIrb Aem dñVy§Zm H$moUVmhr YmoH$m {Z_m©U Pmbm Va Ë`m YmoŠ`mMr O~m~Xmar {ZjonXmË`mda AgVo.
CXm. A Zo Amnbm KmoS>m KmoS>Xm¡S>rgmR>r ~ bm nmM {XdgmH$[aVm ^mS>çmZo {Xbm. {Vgè`m {Xder KmoS>m
AmOmar nS>bm Am{U _`V Pmbm. Va `oWo ~ hm A bm O~m~Xma amhUma Zmhr `mMr O~m~Xmar A ZoM
pñdH$mabr nm{hOo.
6. _mbH$s h¸$mÀ`m Xmofm~m~V hmoUmar ZwH$gmZ^anmB© H$aUo : {ZjonXmË`mbm {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mm
Mm§Jbm A{YH$ma (H$mm`oXrea _mbH$s h¸$) ZgVmZm Ë`m dñVy§Mm Vm~m {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg XoÊ`mV Ambm Agob
Am{U Ë`m_wio {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ hmoV Agob Va Vo ZwH$gmZ ^ê$Z XoÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar {ZjonXmË`mda
2.2.3 {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
(Rights and Dutes of Bailee)
(A) {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma (Rights of Bailee) :
{ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma
_mJUr H$aUo
IMm©Mr à{VnyVu
g§`wŠV {ZjonXmË`mn¡H$s dñVy§Mm Mm§Jbm A{YH$ma
H$moUË`mhr EH$mg
Zgboë`m {ZjonXmË`mg
dñVy naV H$aUo
dñVy naV H$aUo
Amdí`H$ IMm©Mr
a¸$_ àmá H$aUo
H$ama aÔ Ho$ë`m~m~V ZwH$gmZ
^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo
{Zjo{nV dñVyda
{VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr
{déÕ H$m`Xoera
H$m`©dmhr H$aUo
1. Zw_gmZ^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo : {ZjonXmË`mZo {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV {Zjo{nV dñVy XoVmZm Ë`m
dñVy_Yrb A§J^yV AgUmao Xmof Z gm§{JVë`m_wio {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ hmoV Agob Va Ë`mMr ^anmB©
{ZjonXmË`mH$Sy>Z H$ê$Z KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
2.IMm©Mr à{VnyVu H$aUo : {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg {ZjonUmgmR>r H$mhr Á`mXmMm IM© H$amdm bmJbm Va
Aem Ho$boë`m Á`mXm IMm©Mr à{VnyVu {ZjonXmË`mH$Sy>Z _mJUr H$ê$Z KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
3. Amdí`H$ IMm©Mr a¸$_ n«mßV H$aUo : {ZjonJ¥{hVm {Zjo{nV dñVy ~m~V dñVy§Mr hmVmiUr,
dñVy§Mr dmhVyH$ BË`mXr H$maUmgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmam IM© H$arV Agob Va Vmo IM© {ZjonXmË`mH$Sy>Z dgyb
H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo. VgoM H$mhrdoim dñVyda à{H«$`m Ho$br OmV Agob Va Ë`m à{H«$`ogmR>r `oUmam IM©
XoIrb dgyb H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ AgVmo.
4. H$ama aÔ Ho$ë`m~m~V ZwH$gmZ^anmB© _mJUo : {ZjonXmË`mZo {ZjonmMm H$mbmdYr g§nÊ`mnydu
qH$dm {ZjonmMm CÔoe nyU© hmoÊ`mAJmoXa {ZjonmMm H$ama aÔ Ho$bm. Ë`m_wio {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg ZwH$gmZ ghZ H$amdr
bmJbr Va Aem ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© dgyb H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg àmá hmoVmo.
5. g§`wŠV {ZjonXmË`mn¡H$s H$moUË`mhr EH$mg dñVy naV H$aUo : H$amamV doJim C„oI Ho$bm Zgob
Va {ZjonJ¥{hVm g§`wŠV {ZjonXmË`m§Mr g§_Vr Z KoVm H$moUË`mhr EH$m {ZjonXmË`mg dñVy naV H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
qH$dm Ë`m§À`m gyMZoZwgma Xwgè`m {ZjonXmË`mg dñVy§Mm Vm~m Xody eH$Vmo.
6. dñVyMo Mm§Jbo A{YH$ma Zgboë`m {ZjonXmË`mg dñVy naV H$aUo : {ZjonXmË`mbm dñVy§Mm
Mm§Jbm A{YH$ma àmá Pmbobm Zgob Am{U {ZjonJ¥{hVm gX²^mdZoZo {ZjonXmË`mH$S>o dñVyMm Vm~m XoV Agob
Va dñVyMm Iè`m _mbH$mn«Vr Ë`mMr H$m§hrhr O~m~Xmar {Z_m©U hmoV Zmhr.
7. {Zjo{nV dñVyda J«hUm{YH$ma dmnaUo : {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamZwgma Ë`mÀ`m H$m`m©Mm
`mo½` _mo~Xbm Am{U Ë`mZo Ho$bobm Amdí`H$ IM© àmá hmoB©n`ªV Ë`mÀ`m Vmã`mV AgUmè`m {ZjonXmË`mÀ`m
dñVyda J«hUm{YH$ma dmnê$ eH$Vmo. åhUOoM Omon`ªV {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg {ZjonXmË`mH$Sy>Z Xo` Agbobr a¸$_
{_iV Zmhr Vmon`ªV {ZjonJ¥{hVm dñVy Amnë`m Vmã`mV Xody eH$Vmo.
8. {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr{déÕ H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$aUo : Oa {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr MyH$sÀ`m nÕVrZo
{ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV Agboë`m dñVyÀ`m dmnamda AS>MUr AmUrV Agob qH$dm Ë`m§À`mnmgyZ dñVy
{hamdyZ KoV AgVrb Va Vmo Aem {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr{déÕ H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
(~) {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMr H$V©ì`o (Duties of Bailee ) : {ZjonJ¥{hVm hm {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mm aIdmbXma AgVmo
H$maU {ZjonXmË`mZo Ë`mg dñVy àXmZ Ho$boë`m AgVmV Ë`mMr H$V©ì`o nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
{ZjonJ¥{hË`mMr H$V©ì`o
dñVy§Mr `mo½`
H$miOr KoUo
AZm{YH¥$V dmna
Z H$aUo
ga{_gi Z
dñVy naV
{Zjo{nV dñVy
gmo~V dñVyVrb
dmT> naV H$aUo
H¥$Ë` Z H$aUo
1. {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mr `mo½` H$miOr KoUo : {ZjonmMm H$ama hm {Z:ewëH$ qH$dm gweëH$ Agmo,
{ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mr `mo½` nÕVrZo H$miOr KoVbr nm{hOo. gd©gm_mÝ` n[apñWVrV EImXr ì`ŠVr
Amnë`m ñdV:À`m dñVy~m~V OodT>r H$miOr KoVo VodT>r H$miOr {Zjo{nV dñVy~m~V {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo KoUo
Amdí`H$ AgVo. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m hbJOunUm_wio qH$dm {ZîH$miOrnUm_wio {Zjo{nV dñVyMo H$moUË`mhr
àH$aMo ZwH$gmZ hmoV Agob Va {ZjonJ¥{hVm ZwH$gmZ^anmB©gmR>r O~m~Xma Yabm OmVmo. Oa {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo `mo½`
H$miOr KodyZ hr dñVy Zï> Pmbr AWdm dñVyMo ZwH$gmZ Pmbo Va ^anmB© XoÊ`mg {ZjonJ¥{hVm O~m~Xma amhUma
Zmhr _mÌ Ë`mZo dñVyMr nwaonya H$miOr KoVbr ho {gÕ H$aÊ`mMr Ë`mÀ`mda O~m~Xmar Agob.
2. {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mm AZm{YH¥$V dmna Z H$aUo : {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mm `mo½` A{YH¥¥$V
dmna H$aUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. Oa {ZjonJ¥{hVm {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mm dmna {ZjonmÀ`m CÔoemà_mUo H$arV Zgob Va
Vmo AZm{YH¥$V dmna g_Obm OmVmo. Aem AZ{YH¥$V dmnam_wio dñVy§Mo H$mhr ZwH$gmZ hmoUma Agob Ë`mÀ`m
ZwH$gmZ^anmB©gmR>r Ë`mg O~m~Xma Yabo OmVo. Oar Ago ZwH$gmZ AnKmVmZo Pmbo qH$dm dñVy§Mm dmna H$aVmZm
nyaonya H$miOr KoVbr Agbr Var Ë`mMr O~m~Xmar hr {Z_m©U hmoVo.
3. {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mr ga{_gi Z H$aUo : {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo {ZjonXmË`mMr g§_Vr Z KoVm nañna
ñdV:À`m dñVy_Ü`o {ZjonXmË`mÀ`m dñVy§Mr ga{_gi H$ê$ Z`o. Oa {ZjonJ¥{hVm hoVynyd©H$ AWdm AnKmVmZo
Ë`mÀ`m dñVyV {Zjo{nV dñVy§Mr ga{_gi H$arV Agob Va Ë`mMr O~m~Xmar nwT>rbà_mUo amhrb.
(i) {_lU
Ho$boë`m dñVy doJù`m H$aUo eŠ` Agob Va dñVy doJù`m H$aÊ`mMm IM© Am{U dñVy doJù`m
H$aVmZm dñVy§Mo ZwH$gmZ Pmë`mg Ë`mMr ^anmB© XoÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar {ZjonJ¥{hË`mda `oVo.
{_lU Ho$boë`m dñVy doJù`m H$aUo eŠ` Zgob {ZjonXmË`mMo OodT>o ZwH$gmZ Pmbo Agob Ë`mMr
^anmB© {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo Ho$br nm{hOo.
4. {Zjo{nV dñVy naV H$aUo : {ZjonmMm CÔoe AWdm H$mbmdYr g§në`mZ§Va {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo
{ZjonXmË`mH$Sy>Z dñVyMr _mJUr H$aÊ`mMr dmQ> Z nmhVm {Zjo{nV dñVy naV Ho$ë`m nm{hOoV. Oa dñVyMo g§`wŠV
{ZjonXmVo AgVrb Va Ë`mn¡H$s H$moUË`mhr EH$mH$S>o dñVy naV Ho$ë`m nm{hOoV. VgoM dñVy naV H$aÊ`mg
{db§~ Pmë`mg {ZjonJ¥{hË`mda H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr hmody eH$Vo.
5. {Zjo{nV dñVygmo~V dñVyVrb dmT> naV H$aUo : H$amamV {Zamim C„oI Zgob Va {Zjo{nV
dñVy_Ü`o Or Z¡g{J©H$ dmT> hmoB©b qH$dm {Zjo{nV dñVynmgyZ bm^ hmoB©b Vr dmT> qH$dm \$m`Xm {ZjonXmË`mg
XoÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar {ZjonJ¥{hË`mda AgVo.
6. {ZjonXmË`mÀ`m _mbH$sh¸$m{déÕ H$moUVohr H¥$Ë` Z H$aUo : {ZjonXmVm ñdoÀN>oZo
Amnë`m dñVy `m {d{eï> hoVygmR>r {ZjonJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV XoV AgVmo. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo {ZjonXmË`mÀ`mdVrZo
Am{U {ZjonXmË`mgmR>rM Ë`m dñVy YmaU Ho$boë`m Agmì`mV. {ZjonXmË`mÀ`m dñVy naV {_i{dUo `m
A{YH$mam{déÕ H$moUVohr H¥$Ë` H$ê$ Z`o. {ZjonmMm H$mbmdYr g§në`mZ§Va {ZjonXmË`mH$S>oM dñVy
gmon{dë`m nm{hOoV. Ë`m BVam§H$S>o gmon{dë`m Va Ë`mbm {ZjonXmË`mg ZwH$gmZ^anmB© XoÊ`mgmR>r O~m~Xma
Yabo OmB©b.
{Zjon H$amam§Mr g_már
(Termination of contract of Bailment)
{ZjonmMm H$ama nwT>rb n[apñWVrV g_má hmoVmo.
{Zjon H$ama g_márÀ`m KQ>Zm
{Zjon H$ama {Zjon CÔoemMr {Zjon H$amamer
{dg§JV H¥$Ë`
{Z:ewëH$ {Zjon
_wXVnyd© aÔ qH$dm {ZjonJ¥{hV
`mn¡H$s EH$mMm
_¥Ë`y Pmë`mg
dñVy Zï>
1. {Zjon H$amamMr _wXV g§në`mg : Oa {ZjonmMm H$ama {d{eï> H$mbmdYrgmR>rMm Agob Va Ë`mMr
_wXV g§nbr H$s H$ama g_má hmoVmo.
2. {Zjon CÔoemMr nyV©Vm Pmë`mg : {ZjonmMm H$ama hm EH$m {d{eï> CÔoemgmR>r Agob Am{U Oa
Vmo CÔoe nyU© Pmbm åhUOo {ZjonmMm H$ama g§nVmo.
3. {Zjon H$amamer {dg§JV H¥$Ë` KSë`mg : Oa {ZjonJ¥{hË`mZo {Zjon H$amamer {dg§JV EImXo
H¥$Ë`/H¥$Vr Ho$br dm H$arV Agob Va {ZjonmMm H$mbmdYr g§nÊ`mnyduM qH$dm CÔoe nyU© Pmbobm Zgbm Var
H$ama aÔ hmoD$Z {Zjon H$ama g_má hmoVmo.
4. {Z:ewëH$ {Zjon H$ama _wXVnyd© aÔ Ho$ë`mg : {Z:ewëH$ {ZjonmMm H$ama _wXVg_már nydu H|$ìhmhr
aÔ H$aVm `oVmo. Ë`m_wio {ZjonmMm H$ama g§nVmo
5. {ZjonXmVm qH$dm {ZjonJ¥{hVm `mn¡H$s EH$mMm _¥Ë`y : {ZjonXmVm qH$dm {ZjonJ¥{hVm `mn¡H$s
EH$m njmMm _¥Ë`y Pmë`mg {Zjon H$ama g§nVmo.
6. {Zjon H$ama {df`dñVy Zï> Pmë`mg : {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamMr {df`dñVy Zï> Pmë`mg {Zjon
H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
VmaU, VmaU H$ama - ì`m»`m Am{U d¡{eîQ>ço
(Contract of Pledge and Essentials of Pledge)
1. àmñVm{dH$ : VmaU åhUOo EH$ àH$maMm {Zjon Amho. `m_Ü`o gmdH$mamZo H$O©Xmamg {Xboë`m
H$Om©À`m gwa{jVVogmR>r gmdH$ma hm H$O©Xmamer Mb ñdê$nmMr _mb_Îmm àË`j AWdm AàË`j ñdê$nmV
Amnë`m Vmã`mV R>odrV AgVmo Am{U H$Om©Mr arVga naV\o$S> Pmbr åhUOo Vr Mb _mb_Îmm ñdÀN>oZo
H$O©Xmamg naV H$aVmo.
2. VmaU åhUOo H$m` ? : H$O©XmamZo KoVbobo H$O© \o$S>Ê`mMr qH$dm {Xboë`m dMZmÀ`m nyV©VoMr ImÌr
XoÊ`mgmR>r EH$m ì`ŠVrZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrOdi dñVy§Mm {Zjon H$aUo `mbm VmaU åhUVmV.
3. VmaUmMm H$ama åhUOo H$m` ? : Á`m H$amamZo EH$ ì`ŠVr H$Om©gmR>r à{V^yVr (Security) åhUyZ
qH$dm dMZ nyV©VogmR>r Amnë`m _mbH$sÀ`m VgoM Amnë`m Vmã`mV Agboë`m dñVy ñdoÀN>oZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m
Vmã`mV XoVmo Ë`mg VmaUmMm H$ama Ago åhUVmV.
CXm. A Zo ~ H$Sy>Z 10000 én`o H$O© KoVbo `m H$O©\o$S>rMr ImÌr åhUyZ Amnbr _moQ>magm`H$b ~ Odi
R>odbr. Va VoWo A Am{U ~ _Ü`o _moQ>magm`H$bMm {Zjon Pmbm Amho. hr _moQ>magm`H$b ~ À`m Vmã`mV XoÊ`mg
VmaU åhQ>bo OmB©b. `oWo VmaU åhUyZ dñVy XoUmè`mg VmaUXmVm Am{U dñVy VmaU åhUyZ pñdH$maUmè`mg
VmaUJ¥{hVm Ago åhUVmV. `m CXmhaUm_Ü`o A hm VmaUXmVm (Poawnor) Am{U ~ hm VmaUJ¥{hVm (Pawnee) hmoVmo. EH$ _hÎdmMr ~m~ bjmV KoVbr nm{hOo H$s Ho$di MbdñVy§MoM VmaU hmody eH$Vo. VgoM
H$Om©À`m CÔoemgmR>rM VmaU Amdí`H$ AgVo Ago Zmhr Va dMZmMr nyV©Vm ìhmdr åhUyZhr VmaU pñdH$mabo
4. H$m`Xoera VmaU H$amamMr d¡{eï>ço
(Essentials of Contract of Pledge)
VmaU H$amamÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r/d¡{eï>ço
VmaUXmVm H$m`Xoera _mbH$
dñVy àXmZ
VmaUXmË`mH$S>o _mbH$s h¸$
1. Mb dñVy (Movable goods) : VmaU H$amamgmR>r Mb dñVyM Amdí`H$ AgVo. VgoM Á`m MbdñVy
àXmZ `mo½` {ñWVrV AgVmV AemM dñVy§Mo VmaU hmody eH$Vo.
2. VmaUXmVm H$m`Xoera _mbH$ (Legal owner) : VmaU XoUmè`m ì`ŠVrbm VmaUdñVy§Mr H$m`Xoera
_mbH$s Agbr nm{hOo. åhUOoM VmaUXmË`mH$S>o dñVy§Mm H$m`Xoera A{YH$ma AgUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. Ho$di
dñVy§Mm Vm~m Agbobr ì`ŠVr dñV§yMo VmaU H$ê$ eH$Uma Zmhr.
3. dñVy àXmZ H$aUo (Delivery of Goods) : VmaU H$ama ApñVËdmV `oÊ`gmR>r dñVy§Mo àË`j qH$dm
aMZmË_H$ nÕVrZo àXmZ hmoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. Oa VmaU XoÊ`mMo dMZ {Xbo OmV Agob _mÌ dñVy§Mm Vm~m
VmaUJ¥{hË`mH$S>o {Xbm OmV Zgob Va Ë`mg VmaU H$ama åhUVm `oV Zmhr.
4. VmaUXmË`mH$S>o _mbH$s h¸$ (Ownership with Pawnor) : VmaU H$amam_Ü`o VmaU dñVy§Mm Vm~m
Oar VmaUJ¥{hË`mH$S>o OmV Agbm Var Ë`m dñVy§Mm _mbH$s h¸$ _mÌ VmaUXmË`mH$S>oM Agbr nm{hOo.
VmaUXmË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
(A) VmaUXmË`mMo A{YH$ma
(Rights and Duties of Pownor)
(Rithts of Pawnor) :
Or ì`ŠVr Amnë`m dñVy H$mT>boë`m H$Om©gmR>r n«{V^yVr (security) åhUyZ H$O© XoUmè`m gmdH$mamÀ`m
Vmã`mV XoVo Ë`mg VmaUXmVm Ago åhUVmV. VmaUXmË`mg nwT>rbà_mUo A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmV.
VmaUXmË`mMo A{YH$ma
VmaU dñVy§Mm
naV Vm~m
VmaU dñVyVrb
dmT> àmá
dñVy {dH«$s
nydu H$O©
naV\o$S> H$aUo
VmaU dñVy~m~V ImÌr
hmoUmam bm^
àmá H$aUo
1. VmaU dñVy§Mm naV Vm~m KoUo : VmaUXmVm H$Om©Mr nyU©nUo naV\o$S> Ho$ë`mZ§Va AWdm {Xboë`m
dMZmMr nyV©Vm Ho$ë`mZ§Va Amnë`m VmaU dñVy naV Amnë`m Vmã`mV KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
2. ZwH$gmZ^anmB© _mJUr H$aUo : VmaUJ¥{hË`mÀ`m {ZîH$miOrnUm_wio qH$dm Xwb©{jVnUm_wio VmaU
{Xboë`m dñVy§Mo ZwH$gmZ Pmbo Agob Va VmaUXmË`mg Aer ZwH$gmZ^anmB© H$ê$Z KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Amho.
3. VmaU dñVyV Pmbobr dmT> àmá H$aUo : VmaU dñVy_Ü`o H$mhr dmT> hmoV Agob Va Vr dmT> àmá
H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma VmaUXmË`mg AgVmo.
4. dñVy {dH«$snydu H$O© naV\o$S> H$aUo : H$Om©À`m naV\o$S>r A^mdr Ë`m dñVy§Mr {dH«$sMr gyMZm àmá
Pmbr Agob Va n«Ë`j Aem dñVy§Mr {dH«$s hmoÊ`mnydu H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> H$ê$Z VmaU dñVy àmá H$aÊ`mMm
A{YH$ma VmaUXmË`mg AgVmo. _mÌ VmaUJ¥{hË`mg Vmon`ªV dñVy gm§^miÊ`mMm Omo IM© Pmbobm Agob Ë`mMr
^anmB© H$ê$Z XoÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar dMZXmË`mda amhrb.
5. VmaU dñVy~m~V ImÌr H$ê$Z KoUo : VmaUJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV {Xboë`m VmaUdñVy§Mr `mo½` àH$mao
H$miOr KVbr OmVo qH$dm Zmhr `mMr VnmgUr H$ê$Z ImÌr H$ê$Z KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma VmaUXmË`mg AgVmo.
6. VmaU dñVy {dH«$snmgyZ hmoUmam bm^ àmá H$aUo : H$Om©À`m na\o$S>r A^mdr qH$dm dMZnyVu
A^mdr VmaU dñVy§Mr {dH«$s hmoV Agob Am{U Ë`m {dH«$sVyZ H$Om©À`m aH$_onojm OmñV a¸$_ àmá hmoV Agob
Va Aer Á`mXmMr a¸$_ àmá H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma VmaUXmË`mg AgVmo.
(~) VmaUXmË`mMr H$V©ì`o
(Duties of Pawnor )
: VmaUXmË`mMr H$V©ì`o nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
VmaUXmË`mMr H$V©ì`o
VmaU dñVyVrb Xmof
ñnï> H$aUo
VmaU H$amamMo
nmbZ H$aUo
Ho$bobm IM© naV
H$ama g_márZ§Va
dñVy naV
1. VmaUdñVyVrb Xmof VmaUJ¥{hË`mg ñnï> H$aUo : VmaU H$amamZwgma VmaU XoÊ`mV `oUmè`m dñVyV
H$mhr Xmof AgVrb AWdm CUrdm AgVrb Va `mMr ñnï> H$ënZm VmaUJ¥{hË`mg dñVy§Mo VmaU XoVmZm XoUo
VmaUXmË`mMo H$V©ì` _mZbo OmVo.
2. VmaU H$amamMo nmbZ H$aUo : VmaU H$amamZwgma dñVyÀ`m VmaUmda KoVboë`m H$Om©Mr naV\o$S>
H$aUo AWdm {Xboë`m dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm H$aUo åhUOoM VmaUXmË`mZo VmaU H$amamMo nmbZ H$aUo Amdí`H$ AgVo.
3. VmaUJ¥{hË`mZo Ho$bobm IM© naV H$aUo : VmaU J¥{hË`mZo VmaU {Xboë`m dñVyda H$mhr Agm_mÝ`
ñdê$nmMm IM© Ho$bm Agob Va Ë`m IMm©Mr ^anmB© H$ê$Z XoUo ho VmaUXmË`mMo H$V©ì` AgVo.
4. VmaU H$amag_márZ§Va dñVy naV KoUo : VmaU H$ama H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> Pmë`mZ§Va qH$dm dMZmMr
nyV©Vm Pmë`mZ§Va g_mßV hmoVmo. Agm VmaU H$ama g_má Pmë`mZ§Va dñVy naV KoUo.
VmaUJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o
(A) VmaUJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma
(Rights and Duties of Pawnee)
(Rights of Pawnee) :
VmaU H$amamZwgma Or ì`ŠVr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrH$Sy>Z VmaU {Xboë`m dñVy pñdH$maVo Ë`mg VmaU J¥{hVm Ago
åhUVmV. VmaUJ¥¥{hË`mg nwT>rb A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmV.
VmaUJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma
VmaU dñVy
Vmã`mV R>odÊ`mMm VmaUdñVy
Agm_mÝ` ñdê$nmMm
IM© dgyb
VmaU dñVy§Mm
Mm§Jbm A{YH$ma
H$O© naV\o$S>rV
VmaUXmË`mZo MyH$
Ho$br Va
{_iUmao A{YH$ma
1. VmaU dñVy Vmã`mV R>odÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : VmaU H$amamà_mUo VmaUJ¥{hË`mg VmaU {Xboë`m
dñVy~m~V {deof J«hUm{YH$ma (Particular Lien) AgVmo. Á`m_Ü`o g§nyU© H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> hmoV Zmhr Vmon`ªV
VmaU dñVy Vmo Amnë`m Vmã`mV R>ody eH$Vmo. VgoM H$Om©darb ì`mO d VmaUdñVygmR>r Ho$bobm Amdí`H$
ñdê$nmMm IM© dgyb hmoB©n`ªV Aem VmaU dñVy Amnë`m Vmã`mV R>odÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
2. H$O©dgybrgmR>r VmaU dñVy AS>{dÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : Oa EH$m H$Om©gmR>r {Xboë`m VmaUmZ§Va
Ë`mM dñVy VmaUmda VmaUJ¥{hVm Ë`mM VmaUXmË`mbm Xwgao H$O© XoV Agob d Ë`mgmR>r doJio VmaU {Xbobo
Zgob Va Xwgè`m H$Om©gmR>r XoIrb `mM dñVy VmaU g_Oë`m OmVmV. Ë`m_wio `m XmoÝhr H$Om©Mr ì`mOmgh
naV\o$S> hmoB©n`ªV VmaUJ¥{hË`mg VmaUdñVy AS>{dÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
3. Agm_mÝ` ñdê$nmMm IM© dgyb H$aUoMm A{YH$ma : VmaUJ¥{hVm VmaUdñVy gwa{jV R>odÊ`mgmR>r
H$m§hr Agm_mÝ` ñdê$nmMm IM© H$arV Agob Va Agm Agm_mÝ` IM© dgyb H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo. Agm
Agm_mÝ` IM© dgyb H$aÊ`mgmR>r Vmo VmaUXmË`m{déÕ H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. _mÌ Ë`mg `mH$[aVm
dñVy AS>{dÊ`mMm A{YH$ma ZgVmo.
4. VmaU dñVy§Mm Mm§Jbm A{YH$ma (Title) n«má H$aUo : Ooìhm VmaUdñVyda VmaUXmË`mMm Mm§Jbm
A{YH$ma ZgVmo d Ë`m dñVy VmaUJ¥{hVm gX^mdZoZo (good faith) pñdH$marV Agob Va Ë`m dñVy§Mm Ë`mg
Mm§Jbm A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmo.
5. H$O© naV\o$S>rV VmaUXmË`mZo MyH$ Ho$br Va {_iUmao A{YH$ma : VmaUXmË`mZo H$O©naV\o$S>
H$aÊ`mV MyH$ Ho$br Va VmaU J¥{hË`mg nwT>rb A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmV.
VmaUJ¥{hË`mg VmaUXmË`m{déÕ H$O©dgybrgmR>r Xmdm XmIb H$ê$ eH$Vmo d Amnë`m Vmã`mV
Agboë`m dñVy ghà{V^yVr (Collateral Security) åhUyZ AS>dyZ R>ody eH$Vmo.
VmaUXmË`mg `mo½` Vr nyd©gyMZm XodyZ VmaU dñVy§Mr {dH«$s H$ê$ eH$Vmo. `mH$arVm VmaUXmË`mg `mMr
gyMZm {Xbr OmUo Amdí`H$ AgVo.
(~) VmaUJ¥{hË`mMr H$V©ì`o
(Duties of Pawnee )
: VmaUJ¥{hË`mMr H$V©ì`o nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
VmaJ¥¥{hË`mMr H$V©ì`o
VmaU dñVy§Mr
Z H$aUo
VmaU AQ>rer
{dg§JV H$m`©
> dñVyVrb
dñVy§Mr ñdV:
naV H$aUo
1. VmaUdñVy§Mr `mo½` H$miOr KoUo : EImXr gm_mÝ`ì`ŠVr Amnë`m dñVy§Mr Oer H$miOr KoVmo
VerM H$miOr VmaUJ¥{hË`mZo Ë`mÀ`m Vmã`mV Agboë`m VmaU dñVy§Mr `mo½` H$miOr ¿`mdr bmJVo.
2. VmaUdñVy§Mm AZm{YH¥$V dmna Z H$aUo : VmaUJ¥{hË`mZo VmaUdñVy§Mm AZm{YH¥$V dmna H$ê$ Z`o.
VgoM VmaUdñVy Am{U Amnë`m dñVy `m§Mr ga{_gi H$ê$ Z`o.
3. VmaUmÀ`m AQ>rer {dg§VJ H$m`© H$ê$ Z`o : VmaUH$amamer {dg§JV hmoB©b Ago H$moUVohr H$m`©
VmaUJ¥{hË`mZo H$ê$ Z`o. VgoM VmaU hm XoIrb EH$ àH$maMm H$ama AgVmo Ë`m_wio H$amaH$m`ÚmÀ`m VaVyXtMm
^§J hmoB©b Ago H¥$Ë` H$ê$ Z`o.
4. VmaUdñVy naV H$aUo : VmaUXmË`mZo H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> Ho$br qH$dm VmaU H$amamà_mUo dMZmMr
nyV©Vm Pmë`mZ§Va VmaUdñVy VmaUXmË`mg naV H$aUo ho VmaUJ¥{hË`mMo à_wI H$V©ì` AgVo.
5. VmaUdñVyV hmoUmar dmT> naV H$aUo : VmaUJ¥{hË`mÀ`m Vmã`mV AgUmè`m dñVyV dmT> hmoV Agob
Va Vr dmT> H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> hmoVmM VmaUdñVygmo~V VmaUdñVyV Pmbobr dmT> VmaUXmË`mg naV Ho$br nm{hOo.
6. VmaUdñVy§Mr ñdV: IaoXr H$ê$ Z`o : Oa VmaUXmË`mZo H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> Ho$br Zmhr Am{U
H$O©dgybrgmR>r VmaUdñVy§Mr {dH«$s H$aÊ`mMm àg§J {Z_m©U Pmbm Va VmaUJ¥{hË`mZo dñVy{dH«$s H$aVmZm Ë`m
dñV§yMr ñdV: IaoXr H$ê$ Z`o.
7. H$O© naV\o$S>rnojm A{YH$Mr a¸$_ naV H$aUo : VmaUJ¥{hË`mZo H$O©\o$S>rgmR>r VmaUdñVy§Mr {dH«$s
H$aUma Agob Va Aem dñVy§À`m {dH«$snmgyZ {_imbobr a¸$_ H$Om©À`m a¸$_onojm OmñV Agob Va Ë`m a¸$_oVyZ
H$Om©Mr a¸$_ dOm H$ê$Z Cd©[aV Á`mXmMr a¸$_ VmaUXmË`mg naV Ho$br nm{hOo d `m VmaU dñVy {dH«$s
H$aÊ`mnydu VmaUXmË`mg nyd©gyMZm {Xbobr Agmdr.
{ZjonmMm H$ama Am{U VmaU H$ama `mVrb \$aH$
(Distinction between Baliment and Pledge)
{ZjonmMm H$ama
CÔo e
{ZjonH$amamMo dñVy§Mr XwéñVr,
gwa{jVVm, dmhVyH$ `mà_mUo
{d{dY CÔoe AgVmV.
VmaUmMm H$ama
gmdH$mamZo {Xboë`m H$Om©Mr
gwa{jVVm qH$dm H$O©XmamZo {Xboë`m
dMZmMr nyV©Vm hm VmaU H$amamMm
CÔoe AgVmo.
{ZjonmÀ`m H$amam_Ü`o {Zjo{nV
dñVy§Mm dmna {ZjonJ¥{hË`mg
H$aVm `oVmo.
{ZjonmÀ`m H$amam_Ü`o n«{V\$b
Agbo nm{hOo Ago ~§YZ Zmhr
H$maU {ZjonmMm H$ama hm {Z:ewëH$
Agy eH$Vmo.
{ZjonmÀ`m H$amam_Ü`o {ZjonJ¥{hVm
Amdí`H$ IM© Am{U Amnbm
_mo~Xbm dgyb H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`mÀ`m
Vmã`mVrb {Zjo{nV dñVy AS>dyZ
R>ody eH$Vmo, {ZjonXmË`m{déÕ Xmdm
XmIb H$ê$ eH$Vmo _mÌ dñVy {dH«$s
H$aÊ`mMm Ë`mg A{YH$ma ZgVmo.
VmaU H$amam_Ü`o VmaUJ¥¥{hË`mg
VmaU dñVy§Mm dmna H$aÊ`mMm
A{YH$ma ZgVmo.
VmaU H$amamgmR>r à{V\$b
Amdí`H$ AgVo.
VmaU H$amam_Ü`o R>a{dboë`m
H$mbmdYrV H$Om©Mr a¸$_ nyU©nUo
dgyb Pmbr Zmhr, VmaUJ¥{hVm
VmaUXmË`mg `mo½` gyMZm XodZy VmaU
{Xboë`m dñVyM§ r {dH«$s H$ê$ eH$Vmo. _mÌ
{dH«$sVyZ A{YH$ a¸$_ {_imbr Va
Vr A{YH$Mr a¸$_ VmaUXmË`mg naV
Ho$br nm{hOo.
A{^H$Vm© H$amamMr ì`m»`m, {Z{_©Vr Am{U H$amamMr g_már
Defination Creation and Discharge of contract of agency) :
(Agency Contract
(A) àñVmdZm : A{^H¥$VËd qH$dm à{V{ZYrMm H$ama hm {deof àH$maMm H$ama Amho. AmYw{ZH$H$mimVrb
_m{hVr Am{U V§ÌkmZm_wio ì`mnma ì`dgm`mMo joÌ {dñVmabo Amho. EH$Q>m ì`mdgm{`H$ ì`dgm`mMr O~m~Xmar
noby eH$V Zmhr. ~arMer H$m`} Ë`mbm BVam§H$Sy>Z H$ê$Z ¿`mdr bmJVmV. Ago ì`mdgm{`H$ Am{U Ë`m§Mo
à{V{ZYr `m§À`mVrb ì`mdgm{`H$ g§~§Ym§Zm d¡Ym{ZH$Vm àmá ìhmdr åhUyZ ^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_
182 Vo 238 _Ü`o à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amam{df`r VaVyXr {Xë`m AmhoV. gXa ^mJmV AmnU A{^H¥$VËdmÀ`m
H$amamMm AW©, {Z{_©Vr, g_már Am{U A{^H$Vm© Am{U àYmZ `m§Mo h¸$ Am{U H$V©ì`o `mMr _m{hVr KoUma
A{^H$V¥©ËdmMm H$ama - AW© (A Contract of Agency) : Á`m H$amamZwgma XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o
à{V{ZYrËdmMo g§~§Y {Z_m©U hmoVmV Ë`mg à{V{Z{YËdmMm qH$dm A{^H$V¥©ËdmMm H$ama Ago åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o
EH$ ì`ŠVr hr à_wI AgVo Va Xwgar ì`ŠVr A{^H$Vm© AgVo. A{^H$Vm© åhUOo Aer ì`ŠVr H$s {OMr {Z`wŠVr
Xwgè`mÀ`m dVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mgmR>r qH$dm {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr~amo~a ì`dhma H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ho$br OmVo. àYmZ
åhUOo Aer ì`ŠVr H$s {OÀ`mdVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mgmR>r qH$dm {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVrer H$ama H$aÊ`mgmR>r A{^H$Ë`m©Mr
Zo_UyH$ Ho$br OmVo Aer ì`ŠVr hmo`. WmoS>Š`mV àYmZ hm _mbH$ AgVmo Am{U à{V{ZYr hm Ë`m _mbH$mMm
EO§Q> AgVmo. CXm. A Zo Amnë`mdVrZo 100 nmoVr Vm§Xyi IaoXr H$aÊ`mgmR>r ~ `mMr {Z`wŠVr H$aVmo. `m
CXmhaUmV A hm àYmZ hmoVmo Va ~ hm Ë`mMm à{V{ZYr ~ZVmo. `m Xmohm|_Ü`o Omo H$ama Pmbm Ë`mg
A{^H$V¥©ËdmMm H$ama åhUVmV. A{^H$Vm© hm àYmZ Am{U {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr `mVrb Xwdm AgVmo. Vmo àYmZ
Am{U {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr `m§À`m_Ü`o H$amaË_H$ g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aVmo.
WmoS>Š`mV àYmZ ñdV: Or H$m`} H$ê$ eH$Vmo Vr H$m`} A{^H$Ë`m©_m\©$V H$adyZ Kody eH$Vmo. A{^H$Ë`m©Zo
Ho$bobr H$m`©o OUy H$mhr àYmZmZoM Ho$br AmhoV ho g_OyZ àYmZmda ~§YZH$maH$ hmoVmV.
A{^H$Vm© H$moU hmody eH$mVo ? (Who can be an Agent ?) :
1) H$moUVrhr H$amanmÌ ì`ŠVr A{^H$Vm© hmody eH$Vo.
2) AkmZ ì`ŠVr A{^H$Vm© hmody eH$Vo _mÌ {VÀ`m {ZîH$miOrnUm_wio hmoUmè`m ZwH$gmZrg àYmZ
O~m~Xma amhV Zmhr.
(~) à{V{ZYr H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr - A{^H$V©¥Ëd H$go {Z_m©U hmoVo? (How Agency is created?)
n«_wI Am{U à{V{ZYr `m§À`mVrb H$m`Xoera g§~§Ymg A{^H$V©¥Ëd Ago åhUVmV. A{^H$V©¥ËdmMm H$ama
nwT>rb _mJmªZr A{ñVËdmV `oVmo.
à{V{ZYr H$amamÀ`m {Z{_©VrMo _mJ©/nÕVr
ñnï> R>amdmZo n«{V{ZYr
H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr
J¥{hV R>amdmZo
H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr
à{V{ZYr H$amamMr
A{^H$V¥©Ëd {Z{_©Vr
H$m`ÚmÀ`m VaVyXrVyZ
à{V{ZYr H$ama
1. ñnï> H$amamZo à{V{ZYr H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr (Agency by express Authority) : A{^H$Ë`m©Mr
Zo_UyH$ Vm|S>r AWdm boIr H$amamZo hmody eH$Vo. `m H$amamZwgma àYmZ Amnë`m dVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mgmR>r
A{YH$ma à{V{ZYrg XoV AgVmo. gmYmaUV: à{V{ZYrMm boIr H$ama hm _w»Ë`ma nÌmÀ`m ñdê$nmV AgVmo.
`m _w»Ë`ma nÌmÀ`m AmYmao àYmZ à{V{ZYrbm Amnë`mdVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mgmR>rMo A{YH$ma XoV AgVmo. CXm.
A `m ì`mnmè`mZo ~ `m à{V{ZYrbm Amnë`m ì`dgm`mMo ì`dñWmnZ nmhÊ`mgmR>r dQ>_wIË`ma nÌmÀ`m AmYmao
{Z`wŠVr Ho$br. `oWo àYmZ Am{U à{V{ZYr `m§À`m_Ü`o boIr H$amamZo A{^H$V©¥ËdmMo g§~§Y {Z_m©U Pmbo AmhoV.
2. J¥{hV R>amdmZo A{^H$V¥©Ëd H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr (Agency by Implied Agreement) : O|ìhm XmoZ
ì`ŠVtMo dV©Z, g§~§Y qH$dm n[apñWVr `mdê$Z XmoZ ì`ŠVr_Ü`o à{V{Z{YËdmMo g§~§Y {Z_m©U Pmbo AmhoV Ago
g_OÊ`mV `oVo V|ìhm Ë`mg J¥{hV R>amdmZo A{^H$V¥©Ëd H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr Pmbr Ago åhUVmV.
CXm. A Am{U ~ {_Ì AmhoV. A nwÊ`mV amhVmo. A Zo Amnbo nwÊ`mVrb Ka ^mS>çmZo {Xbo Amho. ~ A
À`m KamÀ`m ^mS>çmMr a¸$_ n«Ë`oH$ _{hÝ`mg dgyb H$aVmo Am{U AH$S>o nmR>{dVmo. `oWo A Am{U ~ `m§À`mV
boIr R>amd Pmbobm Zgbm Var Ë`m§À`mV A{^H¥$V©ËdmMo g§~§Y AmhoV ho Ë`m§À`m dV©Zmdê$Z ñnï> hmoVo. åhUyZ
`mg J¥{hV R>amdmZo A{^H$V¥©Ëd H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr Ago åhUVmV. `m J¥{hV R>amdmZo {Z_m©U hmoUmè`m A{^H$V¥©Ëd/
à{V{ZYr H$amamMo nwT>rbà_mUo àH$ma nS>VmV.
à{V~§YmË_H$ A{^H$V¥©Vd (Agency by Estoppel) : Ooìhm EImXr ì`ŠVr Amnbr dV©UyH$ qH$dm
H¥$Vr qH$dm dŠVì` (boIr dm Vm|S>r) `m§À`m _mÜ`_mZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg EImXr Jmoï> qH$dm n[apñWVr ApñVËdmV
Agë`mMm {dœmg H$amd`mg bmdVo na§Vw àË`jmV Vr n[apñWVr ApñVËdmV ZgVo V|ìhm Ago dŠVì` qH$dm
H¥$Vr H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg Amnë`m H¥$VrMm, dŠVì`mMm qH$dm dV©ZmMm ZH$ma H$aVm `oUma Zmhr. `mbmM
ZH$mamË_H$ A[^H$V¥©Ëd åhUVmV. `mV EImXr ì`ŠVr Amnë`m dV©ZmZo qH$dm Vm|S>r dŠVì`mZo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg
AmnU {Vgè`m ì`ŠVrMm A{^H$Vm© Agë`mMo ^mg{dV AgVo. (na§Vw àË`jmV Vr ì`ŠVr A{^H$Vm© ZgVo)
Am{U `mg {Vgar ì`ŠVr Amjon KoV Zmhr V|ìhm Ë`m Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrZo n{hë`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m H¥$Vrda {dídmg R>odyZ
EImXm H$ama Ho$bm Va Ë`m ì`dhmamMr O~m~Xmar A{^H$Vm© Amho Ago ^mg{dUmè`m ì`ŠVrbm Q>miVm `oUma
Zmhr. VgoM Vr {Vgar ì`ŠVr XoIrb à_wI åhUyZ O~m~Xma amhrb.
CXm. A ~ À`m CnpñWVrV H$ bm gm§JVmo H$s, Vmo A ~ Mm à{V{ZYr Amho. àË`jmV Vmo Ë`mMm A{^H$Vm©
ZgVmo. ~ `mda H$moUVmhr Amjon KoV Zmhr. A hm ~ Mm à{V{ZYr Amho Ago g_OyZ H$ A bm 50000 é.
Mm _mb CYmarda {dH«$s H$aVmo. Aemdoir ~ da àYmZ `m ZmË`mZo CYma _mbmMr a¸$_ H$ bm XoÊ`mMr
O~m~Xmar `oVo. Ë`mg ZmH$maVm `oUma Zmhr.
àXe©ZmZo à{V{Z{YËd (Agency by Holding out) : àXe©ZmZo à{V{Z{YËd åhUOo AemàH$maMo
à{V{Z{YËd H$s Oo {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mgmR>r ñdV: àYmZ Amnë`m dV©ZmZo qH$dm H¥$VrZo à{V{ZYr Am{U AmnUm_Ü`o
A{^H$V¥©ËdmMo g§~§Y Agë`mMo ^mg{dVmo V|ìhm Ë`mg àXe©ZmZo à{V{Z{YËd {Z_m©U H$aUo Ago åhUVmV.
à{V~§YmË_H$ A{^H$V¥Ë© d Am{U àXe©ZmZo A{^H$V¥Ë© d `mV _hÎdmMm \$aH$ Agm H$s à{V~§YmË_H$ à{V{ZYrËdm_Ü`o
ZH$mamË_H$ H¥$Vr AWdm dV©Z `mVyZ A{^H$V¥©Ëd {Z_m©U hmoVo Va àXe©ZmZo {Z_m©U hmoUmao A{^H$V¥©Ëd ho
hmoH$mamË_H$ H¥$Vr qH$dm dV©Z `mVyZ {Z_m©U hmoV AgVo.
CXm. A hm ~ Mm ZmoH$a AgyZ Vmo Ë`m§À`mdVrZo Zoh_r H$ À`m XwH$mZmVyZ CYmarda dñVy IaoXr H$amd`mMm
d ~ Ë`mZo IaoXr Ho$boë`m _mbmMo n¡go XoV Ago. A Zo ~ Mr ZmoH$ar gmoS>ë`mZ§Va H$ À`m XwH$mZmVyZ _mb
CYmarda IaoXr Ho$bm Va `oWo ~ Zo Ë`m _mbmMo n¡go {Xbo nm{hOo. H$maU nydu Pmboë`m ì`dhmam_Ü`o A hm
Amnbm à{V{ZYr Amho Ago ~ Zo _mÝ` Ho$bo Amho.
JaOoZwgma à{V{ZYrËdmMr {Z{_©Vr (Agency by Necessity) : H$m§hrdoim Aer n[apñWVr
{Z_m©U hmoVo H$s EH$m ì`ŠVrbm Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrZo A{YH¥$V Ho$bobo ZgVmZmhr JaO åhUyZ EImXo H$m`© H$amdo
bmJVo, Aem H$m`m©g Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrMr H$m`© H$aÊ`mnydu g§_Vr KoVbobr ZgVo. VargwÕm Ago A{^H$V¥©Ëd
{Z_m©U Pmë`mMo H$m`Xm _mZVmo V|ìhm Ë`mg JaOoVyZ A{^H$V¥©Ëd {Z{_©VrMm H$ama åhUVmV. JaOoVyZ à{V{ZYrËd
{Z_m©U hmoÊ`mgmR>r nwT>rb AQ>tMr nyV©Vm hmoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo.
(1) àYmZmÀ`mdVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mMr IamoIa Amdí`H$Vm {Z_m©U ìhmdr bmJVo.
(2) à{V{ZYrZo gX²^mdZoZo H$m`© Ho$bo Agmdo d Vo H$m`© àYmZmÀ`m {hVmgmR>r Agmdo.
(3) H$m`© H$aVmZm àYmZmer g§nH©$ gmYZo AeŠ` Agbo nm{hOo.
CXm. A Zo ~ bm _w§~B©dê$Z ZmJnyabm ^mOrnmë`mZo ^abobm Q´>H$ nmR>{dbm. ^mOrnmë`mZo ^abobm Q´>H$
àdmgmV AgVmZm AnKmV Pmbm. ^mOrnmbm hr Zmed§V dñVy Agë`mZo Q´>H$MmbH$mZo Vm~S>Vmo~ A bm Z
{dMmaVm ^mOrnmbm {dHy$Z Q>mH$bm. `oWo Q´>H$ MmbH$mZo ^mOrnmë`mMo Ho$bobr {dH«$s A da ~§YZH$maH$ hmoVo
H$maU JaOoVyZ à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr Pmbr Ago _mZbo OmVo.
3. nwîQ>rH$aUmZo qH$dm Ho$boë`m H$m`m©g g§_Vr XodyZ à{V{ZYrËd {Z_m©U H$aUo (Agency by
Ratification) : O|ìhm EH$ ì`ŠVr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg _m{hVr Z XoVm qH$dm Ë`mMm AmXoe àmá Z hmoVmM Ë`m
Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrgmR>r EImXo H¥$Ë`/H$m`© H$aVo d Z§Va Ë`m H$m`m©g Ë`mMr g§_Vr KoVo V|ìhm `m XmoÝhr ì`ŠVr_Ü`o
nwï>rH$aUmZo à{V{Z{YËd H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr Pmë`mMo _mZbo OmVo. H$m`m©Mo nwï>rH$aU Ho$ë`mZ§Va qH$dm H$m`m©g Z§Va
g§_Vr {Xë`mZ§Va àYmZ à{V{ZYrZo Ho$boë`m H$m`m©Mr O~m~Xmar Q>miy eH$V Zmhr. CXm. A Zo ~ bm Z
H$i{dVmM Ë`mÀ`mgmR>r _w§~B©dê$Z _mo~mB©b \$moZ IaoXr H$ê$Z AmUbm. ~ hm _mo~mB©b \$moZ pñdH$mê$ eH$Vmo
qH$dm ZmH$mê$ eH$Vmo. ~ Zo A Zo AmUbobm _mo~mB©b \$moZMm pñdH$ma H$ê$Z A À`m ì`dhmamg _mÝ`Vm {Xë`mg
A hm ~ Mm à{V{ZYr ~ZVmo. Ë`m_wio A Zo Ho$boë`m _mo~mB©b \$moZ IaoXrÀ`m ì`dhmamg ~ O~m~Xma amhVmo.
4. H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXr_wio {Z_m©U hmoUmao à{V{Z{YËd (Agency by Operation of Law) :
H$m§hrdoim H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXr bmJy Pmë`m_wio à{V{ZYr H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr hmoVo. Aem àH$maMo à{V{Z{YËd ho
J¥{hV AgVo. H§$nZr H$m`ÚmZwgma O|ìhm H§$nZrMr ñWmnZm Ho$br OmVo V|ìhm H§$nZrMr ñWmnZm H$aUmao àdV©H$
ho A{^H$V} ~ZVmV d Ë`m§Zm H§$nZrMo A{^H$V} åhUyZ H$m`© H$amdo bmJVo. VgoM ^maVr` ^m{JXmar H$m`Xm
1932 _Yrb H$b_ 18 d 19 à_mUo O|ìhm EImXm ^mJrXma ^mJrXmar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`dgm`mV g{H«$` ^mJ KoVmo
V|ìhm Vmo BVa ^mJrXmam§Mm à{V{ZYr ~ZVmo d Ë`mZo Ho$boë`m gd© H$m`Xoera ì`dhmam§Zm BVa gd© ^mJrXma ho àYmZ
åhUyZ O~m~Xma amhVmV. åhUyZ ^mJrXmar g§ñWoMr {Z{_©Vr hr H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXrVyZ {Z_m©U hmoUmè`m à{V{ZYrËd
H$amamMo CÎm_ CXmhaU Amho.
(H$) à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr g_már (Termination of Contract of Agency) :
à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr g_már åhUOo àYmZ Am{U A{^H$Vm© `m§À`m_Ü`o H$amamZo ApñVËdmV Ambobo
H$m`Xoera g§~§Y g§nwï>mV `oUo hmo`. n«{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamMr g_már nwT>rb nÕVrZo hmody eH$Vo.
à{V{ZYrËd H$amamÀ`m g_márÀ`m nÕVr
à{V{ZYrËd H$amamVrb ì`ŠVtÀ`m H¥$Vr_wio
àYmZmZo à{V{ZYrMo
A{YH$ma H$mTy>Z
H$mbmdYr g§në`m_wio
àYmZ d à{V{ZYr
ho naH$s` eÌy
H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXr_wio
Ë`mJ Ho$ë`mg
àYmZ qH$dm à{V{ZYr
`mn¡H$s EH$mMm
_¥Ë`y Pmë`mg
H$amamMr {df`
dñVy Zï>
à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr
A§_b~OmdUr Pmë`mg
(A) à{V{ZYrËd H$amamVrb ì`ŠVtÀ`m H¥$Vr_wio (By Act of Parties) : à{V{ZYr H$amamVrb
g§~§{YV ì`ŠVtÀ`m H¥$Vr_wio à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr g_már Imbrbn¡H$s EH$m nÕVrZo hmoVo.
1.nañnamVrb R>amdm_wio (By Mutual Agreement) : àYmZ Am{U à{V{ZYr `m§Zr à{V{ZYrËdmMo
g§~§Y g_má H$aÊ`mgmR>r ñdoÀN>oZo nañnam§V à{V{ZYrËd H$ama g_márMm R>amd H$ê$Z Ë`mZwgma à{V{ZYrËdmMm
H$ama g§nwï>mV AmUy eH$VmV.
2. àYmZmZo n«{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma H$mTy>Z KoVë`mg (By Revocation of Authority by Principal): àYmZ hm à{V{ZYrg Amnë`mdVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma àXmZ H$arV AgVmo. Oa àYmZmZo
à{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma H$mTy>Z KoVë`mg à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamMr g_már hmoVo. _mÌ à{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma H$mTy>Z
KoÊ`mnydu Imbrb AQ>tMr nyV©Vm hmoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo.
(1) à{V{ZYrËdmMo H$m`© gwê$ hmoÊ`mnyduM à{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma H$mTy>Z KoVm `oVrb.
(2) à{V{ZYrËdmMo H$m`© gwê$ Pmbo Agob Am{U Vo aÔ H$amd`mMo Agob Va àYmZmZo à{V{ZYrbm Am{U
Ì`ñW ì`ŠVtZm `m~m~V `mo½` gyMZm {Xë`m nm{hOoV.
(3) {d{eï> _wXVrMm à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama Agob Am{U Vr _wXV g§nÊ`mnydu H$ama aÔ H$amd`mMm Agob
Va à{V{ZYrg A{YH$ma aÔ H$aÊ`mMr gyMZm {Xbr nm{hOo. Aer gyMZm Z XoVm à{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma H$mTy>Z
KoVë`mg Ë`m_wio A{^H$Ë`m©Mo Oo ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b Ë`mMr ^anmB© àYmZmZo Ho$br nm{hOo.
3. à{V{ZYrZo à{V{ZYrËdmMm Ë`mJ H$o$ë`mg (By Renunciation of agency by the agent) :
A{^H$Vm© Amnë`m àYmZmg `mo½` boIr gyMZm XodyZ à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama g_má H$ê$ eH$Vmo. Oa à{V{ZYrËdmMm
H$ama {d{eï> _wXVrgmR>r Agob Am{U Vr _wXV g§nÊ`mnydu à{V{ZYrbm à{V{ZYrËd g§ndmd`Mo Agob Va
`m~m~V à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmg nyd©gyMZm {Xbr nm{hOo. VgoM _wXVnyd© à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama g§nwï>mV AmUë`m_wio
àYmZmMo Oo ZwH$gmZ hmoB©b Ë`mMr ^anmB© H$aÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar à{V{ZYrda AgVo. à{V{ZYr hm ñnï>nUo ì`ŠV
H$ê$Z qH$dm J¥{hV H¥$VrÛmao à{V{ZYrËdmMm Ë`mJ H$ê$Z à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama g_má H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
(~) H$m`ÚmVrb VaVyXr_wio à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr g_már
(By Operation of Law)
Imbrb H$maUm_wio H$m`ÚmVrb VaVwXrZygma AmnmoAmn à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
1. à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$mbmdYr g§në`mg : Ooìhm EImÚm {d{eï> H$mbmdYrgmR>r à{V{ZYrMr
{Z`wŠVr Ho$br OmVo. Voìhm Vmo H$mbmdYr nyU© Pmbm H$s AmnmoAmn à{V{ZYrËdMm H$ama g_má hmoVmo.
2. àYmZ qH$dm à{V{Yr `mn¡H$s EH$mMm _¥Ë`y Pmë`mg : àYmZ qH$dm à{V{ZYr `mn¡H$s EImXm
_¥Ë`y nmdbm AWdm doS>m Pmbm H$s à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama AmnmoAmn g_má hmoVmo. na§Vw O|ìhm àYmZmMm _¥Ë`y
hmoVmo AWdm Vmo doS>ga R>aVmo V|ìhm Ë`mÀ`m H$m`Xoera dmagm§Mo {hVg§~§Y gwa{jV R>odÊ`mMr g§nyU© O~m~Xmar
à{V{ZYrda AgVo.
3. àYmZ {XdmiImoa Pmë`mg : àYmZ {XdmiImoa åhUyZ Kmo{fV Pmë`mg à{V{ZYrMm H$ama g_má
hmoVmo. Aem n[apñWVrV à{V{ZYrZo Amnë`m àYmZmMo {hVg§~§Y gwa{jV R>odbo nm{hOoV. à{V{Z{YËd H$amamÀ`m
H$mbmdYrV à{V{ZYr {XdmiImoa Pmbm Varhr à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama g_má hmoVmo.
4. à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamMr {df`dñVy Zï> Pmë`mg : à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr {df`dñVy Zï>
Pmë`mg à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama g_má hmoVmo. CXm. A hm {d_m EO§Q> Amho. {d_m H§$nZrZo Ë`mg EH$m H§$nZrÀ`m
JmoS>mdyZMm {d_m CVa{dÊ`mg nmR>{dbo. na§Vw JmoS>mdyZMm {d_m CVa{dÊ`mnyduM Vo JmoS>mdyZ AmJrV OiyZ ^ñ_
Pmbo. åhUOoM à{V{ZYrËd H$amamMr {df`dñVy Zï> Pmbr `m_wio à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
5. àYmZ d à{V{ZYr ho naH$s` eÌy ~Zë`mg : O|ìhm àYmZ Am{U à{V{ZYr ho doJdoJù`m Xoem§V
amhVmV V|ìhm Vo EH$_oH$m§Mo {_Ì AgVmV. na§Vw Oa `m XmoZ Xoem_Ü`o `wÕ gwê$ Pmbo Va Vo nañnam§Mo eÌy ~ZVmV.
Ë`m_wio Ë`m§À`mVrb à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama g_má hmoVmo. `wÕ Mmby Agon`ªV n«{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama hm ñW{JV
hmoVmo dm aÔ hmoVmo.
6. H§$nZrMo {dgO©Z Pmë`mg : O|ìhm EImXr H§$nZr hr àYmZ qH$dm à{V{ZYr åhUyZ H$m`© H$arV
AgVo. Aem H§$nZrMo O|ìhm {dgO©Z hmoVo V|ìhm AmnmoAmn à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
7. à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamMr A§_b~OdUr Pmë`mg : àYmZ Am{U à{V{ZYr `m§Zr à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m
H$amamà_mUo nañnam~m~VÀ`m dMZm§Mr nyV©Vm Ho$br åhUOo à{V{Z{YËd H$amamMr g_már hmoVo.
2.2.10 A{^H$Vm©/à{V{ZYr Am{U àYmZ `m§Mo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o :
(Rights and Duties of Agent and Principal) :
(A) A{^H$Vm©/à{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma
(Roghts of an Agent)
à{V{ZYrg Amnë`m àYmZm{déÕ nwT>rb A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmo.
n«{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma
a¸$_ AS>dyZ
H$m`Xoera H$m`©dm{h_wio Pmboë`m
ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB©
_mJUr H$aÊ`mMm
1. a¸$_ AS>dyZ R>odÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : àYmZmÀ`mdVrZo Ë`mÀ`m ì`dhmamVrb {d{dY ~m~rda aH$_m
pñdH$maÊ`mMm A{YH$ma à{V{ZYrg AgVmo. Aem àmá Pmboë`m aH$_m àYmZmH$Sy>Z Ë`mÀ`m H$m`m©Mm _mo~Xbm,
Ë`mZo ñdV: Ho$bobm IM© Am{U àYmZmg AJmD$ {Xboë`m aH$_m àmá hmoB©n`ªV àYmZmMr O_m a¸$_ AS>dyZ
R>odÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
2. _mo~Xbm àmá H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : à{V{ZYrg à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamZwgma {ZpíMV Ho$bobm
Ë`mÀ`m H$m`m©Mm _mo~Xbm _mJUr H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ AgVmo. à{V{ZYrg Ë`mMo H$m`© nyU© Ho$ë`mZ§Va Vm~S>Vmo~
_mo~Xbm {_imbm nm{hOo. H$amamV _mo~Xbm {ZpíMV R>abm Zgob Va à{V{ZYr àYmZmH$Sy>Z `mo½` _mo~Xbm
_mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo. VgoM à{V{ZYrZo Amnë`m H$m`m©V {ZîH$miOrnUm XmI{dV Agob qH$dm J¡adV©Z H$arV
Agob Va OodT>o H$m`© Ë`mZo MyH$sMo Ho$bo Agob Ë`m H$m`m©Mm _mo~Xbm Ë`mg _mJUr H$aVm `oUma Zmhr.
3. _mbmdarb Vm~oh¸$ dmnaÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : Oa H$amamV doJim C„oI Zgob Va à{V{ZYr hm
Ë`mÀ`m àYmZmH$Sy>Z `oUo Agbobo H${_eZ, _mo~Xbm, Ho$bobm IM© d A°S>ìhmÝg dgyb hmoB©n`ªV Ë`mÀ`m
Vmã`mV n«YmZmÀ`m Agboë`m MbdñVy, H$mJXnÌo Am{U AMb_mb_Îmm AS>dyZ R>odÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo
`mbmM _mbmdarb Vm~oh¸$ Ago åhUVmV.
4. H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr_wio Pmboë`m ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© _mJÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : à{V{ZYrËdmMo
H$m`© H$arV AgVmZm à{V{ZYrg H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhrg gm_moao Omdo bmJVo. Ë`mgmR>r Ë`mbm ñdV: H$mhr IM©hr
H$amdm bmJVmo. V|ìhm Agm Pmbobm gZXera IM© àYmZmH$Sy>Z dgyb H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo. VgoM
H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr_wio H$mhr ZwH$gmZ ghZ H$amdo bmJbo Va Ë`m ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© _mJUr H$aÊ`mMm
A{YH$ma AgVmo.
5. ZwH$gmZ^anmB© _mJÊ`mMm h¸$ : Oa àYmZmÀ`m {ZîH$miOrnUm_wio qH$dm Vm§{ÌH$ H$m¡eë`mÀ`m
A^mdm_wio à{V{ZYrbm H$mhr BOm Pmbr AWdm ZwH$gmZ ghZ H$amdo bmJV Agob Va à{V{ZYr Aem Pmboë`m
ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© H$aÊ`mgmR>r a¸$_ àYmZmH$Sy>Z _mJUr H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
6. àdmgmVrb _mb AS>{dÊ`mMm h¸$ : à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmH$[aVm ñdV:À`m n¡emVyZ _mbmMr IaoXr
Ho$br Agob Va Vmo Ë`m n¡emMr dgybr H$aÊ`mgmR>r àdmgmV Agboë`m àYmZmÀ`m dñVy AS>dyZ Amnë`m
Vmã`mV Kody eH$Vmo. VgoM Ë`mZo àYmZmÀ`mdVrZo IaoXr Ho$boë`m _mbmMr qH$_V XoÊ`mMr h_r KoVbr Agob
Va _mbmMr qH$_V {Xbr OmÊ`mgmR>r àYmZmH$S>o nmR>{dÊ`mV Ambobm _mb àdmgmV AS>dyZ Amnë`m Vmã`mV
Kody eH$Vmo.
(~) A{^H$Vm©/à{V{ZYrMr H$V©ì`o
(Duties of an Agent)
à{V{ZYr hm àYmZÀ`mdVrZo Zoh_r H$m`© H$arV AgVmo. Ë`m_wio `m à{V{ZYrg àYmZmàVr nwT>rb H$V©ì`o
nma nmS>mdr bmJVmV.
à{V{ZYrMr H$V©ì`o
H$m`© H$aUo
à{V{ZYrËd H$m`m©gmR>r
`mo½` H$m¡eë` d
n[al_ `m§Mm dmna H$aUo
àmá Pmboë`m a¸$_m
Ë`mg naV H$aUo
àYmZmMo {hVg§~Y§
`mo½` {heo~
gmXa H$aUo
àYmZmer g§nH©$
ZmdmZo ì`dhma
Z H$aUo
n«YmZmÀ`m ì`dgm`mMr
àmá _m{hVr
Jwá R>odUo
{hVg§~§Ymg YmoH$m
Z nmohM{dUo
àXmZ Z
1. àYmZmÀ`m AmXoemà_mUo H$m`© H$aUo : àË`oH$ à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmZo KmbyZ {Xboë`m A{YH$ma_`m©XoV
amhÿZ H$m`© H$aUo ho _yb^yV H$V©ì` _mZbo OmVo. VgoM ho H$m`© H$aVmZm àYmZmMo doimodoir _mJ©Xe©Z KoUoXoIrb
Amdí`H$ AgVo. `mMmM AW© à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmÀ`m AmXoemZwgma H$m`© Ho$bo nm{hOo. àYmZmH$Sy>Z à{V{ZYrg
ñnï> AmXoe ZgVrb Va Ë`mZo ì`mnmar àWoZwgma H$m`© Ho$bo nm{hOo. Oa à{V{ZYr àYmZmÀ`m AmXoem§Mo C„§KZ
H$arV Agob Va Ë`mgmR>r Vmo àYmZmg O~m~Xma amhVmo.
2. à{V{ZYrËdmMo H$m`© H$aVmZm `mo½` H$m¡eë` d n[al_mMm dmna H$aUo : à{V{ZYrZo
à{V{ZYrËdmMo H$m`© H$aVmZm `mo½` H$m¡eë` d n[al_ `m§Mm dmna Ho$bm nm{hOo. à{V{ZYr Mmb{dV Agboë`m
ì`dgm`mgmaIm ì`dgm` AÝ` ì`ŠVr `m OodT>çm H$m¡eë`mZo Mmb{dVmV VodT>çmM VmH$VrZo Am{U H$m¡eë`mMm
dmna H$ê$Z àYmZmMm ì`dgm` Mmb{dbm nm{hOo. Oa ì`dgm` Mmb{dVmZm à{V{ZYrMo H$mhr H$gya Ho$br d
Ë`m_wio àYmZmMo ZwH$gmZ Pmbo Va Ë`mZo Aem ZwH$gmZmMr ^anmB© Ho$br nm{hOo. à{V{ZYrÀ`m {ZîH$miOrnUm_wio
àYmZmÀ`m ì`dgm`mMo OodT>o ZwH$gmZ Pmbo Agob VodT>rM ^anmB© H$aUo ho à{V{ZYrMo H$V©ì` _mZbo OmVo.
3. `mo½`doir {heo~ gmXa H$aUo : à{V{ZYrZo à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m g§nyU© ì`dhmam§Mm {~ZMyH$ {heo~
R>odbm nm{hOo. VgoM àYmZmZo _mJUr H$aVmjUr Vo {heo~ VmËH$mi gmXa Ho$bo nm{hOoV. à{V{ZYrZo Zoh_r
ñdV:Mo d¡`{ŠVH$ ì`dhma Am{U à{V{ZYrËdmMo ì`dhma `m§Mo {heo~ ñdV§ÌnUo R>odbo nm{hOoV.
4. àYmZmer g§nH©$ gmYUo : à{V{ZYrZo Zoh_r Amnë`m àYmZmer MMm© H$ê$Z Amnbo H$m`© Ho$bo
nm{hOo. {deofV: O|ìhm Ooìhm AS>MUrMo àg§J `oVrb Ë`m Ë`mdoir àYmZmMm g„m KodyZM H$m`© Ho$bo nm{hOo.
àYmZmÀ`m g§_Vr{edm` à{V{ZYrg àYmZmMm ì`dgm` H$aVm `oV Zmhr. àYmZmÀ`m g§_Vr{edm` ì`dgm`
Ho$bm Va Ë`mg à{V{ZYr d¡`{ŠVH$[aË`m O~m~Xma Yabm OmVmo. àË`oH$doir àYmZmer g„m_gbV H$ê$ZM
à{V{ZYrZo H$m`© H$amdo Aer Anojm AgVo. na§Vw AmUr~mUrÀ`m n[apñWVrV àYmZmer g§nH©$ gmYUo eŠ` Zgob
Va gX²gX²{ddoH$ ~wÕrMm dmna H$ê$Z à{V{ZYrZo H$m`© Ho$bo nm{hOo.
5. à{V{ZYrZo ñdV:À`m ZmdmZo ì`dhma H$ê$ Z`o : à{V{ZYrËd H$amamà_mUo gd© H$m`}hr àYmZmÀ`m
ZmdmZoM H$aUo ho à{V{ZYrMo AmÚH$V©ì` _mZbo OmVo. Oa à{V{ZYr hm àYmZmÀ`m g§_Vr{edm` ñdV:À`m
ZmdmZo ì`dgm`Vrb ì`dhma H$arV Agob Va Aem ì`dhmam§Zm Vmo d¡`{ŠVH$[aË`m O~m~Xma amhVmo. VgoM Aem
ì`dhmamVyZ ZwH$gmZ Pmbo Va Ë`m ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© Ho$br nm{hOo d Aem ì`dhmamVyZ Z\$m Pmbm Agob Va
àYmZ Agm Z\$m dgyb H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
6. àYmZmÀ`mdVrZo àmá a¸$_m naV H$aUo : àYmZmgmR>r H$m`© H$aVmZm Ë`À`m ì`dgm`mVrb
ì`dhmamnmgyZ àmá hmoUmè`m gd© aH$_m àYmZmg XoUo ho à{V{YrMo gdm©V _hÎdmMo H$V©ì` _mZbo OmVo. AWm©V
Aem àmá aH$_oVyZ ñdV:Mm _mo~Xbm, ì`dgm` Mmb{dÊ`mgmR>r Ho$bobm IM© Am{U àYmZmg AJmD$ {Xboë`m
aH$_m `m§Mr H$nmV H$ê$Z Kody eH$Vmo.
7. àYmZmMo {hVg§~§Y gwa{jV R>odUo : àYmZmMm _¥Ë`y Pmë`mg qH$dm Vmo doS>ga Pmbm Va
n«{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama g_má hmoVmo. VarXoIrb àYmZmZo à{V{ZYrda {dídmg Xe©{dbobm AgVmo åhUyZ à{V{ZYrZo
àYmZmÀ`m _mb_ÎmoMo d àYmZmÀ`m H$m`Xoera dmagm§Mo {hVg§~§Y gwa{jV R>odUo _hÎdmMo H$V©ì` _mZbo OmVo.
8. àYmZmÀ`m ì`dgm`mMr àmßV _m{hVr Jwá R>odUo : à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamZwgma àYmZmÀ`m
ì`dgm`mMr g{dñVa _m{hVr à{V{ZYrg àmá hmoV AgVo. Aem àmá _m{hVr~m~V JwáVm ~miJUo Amdí`H$
AgVo. Aer _m{hVr BVam§Zm {Xë`m_wio àYmZmMo ZwH$gmZ hmoUma Agob Va Aem ZwH$gmZrg à{V{ZYr O~m~Xma
Yabm OmVmo.
9. n«YmZmÀ`m {hVg§~§Ymg YmoH$m Z nmohM{dUo : à{V{ZYrZo Zoh_r àYmZmÀ`m {hVg§~§Ym§Zm àYmÝ`
{Xbo nm{hOo. O|ìhm à{V{ZYrMo d¡`{ŠVH$ {hVg§~§Y Am{U àYmZmMo {hVg§~§Y `mV {ddmX {Z_m©U hmoVmo V|ìhm
Ë`mZo àYmZmMo {hVg§§Y gwa{jV R>odÊ`mg àmYmÝ` {Xbo nm{hOo. AÝ`Wm àYmZ H$ama aÔ H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
10. àYmZmÀ`m g§_Vr{edm` A{YH$mam§Mo àXmZ Z H$aUo : n«{V{ZYrZo Ë`mg gmon{dbobo H$m`© ñdV:
H$amd`Mo AgVo. Ë`m H$m`m©Mr O~m~Xmar BVam§da gmondyZ MmbUma Zmhr. åhUOoM àYmZmÀ`m g§_Vr{edm`
à{V{ZYrZo Amnbo A{YH$ma Xwgè`mg àXmZ H$ê$ Z`o AÝ`Wm Vmo d¡`{ŠVH$ O~m~Xma amhrb.
(H$) àYmZmMo A{YH$ma (Rights of Principal) :
à{V{ZYrÀ`m H$V©ì`mMm {dMma H$aVm Ago {XgyZ `oVo H$s à{V{ZYrMr H$V©ì`o hr àYmZmMo A{YH$ma
hmoVmV. åhUyZ àYmZmg Amnë`m à{V{ZYràVr nwT>rb A{YH$ma àmá hmoVmV.
àYmZmMo A{YH$ma
H$ê$Z KoUo
ì`dhmamVrb àmá
aH$_m§Mr _mJUr H$aUo
Jwá bm^
dgyb H$aUo
H$m`© H$aÊ`mg§~§Yr
gyMZm XoUo
A{YH$ma àXmZmg
g§_Vr XoUo
{heo~ _mJUr
H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$aUo
1. ZwH$gmZ^anmB© H$ê$Z KoUo : à{V{ZYr Amnë`m H$m`m©V {ZîH$miOrnUm Xe©{dV Agob qH$dm
n[al_nyd©H$ H$m`© H$arV Zgob qH$dm àYmZmÀ`m AmXoem§Mo C„§KZ H$arV Agob qH$dm ì`mnmar ê$T>rna§nam
_mo{S>V Agob Am{U Ë`m_wio àYmZmMo ZwH$gmZ hmoV Agob Va àYmZ Aem ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© à{V{ZYrH$Sy>Z
H$ê$Z Kody eH$Vmo.
2. à{V{ZYrH$Sy>Z Jwá bm^ dgyb H$aUo : àYmZmÀ`m g§_Vr{edm` àYmZmÀ`m ì`dhmamVyZ AZ{YH¥$V
Jwá bm^ à{V{ZYr {_i{dV Agob Va Aem Jwá bm^m§Mr dgybr àYmZmg H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo. VgoM
{dídg^§Jm~m~V à{V{ZYrg O~m~Xma Yê$Z ì`dhmam§Mo H${_eZ aÔ H$ê$ eH$Vmo VgoM Ì`ñW ì`ŠVrer
à{V{ZYrZo Ho$bobo H$ama aÔ H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
3. à{V{ZYrg H$m`© H$aÊ`mg§~§Yr gyMZm XoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : àYmZ à{V{ZYrbm Ë`mÀ`m
ì`dgm`mVrb ì`dhma H$aVmZm Amdí`H$ Ë`m gyMZm XoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo. Ë`mÀ`m gwMZoZwgma à{V{ZYrZo
H$m`© H$aUo ~§YZH$maH$ AgVo.
4. à{V{ZYrH$Sy>Z {heo~ _mJÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmÀ`m dVrZo Ho$boë`m ì`dhmam§Mo
gd© {hemo~ ì`dpñWV R>odUo Am{U àYmZmZo _mJVmjUr g§nyU© ì`dhmam§Mo {heo~ gmXa H$aUo ~§YZH$maH$ AgVo.
5. A{^H$V¥©ËdmÀ`m ì`dhmamVyZ àmá Pmboë`m a¸$_m§Mr _mJUr H$aUoMm h¸$ : àYmZmg
A{^H$Ë`m©Zo Ë`mÀ`m ì`dhmamV àYmZmÀ`mdVrZo Á`m aH$_m pñdH$maboë`m AgVmV Aem àmá Pmboë`m
aH$_m§Mr _mJUr H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
6. A{YH$ma àXmZmg g§_Vr XoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmg Ho$boë`m {dZ§VrZwgma Ë`mÀ`m
A{YH$mam§Mo Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg àXmZ H$aÊ`mg g§_Vr XoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
7. H$ama^§JmgmR>r H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma : à{V{ZYr àYmZmÀ`m ì`dgm`mVrb
ì`dhma H$aVmZm A{^H$V¥©ËdmÀ`m H$amamMm ^§J H$arV Agob Va Ë`mÀ`mda H$m`Xoera H$m`©dmhr H$aÊ`mMm
A{YH$ma AgVmo.
(S>) àYmZmMr H$V©ì`o (Duties of Principal) :
à{V{ZYrMo A{YH$ma åhUOo àYmZmMr H$V©d`o AgVmV. åhUyZ àYmZmMr à{V{ZYrÀ`m àVr H$V©ì`o
nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV.
àYmZmMr A{YH$ma
à{V{ZYrg Ë`mÀ`m
Ho$bobm IM©
naV H$aUo
à{V{ZYrg `mo½` Cnà{V{ZYr Zo_UyH$sg
gmo`r gdbVrMm
bm^ CnbãY H$aUo
1. à{V{ZYrg Ë`mÀ`m H$m`m©Mm _mo~Xbm XoUo : à{V{ZYrMo à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamZwgma Ho$boë`m
H$m`m©Mm _mo~Xbm Am{U H${_eZ XoUo ho àYmZmMo à_wI H$V©ì` _mZbo OmVo.
2. à{V{ZYrg ZwH$gmZ^anmB© XoUo : à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmH$[aVm gX²gX²{ddoH$ ~wÕrZo EImXo H$m`© Ho$bo
Agob Am{U Ë`m_wio Ë`mbm ZwH$gmZ ghZ H$amdo bmJbo Va à{V{ZYrÀ`m Pmboë`m ZwH$gmZrMr ^anmB© àYmZmZo
Ho$br nm{hOo.
3. à{V{ZYrZo Ho$bobm IM© naV H$aUo : à{V{ZYrZo àYmZmÀ`m dVrZo àYmZmMm ì`dgm` H$aVmZm
ñdV: H$mhr IM© Ho$bm Agob Am{U Vmo IM© `mo½` H$maUmgmR>r Ho$bm Jobm Agob Va n«YmZmZo Agm IM©
à{V{ZYrg naV H$aUo ~§YZH$maH$ AgVo.
4. à{V{ZYrg `mo½` gmo`r gdbVtMm bm^ CnbãY H$ê$Z XoUo : àYmZmZo à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m
H$amamZwgma à{V{ZYrg ì`dgm` H$aÊ`mgmR>r `mo½` Aem gmo`r Am{U gdbVr CnbãY H$ê$Z {Xë`m nm{hOoV.
Oa Aem gmo`r gdbVr Z {Xë`mZo à{V{ZYrbm Amnbo H$m`© ì`dpñWV H$aVm Ambo Zmhr qH$dm ZwH$gmZ ghZ
H$amdo bmJbo Va Ë`mg àYmZ O~m~Xma Yabm OmVmo.
5. Cnà{V{ZYr Zo_UyH$sg _mÝ`Vm XoUo : à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$m`m©gmR>r Cnà{V{ZYrMr _XV KoUo
JaOoMo Agob Va àYmZmZo Cnà{V{ZYr Zo_UyH$ H$aÊ`mg g§_Vr XoÊ`mMo H$V©ì` nma nmS>mdo bmJVo.
2.3 g§H$ënZm Am{U gmam§e :
1. g§H$ënZm :
1. {Zjon - EH$m {d{eï> CÔoemZo Amnë`m dñVy§Mm Vm~m Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrg gmon{dUo `mg {Zjon Ago
2. {Zjon {df` dñVy - {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamgmR>r {df`dñVy hr H$moUVrhr Mb dñVy Agy eH$Vo.
{ZjonmÀ`m CÔoemà_mUo Aem dñVyda à{H«$`m Ho$br Omdy eH$Vo, dñVyMo ñdê$n ~Xbbo OmD$ eH$Vo qH$dm dñVy
_yi ñdê$nmV naV Ho$ë`m OmD$ eH$VmV.
3. {ZjonXmVm - dñVy§Mo àXmZ (dñVy§Mm Vm~m) XoUmè`m ì`ŠVrg {ZjonXmVm Ago åhUVmV.
4. {ZjonJ¥{hVm - Á`m ì`ŠVrg dñVyMo àXmZ Ho$bo OmVo Ë`m ì`ŠVrg {ZjonJ¥{hVm
5. J«hUm{YH$ma - Right of Lien - dñVy Amnë`m Vmã`mV R>odÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Amnë`m H$m`Xoera
H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> hmoB©n`ªV qH$dm Amnë`m A{YH$mam§Mr nyV©Vm hmoB©n`ªV H$O©XmamÀ`m dñVy Amnë`m Vmã`mV
R>odÊ`mMm A{YH$ma hmo`.
6. VmaU - Pledge - H$Om©À`m gwa{jVVogmR>r qH$dm dMZmÀ`m nyV©VogmR>r dñVy§Mm {Zjon H$aUo `mg
VmaU åhUVmV.
7. VmaU dñVy - Pledged goods - Á`m dñVy VmaU J¥{hË`mH$S>o (gmdH$mamH$S>o) ñdoÀN>oZo à{V^y{V
(Security) åhUyZ R>odë`m OmVmV Ë`m§Zm VmaU dñVy Ago åhUVmV.
8. VmaUXmVm -
- Amnë`m dñVy§Mo VmaU H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg VmaUXmVm Ago åhUVmV.
9. VmaUJ¥{hVm - Pawnee or pledgee - Á`m ì`ŠVrH$S>o dñVy `m VmaU åhUyZ R>odë`m OmVmV Ë`m
ì`ŠVrg VmaUJ¥{hVm Ago åhUVmV.
10. A{^H$Vm©/à{V{ZYr Agent - Á`m ì`ŠVrMr {Z`wŠVr Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrÀ`m dVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mgmR>r
qH$dm {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr~amo~a ì`dhma H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ho$br OmVo Ë`mg A{^H$Vm© Ago åhUVmV.
11. àYmZ/à_wI - Principal - {OÀ`m dVrZo H$m`© H$aÊ`mgmR>r qH$dm {VèhmB©V ì`ŠVr~amo~a
Amnë`mdVrZo ì`dhma H$aÊ`mgmR>r A{^H$Ë`m©Mr {Z`wŠVr H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg àYmZ/à_wI åhUVmV.
12. CnA{^H$Vm© - Sub.Agent - à{V{ZYrÀ`m ì`dgm`mV _yi A{^H$Ë`m©Zo Zo_boë`m d Ë`mÀ`m
{Z`§ÌUmImbr H$m`© H$aUmè`m ì`ŠVrg CnA{^H$Vm© Ago åhUVmV.
2. gmam§e :
^maVr` H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 124 Vo 238 _Ü`o {deof H$amam§Mr _ybVÎdo {Xbobr AmhoV. `m§Zm {deof
àH$maMo H$ama Ago åhUVmV. Aem H$amam§Mr {Z{_©Vr, nyV©Vm Am{U g_márgmR>r gd©gmYmaU H$amamMo {Z`_ d
_ybVÎdo bmJy hmoV ZmhrV. Ë`m_wio ho H$ama gd©gmYmaU gm_mÝ` H$amamnmgyZ doJio Ho$bo AmhoV d `m H$amam§À`m
{Z{_©Vr, nyV©Vm Am{U g_már~m~V XoIrb ñdV§Ì {Z`_ Ho$bo AmhoV. `m_Ü`o ZwH$gmZ^anmB©Mo, h_rMo, {ZjonmMo,
VmaUmMo Am{U A{^H$V¥©ËdmÀ`m H$amam§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. Amnë`m Aä`mgmgmR>r \$ŠV {Zjon, VmaUmMo H$ama
Am{U A{^H$V¥©ËdmMm {deof H$amamMm g_mdoe Ho$bm Amho.
{Zjon Am{U VmaUmMo H$ama ho {deof H$ama AmhoV. ^maVr` H$ama H$m`Xm H$b_ 148 Vo 181 H$b_m_Ü`o
{Zjon Am{U VmaUmÀ`m H$amamg§~§Yr VaVyXr Ho$ë`m AmhoV. `mV {Zjon åhUOo H$m`, {ZjonmMm H$ama H$gm
ApñVËdmV `oVmo, {ZjonmÀ`m H$amamV nj {H$Vr AgVmV Am{U `m {ZjonXmVm Am{U {ZjonJ¥{hVm `m§Mo
nañnam~m~V A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o H$moUVr AmhoV `mMr _m{hVr {Xbr Amho. VgoM VmaU H$amam_Ü`o VmaU
åhUOo H$m`, VmaUmMm H$ama H$gm ApñVËdmV `oVmo. VmaU H$amamgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmè`m XmoZ njm_Ü`o
VmaUXmVm H$moUmg åhUVmV, VmaUJ¥{hVm H$moU AgVmo Am{U Aem VmaUXmVm d VmaUJ¥{hVmMo A{YH$ma d
H$V©ì`o {dfX Ho$br AmhoV.
_m{hVr V§ÌkmZmÀ`m `wJmV H$moUË`mhr ì`ŠVrbm ñdV:Mr gd© H$m`©o ñdV: H$aUo AeŠ` AgVo.
ñdV:À`m ì`dgm`mVrb ñdV:Mr H$mhr H$m`} H$aÊ`mgmR>r Xwgè`m ì`ŠVrMr _XV ¿`mdr bmJVo. ì`dgm`mVrb
~arMer H$m_o BVamH$Sy>Z H$ê$Z ¿`mdr bmJVmV. Ago ì`dgm{`H$ Am{U Ë`m§Zm _XV H$aUmao à{V{ZYr
`m§À`mVrb ì`dgm{`H$ g§~§Ym§Zm H$m`XoeranUm àmá H$ê$Z XoÊ`mgmR>r H$ama H$m`ÚmÀ`m H$b_ 182 Vo 238
_Ü`o à{V{ZYrËdmÀ`m H$amamg§~§Yr VaVyXr Ho$ë`m AmhoV. `m_Ü`o à{V{ZYrËdmMm H$ama H$gm ApñVËdmV `oVmo,
à{V{ZYr H$amamMr g_már H$moUH$moUË`m nÕVrZo hmoVo Am{U A§{V_Vm n«{V{ZYr Am{U àYmZ `m§Mo EH$_oH$màVr
AgUmao h¸$ Am{U H$V©ì`o H$moUVr AmhoV `mMr _m{hVr {Xbr Amho.
ñd`§AÜ``ZmgmR>r àíZ :
1. {ZjonmMm H$ama åhUOo H$m`? Ë`mÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r gm§Jm.
2. {ZjonXmË`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o ñnï> H$am.
3. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMr {d{dY H$V©ì`o gm§Jm.
4. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMo A{YH$ma gm§Jm.
5. VmaUmMm H$ama åhUOo H$m`? VmaU H$amamMr d¡{eï>ço ñnï> H$am.
6. {ZjonmMm H$ama Am{U VmaUmMm H$ama `mVrb \$aH$ ñnîQ> H$am.
7. VmaUXmVm Ë`mMo A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o gm§Jm.
8. A{^H$V¥©Ëd g§H$ënZoMm AW© gm§JyZ {VÀ`m {Z{_©VrMo _mJ© gm§Jm.
9. à{V{ZYrËd H$ama g_márÀ`m {d{dY nÕVr ñnï> H$am.
10. à{V{ZYrMr àYmZmàVr AgUmao A{YH$ma {deX H$am.
11. àYmZmMo à{V{ZYr àVr AgUmao A{YH$ma Am{U H$V©ì`o ñnï> H$am.
Q>rnm {bhm.
1. à{V{ZYr H$amamÀ`m Amdí`H$ AQ>r
2. {ZjonJ¥{hË`mMr H$V©ì`o
3. à{V{ZYrÀ`m O~m~Xmè`m
4. J¥{hVR>amdmZo A{^H$V¥©Ëd H$amamMr {Z{_©Vr.
2.5 A{YH$ dmMZmgmR>r g§X^© J«§W :
1. S. S. Gulshan,
Mercantile Law, Excel Book, New Delhi.
2. N. D. Kapoor
Business Law, Sultanchand & Sons, New Delhi.
3. Prof. S. N. Kulkarni
Laws Regulating Business
Diamond Publication, Pune.
4. Dr. Manmohan Prasad
Principles of Business Law and Management
Himalaya Publishing House.
~r. S>r. Omoer
ì`mnma{df`H$ Am{U Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$m`Xo
AZ_mob àH$meZ, nwUo.
6. http/wwwanswers.com/topic/contracts-legal.
7. www.expertlaw.com.Expert law library.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : ì`dgm` {Z`_Z H$m`Xo{df`H$ aMZm
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
OwÝ`m nwñVH$mVrc KQ>H$-8 Z{dZ Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo KQ>H$-4 _Yrc CnKQ>H$
KQ>H$ H«$. 4
~m¡{ÕH$ g§nXm h¸$
(Intellectual Property Rights)
1. ì`mnmar {MÝh (Trade marks)
2. {deof h¸$
3. _wÐZ h¸$ (Copyrights)
4. aMZoMr Zm|XUr
(Registration of Designs)
(\$ŠV g§H$ënZm§Mm Aä`mg)
C{Ôï>o :
1. ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm h¸$mer g§~§{YV _wb^yV g§H$ënZm§Mo AmH$bZ hmoUo.
2. ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm h¸$m{df`rÀ`m H$m`Úm~m~V Om{Udm {Z_m©U H$aUo.
àñVmdZm :
~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm h¸$ ho _mZdr _ZmÀ`m {Z{_©V JmoîQ>rMo H$m`Xo{ea h¸$ hmoV. ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm nwT>rb Jmoï>tMm
{ZX}e H$aVo.
emoY, Am¡Úmo{JH$ CËnm{XV dñVyMr aMZm, gm{hË`rH$ d H$bmË_H$ H¥$Vr, à{VHo$ BË`mXr Á`m§Mm ì`mnmaì`dgm`mV dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.
~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm hr g§km H$m`ÚmMo gd©gmYmaU joÌ {ZX}{eV H$aVo. `m_Ü`o ì`mnmar {MÝh (Trademark),
{deof h¸$ (Patents), _wÐZ h¸$ (Copyrights), aMZm (Designs) d g§~§{YV h¸$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXo~m~VMm H$m`Xm hm _mZ{gH$ qH$dm g¥OZmË_H$ l_mVyZ {Z_m©U Pmboë`m g§nÎmrMm dmna d
{d{Z`moJ {Z`§{ÌV H$aVmo. hm H$m`Xm H$ënZm, emoY, {MÝho BË`mXr ñdê$nmÀ`m AÑí` g§nÎmrMo g§ajU H$aVmo.
~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm hr XmoZ àH$maÀ`m àdJm©V {d^mJVm `oVo 1) Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§nÎmr : `m_Ü`o emoY, {deof h¸$, ì`mnmar {MÝho, Am¡Úmo{JH$ aMZm, ñÌmoVm§Mo
^m¡Jmo{bH$ _mJ© BË`mXtMm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
2) _wÐZ h¸$ : `m_Ü`o gm{hpË`H$ Am{U H$bmË_H$ H¥$VtMm g_mdoe hmoVmo. CXm. H$mX§~è`m, H${dVm,
ZmQ>Ho$, {MÌnQ> Am{U g§{JVaMZm BË`mXr.
~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXoMo g_W©Z
(Justification) :
gwadmVrbm Agm àý CnpñWV hmoVmo H$s, ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXoÀ`m H$m`Xo{ea g§ajUmMr Amdí`H$Vm Amho H$m?
`mMo gd©gmYmaU g_W©Z Ago H$aVm `oB©b H$s ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm h¸$m§À`m gwa{jVVo_wio `mo½` Ë`m dV©Zw{H$bm
àmoËgmhZ {_iob.
CXm. {deofh¸$ (Patents) ì`dñWoMo Ago g_W©Z Ho$bo OmVo H$s `m_wio g§emoYH$ Ë`mMoH$S>rb _m¡ë`dmZ
Vm§{ÌH$ _m{hVrMr BVam§er XodmUKodmU H$ê$ eH$Vmo. Oa ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXoÀ`m h¸$m§À`m gwa{jVVoMm H$m`Xm ZgVm
Va ho eŠ` Pmbo ZgVo.
~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXoMo Am§Vaamï´>r` KQ>H$ :
ì`mnma d dm{UÁ`mÀ`m OmJ{V{H$H$aUm_wio ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXoÀ`m {dñVmamdaVr àM§S> à^md nS>bm Amho.
nwT>rb Am§Vaamï´>r` g§ñWm ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXoer àË`jnUo {ZJS>rV AmhoV.
1) {X n°[ag H$Z²ìhoÝeZ \$m°a X àmoQ>oŠeZ Am°\$ B§S>pñQ´>`b àm°nQ>u, 1967.
2) {X ~Z© H$Z²ìhoÝeZ \$m°a X àmoQ>oŠeZ Am°\$ {bQ>aar A°ÝS> Am{Q>©pñQ>H$ dŠg©, 1971.
3) {X amo_ H$Z²ìhoÝeZ \$m°a X àmoQ>oŠeZ Am°\$ na\$m°_©g©², àmoS>çygg©² Am°\$ \$moZmoJ«°åg A°ÝS> ~«m°S>H$mñQtJ
Am°aJZm`PoeÝg, 1961.
4) {X Q´>rQ>r Am°Z BQ>boŠÀ`wAb àm°nQ>u BZ [añnoŠQ> Am°\$ B§{Q>J«oQ>oS> g{H©$Q>g² BZ² A°Q> dm°qe½Q>Z S>r gr Am°Z
_o, 26, 1989.
5) {OZrìhm H$Z²ìhoeZ Am°Z àmoQ>oŠeZ Am°\$ Ý`y âb°ÝQ> ìham`Q>rO.
6) J°Q> A°ÝS> S>ãë`y. Q>r. Amo. A°J«r_|Q> BÝH$ë`yqS>J {Q´>n²g A°{J«_|Q>.
7) H$ZìhoÝeZ BñQ>m°pãbqeJ dëS>© B§Q>boŠÀ`yAb n«m°nQ>u Am°aJZm`PoeZ
8) noQ>oÝQ> H$moAm°naoeZ {Q´>EQ>r
9) ~wS>m noñQ> {Q´>EQ>r.
darb gd© H$ama / g§ñWm `m {d{dY joÌmVrb ~m¡ÕrH$ g§nXm h¸$mMm AdH$me {Z{üV H$aVmV. ^maV
hm Aem Am§Vaamï´>r`ñVamdarb ~hþVoH$ g§ñWm§Mm gXñ` Amho.
1. ì`mnmar {MÝh H$m`Xm - 1999
(Trademark Act 1999) :
ì`mnmar {MÝh ho Ñî` à{VH$ qH$dm {MÝh `m ê$nmV eãXê$n Ho$bobo AgVo.
ì`mnmar {MÝhm_Ü`o EH$ qH$dm Ë`mnojm A{YH$ R>iH$ eãX, Ajao, g§ñWm, aoImQ>Zo, {MÌo, à{VHo$, a§J
qH$dm BVa àH$maÀ`m {deof gmXarH$aU V§Ìm§Mm dñVyÀ`m Om{hamVrgmR>r dmna Ho$bobm AgVmo.
ì`mnmar {MÝh hr EH$ dm{UÁ` {df`H$ g§nÎmr Amho {OMm dmna CÚmoJì`dgm`H$ dm{UÁ`{df`H$
H$maUmgmR>r H$aVmV. ì`mnmar {MÝhm_wio _mbH$mbm Ë`m {MÝhmÀ`m gdªH$f dmnam~m~V {Za§Va h¸$ {_iVmo.
ì`mnmar {MÝhmMr Zm|XUr Ho$ë`m_wio ì`mdgm{`H$mbm Ë`m {MÝhmÀ`m dmnam~m~VMm gd©ñdr h¸$ àmá
hmoVmo. ì`mnmar {MÝhmÀ`m H$m`ÚmMm hoVy hm Ë`m {MÝhm~m~V Zm|XUr CnbãY H$ê$Z XoUo, {MÝhmMr gwa{jVVm
d {MÝhmMm J¡admna amoIZo hm Amho. Oa EImÚmZo ì`mnmar {MÝhm~m~V AmH«$_U Ho$bo Va Ë`m~m~V _yi ì`mnmar
{MÝhmMm _mbH$ Amnë`m {MÝhmÀ`m gwa{jVVo~m~V Ý`m` _mJy eH$Vmo. hm H$m`Xm ì`mnmar {MÝhmÀ`m
_mbH$mbm nwT>rb ê$nmV _XV H$aVmo (A) H$moQ>m©Mm _ZmB© H$aUmam AmXoe.
(~) ZwH$gmZ^anmB©
(H$) Zâ`mMo ImVo.
gXaMm H$m`Xm nwT>rb énm_Ü`o X§S>mMrgwÕm VaVyX H$aVmo (A) AQ>H$ H$aUo
(~) ì`mnmar {MÝhmVrb N>oS>N>mS>r~m~V X§S> H$aUo.
2. {deof h¸$ (noQ>§ÝQ>) H$m`Xm - 1970
(The Patents Act 1970) :
{deofh¸$ Aem ì`{ŠVbm {Xbm OmVmo H$s Á`m ì`{ŠVZo Zì`m d Cn`wŠV dñVy§Mr {Z{_©Vr Ho$bobr Amho
qH$dm ApñVËdmV Agboë`m dñVy_Ü`o _hÎdnyU© gwYmaUm Ho$bobr Amho qH$dm dñVyÀ`m {Z{_©VrMr Zdr à{H«$`m
V`ma Ho$br Amho.
{deof h¸$m_Ü`o {Z_m©Ë`mbm Ë`mÀ`m aMZoà_mUo Z{dZ dñVy CËnm{XV H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ amhVmo. {deofh¸$YmaH$
ì`{ŠV Amnbo {deofh¸$ Xwgè`mbm {dHy$ eH$Vo. Ë`mMà_mUo {deofh¸$ dmnam~m~VMo h¸$ àXmZ H$ê$
eH$Vo. {deofh¸$ ì`dñWm `m H$maUm§Zr g_W©{Z` ~ZVo H$maU Ë`m_wio Zì`m V§ÌkmZmMm d CÚmoJmMm dmna
dmT>rg bmJVmo.
`m H$m`ÚmMr C{Ôï>o nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV (A) {deof h¸$m§Mo g§ajU H$aUo.
(~) {deof h¸$m§er {ZJS>rV g_mOmÀ`m {hVm§Mo ajU H$aUo.
`m H$m`Úm_Ü`o 2002 gmbr XwéñVr H$aÊ`mV Ambobr Amho. `m XwéñV H$m`ÚmVrb H$b_ 48 à_mUo
{deofh¸$YmaH$mMr _mÝ`Vm Zgboë`m H$moUË`mhr ì`{ŠVbm {deofh¸$mMm dmna, Ë`mMr IaoXr qH$dm {dH«$s
qH$dm hñVm§VaU H$aÊ`mnmgyZ _ZmB© H$aÊ`mV Ambobr Amho.
gw{à_H$moQ>m©Zo Ago _V Zm|Xdbobo Amho H$s, {deofh¸$ H$m`ÚmMm hoVy hm emñÌr` g§emoYZ, Zdo V§ÌkmZ
d Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dH$mgmgmR>r àmoËgmhZ XoUmam Amho.
3. _wÐU h¸$ H$m`Xm - 1957
(Copyright Act 1957) :
_wÐZh¸$mZwgma EImÚm ì`{ŠVbm qH$dm Ë`mZo A{YH$ma {Xboë`m ì`{ŠVbm nwT>rb Jmoï>tÀ`m ~m~VrV h¸$
àmá hmoVmo (A) gm{hpË`H$, ZmQ>ç, g§{JV qH$dm H$bm{df`H$ H¥$Vr
(~) {MÌnQ>{Z{_©Vr
(H$) ÜdZr_wÐU.
_wbV: _wÐZh¸$ åhUOo {d{eï> eãX / g§{hVm `m§À`m nwZ:{Z©{_©VrMm h¸$ hmo`.
_wÐZh¸$ H$m`ÚmMm hoVy hm boIH$mZm, g§{JV aMZm V`ma H$aUmè`m§Zm d BVa àH$maMr Zd-{Z{_©Vr
H$aUmè`m§Zm Ë`m§Mr {Z{_©Vr _mZYZmg{hV Xwgè`mbm dmnê$ XoÊ`mÀ`m h¸$m§Mo g_W©Z H$aVo.
^maVmZo J°Q>H$amamda ghr Ho$ë`mZ§Va Vmo OmJ{VH$ ~mOmanoR>r` AW©ì`dñWoMm ^mJ ~Zbm Amho. Ë`mZ§Va
1957 À`m _wÐZh¸$ H$m`Úm_Ü`o 1994 gmbr XwéñVr H$aÊ`mV Ambr. gÜ`m hm XwéñV H$m`Xm AZoH$ Xoem§Vrb
_wÐZh¸$ H$m`Úm§er gwg§JV Agm Amho.
Vm§{ÌH$ n«JVr_wio nwZ:a_wÐZ ghO d ñdñV Pmbo Amho. na§Vw Ë`mM~amo~a AZ{YH¥$V nwZ:a_wÐZ àM§S>
à_mUmV dmT>bo Amho, Á`mMo {Z`§ÌU H$aUo AdKS> Pmbo Amho. Ë`m_wio AZoH$ amï´>m§Zr EH${ÌV `odyZ `m~m~VMo
H$m`Xo Ho$bobo AmhoV.
CXm. X ~Z© H$ÝhoÝeZ d `w{Zìhg©b H$m°nr amB©Q>g² H$ÝhoÝeZ.
^maV hm `m XmoÝhr H$amam§Mm gXñ` Amho.
4. Am¡Úmo{JH$ aMZm Zm|XUr H$m`Xm -
(Registration of Industrial Designs Act - 2000) :
Under section 2 (d) of the Designs Act, "The 'Design' means only the features of shape,[
configuration, patterns, ornaments or compositioin of lines or colurs applied to any article whether
in two dimensional or three dimensional or in both forms, by any industrial process or means,
whether manual, mechanical or chemical, separate or combined, which in the finished article
appeal to and are judged solely by the eye; but does not include any mode or principle of
construction or anything which is in substance a mere mechanical device, and does not include
any trademark or property mark or any artistic work."
darb ì`m»`oà_mUo Am¡Úmo{JH$ aMZoMr ghm d¡{eï>ço amhVmV, Vr nwT>rbà_mUo (A) AmH$ma (Shape)
(~) g§JUH$s` àUmbrMr OwiUr (Configuration)
(H$) gmMo~ÕVm (Pattern)
(S>) Amb§H$H$m[aH$ H$bmHw$ga / Xm{JZo (Ornaments)
(B) aofm§Mr ~m§YUr (Composition of lines)
(\$) a§Jg§JVr (Colours)
AmH$ma (Shape) d g§JZ{H$` OwiUr (Configuration) `m g§km dñVyÀ`m AmH$mamMm {ZX}e H$aVmV. ho
AmH$ma gmYmaUV: {Ì{_Vr` ñdê$nmMo amhVmV.
gmMo~ÕVm (Pattern) Am{U Amb§H$m[aH$ H$bmHw$ga (Ornaments) `m g§km `m dñVyÀ`m n¥ð>^mJr`
H$bmHw$g[aer {ZJS>rV amhVmV. ho KQ>H$ {Û{_Vr` ñdê$nmMo amhVmV.
aofm§Mr ~m§YUr (Composition of lines) d a§Jg§JVr
(Colours) `m
g§km dñVyÀ`m n¥ð>^mJmer g§~§{YV
B. Com. Part-III : Business Regulatory Frame Work
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-V
The Indian Contract Act - Concepts
Presentation of Subject Matter
Definition of Law
Concept of Business Law and its sources
Law of Contract
Essentials of a valid contract
Performance of Contract
Discharge of Contract
Remedies for Breach of Contract
Books for further Readings
1.0 Objectives :
After the study of this unit, the students will be able to understand l
What is definition of Law.
Concept of Business Law and its sources.
What is Law of Contract.
Essential Elements of valid contract.
Performance of Contract.
Discharge of Contract.
Remedies for Breach of Contract.
1.1 Introduction :
Man is a special animal and as such he comes into contract with different people from
morning till night and in different capacities for instances with newspaper dealer, milkman,
transport company,as a tax payer, customes, etc. These contacts and many more are not available,
he has to face them everyday. Therefere in dealing with all these people he is expected to
observe a code of conduct or has to work within the set of rules prescribed by the government.
The object is simply to form a welfare state.
With the growth of society if behaviours of people change from person to person and it
becomes difficult to control the. Therefore there are common set of rules, principles which are
to be followed by all the people and according act within that framework. If they disobey these
rules there will be punishment by the government. These set of rules is formed as Law.
1.2 Presentation of Subject Matter
1.2.1 What is Law? :
The word Law is a general term and has different meaning to different people viz :1. A citizen may think law as set of rule.
2. A legislator may think as law created by him.
3. To a lawyer law may be his prefession.
Definition of Law :
Holland : "Law is a rule of external human action enforced by the sovereign political
Salmend : "Law is the body of principles recognised and applied by the state in the
administrration of justice."
Austin : "Law is a rule of conduct imposed and enfered by the sovereign.
1.2.2 Concept of Business Law and Its Sources :
"Business" means the creation of goods and their distributions or the provision of allied
service with the purpose of obtaining profit. It includes manufacturing of goods, providing
services, trading etc. Business plays a very significant role in the development of an economy.
The business has however to be carried out in a certain framework which includes social,
economical, political, legal etec. The legal enverionment of business is framed by the government
to safeguard its interest. From the installation to any unit till its working business needs the help
of Law and therefore law and business are closely related.
The term 'Business Law' may be defined as that branch of law which has law concerning
trade, industry and commerce. The term 'Business Law' is used to denote that branch of law
which is concerned with these matters, which deal with business transactions i. e. contractual
situations and the rights and obligations that arise out of business transactions. Therefore the
term business law is also used to denote the aggregate body of those legal rules which are
connected with trade, industry and commerce.
Sources of Business Law :
Before the enactments of various Acts relating to business transactions all the activities
or transactions in the business were regulated by the personal law of the parties to the contract.
e.g. :- Hindus were governed by the Hindu Law, the Muslims were governed by
Mohammadaon Law. If one party was hindu and the others Muslim the personal law of the
defendant applied. If both hindu and muslim law were not having any provision of law on any
point then the court took the help of English law.
Gradually it was felt necessary to frame laws for all business transactions. But before
these laws were framed like the Indian Contract Act 1872, The sale of Goods Act 1930, The
Indian Partnership 1932, The Insurance Act 1938, The Arbitration Act 1940 we need to study
the sources of the business law.
Sources of Business Law
Mercantile Law
and usages
Law Merchant or
Roman law
Common Law
Maritime usages
I. English Mercantile Law :
The Indian Mercantile Law is mostly based on the English Mercantile law. It is one of the
most important source of Indian Mercantile law. The English law follows the principle of "justice,
equity and good conscience" Even today if there is no specifie provision of law the court takes
help of the English Mercantile law. The sources of English Mercantile law are :a. Common law : This law is based on English customs, usages and traditions which
were developed over conturies by English courts. The law is not written but decision given in
a previous case is followed in the next case.
b. Equity : Eauity are the judgements given by the judges and which become precedents.
The precedents become Law of Equity. It is also unwritten law and developed seperately from
common law.
c. Law Merchant : It is that branch of law which was based on customs and usages.
Which prevailed among the merchants. It was developed during the 14th and 15th century. The
customs follwed by the merchants gradually become law of Merchants.
d. Roman Law : Roman law was taken help of when the customs and usages failed to
provide solutions to a particular case.
II. Statutory Laws :
When a 'bill' is passed by the parliament and signed by the president it becames an 'Act'
or a 'Statute Law'. Most of the business Law is a Statutory Law e.g :- The Indian Contract Act
1872, The Negotiable Instrument Act 1881, The sale of Good Act 1930, The Indian Partnership
Act 1932, The Companies Act 1956 etc.
III. Judicial Decisions :
Judical decisions means decisions given in a particular case in the past are again followed
in the next similar case that comes before the court. Such Judical decisions later on become
law. These decisions introduce the principle of justice, equity and good conscience.
IV. Customs and Usages :
Custom means any tradition followed for ages without interruption by the society. Customs
gradually develop into law. It is one of the important source of business law. In order to become
law a custom must be ancient, reasonable, certain, definiete, consistent. When custom is accepted
by the court it becomes the guiding principle of law.
1.2.3 Law of Contract :
Law of Contract is one of the most important law which is applicable not only to the
business community but also to others. Everyone of us enter into a number of contracts almost
everyday and most of the time we do so without even reading that we are doing it from point of
contract act.
e.g. :- when we give our car for repairs, we travel by bus, buy milk, go to movie go to hotel
and eat something we are entering into a contract.
Law of contract not only creates a legal relationship between porsons but also provides a
basis for other branches of Law. e. g ;- Law of sale of goods, Partnership, Insurance, Negotiable
Instruments are all based upon the Contract Act. That is why as a commerce study it is important
to study the laws of contract.
The Indian Contract Act 1872. The Law of contract in India is contained in the Indian
Contract Act 1872. This Act is mainly based on the English Common Law. It extends to the
whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir and came into force on 1st September
Initally the Act contained sections 1 to 266 now it contains
Sections 1 - 75
Sections 124 - 238
as General Principle of Contract
as Special Contract.
Sections 76 to 123 are now contained in the sale of Goods Act 1930. Similarly Sections
239 to 266 are repealed and now contained in The Indian Partnership Act 1932.
Definition of Contract :
According to Section 2 (h)
"Contract is an agreement enforceable at Law."
Pollock : Every agreement and promise enforceable at law is a Contract.
Anson : Contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more persons by which
rights are acquired by one or more to acts or forbearances (abstaining from doing something)
"On the part of the others."
Salmond : A contract is an agreement creating and defining obligations between the
If we analyse the definition of contract it contains two elements.
(a) An Agreement
(b) Enforceability of Law
An Agreement as defined in Section 2(e) of Indian Contract Act means :"Every promise and every set of promise, forming consideration for each other."
Therefore again the concept of promise needs to be defined.
'Promise' is thus defined as "When the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his
assent thereto the proposal is said to be accepted. A proposal when accepted becomes a
promise." - Sec. [ 2 (b)].
Therefore, to sum up we may put it in an equation :Offer + Acceptance = Agreement
Agreement + Legal Enforceability = Contract.
The agreements are of two kinds :(1) Social / Moral Agreements and
(2) Legal agreements.
e.g :- 'A' invites his friend 'B' for dinner or 'A' invites 'B' for a marriage ceremony here if
'B' fails to attend then 'A' cannot bring a suit against 'B' because the agreements are of social
But if a legal agreement is broken a person can file a suit.
1.2.4 Essentials of a valid contract :
A contract is said to be vaild when it fulfills all the requirements enumarated under sec. 10
oa Indian Contract Act. Valid means a legal contract which can be enforced in a court of law.
According to section 10 of Indian Contract Act :"All agreements are contracts, if they are made by free consent of the parties, competent
to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object and are not expressely declared
to be void."
From the above definition we can gather the following essentials of a valid contract :1. Offer and Acceptance
2. Legal Relationship
3. Lawful consideration
4. Free consent
5. Competent parties
6. Lawful object
7. Agreements not declared to be void
8. Certainty of meaning
9. Possibility of performance
10. Legal formalities
1. Offer and Acceptance :
There must be two parties to on agreement i. e. one party making the offer and the other
party accepting it. The term offer may be defined as "When a person signifies his willingness to
do or to obstain from doing. Somethin, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such
act or obstinence."
e.g. :- A says to B, "Will you purchase my car for Rs. 50,000?" is an offer. The person
making the offer is known as the offeror, proposer or promisor and the pesson to whom it is
made is called the offeree or promisee. When the offeree accepts the offer, he is called the
acceptor or promisee.
Acceptance means when the offeree signifies his assent to the offer, the offer is said to
be accepted.
The offer must be definite and the acceptance of the offer must be absolute and
unconditional. The acceptance may be express or implied but must be according to the mode
prescribed and must be communicated to the offeror.
2. Legal Relationship :
A relationship between a person may be either social or legal. When two parties enter into
agreement their intention must be to create a legal relationship between them. An agreement to
have lunch at a friend's house is not an agreement to create legal relation and therefore not a
contract. Also if 'A' promises his wife 'B' to get her a saree if she sings a song. 'B' sings a song
'A' does not bring her a saree 'B' cannot bring a case against 'A'.
3. Lawful Consideration :
The third essential element of a contract is that there must be consideration "Consideration"
in simple term means "Something in return". The agreement is legally enforeceable only when
both the parties give something and other gets something in return.
According to section 2(d) of Indian contract Act Consideration means :"When at the desire of the promisor, the promisee or any other person has done or obstained
from doing or does or obstains from doing or promises to do or obstain from doing something,
such act or abstinance or promise is called a consideration."
e.g. :- 'A' sells his car for Rs. 50,000/- to 'B', here Rs. 50,000/- is consideration received
by and A the car by 'B'.
However there are certain rules for consideration they are :1. It must move at the desire of the promisor.
2. It may move from promisee or any other person.
3. It may be past present or future.
4. It need not be adequate.
5. It must be real.
6. It must not be illegal, immoral or opposed to public policy.
7. It must be a promise to do something or abstain from doing something.
4. Free Consent :
It is the essential of every contract that the consent must be free. A consent is said to be
free when it is not caused by coercion, undueinfluence, fraud, misrepresentation and mistake.
[Sep. 14]. According to Sec. 13. Consent means "Two or more persons are said to consent,
when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense." Therefore all the above mentioned
five elements should not be present when a person is giving his assent to a particular offer. If
any one of the above element is present then the contract becomes viodable at the option of
other party. Therefore, it is ncecssary to explain the above elements in brief :(a) Coercion : Coercion means compelling a person to enter into agreement either by
applying force or fear to body or property.
Thus coertion is the committing or threatening to committ any act which is Forbidden by
Indian Penal Code (I.P.C) In Ranganayakamma V Alwar Shetty :A young girl of 13 years lost her husband and her husbands relations refused to hand over
her husband's dead body for funeral unless she adopted a boy of her choice. It was held the
adoption was forced one and hence not binding on her.
(b) Undue-Influence : Sometimes when a special relationship exists between persons, a
person is compelled to enter into a contract against his will. Thus a person may take an unfair
advantage of his position to dominate the will of another person thereby causing him to enter
into an agreement. This is undueinfluence.
The concept of unduce-influence is defined in section 16 of Indian Contract Act. In order
to excercise this undueinfluence
a) a person must stand in a fiduciary relation i. e. relation of trust and confidence. e.g.:father and son, doctor and patient etc.
b) a person must hold real or apperant outhority eg. :- master and servant, police and
accused etc.
e.g. :- 'A' the father advanced money to 'B' his son when he was minor. On attaining
majority 'A' by misure of parental influence excuted a bond of greater amount.
(c) Fraud : According to section 17 of Indian Contract Act fraud means the active
concealment or hidding of a fact, known to be false and thereby causing another person to
enter into a contract. In fraud there must be active concealment i. e. purposly a fact must be
e.g. :- Where a man and a women went through a ceremony of marriage. The man know
that there was no real intention on his part to regard it as real marriage, It was held that the
consent of wife was obtained by fraud and the marriage was just a pretendance.
(d) Mirpresentation : A false statement may be made by a person either wilfully or
innocently. When a statement is made by a person without an intention to deceive the other
party it is called misrepresentation. However if it made purposly to deceive then it is fraud.
For eg. : (i) In Babul V R. A. Singh : A told his wife in front of their daughter that the
bridegroom proposed for her was a young man. The bridegroom, however was over 60 yrs.
The daughter gave her consent to marry him believing that statement of her father. Held the
consent of the daughter was obtained by misrepresentation.
(ii) 'A' innocently in good faith tells 'B' that his T.V. set is made in Japan. 'B' thereupon
buys the T.V. set. However it comes out to be an Indian make. 'A' is guilty of currepresentation.
(e) Mistake : Mistake may be defined as an erroneous belief about something and there
may be a misunderstanding between the parties.
Mistakes are of 2 kinds :
i) Mistake of fact, ii) Mistake of Law.
i) Mistake of fact : Mistake of fact may be either bilateral mistake or unilateral mistake.
Bilateral means when both the parties are under mistake and unilateral means only when one
party is under mistake.
If it is a mistake of fact the contract is void. However the following conditions must be
fulfilled for ground of mistake :
(i) There must be a mistake as to formation of a contract.
(ii) Mistake must be of both the parties.
(iii) It must be in respect of matter important to contract.
(iv) It must be mistake of fact and not mistake of Law.
ii) Mistake of Law : "Ignoriantia juris non-exusat" it means ignorance of Law is not an
excuse. Every person must known what is the law of his land.
However mistake as to foreign law as the same effect as the mistake of fact and the
contract can be avoided due to such a mistakee.
e.g. A agree to buy a horse from 'B'. It is found that the horse was dead at the time of
bargain, both the parties were unaware of this fact. Thus this agreement is under mistake.
5. Competent Parties :
The parties who enter into a contract must have the capacity to do so. "Capacity" here
means competence of the parties to enter into a valid contract.
According to section 10 an agreement becomes a contract if it is entered into between the
parties who are competent to contract.
According to section 11 of Indian Contract Act.
"Every person is competent to contract who
a. is of the age of majerity [i. e. completed the age of 18 years]. According to the law to
which he is subject.
b. is of sound mind. ie. he should not be idiot, lunatic or a drunkard.
c. and is not disqualified from contracting by any law to which he is subject.
6. Lawful Object :
One of the essential of a valid contract is that the object of agreement must be lawful.
Both the consideration and object of an agreement must be lawful otherwise the contract
becomes void.
According to section 23 of Indian contract Act, an agreement of which the object or
consideration is unlowful is void.
Object means the purpose or design in some cases, consideration may be lawful but the
purpose of agreement may be unlawful then contract is void.
e.g. :- Paying bribe to get work done, money paid to smuggle goods etc. are all unlawful
Also the object or consideration of an agreement are unlawful in following cases :
i. If it is forbidden by law.
ii. If it defeats the provisions of law.
iii. If it is fraudulent.
iv. If it involves or implies injury to the person or property of another.
v. If court regards it immoral.
vi. If court regards it a opposed to public policy.
7. Agreements not declared to be void :
An agreement must not be declared to be void. A void agreement is one which cannot be
enforceable at law [sec. 2(g)] i. e. against which no suit can be filed in any court. Therefore if
an agreement possess all the requirements of a valid contract it must however not be declarred
to be void.
Following agreements are declared to be void under the contract act :-
a) Agreement by incompetent parties.
b) Agreements made under mutual mistake.
c) Agreements the consideration or object is unlawful.
d) Agreement without conisederation.
e) Agreement in restraint of marraiges.
f) Agreement in restraint of trade.
g) Agreement in restraint of legal proceedings.
h) Agreement by way of wager.
i) Contingent agreement.
j) Agreement to do impossible acts.
k) Agreement in restraint of legal proceedings.
8. Certainty of meaning :
The agreement must be certain and not vague or indefinite (Sec. 29). If it is vague and it
is not possible to asertin its meaning it cannot be enforced.
e.g. : 'A' agrees to sell 100 kgs. of oil to 'B' but what kind of oil is not mentioned. The
agreement is void.
9. Possibility of performance :
According to Sec. 56 of Contract Act "an agreement to do an impossibel act is void." For
a lowful contract the conditions must be capable of performance.
e.g. :- An agreement to draw parallel lines and pay Rs. 1000/- if they meet is impossible
also agreement to pay Rs. 5000/- if a person puts life in a dead man are all impossible acts.
10. Legal Formalities :
A contract may be made by words spoken or written. It is not compulsory whether
agreement should be written or oral. But in the interest of parties it is in writing and stamped.
Also some documents are signed in front of witnesses and are registered.
1.2.5 Performance of Contract :
What is performance of Contract ?
When a party makes an offer and the other party agrees to perform according to offer
there is an agreement. When all the essentials mentioned in section 10 of Indian Contract Act
are fullfilled a contract is formed and here the first step in the formation of a contract comes to
an end. Then the second step comes into existence and i. e. performance of contract.
According to section 37 of the Contract Act "Performance of Contract" means fulfilling
of the legal obligations created under the contract by both the promisor and promisee."
The parties to contract must either perform or offer to perform their respective promises
unless such performance is dispensed with or excused under the provisions of this act or of any
other law.
Therefore when a contract is duly performed by both the parties. The contract comes to
a happy ending and nothing more remains.
2. Types of performance :
There are two ways in which a contract may be performed.
1. Actual performance.
2. Attempted performance.
1. Actual performance : When a party to the contract does what he has promised to do
in the contract it is called actual performance.
e.g. : 'A' agrees to buy 100 kg of wheat from 'B'. 'B' sends the wheat and 'A' pays the
price. Both the parties have performed their part it is called actual performance.
2. Attempted performance : When a party to the contract offers his pefrormance but
the other party does not accept, it is called attempted performance or Tender as to performance.
e.g. :- A agrees to buy 100 kgs of wheat from B. B. sends the wheat but A does not
accept and pay for them this is called attempted performance on part of 'B' or tender of
In order to be a valid tender or attempted pefrormance following requirements must be
(i) It must be unconditional
(ii) It must be of the whole quantity of the goods contracted.
(iii) It must be at a proper time and place.
(iv) It must be by a proper person.
(v) It must be to a proper form.
(vi) If there are more than one promises, offer or tender may be made to any one of the
joint promisee.
(vii) In case of tender of goods a reasonable opportunity must be given to the promisee to
inspect the goods.
(viii) The party Tendering the performance must be ready and willing to fulfill the obligation.
3. Performance : By whom?
The contract may be performed by any of the following persons :1) Promisor : If the contract requires some personal skill or diligence of the promisor like
contract to marry, paint a picture, sing, dance then it must be performed by the promisor himself.
Also according to sec 40, if there is something in the contract to show that it was the intention
of the parties that the promise should be performed by the promisor himself such promise must
be performed by promisor.
2) Agent : If no personal skill is required that the act may be done by any person appointed
by the promisor or promisee. Such a person is called an agent and his acts will be binding on the
person appointing him.
3) Legal Representatives : An act which requires personal skill of a person like dance
or singing such a contract dies with the person. i. e. "Actio personalis moritur cum persona".
i. e. personal action dies on the death of the promisor. But in all other contracts the legal
representatives of such a person can be made liable.
e.g. :- A contracts to delives goods to 'B' on 1st of June for Rs. 1000/-. 'A' dies before 1st
june. The contract should be performed by legal representatives of A and B should pay Rs.
1000/- to representatives of A.
4) Third person : According to section 41 if the promisee accepts performance of
promise from a third person, then afterwards he cannot enforce it against the promisor.
5) Joint Promisor : When two ar more persons make a joint promise, they are known as
joint promisors.
If there is no specific contract than all joint promisors must jointly fulfil the promise. If all
or any one of the joint promisor dies the legal representatives of all of them or any one of them
as the case may be must fulfil the obligations.
4. Liabilities of Joint Promisors :
who is liable
1) When two or more persons make
All are equally liable
joint promise.
2) If there is death of any one joint
The legal representatives of dead
Surviving joint promisors liable.
3) If all original promisors die and work
does not require personal skill
Legal representatives of all joint
promisors are liable
4) If all original promisors die and work
requires personal skill
Nobody is liable. Contract comes to an
end on death of promisors.
5) If one joint promisor makes a
All the remaining joint promisors must
share the loss equally. Later the
promisors who contributed for loss may
bring suit against joint promisor who
made default.
6) If one joint promisor becomes
All remaining joint promisors may be
made liable.
7) If one joint promisor is compelled
to pay the debts of all other joint
He may compell the other joint
promisors to contribute equally.
5. Time and Place of Performance :
The parties to the contract must decided the time and place of performance of contract.
However the rules regarding it are laid down in section 46 to 50 of the Act. They are as follows:1) If no time specified within reasonable time - sec.46 : When the time at which the
contract is to be peformed is not specified the contract must be performed within a reasonable
2) When time is specified - sec. 47: If the time is specified as to on which day the
contract is to be peformed it must be performed during the business hours and the place decided
by the parties.
3) Performance on a Section day and place - sec. 48 : If the promise is to be performed
on a certain day at a certain place the promisee may make an application to perform the
contract during business hours at place decided earlier.
4) Promisor to make application if time is not fixed - sec. 49 : If the place is not
fixed by the parties then it is the duty of the promisor to make an application to the promisee to
fix a date and time to perform the contract.
5) Manner of performance - sec. 50 : The performance of any promise may be made
in any manner. or at any time which the promisee preserbes.
e.g. : 'A' owes Rs. 2000/- to B. B. inistead of cash accepts some goods of A. The delivery
of goods operates as performance of contract.
1.2.6 Discharge of Contract :
1. Meaning :
Discharge means termination of the contractual relationship between the parties. When
the rights and obligations of the parties comes to an end it is termed as discharge of contract.
"Eodem mado quo quid constitutus, eodem mode destruitur." Which means "a thing may
be destroyed in the same manner in which it is constituted."
Methods of Discharge of Contract (ways) :
By Performance
By agreement
By lapse of
By operation
By breach
By imposibility
of Law
of contract
of performance
1. Death
a. Navation
2. Merger
b. Rescission
3. Insolvency
c. Alteration
4. Unauthorised
d. Remission
alteration of
e. waiver
terms of contract
f. merger
1. Known to parties
2. Unknown to parties
3. Supervening impossibility
Not on Excuse
1. Destruction of subject matter
1. Difficulty of performance
2. Non Existence of state of thing
2. Commercial impossibility
3. Death / Incapacity
3. Failure of third party
4. Change of Law
4. Strike, Lock-outs
5. Out break of war
5. Failure of one object
I) By performance :
Performance means the doing of that according to the terms of contract. Discharge by
performance takes place when the parties to the contract fulfill their irobligations that arise
under the contract. In such a case the parties are discharged and the contract comes to an end.
But if only one party performs his promise, he alone is discharged and the other party has an
option to sue him.
This performance may be (i) actual or attempted.
(i) Actual Performance : When both the parties perform their promise, the contract is
(ii) Attempted performance : When a party to the contract offers his performance, but
the other party does not accept it, it is called attempted performance or tender. If the seller
offers the goods as per the order to the buyer and if the buyer refuses to accept them it is called
tender or attempted performance on part of seller.
II) By Agreement :
As already stated thing may be destroyed in the same manner in which it is constituted.
A contract comes into existence by entering into an agreement, in the same way a contract
may come to an end by entering into an agreement. These agreements to end the contract may be.
a. express
b. implied.
i. Express agreements : are those which are expressed in words or are written and
ii. Implied agreements : They are discussed in sections 62 and 63 of Indian contract
Act. They are as follows :(a) Novation - sec. 62 : Novation means substitution of a new contract in place of an old
contract. In such a case the old contract comes to an end. The consideration of new contract
is the discharge of the old contract.
e.g. : 'A' owes money to 'B'. It is agreed between A, B & C. Theat 'B' shall henceforth
accept 'C' as his debtor, instead of A. The old debt of A and B is at an end and a new debt of 'C'
and 'B' takes place.
(b) Rescission - sec. 62 : Rescission takes place when all or some of the terms of
contract are cancelled. It may occur.
by mutual consent of the parties or
Where one party fails in performance of his obligation.
e.g. : A promises to supply cartain goods to B 6 months after date. By the time the goods
go out of fashion. A and B may rescind or cancell the contract.
(c) Alteration - sec. 62 : Alteration of a contract means when one or more of the terms
of contract are altered or changed by the mutual consent of the parties to the contract. The old
contract is discharged.
e.g. : 'A' enters into contract with 'B' for supply of 100 beds of cotton at this godown No.1
by first of next month. 'A' & 'B' may alter / change the terms of contract by 1st of next month.
In Novation a new contract comes into existence in place of old one even parties may be
new, but in alteration parties are the same only the terms of contract are changed.
(d) Remission - sec. 63 : Remission means accepatance of a lesser amount than what
was decided in the contract. sec. 63 allows the promisee to dispense with or remitt the performance
of promise by the promisor or to extend time for performance or accept any other consideration
insread of performance.
e.g. : 'A' owes Rs. 5000 to 'B'. 'B' accepts Rs. 2000 in full satisfaction of Rs. 5000 then
'B' connot sue 'A' for remaining Rs. 3000.
(e) Waiver : Waiver means to "give away" or "obondon". A party to the contract may
waive or give away his right, whereby the other party is released from his obligation.
(f) Merger : Merger takes place when an inferior right of a party under contract is
merged into a superior right arising between the same party to the contract.
e.g. : 'P' holds a property as a tenant. 'P' later buys the property. His right as a tenant is
merged as a landlord.
III) By lapse of time :
The Limitation Act 1963 states that a contract should be performed within a particular
period which is called as period of limitation. If it is not performed within that period and if the
other party also does not bring any case against him the contract comes to an end by lapse of
IV) By operation of Law :
A contract is discharged by operation of law in the following cases :
(1) Death : In a contract which involves personal skill or ability, the contract is terminated
on the death of the promisor. If the contract does not involve personal skill then the rights and
liabilities pass on to the legal representatives.
(2) Merger : Already explained
(3) Insolvency : When person is declared inselvent by the court, he is discharged from
all liabilities which arise before his declaration as insolvent
(4) Unauthorised alterations in terms of contract : When a party to a contract makes
any material alteration or changes in the contract without the consent of the other party, the
other party can terminate the contract. The alterations must be material or important to the
e.g. : Signature is forged etc.
V) By Breach of Contract :
Breach of contract means breaking the terms of contract. This breach occurs when any
party fails to perform his obligations or duty.
Breach of contract may be :(a) Actual breach : This breach occurs when at the time of performance is due, one
party fails or refuses to perform his duty.
e. g. :- 'A' agrees to delives 5 bags of wheat on 1st January to B. 'A' fails to deliver on that
day it is actual breach.
(b) Anticipatory breach : It is a type of breach when a party declares his intention of not
performing his part before the date of performance. This refusal of one party is before the date
agreed between the parties.
e.g. :- 'A' agrees to deliver 5 bags of wheat on 1st January to B. Before 1st January 'A'
declares his intentiion of not sending wheat bags to B.
Following rights are available to the promisee or aggrieved party in case of anticipatory
breach :He can treat the contract as broken and claim damages. or
He can treat the contract as still operative and wait for the date of performance.
VI) Discharge by Impossibility of Performance :
It an agreement contains something to do which is impossible to perform the contract is
void i. e. having no existence in the eyes of law.
Impossibility may fall under any of the following catagories :
1. Known to the parties : This is known as initial impossibility or absolute impossibility
Here the agreement is void.
e.g. : 'A' agrees to put life in a dead man.
2. Unknown to parties : When at the time of making the contract both the parties are
ignorant about the non existence of subject matter.
e.g. : 'A' contracts with 'B' to marry each other. Before the time fixed for marriage 'A'
comes to know that 'B' is already married to C. which is not allowed by Law. Contract is void.
3. Supervening impossibility : A contract is discharged by supervening impossibility
i.e. impossibility arising subsequent to the formation of contract called as supervening impossibity
are as follows :
ON Excuse
1. Destructiion of subject matter : When the subject matter of a contract is destroyed
without any fault of the parties to the contract, subsequent to the formation of the contract, the
contract is discharged.
e.g. : 'C' lets a music hall to 'D' for a series of concert on a certain day. The hall was
accidetally burnt down before the date of concert. The contract is void.
2. Non - existance of a particulars state of thing : Of there is any change in the state
of thing which is subject matter of contract or if the state of thing does not exist on the date of
contract the contract is void and discharged.
e.g. : 'A' and 'B' contract to marry each other. Before the time fixed for marriage A goes
mad, the contract becomes void.
3. Death or Incapacity of parties : When the performance of a contract requires the
personal skill or labour of a person then the contract is discharged due to the illness, death or
incapacity of the parties.
e.g. : 'A' agrees to draw a picture for 'B' by 15th of January. 'A' dies before 15th. The
contract is discharged.
4. Change of Law : After formation of the contract if there is change in the law by the
Government and the act becomes impossible to perform the contract is discharged.
e.g. : 'D' enters into a contract with 'P' on 1st March for supply of certain imported goods
in the month of Spetember in the same year. In June the import of such goods is banned by
government. The contract is discharged.
5. Outbreak of War : If the Contract is made with the foreigner and there is outbreak of
war between India and that foreign country then the contract between the parties come to an
NOT ON EXCUSE - Contract not discharged :
1. Difficulty of performance : A contract is not discharged on the ground that it has
become more difficult to perform due to some events.
e.g. : 'A' sold certain wood to 'B' which is to be supplied between July and September.
Before wood was supplied war broke out in month of August and 'A' could not bring wood to
send it to 'B' Held contract is not discharged.
2. Commercial Impossibility : A contract is not discharged on ground of commercal
impossibility like raw material not available etc.
3. Failure of third party : When a Contract could not be performed because of the
failure by third party is not an excuse and the contract is not discharged.
e.g. : 'A' enters into a contract with 'B' for the sale of cloth to be produced by 'C' the
manufacturer of cloth. 'C' did not manufacture that cloth. 'A' is liable for damages to 'B' since
contract is not discharged.
4. Strike, Lock-out : A strike by workman or a lock-out by the employer does not
excuse the performance of the contract.
e.g. : 'A' agreed to send goods to 'B' by 15th of January. But due to the strike in the
companyhe could not send the goods on time. 'A' is liable for damages to 'B'.
5. Failure of one object : When a contract is entered into for several objects, the failure
of one of them does not discharge the other.
"Where there is a right there is a remedy." According to the above saying, a contract gives
rise to rights and duties between the parties. Along with other rights, when there is any damage
caused to one party, he has a right to claim remedies given in the Law.
A remedy is the courses of action which are available to an aggrieved party (i.e. party not
at default) for the enforcement of right under a contract.
Thus when a contract is broken the injured party has one or more of the following remedies.
of Contract
Ordinary damages
Suit for
Suit upon
Special damages
Suit for
Vindictive damages
Suit for
Nominal damages
I. Rescission of Contract :
When there is breach of contract by one party, the other party may rescind or cancel the
contract and may act in two ways :a. Sit quietly at home if he decides not to take any legal action against the guilty party or
b. aggrived party intends to sue the guilty party he may file a suit for rescission or cancellation
of contract.
The court may grant recission in the following cases :a. When the contract is viodable by the plaintiff.
b. Where the contract is unlawful.
e.g. : 'A' contracts to supply 100 kg. of rice for Rs. 4000/- to 'B' on 1st January. If 'A'
does not supply the rice on the appointed day 'B' may treat the contract as rescinded or cancelled
and may it quit or bring a suit for damages.
II. Suit for damages :
"Damages" means compensation in Law and "damage" means hurt or injury to body or
property of a person. Therefore damages are monetary compensation allowed to an injured
party for the loss or injury suffered by him.
The basis for measuring the damages for breach of contract is based on the judgement in
a leading case of Hadley V Baxendale.
case : Hadley V Baxendale
Facts : 'X's flour mill stopped working because of breakdown of the crankshaft, a part of
the machinary. He delivered the shaft to Y a common carrier to deliver it to the foundry, where
the new shaft was to be made. 'Y' promised to deliver it within two days, but he delayed and the
mill stopped working for another five days. X received the new shaft seven days later than they
would have otherwised received. X brought a suit for damages against Y for the delay in the
delivery of broken part and also for the loss of profit suffered by the mill as it stopped working.
X had never informed Y that the delay would result in loss of profits.
Held : The court held that X was entitled only to ordinary damages and not for the loss of
profit caused by the stoppage of mill during the period of the delay.
Principle laid down : The court laid down the following principle while giving the above
"Where two parties have made a contract which one of them has broken the damages
which the other party ought to receive in respect of such breach of contract should be either,
such as may fairly and reasonablly considered arising naturally i. e. according to the usual
course of thing from such breach of contract itself or such as may be reasonably be supposed
in contemplation of parties at the time they made the contract as the probable result of breach
of it."
From the decision in the above case damages can be classified into following four
catagories:1. Ordinary damages :
When a contract is broken the other party can recover from the guilty party ordinary or
general damages. These damages are known to the parties that may arise in the usual course
and may arise naturally and directly.
e.g. : 'A' agrees to sell 5 bags of rice @ 500/- per bag to B after two months. On the date
of delivery the price of rice goes up @ 550/- per bag. 'A' refuses to deliver bags to B. B can
claim compensation of Rs. 250/- from A. i. e. difference between contract price and market
price (550-500) for 5 bags.
2. Special damages :
Special damages are those which arise as a result of special or unusual circumstances.
Special damages cannot be claimed as a right. They can be claimed only if some special loss
occurs to one of the party.
e.g. : 'A' a builder contracts to construct a house for 'B' by 1st July. So that 'B' can let it
to 'C' at Rs. 1000/- per month. 'B' informed 'A' about the contract with 'C'. 'A' builds the house
so badly. That before 1st July it falls down and has to be rebuilt which took another few months.
Here 'A' has committed a breach of contract and therefore is liable to pay 'B' cost of
rebuilding + for rent lost + for compensation.
3. Vindictive damages :
Vindictive damages are damages awarded by way of punishment and not as compensation.
Hence vindictive damages have no place in Law of contract. But there are two exceptions
whereby damages can be awarded by way of punishment, they are,
a) breach of a promise to marry and.
b) dishonour of a cheque by a banker.
4. Nominal damages :
Nominal damages are of a very small amount and are only for name sake. This amount of
compensation can be of rupee one also.
III. Suit for Quantum Meritum :
The third remedy for breach of Contract which is available to an injured party is the "Suit
for Quantum Meritum" The phrase "Quantum Meritum" means "as much as is earned" or "in
the proportion to the work done."
This right to sue on quantum meritum arises when a contract which is partly performed is
discharged because remaining half part is not performed by the other party.
The aggrieved party may file a suit upon quantum meritum and can claim proportion to
work done in following cases :
1. When an agreement is found to be void and the person who receives benefit out of it
has to give it back.
2. When something is done without any intention to do that thing gratituosly.
3. When there is express or implied contract to provide services but there is no agreement
as to how much remunaration should be paid.
4. When the work completed can be seperated from the incomplete work.
5. When contract is cancelled before time.
e.g. : A engaged B to write a book on history to be published by instalments in a weekly
periodical in newspaper. The fees to be paid was Rs. 5000/-. After few issues in the periodical
suddently publishing was stopped. Here 'B' could recover the payment of work published as
suit of Quantum Meritum.
IV. Suit for Specific Performance :
Specific performance means actually carrying out the contract as agreed and no
compensation is damanded. In certain cases of breach of a contract, damages are not an
adequate relief. In such cases court may direct the party committing breach to do or perform
his part according to terms of contract.
e.g. : 'A' agrees to send five bags of rice to 'B' 'A' fails to sent it. 'B' does not want
compensation but tells 'A' to perform his part and send five bags of rice. This is specific
Specific performance is ordered by court in the following cases :1. When compensation in terms of money is not an adequate relief.
2. When actual damage or loss caused by non-performance cannot be asertained or
3. When compensation in money cannot be get.
However specific performance will not be granted in following cases :
1. Where damages are an adequate remedy.
2. Where the contract is not certain.
3. Where the contract can be cancelled.
4. Where contract is made by trustee in the breach of trust.
5. Where the contract is of personal nature i. e. contract to marry.
6. Where court cannot supervise the performance.
7. When one party is minor.
V. Suit for Injunction :
"Injunction" means prohibiting a person to do a particular act. It is a negative term when
a party to a contract does something which he promised not to do, is a breach of contract and
the court may stop the person from doing that act.
e.g. : 'A' a film actress, agreed to act exclusively for 'B' for a year and for no one else.
During the year she contracted to act for 'C'.
Held she could be restricted by order of court called injunction from doing so.
Granting of Injunction
Temporary injunction
Permanent injunction
It is meant for the perios
until the work is completed
A person is restricted
permanetly from doing
the said act
1.3 Exercises :
1. Define Business Law. Discuss the sources of business Law.
2. Define the term contract ? What are th essential elements of valid contract.
3. "All contract are agreements but all agreements are not contract" Discuss.
4. Define consent. When is the consent said to be free - consent ?
5. Discuss in brief agreements expressely declared to be void." under Indian Contract
6. What is Tender of Performance ? What constitues a legal tender ?
7. Dicuss in brief the various modes of discharge of contract.
8. What is doctrine of supervening impossibility ?
When it applies and when not ? discuss.
9. Discuss in brief the various remedies available in case of breach of contract.
10. How contract can be discharged by operation of law.
1.4 Books for further Reading :
1. Elements of Mercantile Law
N. D. Kapoor, Sultan Chand and sons, Delhi.
2. Laws Regulating Business
Prof. S. N. Kulkarni
Diamond Publication, Pune.
3. Business Law
K. R. Bulchandani
Himalaya Publishing House, Delhi.
4. Princeples of Business Law and
Dr. Manmohan prasad, Himalaya
Publishing House, Mumbai.
5. Mercantile Law
S. S. Gulshan, Excel Book, Delhi.
B. Com. Part-III : Business Regulatory Frame Work
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-V
Special Contract
Presentation of Subject Matter
Definition of Contract of Bailment
Essentials of Contract of Bailment
Duties and Rights of the bailor
Duties and Rights of the bailee
Definition of pledge
Distinction between pledge and bailment
Rights and Duties of pawnor
Rights and Duties of Pawnee
Definition of Contract of Agency
Creation of Agency Contract
Discharge or Termination of Agency Contract
Rights and Duties of Agent and Principal
Books for further Reading
2.0 Objectives :
The study of this untit will enable students to understand the provisions of special contract
Definition and Nature of Contract of Bailment.
Essentials of contract of Bailment
Duties and Rights of the bailor
Duties and Rights of the bailee
Defination of contract of pledge.
Difference between pledge and bailment
Rights and Duties of Pawnor.
Rights and Duties of Pawnee.
Definition and Nature of contract of Agency.
Various modes of creation of Agency contract.
Discharge or Terminatin of contract of Agency.
Rights and Duties of Agent and principal.
2.1 Introduction :
Bailment is a special type of contract and is contained in sections 148 to 181 of the Indian
Contract Act 1872. It simplies a sort of relationship where the personal property of one person
temporarily goes into the hand or porsersion of another person. Thus the ownership of that
article is with one person and the persession is with another person.
2.2.1 Definition of Bailment :
Bailment is defined in section 148 of The Indian Contract Act as :"A bailment is the delivery of goods from one person to another for some purspose, upon
a contract that they shall when the purpose is accomplished be returned or otherwise be disposed
of according to the directions of the person delivering them."
The person delivering the goods is called the "Bailor and the person to whom they are
delivered is called the "Bailee." Examples of contract of bailment are :1. A person delivering a cloth to the tailor to stich a suit.
2. A friend lending his book to another friend on a condition to be returned after examination.
3. 'A' delivering his watch to 'B' for repairs.
2.2.2 Essentials of bailment :
1. Contract : Bailment is created by an agreement between bailor and bailee such an
agreement may be express or implied.
2. Delivery of possessiion of goods : This is an important essential of bailment. There
should be delivery of possession of good trom the bailor to the bailee. "Possession" must be
distinguished from "custody of goods". A person who has the custody of goods like a servant, a
guest in the house are not the bailee. In bailment the goods must be handed over by the bailor
to the bailee for some purpose.
3. Movable goods : Only movable goods are the subject matter of bailment "Goods" is
defined in section 2 (7) of The Sale of Goods Act 1930 as :"Every kind of movable property other than money and actionable claims."
Money deposited in a bank is not bailment because the banker is not bound to return the
same notes to the depositor.
4. Specific purpose : In bailment the goods are delivered only for some rpecific purpose.
When the purpose is accemplished the goods are to be returned back or disposed off according
to the directions of the person delivering them.
5. Return of goods : The bailee must return the goods as soon as the purpose is
accomplished. These goods must be returned to the bailor or any other person as per bailors
directions. Also the goods may be returned in the same form or some altered form.
e.g. :- Wheat given for making flour in a grinding mill, cloth given to a taitor to stich a suit.
2.2.3 Duties and Rights of the Bailor :
1. Duties of Bailor :
1. To disclose known faults : It is the first and foremost duty of the bailor to disclose
the known faults to the bailee which expose the bailee to extra ordinary risk. If the bailor does
not disclose the faults he is responsible for any damage that may arise to the bailee.
e.g. :- 'A' lends a cycle to 'B' which he knows is without breaks. 'A' is bound to tell 'B'
about it or if he fails to do so he will be liable for damages.
2. To bear extra - Ordinary expenses of bailment : The bailor should pay the extra
ordinary expenses of the bailment incurred by the bailee in any gratituous bailment.
e.g.: A pays expenses to watchman to watch the car left by 'B' at 'A's custody. 'B' is
bound to pay back expenses paid by A to the watchman.
3. To indemnify bailee for premature termination of bailment : In case of gratituions
bailment if the bailment is terminated by the bailor before the time preseribed then in such a
case the loss occuring to the bailee out of such premature termination should be compensated
by the bailor. However such a loss occured by the bailee should not be more than the benefits
e.g. : 'A' lends an old car to 'B' gratituosly for three months to use. 'B' incurs Rs. 500/- for
repairs 'A' asks back the car immediately after one month, he will have to compensate B.
4. To receive back the goods : It is the duty of the bailor to receive back the goods
from the bailee when the purpose of bailment is accomplished. If the bailor neglects or refuses
to take back the goods, the bailee is entitled to receive compensation from the bailor for the
expenses incured to preserve the goods in his custody.
5. To indemnity the bailee : If the bailee suffers any loss due to the defects in the title
of the bailor, the bailor is responsible to the loss that may occur to the bailee. The bailee has
every right to get compensation from the bailor.
2. Rights of the Bailor :
1. Right to file suit : If the bailee is deprived the use of the goods by any third person the
bailor has every right to bring a suit against such a third person. Bailor can also claim compensation
from such a third person.
2. To avoid the contract : A bailor can terminate the contract of bailment if the bailee
does any act against the contract of bailment regarding the goods.
e.g. : 'A' lets a car to 'B' for his own use. 'B' uses the car for tourist. 'A' can terminate the
3. Right to return the goods : The bailor has right to receive back the goods from the
bailee when the purpose is accomplished. Bailor can also direct the boilee to return the goods
as per his instructions. If the bailee refuses to return the bailor can file a suit against the bailee.
2.2.4 Duties and Rights of the Bailee :
1. Duties of the Bailee
1. Duty to take reasonable care of goods bailed : In case of bailment the bailee is
bound to take care of the goods bailed as a man of ordinary prudence. He should take care as
if the goods are his own.
In case of loss or damage to the goods bailed it is the bailee who should prove that there
was no negligence on his part and that loss / damage occured inspite of the fact that he took
reasonable care of them. If however bailee took all care and there was no negligence on his
part yet loss occured he is not liable for the loss, destruction or damage.
e.g. : 'A' was admitted in a hospital. He handed over the jewellary to B a hospital official.
The jewellary was stolen. 'B' a hospital official. The jewellary was stolen. 'B' is liable for the
2. Duty not to make unauthorised use of goods : If the bailee makes any use of the
goods bailed which is not according to the conditions of the bailment he is liable to make
compensation to the bailor for any damages arising to the goods during such use.
The bailee must use the goods bailed strictly according to the purpose for which they are
e.g. : 'A' lets a car to 'B' for his own use. 'B' uses it for tourist purpose. 'B' is liable to
compensate 'A' if the car is damaged.
3. Duty not to mix goods bailed with his own goods : It is the duty of the bailee not
to mix the goods bailed with his own goods. Without the consent of the bailor. If however the
bailee mixes the goods with the consent of the bailor whether intentionally or accidentally and
the good can be seperated the cost of seperation should be borne by the bailee. If however the
goods cannot be seperated the bailee must compensate the bailor for the loss.
4. Duty to return the goods : It is the duty of the bailee to return the goods to the bailor
as per his directions on the expiry of the time stated. Where there are joint owners, bailee may
return the goods to any one of the joint owners.
If the bailee fails to return the gods at a proper time he is responsible for the loss, destruction
or damage to the goods bailed.
5. Duty to return accretion or increase to the goods : It is the duty of the bailee to
return to the bailor any increase arising naturally to the goods bailled during the period of
e.g. : 'A' leaves a cow in the custody of 'B' to be taken care of. The cow has a calf. 'B' is
bound to deliver the calf as well as cow to 'A'.
6. Duty not to set up adverse title jus-terti : The bailee cannot set up the defence of
jus terti i. e. goods belong to a third person cannot be said by the bailee. Even if there is a
person who says that the goods belong to him, the bailee must return the goods to the bailor.
2. Rights of the bailee :
1. Right to remuneration or expenses : The bailee is entitled to receive all the lawful
charges for providing his service to the bailor and he has the right to claim remuneration for
such services.
2. Right to compensation : If there are any fault in the goods bailed and the fault was
not disclosed to the bailee, the bailee has a right to receive compensation from the bailor. Also
if the bailor wrongfully refuses to take back the goods bailed, the bailee can claim compensation.
3. Delivery of goods to one of several joint bailors of goods : If there are more
than one owners to the goods bailed, the bailee must deliver the goods to any one of the joint
bailors of the goods. This return to one joint owner is as if the goods are delivered to all of
4. Right against trespassers : If a third person wrongfully deprives a bialee stands in
the shoes of the bailor and has a right to bring a suit against the trespasser.
5. Bailees Right to lien : Right to lien means right to return or keep the possessiion of
the goods until the amount or remunaration is paid. This right to retain the possession is also
called as right to particular lien.
e.g. : 'A' delives a rough diamand to 'B' a jewellar;to be cut and polished which is done
by B. B is entitled to retain or keep the diamand with him till the amount of his services are
6. Right to deliver goods, in good faith, to the bailor without title - S. 166 : The
bailee has a right to deliver the goods to the bailor even if the bailor has no title. Thus bailee has
nothing to do who is true owner of goods. However the bailee must act in good faith and
unaware who is true owner.
2.2.5 Meaning and definition of Pledge :
Pledge is a type of special contract. According to section 174 of The Indian Contract Act
1872. "Pledge" may be defined as :"The bailment of goods as security for payment of a debt or performance of a promise."
The bailor in this case is called the "Pledgor" or "Pawnor" and the bailee is called the
"Pledgee" or "Pawnee."
Thus pledge is a bailment of goods as a security.
e.g. :- 'A' borrows Rs. 200/- from 'B' and keeps his mobile handset as security for payment
of Rs. 200/- the debt. Here the bailment of mobile is a pledge.
Any kind of movable goods only can be pledged like goods, documents, ornaments and
even a bank passbook. But the important point is that there must be delivery of goods this
delivery maybe (a) actual or (b) constructive or (c) symbolic.
2.2.6 Difference between pledge and bailment :
1. Pledge is the bailment of goods
Bailment of goods is for a specific
as a security i. e. payment of
purpose and not as a debt.
2. In case of default i. e. if pawnor
fails to repay the loan the pawnee
Bailee in the bailment can retain the
goods or sue for the price
has a right to resale the goods after
giving notice to the pawnor.
3. The pawnee has no right to use the
goods pledged with him
Bailee may use the goods, if the bailor
permits him.
2.2.7 Rights and Duties of Pawnor :
1. Rights of Pownor :
1. Right to get back goods : When the promise is fulfilled or the loan or debt is repaid
the pownar has a right to get back the goods pledged.
2. Right to redeem debt : Many a times, time is stipulated in the contract of pledge as
to when the loan is to be repaid or when the promise should be performed. In such a case if the
pawnor makes a default to payment of debt or performance of promise at the stipulated time,
he may still get back the goods pledged before they are sold. This is called right of redemption.
However in such a case he must pay the additional expenses to the pawnee for his default.
3. Right of preservation and maintenance of goods : It is the right of the pawnor to
see that the goods pledged are kept in a proper and safe condition by the pawnee and that they
are properly maintained.
4. Right of an ordinary debtor : In addition to the above rights the pawnor has a right of
an ordinary debtor which are given to him by various laws which are meant for his protection.
5. Right to calim increase on goods pledged : If there is any increase in the goods
pledged the pawnor has a right to claim that increase from the pawnee.
e.g. : 'A' pledges his shares with 'B' and takes a loan. During the continuance of loan
period bonus shares are issued to 'A'. Here 'A' can claim these bonus shares.
2. Duties of a Pawnor :
1. Duty to repay the loan : It is the first and the foremost duty of the pawnor to repay
the loan taken from the pawnee within the stipulated time.
2. Duty to pay additional expenses : If the pawnor has spend additional amount on the
preservation and maintenance of the goods pledged. The pawnor must pay that additional
3. Duty to follow terms of contract : It is the duty of pawnor to act according to the
terms of contract of pledge.
4. Duty to perform the promise : The pawnor should perform the promise within the
stipulated time.
2.2.8 Rights and Duties of Pawnee :
(1) Rights of Pawnee :
1. Right of retainor : The pawnee may keep the goods in his pessession unless and until
the debt is paid by the pawnor. He may retain the goods not only for the amount of debt but also
for the interest on it and for all expenses incured by him for the possession and maintenance of
the goods.
2. Right to retain the goods for subsequent advances : If the pawnee has given
additional loan against the goods pledged he may retain the goods for such subsequent advances
3. Right to extra ordinary expenses : The pawnee has a right to sue for the amount of
extra ordinary expenses incured by him.
4. Right to receive payment : The pawnee has a right to receive the amount given to
the pawnee by way of debt. He can also claim interest and expenses on the goods pledged.
5. Right against the true owner, when pawnor's title is defective : When the pawnor
has obtained the possession of goods under a viodable contract i. e. by fraud, coercien, undue
- influence and such goods are pledged by him, then the pawnee gets a good title if he has acted
in good faith and without notice of the defect of title of the pawnor.
6. Right to file a suit : If the pawnor makes a default in the repayment of the loan the
pawnee has a right to file a suit against the pawnor.
7. Right to resale : In case of default the pawnee may resale the goods pledged with
him after giving a notice of such resale to the pawnor.
8. Right to claim loss : In case, after resale of goods there is loss occured to the
pawnee then he may claim such a loss from the pawnor. But if any profit is earned he must
repay it to the pawnor.
(2) Duties of Pawnee :
1. Duty to return the goods : The first duty of the pawnee is to return the goods after
repayment of loan or performance of promise.
2. Duty not use the goods : The goods given to pawnee are only as a security for loan
taken from him. Here the pawnee should not use the goods.
3. Duty to preserve the goods : The goods pledged should be kept properly and also
maintained in a proper condition.
4. Duty to return increase : If there is any increase in the goods pledged the pawnee
should return such an increase in the goods.
5. Duty to return profit : If there is any profit earned by the pawnee on the resale of
goods in default to repay the loan, the surplus amount of profit should be returned to the pawnor.
6. Duty not to violate terms of contract : The pledgee should act according to the
terms of contract and should not violate it e. g. - he should not sell the goods pledged without
giving notice to the pawnor.
2.2.9 Definition of Contract of Agency :
Now a days it is not always possible for a person to do his acts by himself. He may not
always be able to do or attend the work personally, which are necessary for him. Sometimes he
has to depend on the service of the other people.
e.g. : A father may ask his son to deposit money in the bank or pay electricity bill or A
friend may ask another friend to pay him a movice ticket.
In these examples a person doing the act for another is called as agent. The law relating
to contract of Agency is contained in sections 182 to 238 of The Indian Contract Act 1872.
However all the persons acting for and on behaf of another person are not agents. Therefore
we have to be clear regarding the concept of agency.
Definition of Agent :
According to section 182 of The Indian Contract Act agent is defined as :-
"An agent is a person employed to do any act for another or to represent another in
dealing with third person.
The person for whom such act is done or who is represented is called the principal."
The main function of an agent is to bring his principal into contractual relation with third
person. This means that an agent is merely a connecting link between principal and third party.
Essentials of agency :
1. There should be an agreement between the principal and agent.
2. There should be intention of an agent to act on behalf of principal.
3. No consideration is necessary to create agency.
Rules of agency :
The contract of agency is based on two rules :1) Whatever a person can do personally he can do it through an agent.
However there the two exceptions where agent cannot be appointed.
(i) Contract of marriage, (ii) Work annexed to public office eg. of magistrate.
2) He who does an act through another does it by himself. i. e. whatever lawful acts are
done by agent on behalf of principal, are said to have done by agent himself
Who may appoint an agent ?
Any person who is,
1. Major
2. Of sound mind
3. Not disqualified by law
can appoint an agent.
Who may be appointed as agent :
Any person may be an agent, he may even be minor person of unsound mind like a idiot,
lunatic or drunkard may be appointed as an agent. This is because the acts of agents are
binding on principal which means agent cannot be able to pay damages and hence principal will
always be careful in appointing an agent.
An agency can be created in any one of the following ways :
Creation of agency
By Agreement
By Ratification
By Estoppel
By Holdingout
By Operation of law
By Necessity
I) By agreement :
A Contract of agency by,
1. Express agreement or
2. Implied agreement
1. Express agreement :
A contract of agency is normally created by an express agreement. Express agreement is
in writing or orally. A general term of written agreement is generally in format of power of
attorney whereby the principal transfers his powers in fovour of an agent for a specific period
on the condition that when the work is completed the agreement will stand cancelled.
2. By Implied Agreement :
Implied agency is presumed from the conduct of the parties. We can presume each on
agency from the circumstances of the case or from the conduct of the parties.
e.g. : 'A' and 'B' are brothers. A lives in Mumbai and 'B' in Kolhapur. They have house at
Pune and given it on rent. 'B' collects the rent and send 1/2 rent to brother 'A' at Mumbai even
though there is no written contract yet 'B' is agent of 'A'.
The implied agreements may fall into any one of the following categories :-
i) Agency by Estoppel : When a person either by his conduct or by words (spoken or
written), leads wilfully another person to believe that a certain state of thing exists and thereby
asks the other person to act later on he is stopped from denying or refusing that the fact or state
of thing did not exist.
Sometimes the agent does not have authority to do an act on behalf of principal, but the
principal creates an impussion in the mind of third person, either by his conduct or words, that
the agent has an authority to act on his behalf. In such a situation the principal is liable towards
the third party for acts done by agent, by applying the "Law of estoppel".
e.g. :- 'B' tells 'C' that he is 'A' agent. A is listening this. Actually 'B' was not agent of 'A'
however does not object to this statement. Later on 'C' supplier goods to 'B' who pretends to be
agent of 'A'. 'A' is liable to pay the price of goods to 'C' because by keeping quiet 'A' has led 'C'
to believe that 'B' is his agent.
ii) By Holding out : An agency by holding out also the principal is bound by the acts of
the agent. It is also like estoppel but in holding out some positive act must be done by the agent
to led a third person to believe that he is agent of the principal. In estoppel there is a negative
act but in holding there is some positive act done by agent.
e.g. : 'A' is the servant of 'B' and habitually purchases goods on credit for 'B'. From C's
shop. Later on 'B' settles the credit amount. If 'A' leaves the job of 'B' and then purchases
goods on credit from 'C', 'B' must pay the loss sufferred by him because he had admitted
previously that 'A' is his servant.
However it is not for all acts the principal is liable. The principal is liable only for those
acts which are done within authority and are legal and not criminal.
iii) Agency by Necessity : In any urgent circumstances, law gives authority to a person
to act as the agent of another person for the benefit of that person. It may also not be possible
to communicate that he is appointed as agent, such an agency in emergency is called agency by
Following conditions must be fullfilled for agency by necessity :
a. There should be real necessity for acting as agent.
b. It is impossible to communicate with the principal.
c. The so called agent is acting for benefit of principal.
Agency by necessity may arise in the following situations :
(a) When the agent has to exceed his authority in time of emergency.
e.g. :- 'A' sends a truck full of fruits from Kolhapur to 'B' at Mumbai. The truck mets with
an accident at Pune. Since fruits will perish the truck driver without communicating with 'A'
sells them. This is agency by necessity in case of emergency.
(b) A person has possession of anothers property, does one acts to preserve that property
even though he is not an agent. He may act as agent in necessity.
e.g. :- A horse was sent by a train. When it arrived at the station nobody came to take its
delivery. Railway authority had to feed and take care of the horse. Here railway authority is
agent in necessity.
(c) Husband and wife : A husband is bound to maintain his wife and supply her with all the
necessaries in life. If he does not maintain her, the wife can act as the agent in necessity and
pledge the credit of her husband. But if the wife lives seperately by her own will then she
cannot act as agent in necessity.
II) Agency by Ratification :
A person may act on behalf of another
(a) with his consent or (b) without his consent. If a person does any act without the
consent and is lawful and for benefit of that other, the other person may accept the act. This is
Ratification means adopting or accepting an act done by a person, after it is done.
e.g. :- 'A' buys 5 bags of wheat on behalf of 'B'. 'B' did not appoint 'A' as his agent. 'B'
mayupon hearing this accept or reject the bags of wheat If 'B' accepts then the act is ratified
and binding on 'B'.
Following are the essential rules of ratification :(i) The agent must act as agent of principal which can be identified at the time of contract.
(ii) The act must be lawful.
(iii) The principal must be in existence when act was done.
(iv) The principal must be competent to contract.
(v) The whole act must be ratified and not only some portion can be ratified.
(vi) The act must be rafifed within a reasonable time.
(vii) Ratefication can be express or implied.
(viii) Principal can only ratify the act of agent and nobody else than him.
(ix) Ratification must be done at proper place and time.
(x) Ratification must be made with full knowledge of facts.
(xi) Ratification should relate back to the date when the contract was performed by agent.
Limitation :- The principal cannot ratify the acts of agent if :1. Principal is incompetent to contract.
2. Principal does not have knowledge of facts.
3. If the act is void or illegal.
4. If act to be ratified puts third party to damages.
III) Agency by operation of law :
The agency sometimes is implied by operation of law. Generally.
(a) Promoters of the company when the company is formed.
(b) Partners in a partnership firm who act on behalf of other partners.
are the agents which are by operation of law.
2.2.11 Termination of Agency - sec. 201 :
When the contractual relation between the agent and principal come to an end it is called
"Termination of Agency."
Agency can be terminated in any of the following ways.
Termination of Agency
By act of the parties
of Contract
by principal
By operation of Law
by agent
Expiry of
Death of
either party
Insanity of
either party
of principal
Destruction of
subject matter
alien enemy
Disolution of
Termination of
I) Termination by act of parties :
1. Agreement : Like any other agreement the contract of agency can be terminated by
mutual agreement between the principal and agent.
2. Revocation by the principal : The contract of agency can be revocked by the principal
at any time. However following conditions must be fulfilled before the authority is revoked :
(i) It can be revoked before agent has excerised his authority.
(ii) Revocation may be exprress or implied by the conduct of principal.
e.g. : 'A' asks 'B' to rent the house of 'A' to anybody who is in need. 'A' afterwards rents
it to 'C' himself. This is revocation of 'B' authority.
(iii) Notice of revocation must be given by principal to agent if it is stated in the contract.
(iv) In case of continuous agency, the agency can be revoked for future transactions by
giving notice.
(v) If the agency is created for fixed period and the principal revokes the authority of
agent before expiry of fixed period he must pay compensation to the agent.
3. Revocation by an agent : An agent may also terminate the agency, because a person
cannot be compelled to continue as agent against his will. An agent must give a notice of his
renunciation to the principal. If he does not give such a notice he will be liable to pay compensation
to the principal for any damage that may arise.
Also if agency is for a fixed period and the agent revokes his agency before expiry of time
he must pay compensation to the principal.
II) Termination by Operation of Law :
1. Performance of Contract : When the contract of agency is entered for a particular
object; it is automatically terminated when the object is accomplished or when the object becomes
impossible to perform.
2. Expiry of time : When the agent is appointed for a fixed time then the agency comes
to an end after the expiry of that time even if the work is not completed.
3. Death of either party : Agency is terminated automatically on the death of either the
principal or the agent. If there is death of the principal the agent must take all reasonable steps
to protect the interest of principal.
4. Insanity of either party : Contract of agency comes to an end if either the principal
or the agent becomes insane. However it is interesting to note that at the begining an insane
person can be appointed by the principal at his risk.
5. Insolvency of principal : If the principal becomes insolvent the contract of agency is
automatically terminated.
6. Destruction of subject - matter : If the subject-matter for which an agent is appointed,
is destroyed then the agency comes to an end.
e.g. :- If agency was created for the sale of a house and the house is destroyed by fire the
agency is ended.
7. Principal becoming alien enemy : If the principal and agent are citizens of two
different countries and a war breaks out between the two countries, they became alien enemies
and the contract is terminated.
8. Dissolution of company : If the agency is between an incorporated company and
such a company is dissolved the agency is terminated.
9. Termination of sub - agents authority : Sub - agent is a person appointed by an
agent with consent of the principal. When the agency of an agent is terminated authomatically
the agent appointed by the agent i. e. sub - agents authority is also terminated.
1) Duties of an agent :
1. To act according to the directions of principal : It is the first and foremost duty of
an agnet to act according to the directions given by the principal. In other words he has to
follow the principals orders. If there is no special direction given by the principal then the agent
has to act according to the customs that are prevailing regarding that trade. If the agent does
not follow the directions given by the principal then he has to compensate the principal if any
loss occurs due to his act.
e.g. :- 'A' agreed to store the 'B' goods in his own godwon. 'A' however stored them in
godown of 'C'. Goods were destroyed by fire without negligence on part of 'A', Even then 'A'
was liable for loss to 'B' since he did not follow the directions of B.
2. To act with reasonable care, skill and diligence : It is the duty of an agent to act
with reasonable care, skill and diligence. He must act like a person possessed with similar skill
in the similar business.
If he does not act with care, skill and diligence and any loss occurs to principal due to the
direct consequences of agent, the agent is liable to compensate the principal for such a loss.
e.g. :- 'A' an agent had authority from principal to sale goods on credit. 'A' sold the goods
to 'B' on credit without inquiring about his financial status 'B' was insolvent at the time he
purchased the goods. 'A' must compensate the principal for the loss because he did not act with
reasonable care, skill and diligence.
3. Duty to render accounts - : It is the duty of an agent to keep the books of accounts
of all the transsactions which he deals with the principals money.
4. Duty to communicate with principal in case of difficulty : In case of difficulty it is
the duty of an agent to communicate with his principal and get his advice and instructions.
5. Duty not to deal on his own account : An agent is appointed to act for and on behalf
of the principal and therefore it is the duty of an agent not to deal on his own account. If he
violates this rule he may be made responsible for any loss that may arise out of his own dealing.
Also if the agent obtains any advantage or benefit out of such a dealing the principal may claim
it from the agent.
6. Duty to pay sums received for the principal : The agent is bound to pay all the
amounts which are received for the principal. He may return the amount after deducting the
amount of expenses incured by him and the amount of remunaration payable to him by the
7. Duty to protect interest of principal : If the principal dies, the agency is termintated.
On termination of agency it is the duty of an agent to preserve and protect the interest of the
principal since the principal had appointed him on faith and trust in him.
8. Duty not to misuse information : It is the duty of an agent not to misuse any
information of the principaland thereby leak out all the secrets to outsiders. If any such information
of principal is misused and loss is sustained by the principal the principal can claim compensation
from the agent.
9. Duty not to make secret profits from agency : The relation between the agent and
principal is of trust and confidence. Therefore the agent must not make a secret profit from
agency. If he earns any extra income from the contract of agency he must bring this fact to the
knowledge of the principal.
10. Duty not to set up on adverse title : The agent must not set up his own title or
ownership to the goods which he possesses and belong to principal. If he sets up such a wrong
title he will be liable for 'conversion' under Indian Penal Code.
11. Duty not to put himself in a position where interest and duty contract : An
agent must act in the interest of the principal. He must not put himself in such a situation where
the duty and interest will conflict.
e.g. :- 'A' appointed 'B' as his agent to buy some shares for him. 'B' sold his own shares
to 'A' at higher rate without disclosing to whom they belonged. 'A' could terminate the contract.
12. Duty not to delegate authority : To delegate authority means ask someone else to
do the work which a person is asked to do. An agent is appointed to do the work himself for the
principal and so he must not employ another person to perform his duties. However the agent
may appoint a sub-agent with consent of the principal.
2) Rights of an Agent :
An agent has following rights against the principal :1. Right of retainer : The agent has a right to keep the amount spend and remuration
due to him from the principal, out of any amount which is received on behalf of principal.
2. Right to remuneration : The agent has a right to receive the agreed amount of
remuneration from the principal. If no such amount is decided to be paid then he is liable to
receive a reasonable amount. He can claim the amount of remuneration only on the completion
of the work. If however the agent does any misconduct or fails in his work then he is not
entitled to any amount of remuneration.
e.g. :- A appointed 'B' to recover Rs. 1000/- from C. 'B' failed to recover money from 'C'.
'B' is not entitled to remuneration.
3. Right of lien : Lien means possessiion of goods. An agent has right to retain the goods
or any documents of the principal till the amount of commission, or remunaration or expenses
incured by him are paid. This right to lien is a particular lien only restricted to amounts arising
out of contract of agency. Here the agent has only right to lien i. e. possession of goods and not
a right to resale of goods.
4. Right of indemnification : "To indemnify" means to "Compensate a person." An
agent has a right to be indeminified by the principal for all the lawful acts done by him in course
of agency and also for all the expenses incured by him. However the agent cannot claim
indemnify or compensation for unlawful or criminal act.
e.g. :- 'A' asks 'B' to beat 'C' and agrees to pay amount and also indemnify him against all
consequences of the act. 'B' beats 'C'. 'C' brings case and asks damages from 'B'. 'B' pays and
later asks 'A' to indemnify him. 'A' refuses. Here 'A' is not liable to indemnify 'B' for criminal
5. Right of compensation : An agent has a right to be compensated for all the injuries or
damage sustained by him for doing any lawful act of a principal. This injuries must be sustained
due to the principals neglect or want of skill.
6. Right of stoppage in transit : Like an unpaid seller, an agent also has a right to stop
the goods in transit i. e. duration of travelling. He can stop these goods,
a. for money incured by him or
b. if principal has become insolvent.
7. Right to be indemnfied against consequonces of acts done in good faith : An
agent has a right to be indemnified against the consequences of an act which is done in good
faith, even if the act turns out to be injurious to the right of third person.
3) Duties of the Principal :
The duties of the principal are the rights of an agent.
Following are the duties of the principal towards the agent.
1. To pay remuneration and other expenses : It is the duty of the principal to pay
remuneration and other expenses incured by the agent for the work done by him for the principal.
2. Duty of indemnify agent for lawful acts : The principal is bound to indemnify the
agent i.e. compensate him if he has incured any loss while doing any lawful act.
3. Duty to compensate agent for acts done in good faith : A principal is liable to
compensate the agent for all the acts done in good faith even if it causes injury to a third person.
However the principal is not liable to pay for any criminal act.
4. Duty to indeminfy agent for injury caused due to principals neglect : If any
injury is caused to the agent due to the neglegiance of principal then principal must compensate
the agent.
e.g. :- 'A' eomployed 'B' a bricklayer to lay briks in a building. 'A' himself put a ladder in
a wrong way due to which 'B' fells down and gets injures 'A' is liable to compensate 'B'
5. Duty to pay third party for agent's misrepresentation or fraud : An agent is
appointed by the principal all the acts done by agent are said as acts done by the principal.
Therefore if the agent committs a fraud or misrepresentation while doing principals work, the
principal must compensate the third party for loss.
4) Rights of Principal :
1. Right to recover damages : If principal suffers any loss due to the misconduct of the
agent like if he does not follow the directions of the principal, then principal can recover damages
from the agent.
2. Right to ask for accounts : If the agent makes any secret profit out of the agency the
principal has a right to ask for accounts from agent.
3. Right to terminate contract : The principal has every right to cancell the contract of
agency. He can do so when there is misconduct on the par of agent or the agent is earning
secret profits out of agency.
4. Right to give directions : The principal has every right to give directions to the agent
as to how he should act.
2.3 Exercises :
1. Explain the concept of Bailment. What are its characterstics ?
2. Discuss in brief right and duties of bailor.
3. Discuss in brief rights and daties of bailee.
4. Explain various duties of Bailee.
5. Explain various Rights of Bailor.
6. Explain the contract of pledge and give its features.
7. Enumerate the rights and duties of pawnor and pawnee.
8. Distingwish between pledge and Bailment.
9. Explain the concept Agency. How agency is created ?
10. Explain the varous modes of termination of contract of agency.
11. Give in brief the rights and duties of the principal as against Agent.
12. Give in brief the rights and duties of an agent towards his principal.
2.4 Books for further Reading :
1. Mercantile Law
S. S. Gulshan, Excel Books, New Delhi.
2. Business Law
N. D. Kapoor, Sultanchand & s. New Delhi.
3. Principles of Business Law
and Management
Dr. Manmohan Prasad,
Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai.
4. http/www.answers com/topic/contracts/legal
5. www.expertlaw.com.Expert Law Library.
B. Com. Part-III : Business Regulatory Frame Work
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-VI
Intellectual Property Rights
G Trademarks
G Patents
G Copyrights
G Registration of Designs (Only Concepts)
Objectives :
I. To understand the basic concepts of Intellected Property Rights.
II. To create legal awareness about Intellectual Property Rights.
Introduction :
Intellectual Property Rights (I.P.R.) are the legal rights governing the use of creations of
the human minds. Intellectual property refers to creation of mind, i. e. inventions, industrial
designs for article. literary and artistic work, symbols, etc., used in commerce.
The term "Intellectual Property" refers to the general area of law. It includs copyrights,
patents, designs and trademark and the related rights.
The intellectual property law regulates the creation, use and exploitation of mental or
creative labour. They establish property protection over intangible things such as ideas, inventions,
signs and information.
Intellectual property is divided into two categories. i) Industrial property, which includs
inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs and geographic indications of source. and ii)
Copyright, which includs literary and artistic works such as novels, poems, plays, films and
musical works etc.
Justification for Intellectual Property :
The question is why legal protection is provided to intellectual property ? The general
justification for the protection of intellectual property rights is that the intellectual property
induces or encourages desirable behaviour e.g. patent system is sometime justified on the basis
that it provides inventor with an incentive to disclose valuable technical information to the
public, which would have otherwise remain secret.
International aspect of Intellectual Property :
The globalisation of trade and commerce has made a tremendous impact on the expansion
of the regime of intellectual property. Following International Coventions are directly concerned
with intellectual property :
i) The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, 1967.
ii) The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, 1971.
iii) The Rome Convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers of Phonograms
and Broadcasting Organisations, 1961.
iv) The Treaty on Intellectual Property in Respect of Integrated Circuits done at Washington
DC, on May 26, 1989.
v) Geneva Convention on Protection of New Plant Varieties.
vi) GATT and WTO Agreement including TRIPS Agreement.
vii) Convention establishing World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO)
viii) Patent Co-operation Treaty (PCT)
ix) Budapest Treaty.
All these Conventions define the scope and width of intellectual property rights in different
fields. India is a member of almost all the important International Conventions.
1) The Trade Marks Act, 1999 :
A trademark is a visual symbol or sign in the form of a word or a label.
The sign may consist of one or more distinctive words, letters, numbers, drawings, pictures,
emblems, colours or the form of the other special presentation of containers or packages for
the product.
It is a commercial asset intended to be used commercially by businessmen. Due to
trademark the owner gets a perpetual right to its exclusive use in relation to his goods and
Registration of trade mark gives the businessman an exclusive right to the use of trade
mark. The object of trade mark law is to provide for the registration; better protection of trade
marks for goods and services and the prevention of the use of fraudulent marks on goods and
services. If there is any invasion of this right by any other person by a mark which is the same
or deceptive similar to his trade marks, he can protect his trade mark by an action or infringement.
In case of the infringement of registered trade mark or passing of a registered or
unregistered trade mark, the trade mark law provide to the proprietor of the trade mark relief in
the form of
a) injunction.
b) damages and
c)account of profit.
The Act also provide for the penalties in the form of
a) imprisonment and
b) Fines for the offence of falsification of trade mark and has false application of
trade mark.
2) The Patents Act, 1970 :
A patent is a right granted to a person who has invented a new and useful article or an
improvement of an existing article or a new process of making an article.
It consists of an exclusive right to manufacture new article invented or manufacture an
article according to the invented process for a limited period.
The owner of the patent can sell his patent property. He can also grant licenses to others
to exploit the patent.
A patent system is justified because it encourages and develops new technology and
The objectives of the Act are :
1) The protection of individual interest of the patent and
2) The protection of interest of the society.
This Act has been recently amended by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002. Section 48
of the Amendment Act confers the exclusive right to prevent third parties, who do not have
consent of patentee, from the act of making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing for
those purposes his patent invention in India.
The Supreme Court held that, "The object of Patent law is to encourage scientific research,
new technology and industrial progress."
3) The Copyright Act, 1957 :
Copyright means the exclusive rights to do or authorise others to do certain acts in relation
to (1) Literacy, dramatic, musical and artistic works.
(2) Cinematograph film and
(3) Sound recordings
Basically copyrights is the right to copy or reproduce the word in which copyright subsists.
The object of copyright law is to encourage authors composers, artists and designers who
create original works by rewarding them with the exclusive right for a limited period to exploit
the work for monetary gain.
After signing the GATT, India entered into global market economy. Then the number of
changes have been made in the Copyright Act of 1957 by the Amending Act of 1994. Now this
law is more in lines with the present law in many developed countries.
The technological progress has made reproduction of copyright material easy and cheap
but at the same time it has made piracy of copyright work very simple and difficult to regulate
and control them. Therefore, varions countries have joined together to form the International
Conventions namely - The Bern Convention and Universal Copyright Convention. India is also
a member of both the Conventions.
4) The Designs Act, 2000 : (Registration of Designs)
Under section 2 (d) of The Design Act, the "Design" means only the features of shape,
configuration, pattern, ornaments or composition of lines or colours applied to any article whether
in two dimensional or three dimensional or in both forms, by any industrial process or means,
whether manual, mechanical or chemical, separate or combined, which in the finished article
appeal to and are judged soley by the eye; but does not include any mode or principle of
construction or anything which is in substance a mere mechanical device and does not include
any trade mark or property mark or any artistic work.
There are six features to a design :
i) Shape ii) Configuration iii) Pattern iv) Ornament v) Composition of lines vi) Colours.
The terms shape and configuration refer to the form of an article. It is usually three
dimensional in nature.
The terms pattern and ornament are decorative features ordinarily applied to the surface
of the article. It is two dimensional in nature.
The terms composition of lines and colours are applied to the surface of the article.
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Ë`m§À`mda Or ~§YZo/{Z~ªY Kmbmd`mMo AgVrb Vo amÁ`KQ>ZoÀ`m H$b_ 19 (4) À`m Mm¡H$Q>rVM Agbo
Ë`mMà_mUo H$m`Xm d H$moQ>mªZr {Xbobo Ý`m`-{ZdmS>o ñnï> H$aVmV H$s ghH$mar g§ñWm `m gaH$maZo ñWmnZ
Ho$boë`m g§ñWm AmhoV, g^mgXm§Zr {Z_m©U Ho$boë`m g§ñWm ZìhoV. Ë`m_wio amÁ`KQ>ZoV ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mr {ZpíMV
Aer ì`m»`m Agbr nm{hOo, Á`m_Ü`o ghH$mar g§ñWm `m bmoH$m§Zr (_mbH$sÀ`m) ñWmnZ Ho$boë`m, {Z`§{ÌV
Ho$boë`m d Mmb{dboë`m g§ñWm hmoV Ago ñnï> hmoB©b.
ghH$mar g§ñWm Cƒm{YH$ma g{_Vrbm Aer ^rVr dmQ>V hmoVr H$s, ghH$mar g§ñWm ~m~V IX-A Z§Va IXB hm ^mJ n§Mm`V amÁ` g§ñWm d ZJanm{bH$m§À`m ~amo~a, amÁ`KQ>ZoV g_m{dï> H$aVmZm ghH$mar g§ñWm gwÕm
gaH$maÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmImbrb g§ñWm AmhoV, Agm AW© hmoB©b. Ë`m_wio hm ^mJ, amÁ`KQ>ZoV g_m{dï> H$aVmZm
bmoH$g^oÀ`m H${_Q>rZo (Parlimentary Committee) Aer XjVm KoVbr nm{hOo H$s, darb dmŠ`aMZm ghH$mar
g§ñWm§Zm bmJy hmoUma Zmhr. WmoS>Š`mV, ghH$mar g§ñWm gaH$maÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmV AgUma ZmhrV.
(A) amÁ`KQ>ZoÀ`m H$b_
{e\$maer :
19 (1) (C)
_Ü`o _wb^yV h¸$ ghH$mar g§ñWmMm g_mdoe H$aÊ`mg§~§YrÀ`m
ghH$mar g§ñWm Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo KQ>ZoÀ`m H$b_
Aer {e\$mag Ho$br Amho.
19 (1) (C)
_Ü`o Imbrb ~m~tMm g_mdoe H$amdm
1) amÁ`KQ>ZoÀ`m H$b_ 19 (1) (C) _Ü`o "g§KQ>Zm' (Associations) `m eãXmEodOr "ghH$mar g§ñWm'
(Co-operative societies) hm eãX Kmbmdm
2) amÁ`KQ>Zo_Ü`o CnH$b_ (4) g_m{dï> H$amdo Oo ghH$mar g§ñWoMr ì`m»`m ñnï> H$aVo Am{U Ë`mMm
AW© Agm hmoVmo H$s, ghH$mar g§ñWm EopÀN>H$, bmoH$emhr, ñdm`Îm d g^mgXm§Mm Am{W©H$ gh^mJ `m VÎdmda
ñWmnZ Ho$ë`m OmVrb d Mmb{dë`m OmVrb.
(~) {Z`mo{OV
^mJ amÁ`KQ>ZoV g_m{dï> H$aÊ`mg§~§YrÀ`m {e\$maer :
1) Cƒm{YH$mar g{_VrZo ghH$mar g§ñWm~m~V Imbrb ^mJ amÁ`KQ>ZoV g_m{dï> H$amdm Ago gwM{dbo.
Á`m_wio Ë`m gaH$maÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmnmgyZ Xya amhVrb Ë`m~m~V H$b_mà_mUo {e\$maer nwT>rb hmoV.
2) ghH$mar g§ñWm.
ì`m»`m : `m ^mJmV nwT>rb ~m~tMm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
(A) {H«$`merb g^mgX (Active member) : Omo g^mgX ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m H$m_H$mOmV {VÀ`m
nmoQ>{Z`_mZwgma gh^mJr hmoVmo, Ë`mg {H«$`merb g^mgX Ago åhUmdo.
243. ZH
(~) A{YH¥$V ì`ŠVr (Authorised Person) : Or ì`ŠVr KQ>ZoÀ`m H$b_ 243 ZQ Zwgma A{YH¥$V
ì`ŠVr åhUyZ AmoiIbr OmVo, Aer ì`ŠVr.
(H$) _§S>i (Board) : åhUOo ghH$mar g§ñWmMo {Z`§ÌU H$aUmar g§ñWm hmo`. Or H$moUË`mhr ZmdmZo
AmoiIbr OmV Agob Am{U {OÀ`m hmVr ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m H$m_H$mO{df`H$ ì`dñWmnZmMo {X½Xe©Z d
{Z`§ÌU AgVo Aer g§km hmo`.
(S>) ghH$mar g§ñWm (A Co-operative society) : ghH$mar g§ñWm åhUOo Aer ñdm`Îm g§ñWm H$s Or
bmoH$m§Zr ñdoÀN>oZo EH${ÌV `oD$Z ñdV:À`m g_mZ JaOm d C{Ôï>o nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r d bmoH$emhr VÎdo d _yë`mZwgma
ApñVËdmV AgUmè`m amÁ` AWdm H|$Ð gaH$maÀ`m ghH$ma H$m`ÚmZwgma Zm|Xbobr AWdm Zm|Xbr OmUmar g§ñWm
(B©) "gaH$ma' (Government) : åhUOo H|$Ð gaH$ma AWdm amÁ` gaH$ma hmo`.
(\$) ~hþamÁ`r` ghH$mar g§ñWm (Multi-state Co-operative society) : åhUOo Aer g§ñWm H$s
{OMo H$m`©joÌ EH$mnojm A{YH$ amÁ`m§_Ü`o AgVo Am{U ApñVËdmV AgUmè`m H$moUË`mhr ghH$mar H$m`ÚmZwgma
{VMr Zm|XUr Pmbobr AgVo. AWdm Zm|Xbr OmUmar AgVo.
(J) A{YH$mar (Office bearer) : ghH$mar g§ñWoMm A{YH$mar åhUOo AÜ`j, CnmÜ`j, g{Md,
I{OZXma qH$dm g§MmbH$ _§S>im_Ü`o {ZdSy>Z Ambobr H$moUVrhr ì`ŠVr hmo`.
(M) amÁ`ñVar` ghH$mar g§ñWm : åhUOo amÁ`mVrb H$m`Xo _§S>imZo V`ma Ho$boë`m ghH$mar H$m`ÚmZwgma
{ZX}erV Ho$bobr d {OMo H$m`©joÌ g§nyU© amÁ`^a AgUmar ghH$mar g§ñWm hmo`.
(N>) df© (Year) : åhUOo 31 _mM© amoOr g§nUmao df© hmo`.
ghH$mar g§ñWmMo EH${ÌH$aU (Incorporation of co-operative society) : amÁ`mMo H$m`Xo_S§ >i,
H$m`ÚmZwgma ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m EH${ÌH$aUmMr {Z`§ÌUmMr d ~§X H$aÊ`mMr VaVyX H$aVo, Á`m ghH$mar g§ñWm
EopÀN>H$, bmoH$emhr, ñdm`ÎmVm d g^mgXm§Mo Am{W©H$ {hV `m VÎdmda H$m`} H$arV AgVmV.
243. ZJ ghH$mar g§ñWmMm A{YH$mar d g§MmbH$ _§S>imVrb gXñ` g§ñWm d H$m`©H$mb (Number
and terms of members of Board of Directors and its office bearers) :
243. ZI
1) ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imV {H$Vr gXñ` g§»`m Agmdr ho amÁ` gaH$maÀ`m H$m`ÚmV Z_yX
Ho$bobo AgVo, na§Vw 21 nojm OmñV gXñ` g§MmbH$ _§S>imV ZgmdoV.
2) \$ŠV {H«$`merb g^mgXM g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m {ZdS>UwH$sV _VXmZ H$ê$ eH$Vrb d {ZdS>UyH$
bT>dy eH$Vrb. na§Vw _§Ìr ghH$mar g§ñWoMo AÜ`j, CnmÜ`j (MoAa_Z qH$dm ìhmB©g MoAa_Z) hmoÊ`mg nmÌ
ZmhrV. VgoM Á`m g^mgXm§Zm ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr {ZdS>UyH$ bT>dm`Mr AgVo Ë`m§Mm g§ñWoÀ`m
ì`dgm`mer H$moUË`mhr àH$maMm g§~§Y AgVm H$m_m Z`o.
3) g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr _wXV {ZdS>UyH$ Pmë`mÀ`m VmaIonmgyZ nwT>o nmM dfo© amhrb. g§MmbH$ _§S>imV
{ZdSy>Z Ambobo gXñ`M (MoAa_Z, ìhmB©g MoAa_Z) AÜ`j qH$dm CnmÜ`jm§À`m {ZdS>UyH$sg C^o amhÊ`mg
AWdm _XVmZ H$aÊ`mg nmÌ AgVrb.
g§MmbH$ _§S>im_Ü`o H$mhr H$maUm_wio EImXr OmJm [aŠV Pmë`mg Vr ^aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma g§MmbH$
_§S>imbm Agob Va g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr _wXV _yi _wXVrÀ`m (5 df}) {Zåå`mnojm H$_r Agob VaM Aer OmJm
^aVm `oB©b.
4) amÁ` gaH$maÀ`m H$m`Xo_S§ >imbm [aŠV g§MmbH$mMr OmJm ^aVm `oBb
© , Vmo g§MmbH$ ~±H$s¨J, ì`dñWmnZ
AWdm {dÎmr` dJ¡ao joÌmVrb VÁk ì`ŠVr Agbm nm{hOo. na§Vw Aem Zo_ë`m OmUmè`m g^mgXm§Mr g§»`m
XmoZnojm OmñV AgVm H$m_m Z`o. VgoM g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m {ZdS>UyH$rV nam^yV Pmboë`m C_oXdmambm g§MmbH$
_§S>imda pñdH¥$V gXñ` åhUyZ Zo_Vm `oUma Zmhr.
243. ZK
g§MmbH$ _§S>i gXñ`m§Mr {ZdS>UyH$
(Election of members of Board)
amÁ`mÀ`m ghH$ma H$m`ÚmZwgma ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imbm ghH$mar g§ñWm d {VÀ`mer g§~§YrV
gd© {ZdS>UwH$m KoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Agob, VgoM g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr _wXV g§nÊ`mnydu `m {ZdS>UyH$m KoVë`m
nm{hOoV, Ë`mgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmar à{H«$`m d _mJ©Xe©Z amÁ` gaH$maMo H$m`Xo_§S>i nwadob.
243. ZL
g§MmbH$ _§S>i aÔ H$aUo
(Supersession of Board of Directors)
ghH$ma H$m`ÚmMm _gwXm ñnï> H$aVmo H$s ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m OmJr BVa H$moUmMrhr
Zo_UyH$ H$aVm `oUma Zmhr AWdm ghm _{hÝ`mÀ`m H$mbmdYrnojm OmñV H$mi g§MmbH$ _§S>imbm ñW{JVr XoVm
`oUma Zmhr. VWm{n ~hþamÁ`r` ghH$mar g§ñWm ì`{V[aŠV AgUmar ghH$mar g§ñWm Or ~±H$s¨J ì`dgm` H$aVo,
Aem g§ñWogmR>r hr VaVyX 6 _{hÝ`mEodOr 1 df© amhrb, Á`m g§ñWoV gaH$maMr ^m{JXmar, {dÎmr` _XV AWdm
gaH$maMr h_r Zgob.
`m g{_VrZo gyM{dbo H$s ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m JÀN>§Xrg AWdm H$mTy>Z Q>mH$Ê`mg
H$moUË`mhr n[apñWVrV nadmZJr AgUma Zmhr, Á`m g§ñWoV gaH$maMo ^mJ^m§S>db 51% nojm H$_r Agob.
243. ZM
ghH$mar g§ñWmMr {hemo~ VnmgUr
(Audit of Accounts of co-operative Societies)
àË`oH$ ghH$mar g§ñWoZo dfm©VyZ EH$Xm H$m`ÚmZwgma {hemo~ VnmgUr H$aÊ`mMr VaVyX H$amdr. hr {hemo~
VnmgUr H$m`ÚmZwgma _mÝ` Agboë`m {hemo~ VnmgUrH$Sy>Z H$ê$Z ¿`mdr. Ë`m {hemo~ VnmgUrgmMr Zo_UyH$
ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m gd©gmYmaU g^oZo H$amdr. àË`oH$ ghH$mar g§ñWoMr {hemo~ VnmgUr Am{W©H$ dfm©À`m ghm
_{hÝ`mÀ`m AmV H$amdr.
243. ZN
gd©gmYmaU g^m ~mobmdUo
(Convening of the general body meeting)
ghH$ma H$m`ÚmZwgma ghH$mar g§ñWoMr gd©gmYmaU g^m Am{W©H$ df© g§nÊ`mnydu ghm _{hÝ`mÀ`m AmV
~mobdmdr d g^oMo H$m_H$mO H$amdo.
243. ZO
g^mgXm§Mm _m{hVr {_i{dÊ`mMm A{YH$ma (Right of a member of get Information):
ghH$ma H$m`ÚmZwgma àË`oH$ ghH$mar g§ñWoZo Amnë`m H$m_H$mOmer g§~Y§ rV nwñVHo$, _m{hVr, {hemo~ dJ¡ao
àË`oH$ g^mgXmbm CnbãY H$ê$Z {Xbr nm{hOoV. VgoM ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`dñWmnZm_Yrb àË`oH$ g^mgXmZo
{H$_mZ H$mhr {_Q>tJZm CnpñWV am{hboM nm{hOo. VgoM àË`oH$ g^mgXmbm {ejU à{ejU XoUo ~§YZH$maH$ Amho.
243. ZP
àË`oH$ Am{W©H$ df© g§nyÊ`mnydu 6 _{hÝ`mÀ`m AmV ghH$mar g§ñWoZo amÁ` gaH$maZo {Z`wŠV Ho$boë`m
A{YH$mè`mbm Amnbo _m{hVrnÌH$ gmXa Ho$bo nm{hOo. Á`m_Ü`o dm{f©H$ Ahdmb, Am°{S>Q>aZo Vnmgbobo {hemo~nÌH$, Am{YŠ` dmQ>nmMr `moOZm, nmoQ>{Z`_ XwéñË`m, gd©gmYmaU g^oMr VmarI, {ZdS>UyH$m KoÊ`mg§~§YrMr
_m{hVr BË`mXtMm g_mdoe Agmdm.
243. ZQ
JwÝho d X§S>
(Offences and Penalties)
amÁ`mMo H$m`Xo_§S>i Imbrb JwÝømgmR>r X§S> AmH$maUr H$aÊ`mg§~§Yr H$m`Xm H$aÊ`mMr VaVyX H$aob. _wÔm_
MyH$sMr _m{hVr XoUo, My{H$Mo _m{hVr nÌH$ V`ma H$aUo, _wÔm_ EImXr _m{hVr Z XoUo, g^mgX, ZmoH$aXma AWdm
A{YH$mè`mZo H$m`ÚmMo C„§KZ H$aUo, ^«ï>mMma dJ¡ao.
~hþamÁ`r` d H|$Ðem{gV àXoemV ghH$mar g§ñWm ñWmnZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r AO© H$aUo (Application to Multi-state co-operative Societies and union territories) :
243. ZR
hr VaVyX ~hþamÁ` ghH$mar g§ñWm d H|$Ðem{gV àXoemVrb ghH$mar g§ñWmZm bmJy nS>Vo.
~hþamÁ`r` ghH$mar g§ñWm H$m`Xm 2002 _Yrb XwéñË`m (Amedment to the multi-state cooperative Societies Act 2002) :
Joë`m gmV dfm©nmgyZ ~hþamÁ` ghH$mar H$m`Xm 2002 ApñVËdmV Amho, `m§Mr `m g{_VrZo Zm|X KoVbr.
hm H$m`Xm A{YH$ ì`mnH$ H$ê$Z ~hþamÁ` ghH$mar g§ñWm g_moarb g_ñ`m Xya H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m_Ü`o ~Xb H$aUo
Amdí`H$ Amho, Ago `m g{_VrMo _V ~Zbo. `m ~m~V Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo Imbrb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
1. `m ghH$mar g§ñWmgmR>r Am§Vaamï´>r` _mÝ` Pmbobr ghH$mamMr ì`m»`m bmJy H$amdr, Á`m_wio `m
g§ñWmMo EopÀN>H$, ñdm`Îm d bmoH$emhr ñdê$n {Q>Hy$Z amhrb.
2. ghH$mar g§ñWm `m g^mgXm§À`m _mbH$sÀ`m d Ë`m§À`mH$Sy>Z {Z`§{ÌV Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m g§ñWm AmhoV,
Ë`m_wio `m H$m`ÚmV "{H«$`merb g^mgX' hr g§H$ënZm g_m{dï> H$amdr. VgoM {H«$`merb g^mgXm§Mr ì`m»`m
XoIrb g_m{dï> H$amdr. `m H$m`Úm_Ü`o Aer VaVyX Amho H$s \$ŠV {H«$`merb g^mgXmbmM _V XoÊ`mMm d
{ZdS>UyH$sbm C^o amhÊ`mMm A{YH$ma amhrb.
3. `m Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo Aer {e\$mag Ho$br H$s H§$nZr H$m`ÚmV g_m{dï> Agbobr {dídñVmÀ`m
O~m~Xmar~m~VMr VaVyX `m H$m`ÚmV (MSCS - 2002) g_m{dï> H$amdr. hr VaVyX ghH$mar g§ñWoMo g§MmbH$
_§S>i d pñdH¥$V g^mgXm§ZmXoIrb ~§YZH$maH$ amhrb.
4. `m g{_VrZo {e\$mag Ho$bo H$s, ghH$mamV Ym{_©H$ d amOH$s` g§KQ>ZmZm ~§Xr KmbÊ`mMr VaVyX
5. _VXmZmMm h¸$ Zgboë`m ^mJ {dH«$sÛmao d Iwë`m ~mOmamV eoAg©Mr {dH«$s H$ê$Z ^m§S>db C^maUr
H$aÊ`mMr VaVyX `m H$m`ÚmV H$amdr, Aer {e\$mag `m g{_VrZo Ho$br.
lr. {edmOramd nmQ>rb `m§À`m AÜ`jVoImbr AgUmè`m ghH$ma{df`H$ Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo ghH$mam~m~V
darb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
ghH$ma{df`H$ Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrÀ`m {e\$maer :
gZ 2005 _Ü`o ghH$mam~m~V AmT>mdm KoD$Z {e\$maer H$aÊ`mgmR>r lr. {edmOramd nmQ>rb g{_VrZo
nwT>rb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
1. ghH$mar g§ñWm `m Ë`m§À`m g^mgXm§À`m g§ñWm hmoV. Ë`m àm_w»`mZo ñdm`Îm d Am{W©H$ g§ñWm AmhoV.
ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m g^mgXm§Zr Ë`m§À`m gd©gm_mÝ` Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$ d gm§ñH¥${VH$ JaOm nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r
EopÀN>H$[aË`m EH${ÌV `oD$Z ñWmnZ Ho$boë`m AgVmV. Ë`m g^mgXm§À`m g§`wŠV _mbH$sÀ`m AgVmV d bmoH$emhr
VÎdmda MmbVmV. VgoM Ë`m ñdmdb§~r d ñd`§nyU© g§ñWm hmoV. ghH$mamMr VÎdo d _yë`o S>moù`mg_moa R>odyZ
ghH$mar g§ñWm ñdV§Ì, Mm§Jbo d nmaXe©H$ H$m`© H$arV AgVmV. g^mgXm§Mo H$ë`mU d {dH$mg, ì`mdgm{`H$Vm,
XOm© d EH$Vm hr ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mr Mm§Jbr d¡{eï>ço hmoV. {ejU d OmJê$H$Vm ho ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mo A§VJ©V JwU
2. ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mr darb d¡{eï>ço {dMmamV KoD$Z AmOÀ`m ñnY}À`m `wJmV `m g{_VrZo ghH$mar
g§ñWmMo àíZ d AmìhmZm§Mm {dMma Ho$bm. `m g{_VrZo ghH$mar g§ñWm g_moarb àíZm§Mo XmoZ ^mJmV d{J©H$aU
Ho$bo - (1) H$m`m©Ë_H$ àíZ : `m_Ü`o g^mgXËd, {Z`§ÌU d H$m_ H$aÊ`mMr H¥$Vr `m àíZm§Mm g_mdoe
hmoVmo, (2) ~mø àíZ : `m_Ü`o amO{H$`rH$aU, {Z`§ÌU d gaH$mar hñVjon `m§Mm g_mdoe H$aÊ`mV Ambm.
3. H$m`Xoera `mo½`Vm hr ghH$mar g§ñWmMr à_wI JaO Amho. ho AmoiIyZ `m g{_VrZo `m~m~V
_hÎdnyU© {e\$maer Ho$ë`m. Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo amÁ`KQ>ZoVrb 106 dr XwéñVr d ~hþamÁ`r` ghH$mar H$m`Xm
2002 `m§Mm Aä`mg H$ê$Z Ë`m~m~V H$b_mZwgma {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
4. `m g{_VrZo ghH$mar H$m`Xm d ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mo Cn{Z`_ `m_Ü`o `mo½` XwéñË`m H$aÊ`mg§~§Yr
{e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
5. àJVrerb Am{U gw`mo½` H$m`Xm : gÚ:pñWVrV ghH$mar g§ñWm ~§YZmË_H$ H$m`ÚmZwgma MmbVmV,
Ë`m_wio ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m H$m`©àUmbr_Ü`o gwYmaUm hmoÊ`mgmR>r àJVrerb d gw`mo½` H$m`Úm§Mr Amdí`H$Vm
Amho. Á`m_wio Ë`m BVa g§ñWmer ñnYm© XoD$ eH$Vrb Ë`mgmR>r `m g{_VrZo nwT>rb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m AmhoV.
5.1 ~«÷àH$me Mm¡Yar H${_Q>rZo gwM{dbobm d BVa g{_Ë`m§Zr _mÝ` Ho$bobm _m°S>ob ghH$mar H$m`Xm hm
EH$M H$m`Xm {d{dY amÁ`mV àMbrV Agboë`m doJdoJù`m ghH$mar H$m`Úm§EodOr bmJy H$amdm.
5.2 {d{dY amÁ`mV àMbrV Agbobo g_m§Va ghH$mar H$m`Xo ho H$_r Cn`mo{JVoMo Am{U àíZ {Z_m©U
H$aUmao AmhoV. amÁ`mV àM{bV Agboë`m H$m`ÚmEodOr bmJy Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m H$m`Úmbm {Q>H$md Yê$ eHo$b
Agm Xwgam n`m©` CnbãY Zmhr. Zdm ghH$mar H$m`Xm g^mgXm§Mr H$miOr KoUmam d ghH$mar VÎdm§da AmYmabobm
Agë`m_wio Ë`mbm Xwgam n`m©` Zmhr.
5.2.1 Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo gwM{dbobm _m°S>b
o (AmXe©) ghH$mar H$m`Xm d ~¡ÚZmWZ g{_VrZo gwM{dboë`m
Xwê$ñË`m ì`mnH$ ñdê$nmÀ`m AmhoV. VWm{n, AmUIr H$mhr A{YH$ ~Xbm§Mr Amdí`H$Vm {dMmamV KoVm
Imbrb ~m~tda ^a Úmdm.
5.2.2 gaH$mabm H$m`Xm H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Zmhr. gaH$ma hm A{YH$ma XñVyaIwÔ H$m`Úm_Ü`oM g_m{dï>
Amho. ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m gd© H$m`Xo{df`H$ ~m~r {VÀ`m nmoQ>{Z`_m_Ü`o g_m{dï> Ho$ë`m nm{hOoV.
5.3 darb ~m~r {dMmamV KoD$Z ghH$mar g§ñWm `m Am{W©H$ g§ñWm AmhoV, ho ñnï> H$aÊ`mgmR>r H$m`ÚmMr
JaO Amho, Ë`mgmR>r ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m ñnï> ì`m»`oMr Amdí`H$Vm Amho. `m g{_VrZo ghH$mar g§ñWmMr nwT>rb
ì`m»`m Ho$br ""ghH$mar g§ñWm åhUOo Aer ñdm`Îm g§ñWm H$s, Or bmoH$m§Zr ñdoÀN>oZo EH${ÌV `oD$Z ñdV:À`m g_mZ
JaOm d C{Ôï>o gmÜ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r g§`wŠV _mbH$sÀ`m d bmoH$emhr VÎdo d _yë`mZwgma MmbUmar g§ñWm hmo`.''
ghH$mar g§ñWoMr hr ì`m»`m ^maVr` amÁ` KQ>Zm, ~hþamÁ`r` ghH$ma H$m`Xm 2002 d gd© amÁ`mVrb ghH$mar
H$m`Úm§_Ü`o g_m{dï> H$amdr.
5.4 ghH$mar g§ñWm_Yrb g^mgXm§Mm gh^mJ dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r d ghH$mar g§ñWoer g§~§YrV Zgboë`m
bmoH$m§Zm Xya R>odÊ`mgmR>r ~hþamÁ`r` ghH$mar H$m`Xm d amÁ` ghH$mar H$m`Úm§_Ü`o nwT>rb ~m~r g_m{dï>
(1) {H«$`merb g^mgXmMr ì`m»`m - ""Omo g^mgX ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m H$m_H$mOmV gh^mJr AgVmo,
{VÀ`m nmoQ>{Z`_mZwgma {VMm godm§Mm bm^ KoVmo.
(2) {H«$`merb g^mgXmMm ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`dgm`mV dmQ>m AgVmo Am{U Ë`mbm _V XoÊ`mMm d
~moS>m©À`m {ZdS>UyH$sbm C^o amhÊ`mMm A{YH$ma AgVmo.
(3) ghH$mar g§ñWoMm dmna Z H$aUmè`m g^mgXm§Zm H$_r H$aÊ`mgmR>r ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m nmoQ>{Z`_m_Ü`o
Ë`m§Mo g^mgXËd Wm§~{dÊ`mgmR>r VaVyX H$amdr, Ooìhm {H$_mZ g§ñWoV ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m godm§Mm {d{eï> H$mimV
dmna H$arV ZmhrV d ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m Amdí`H$ {_Q>tJ_Ü`o gh^mJr hmoV ZmhrV.
5.5 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr n[aUm_H$maH$Vm gwYmaÊ`mgmR>r {deofV: Ë`m§Mr {dídñVnUmMr
^w{_H$m d bmoH$m§Mm {dídmg dmT>{dÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar VgoM ghH$mar g§ñWoMr O~m~XmanUm d ì`mdgm{`H$VoMr
h_r XoUmè`m H$m`Úm_Ü`o nwT>rb VaVwXr Agmì`mV.
5.5.1 ghH$mar g§ñWoMo g§MmbH$ _§S>i, nJmar H$m`©H$mar A{YH$mar d ì`dñWmnH$m§Mr ^y{_H$m O~m~Xmar
ñnîQ>nUo {ZpíMV H$amdr. g§MmbH$ _§S>imZo ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m YmoaU{df`H$ ~m~r d à_wI ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`
¿`mdoV, `moOZm V`ma H$amì`mV d {d{eï> H$mbrZ C{Ôï>o R>admdrV Va X¡Z§{XZ {ZU©` H$m`©H$mar A{YH$mè`m§Zr
5.5.2 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imVrb g§MmbH$m§Zm H§$nZr H$m`ÚmVrb {dídñVnUmMr VaVyX
~§YZH$maH$ amhrb. VgoM g§MmbH$ _§S>imZo Ë`m§Mo {hVg§~§Y Jw§Vboë`m ~m~r CKS> H$amì`mV Á`m_wio g§Kf©
Q>miVm `oB©b. Ë`mgmR>r Cƒm{YH$mar g{_VrZo nwT>rb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
(1) g§MmbH$ _§S>imMo {hVg§~§Y Agboë`m ~m~r CKS> H$aUo - ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m àË`oH$ g^mgXmZo Omo
ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m gm¡ÚmV AWdm ì`dhmamV ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m dVrZo àË`j AWdm AàË`jnUo gh^mJr Agob
AWdm g§~§YrV Agob Va Ë`mZo Ë`mMm g§~§Y g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m ~¡R>H$s_Ü`o CKS> H$amdm / ñnï> H$amdm.
(2) Omo g§MmbH$ ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`dhmamV gh^mJr Agob Ë`mZo g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m H$m_H$mOmV
gh^mJr hmoD$ Z`o. Ë`mZo g§MmbH$ åhUyZ g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m H$m_H$mOmg AWdm MM}g AWdm ghH$mar
g§ñWoÀ`m dVrZo EImXm ì`dhma hmoV Agë`mg Ë`mbm CnpñWV amhÿ Z`o.
5.5.3 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m nmoQ>{Z`_m_Ü`o ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imgmR>r ghH$mar VÎdm§er
OwiUmao d `mo½` Ago {ZH$f _m§S>mdoV / bmJy H$amdoV.
5.5.4 ghH$mar g§ñWoV Á`m ì`ŠVrbm pñdH¥$V g^mgX åhUyZ gm_rb H$ê$Z KoVbo OmVo, Vr ì`ŠVr
ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`dgm`mer g§~§YrV joÌm_Yrb VÁk ì`ŠVr Agbr nm{hOo. ghH$mar g§ñWoZo VÁk ì`ŠVtMm
{dMma H$ê$Z, Vr ì`ŠVr ghH$mar g§ñWobm H$m_H$mOm_Ü`o Cn`wŠV R>abr nm{hOo. ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`mdgm{`H$
{ZU©`m_Ü`o Ë`m ì`ŠVrbm _VXmZ H$aÊ`mMr nadmZJr Agob.
5.5.5 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m {ZdSy>Z Amboë`m àË`oH$ g§MmbH$mZo {ZdSy>Z Amë`mnmgyZ ghm _{hÝ`mÀ`m
AmV {d{eï> à{ejU H$m`©H«$_ nyU© H$aUo ~§YZH$maH$ amhrb. OoUo H$ê$Z Ë`mÀ`m Hw$ebVoV d kmZmV ^a nSy>Z
Vmo Amnë`mda gmon{dboë`m O~m~Xmè`m g_mYmZH$maH$[aË`m nma nmSy> eHo$b. ho ~§YZ nmibo Zmhr Va Vmo
g§MmbH$ åhUyZ H$m_ H$aÊ`mg AnmÌ R>aob.
5.5.6 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m nmoQ>{Z`_m_Ü`o ì`dñWmnH$s` g§MmbH$m§Mr nmÌVm Z_yX Ho$bobr Agmdr.
5.6 ghH$mar g§ñWm_Yrb amOH$s` hñVjon H$_r H$aÊ`mgmR>r _m°S>ob ghH$mar H$m`ÚmVrb {e\$maetÀ`m
A§_b~OmdUr~amo~aM Ë`mgmR>r H$m`Xm H$amdm.
5.6.1 ghH$mar g§ñWoMm _VXmZ h¸$ {VMo Aml` XmVo d {H«$`merb g^mgXm§nwaVoM _`m©{XV AgmdoV.
Ë`m_wio ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`dñWmnH$s` _§S>imda {H«$`merb g^mgXm§ZmM {ZdSy>Z XoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Agob,
amOH$s` ì`ŠVr ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m {H«$`merb g^mgX AgVmV, Ë`m§Zm g§MmbH$ _§S>imda {ZdSy>Z OmÊ`mMm d
H$m_H$mOmV gh^mJr hmoÊ`mMm A{YH$ma Amho, Oa Vo {ZdSy>Z Ambo Va.
5.6.2 CƒñVar` ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m H$m_H$mOmV {ZU©`à{H«$`oV ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m A{YH¥$V g^mgXm§Zm
gh^mJr hmoÊ`mMm h¸$ amhrb.
5.6.3 g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr AmirnmirZo {Zd¥Îmr - g§MmbH$ _§S>imVrb gXñ`m§Mr {Zd¥Îmr hr
AmirnmhrZo am{hb, Á`m_wio ZdrZ {dMmagaUrMo bmoH$ g§MmbH$ _§S>imV `oVrb d g§MmbH$ _§S>iXoIrb H$m`_
5.6.4 ghH$mar g§ñWoMm g^mgX Pmë`mZ§Va 12 _{hÝ`m§Zr Ë`mbm _VXmZmMm h¸$ amhrb. åhUOo g^mgX
Pmë`mnmgyZ n{hbo 12 _{hZo Ë`mbm _VXmZmMm h¸$ AgUma Zmhr. `m ~§YZm_wio _VXmZmgmR>r g^mgX hmoÊ`mda
_`m©Xm nS>Vrb d g^mgXm§Mr ^mD$JXu hmoUma Zmhr.
5.6.5 amOH$s` d Ym{_©H$ g§KQ>ZmÀ`m ghH$mar g§ñWoVrb gh^mJmda ~§YZ amhrb.
5.7 Á`m ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm gaH$mar Am{W©H$ _XV {_imbobr Amho, Vr Ë`m§Zr gaH$mabm naV H$amdr. Á`m
ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm hr Am{W©H$ _XV naV H$aVm `oUma Zmhr, Ë`m§Zr gaH$maÀ`m nadmZJrZo gm_§Oñ` H$ama H$amdm.
5.8 ghH$mar g§ñWmMr ñnYm©Ë_H$Vm dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r H$m`ÚmZo ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm nwT>rb ~m~r H$ê$
5.8.1 ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm Ë`m§Mr g§KQ>ZmË_H$ aMZm, H$_©Mmar Zo_UyH$ YmoaU, godm eVu d Ë`m§Mo _mo~Xbo
(doVZ) R>ady ÚmdoV, Ë`mbm g§MmbH$ _§S>imZo _mÝ`Vm {Xbobr Agbr nm{hOo.
5.8.2 ghH$mar g§ñWmZr BVa ì`mdgm{`H$ g§ñWmer g§`Šw V ì`dhma, ^m{JXmar, Cng§ñWm Am{U YmoaUmË_H$
H$ama H$amdoV.
5.8.3 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m H$m`©joÌmdarb ~§YZo H$mTy>Z Q>mH$mdrV, ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zr H$m`©joÌ ~§YZmMm
{dMma Z H$aVm H$m_ H$amdo. H$m`©joÌ d Ë`mM joÌmVrb g^mgX `m ~§YZm_wio ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m H$m`m©V
AS>Wio {Z_m©U Pmbo AmhoV, Ë`m_wio Ë`m§Zm _moR>çm CËnmXZmMo bm^ {_iV ZmhrV.
5.8.4 ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m ì`mdgm{`H$ {ZU©`m_Ü`o {ZYrMr O_dm-O_d H$aUo d Am{YŠ` dmQ>nm_Ü`o
bd{MH$Vm Agmdr.
6.0 amÁ`KQ>ZoVrb XwéñVr - `m g{_VrÀ`m _Vo, ghH$mar g§ñWm H$m`Xm _m°S>ob ghH$mar H$m`Úmda
AmYm[aV Agmdm. Ë`mgmR>r amÁ`KQ>ZoV ~Xb H$aÊ`mMr Amdí`H$Vm Amho.
7.0 gaH$maMr ^y{_H$m - gaH$maZo ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mm H$ma^ma ñdm`ÎmnUo MmbÊ`mMr h_r Úmdr.
Ë`m_wio ghH$mar g§ñWm eŠVrembr hmoVrb.
7.1 ghH$mar g§ñWmMm H$ma^ma ñdV§ÌnUo d Mm§Jbm MmbÊ`mgmR>r gaH$maZo YmoaU V`ma H$amdo. Vo H$m`Xm
d H$m`©H$mar Cnm`m§da AmYm[aV Agmdo, VgoM Ë`mZo ghH$mar g§ñWmZm Iwbr d ñdV§Ì ~mOmaì`dñWm nwadmdr.
Ë`m_wio gaH$maZo ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm H$moUË`mhr Am{W©H$ H$m`m©V gh^mJr hmoÊ`mMr nadmZJr Úmdr.
7.2 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ^mJ-^m§S>dbmMo ê$nm§Va AZwXmZo AWdm gwb^ H$Om©V H$amdo.
7.3 Á`m ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm gaH$maH$Sy>Z ^mJ-^m§S>db, H$O© AWdm h_r {_imbr Agob Aem ghH$mar
g§ñWm ~amo~a gaH$maZo gm_§Oñ` H$ama H$amdm, H$s Omon`ªV gaH$maMo ^mJ^m§S>db AWdm H$Om©Mr naV\o$S> hmoUma
Zmhr Vmon`ªV gaH$ma Ë`m g§ñWm§_Ü`o _hÎdmMr ^y{_H$m nma nmS>ob.
7.4 Omon`ªV ghH$mar g§ñWmH$Sy>Z gaH$mabm {dZ§Vr Ho$br OmUma Zmhr Vmonæ§V gaH$ma ghH$mar g§ñWm_Ü`o
_hÎdnyU© ^y{_H$m AgUmè`m A{YH$mè`m§Mr Zo_UyH$ H$aUma Zmhr.
7.5 Oa Aem àH$maMr _hÎdmMr ^y{_H$m nma nmS>Umè`m A{YH$mè`mMr Zo_UyH$ gaH$maZo Ho$br Va Ë`mMm
H$m`©H$mb {H$_mZ 3 df} amhrb.
7.6 gaH$maZo ghH$mar g§ñWmZm g^mgX {ejU, ì`dñWmnH$mMo à{ejU, g§MmbH$ _§S>i d ZoÌËd
{dH$mg `mgmR>r AZwXmZ Úmdo.
7.7 gaH$maZo ghH$mar g§ñWm ñWmnZ H$aÊ`mÀ`m CÔrï>mnmgyZ Xya amhmdo. H$mhr amÁ`m§_Ü`o gaH$ma ghH$mar
g§ñWmÀ`m g§KQ>Zm_Ü`o gh^mJr Amho, ho H$m_ Ë`m§Zr ghH$mar g§ñWm qH$dm bmoH$m§À`m g§KQ>Zm AWdm g§Kmda
8. ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m {Z`moOZmgmR>r {dH$mgmË_H$ COiUr :
8.1 ghH$mar joÌmbm AW©ì`dñWoVrb V¥Vr` joÌ åhUyZ _hÎdmMo ñWmZ {Xbo nm{hOo. Am{W©H$Ñï>çm Xw~©b
KQ>H$mgmR>r Ë`mMm {dH$mg Ho$bm nm{hOo.
8.2 ghH$mamÀ`m {dH$mgmgmR>r d YmoaUo d {Z`moOZmgmR>r amï´>r` nmVirda ñdV§Ì ghH$mar Am`moJ /
_§S>i H$m`_ñdê$nr ñWmnZ H$amdm. Vmo ñdm`Îm Agmdm.
9. ñnYm©Ë_H$Vm dmT>{dUo : ghH$mar g§ñWmMr ñnYm©Ë_H$Vm d ì`mdgm{`H$Vm dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r Cƒm{YH$ma
g{_VrZo nwT>rb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
9.1 ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m g§aMZoMo n[ajU H$amdo. Vo IM© n[aUm_H$maH$ (IM© H$_r H$aUo) d ghH$mar
g§ñWm§VJ©VMo Omio dmT>{dUmao Agmdo.
9.2 ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m ì`dgm`mMo EImÚm `eñdr g§ñWoV {d{bZrH$aU H$aVmZm g^mgXm§À`m {hVmMo
ajU H$amdo.
9.3 g§Kr` ghH$mar g§ñWmZr ZdrZ V§ÌkmZ d ì`dñWmnZ _m{hVr nÕVrMm ñdrH$ma H$aVmZm, bhmZ
ghH$mar g§ñWm, Á`m ñdV:Mr _m{hVr nÕVr V`ma H$ê$ eH$V ZmhrV qH$dm _m{hVr V§ÌkmZmda AmYm[aV nÕVrMm
dmna H$ê$e H$V ZmhrV, Aem g§ñWmMr O~m~Xmar ¿`mdr d Ë`m§À`m g^mgX g§ñWm§Zm _XV H$amdr.
9.4 CƒñVar` ghH$mar g§ñWmZr Ë`m§À`m KQ>H$ g§ñWmer ì`mdgm{`H$ ñnYm© H$ê$ Z`o åhUyZ H$m`Xoera
VaVyX H$amdr.
10.0 _mZdr g§gmYZ {dH$mg d ì`mdgm{`H$VoMr Amdí`H$Vm : ghH$mar g§ñWm_Ü`o _mZd g§gmYZ
{dH$mg H$aÊ`mgmR>r Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo nwT>rb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
10.1 g^mgXm§Zr ghH$mar g§ñWm~m~VMo Ë`m§Mo A{YH$ma d h¸$ Am{U O~m~Xmè`mm~V gVH©$ d OmJê$H$
amhmdo åhUyZ ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zr g^mgX {ejU d OmJéH$VogmR>r Amdí`H$ H$m`©H«$_ {Za§VanUo Mmby H$amdoV.
10.2 H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ gXñ`ËdmMr g§H$ënZm ghH$mam_Ü`o am~dmdr Á`m_wio VéU dJ© ghH$mamer OmoS>bm
OmB©b. {ó`m d VéUm§Mm gh^mJ ghH$mamV dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r {deof à`ËZ H$amdoV. ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m ì`mdgm{`H$
KS>m_moS>r Aem arVrZo V`ma H$amì`mV H$s Á`m_wio ghH$mamVrb {d{dY ñVamda {ó`m§Mm gh^mJ _moR>çm à_mUmV
10.3 ghH$mar joÌmVrb nwT>mè`m§Zm, Vo {ZdSy>Z Amë`mnmgyZ ghm _{hÝ`mÀ`m AmV Ë`m§Zr ghH$mar
à{ejU nyU© Ho$bo nm{hOo, Ago ~§YZ Kmbmdo.
10.4 ghH$mar g§ñWmMo ì`dñWmnZ ì`mdgm{`H$ {dH$mgm{^_wI Agmdo. g^mgXm§Mm gh^mJ d ^m§S>db
`m_Ü`o dmT> hmoUmè`m nÕVtMm Adb§~ H$amdm.
10.5 ghH$mar g§ñWm§À`m _w»` H$m`©H$mar A{YH$mè`mZo gw`mo½` {ZH$fm§Mm dmna H$amdm, Á`m_wio ghH$mar
g§ñWoMm ì`dgm` d AmH$ma_mZmV dmT> hmoB©b.
10.6 ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zr doimodoir Vkm§Mr _XV CnbãY H$amdr, Ë`mgmR>r ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zr `mo½` {deof
Vkm§Mr Zo_UyH$ Ho$br nm{hOo. Cƒ nmVirdarb ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zr bhmZ ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zmhr _XV CnbãY H$ê$Z
{Xbr nm{hOo.
10.7 ghH$mar ZoÌËd ho gw{e{jV, à{e{jV d H$miOr KoUmao O~m~Xma d hþema Agbo nm{hOo. Ë`m_wio
g§MmbH$ _§S>i d ì`dñWmnZmZo hr JaO bjmV KoVbr nm{hOo.
10.8 H$_©Mmar à{ejU amï´>r` ghH$mar {dH$mg _§S>imMr gmYZgm_J«r H|$Ð `moOZm ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm
CnbãY H$ê$Z Úmì`mV. Ë`m~amo~aM H|$Ð gaH$maÀ`m gmYZgm_J«r H|$Ð C^maUr `moOZm V`ma H$aUo XoIrb
{dMmamV ¿`mì`mV.
10.9 ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm à{e{jV ì`mdgm{`H$ nwa{dÊ`mgmR>r ghH$mar {dÚmnrR>mMr ñWmnZm H$amdr.
Ë`gmR>r NCUI _mZd g§gmYZ {dH$mg _§Ìmb` d {dÚmnrR> AZwXmZ Am`moJmZo Am{W©H$ d BVa nmR>~i nwadmdo.
Ë`mgmR>r ApñVËdmV AgUmè`m à{ejU g§ñWmMm dmna H$amdm.
10.10 àË`oH$ ghH$mar g§ñWoZo {VMo _mZd g§gmYZ {dH$mgmMo YmoaU Amnë`m nmoQ>{Z`_m_Ü`o ñnï> H$ê$Z
gm§{JVbo nm{hOo d Vo gd© g^mgXm§Z, H$_©Mmar dJ©, g§MmbH$ dJ¡a|Zm bmJy Agob. VgoM n«Ë`oH$ ghH$mar g§ñWoZo
{VMo _mZdr eŠVr {Z`moOZ, H$_©Mmar ^aVr à{H«$`m, ì`mdgm{`H$Vm ñnï>nUo Z_yX Ho$br nm{hOo. àË`oH$ ghH$mar
g§ñWoZo Amnë`m dm{f©H$ A§XmOnÌH$mV 2% a¸$_ g^mgXmMo {ejU, à{ejUmgmR>r d gd© ñVamdarb Hw$ebVm
dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r amIyZ R>odbr nm{hOo.
11. ^m§S>db{Z{_©Vr d Am{W©H$ gwÑT>Vm : `m _wÚm~m~V Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo Imbrb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m.
11.1 ghH$mar g§ñWm§À`m g^mgXm§Mr ^m§S>db C^maUrMr Aj_Vm {dMmamV KoVm, Ë`mgmR>r ~mø
_XVrMr Amdí`H$Vm Amho, Ë`mgmR>r H|$Ð gaH$maZo eoVH$è`m§Zm ghH$mar g§ñWmMo ^mJ^m§S>db IaoXr H$aÊ`mgmR>r
gwb^ H$Om©Mr VaVyX A§XmOnÌH$m_Ü`o H$amdr. `m `moOZm [aPìh© ~±Ho$À`m _XVrZo gwê$ H$amì`mV d Ë`m_m\©$V
eoVH$è`m§Zm eoVr à{H«$`m ghH$mar g§ñWmMo ^mJ IaoXr H$aÊ`mgmR>r gwb^ H$O} / ì`mO {da{hV H$O} CnbãY
H$ê$Z ÚmdrV.
11.2 `m Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo {e\$mag Ho$br H$s ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm nyU© CËnÞ H$a _m\$s Úmdr. Ë`m_wio
ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m amIrd {ZYrV dmT> hmoB©b. `m VaVyXr_wio ghH$mar g§ñWmMm ^m§S>dbr nm`m _O~yV hmoÊ`mg
_XV hmoB©b. Aem n«H$mao ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm OJmVrb 65% XoemV CËnÞ H$amV gyQ> {Xbr OmVo.
11.3 gaH$maZo ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m ^mJ^m§S>dbmV gh^mJ KoVë`mg ghH$mar g§ñWmÀ`m ñdmV§Í` d
ñdm`ÎmoVda gaH$maMo {Z`§ÌU àñWm{nV hmoB©b Ago `m g{_VrMo _V hmoVo, åhUyZ `m g{_VrZo ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm
gaH$maZo ^mJ^m§S>db nwa{dÊ`mMr {e\$mag Ho$br Zmhr. Ë`mEodOr gaH$maZo ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm AZwXmZo AWdm
ì`mO_wŠV H$O©o ÚmdrV. Ë`m§Mr g§nyU©V: naV\o$S> Ho$br nm{hOo.
11.4 Á`m {R>H$mUr ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zr gaH$maH$Sy>Z ~rO ^m§S>dbmgmR>r _XV KoVbr Agob, Ë`mMr
ghH$mar g§ñWmZr Vm~S>Vmo~ naV\o$S> Ho$br nm{hOo.
11.5 AZoH$ ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm Ë`m§À`m g^mgXm§H$Sy>Z ^m§S>db C^maUrda _`m©Xm nS>VmV. CËnmXZ
ghH$mar g§ñWm, à{H«$`m ghH$mar g§ñWm, godm ghH$mar g§ñWm d ghH$mar ~±H$m dJ¡a|Zm _moR>çm ^m§S>db C^maUrMr
Amdí`H$Vm AgVo, åhUyZ Ë`m§Zr {dÎmr` ~mOmamVyZ ^m§S>db C^mamdo, Ë`m~amo~aM H$O} XoIrb C^mamdrV.
Am{W©H$Ñï>çm g~b AgUmè`m ghH$mar g§ñWm ^m§S>dbàYmZ AgVmV, Ë`m_wio Aer {e\$mag H$aÊ`mV `oVo H$s
`mg§ñWmZr N>Ìr g§KQ>Zm ñWmnZ H$amdr. Á`m_wio ~mOmamVyZ ^m§S>db C^maVm `oB©b, H$Om©Mr AmIUr H$aVm `oB©b
d Amdí`H$ Am{W©H$ d Vm§{ÌH$ _XV ghH$mar g§ñWmZm {_iob. AZoH$ XoemV Aem àH$maMo ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mm
Z_wZm ApñVËdmV Amho. ImbÀ`m nmVirdarb ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm _XV H$aÊ`mgmR>r ~m°ÝS>g², qS>~oMg©, {deof
g_^mJ dJ¡ao àH$maMr {dÎmr` gmYZo {Z_m©U Ho$br nm{hOoV.
11.6 J«m_rU H$O©nwadR>çmVrb ghH$mar ~±H$m§Mm dmQ>m doJmZo H$_r hmoV Amho, Vmo gÜ`m 20% À`m
Odinmg Amho. H$maU Ë`m§À`mH$S>o ñdV:Mo \§$S> ({ZYr) _`m©{XV AmhoV, VgoM Ë`m nwZ{d©VmgmR>r Zm~mS>©da
Adb§~yZ AmhoV. Zm~mS>© nwZ{d©VmgmR>r [aPìh© ~±Ho$da Adb§~yZ Amho. na§Vw [aPìh© ~±Ho$Zo gÜ`m gd©gmYmaU
nVYmoaU (General line of credit) Ûmao Ho$bm OmUmam H$O©nwadR>m H$_r Ho$bm Amho. Ë`m_wio ghH$mar ~±H$m§Zm
Zm~mS>© nwaogm nwZ{d©Îm H$O©nwadR>m H$ê$ eH$V Zmhr. AZoH$ ghH$mar ~±H$m Am{W©H$Ñï>çm Xw~©b AmhoV, Ë`m_wio Ë`m
~mOmamVyZ {ZYrMr C^maUr H$ê$ eH$V ZmhrV. åhUyZ ghH$mar ~±H$m§Zm ~mOmamVyZ {ZYr C^maÊ`mgmR>r n`m©`r
g§KQ>Zm C^maUrMr Amdí`H$Vm Amho, Ë`mÛmao {ZYr Jmoim H$ê$Z ghH$mar H$O©nwadR>m d ~±H$s¨J g§aMZm `m_Yrb
A§Va H$_r H$aVm `oB©b.
11.7 {d{dY XoemVrb ghH$mar g§ñWmZr ^mJ^m§S>dbmV dmT> H$aÊ`mgmR>r {d{dY YmoaUo A§{JH$mabr
AmhoV. ^maVm_Ü`o ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zr ^m§S>db C^maUrgmR>r {dÎmr` gmYZo {dH${gV Ho$br nm{hOoV. VgoM EH$
g^mgX EH$ _V ho VÎd bjmV KoVbo nm{hOo.
11.8 godmjoÌmV dmT> hmoÊ`mMr _moR>r eŠVr Amho. Ë`mjoÌmMr dmT> {ZYrA^mdr Iw§Q>br Amho. amï´>r`
ghH$mar {dH$mg _§S>imMr ñWmnZm ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm g§ñWmË_H$ H$O©nwadR>m H$aÊ`mgmR>r Pmbr Amho. na§Vw
Ë`mÀ`mH$S>o godm ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm H$O©nwadR>m H$aÊ`mgmR>r _`m©{XV {ZYr Amho. Vmo {d{dY àH$maÀ`m godm
g§ñWm§V {d^mJbm Omdm.
11.9 _yë`d{Y©V ghH$mar ì`mdgm{`H$ àH$ën§Zm _moR>çm à_mUmV ^m§S>db nwadR>m H$aÊ`mgmR>r H°$ZS>m d
A_o[aHo$à_mUo H$O©nwadR>m d BVa {dÎmr` n`m©` CnbãY Agbo nm{hOoV. VgoM A_o[aH$m d H°$ZS>mà_mUo
eoVO_rZ gwYmaUm d ghH$mar {dnUZ g§ñWm H$O} H$m`Xm ^aVmV Agmdm. `m H$m`ÚmZwgma Oa Aem H$Om©_wio
{dÎmnwadR>m H$aUmè`m g§ñWm§Zm VmoQ>m Pmbm Va Ë`m§Zm gaH$mar _§Ìmb`mH$Sy>Z 95% ZwH$gmZ ^anmB© {_iVo.
12. {dÎm nwadR>m/H$O©nwadR>çmMo _mJ© : eoVH$è`m§Zm nwaogm H$O©nwadR>m hmoV Zgë`m_wio `m g{_VrZo Ë`mg§~§Yr
nwT>rb {e\$maer Ho$ë`m AmhoV.
12.1 Oo eoVH$ar ghH$mar nVg§ñWmÀ`m H$joV ZmhrV Ë`m§Zm ghH$mar g§ñWmMo g^mgX hmoÊ`mgmR>r CÎmoOZ
Úmdo. Ë`mgmR>r eoVH$è`m§Zm gwb^ H$O© AWdm AZwXmZo ÚmdrV. Ë`mÀ`m ghmæ`mZo eoVH$è`m§Zr ghH$mar g§ñWmMo
^mJ-^m§S>db IaoXr H$amdo.
12.2 J«m_rU d eoVrjoÌmVrb _moR>r bmoH$g§»`m àMbrV {dÎmnwadR>m nÕVrnmgyZ Xya H$m am{hbr? `mMm
gImob Aä`mg H$amdm d àMbrV H$O©nwadR>m nÕVr_Ü`o ~Xb H$ê$Z OmñVrVOmñV bmoH$g§»`m H$O©nwadR>çmImbr
12.3 Am{W©H$Ñï>çm H$_Hw$dV àmW{_H$ ghH$mar nVnwadR>m g§ñWmer g§~§YrV H$Om©Mr Amdí`H$Vm
AgUmè`m eoVH$è`m§À`m JaOm ^mJ{dÊ`mgmR>r doJù`m nVnwadR>m nÕVrMm {dMma H$amdm.
12.4 Oo eoVH$ar Zm~mS>©À`m H$O©nwadR>çmbm nmÌ R>aUma ZmhrV Ë`m§À`mgmR>r ñd`§ghmæ`Vm JQ>m§Mr
ñWmnZm H$amdr Á`m_Ü`o {~Ja WH$~mH$sXma g^mgXm§Mm g_mdoe H$amdm.
12.5 ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm nwZ{d©ÎmmMm EImXm Á`mXm _mJ© nwadmdm / {Z_m©U H$amdm. Ë`mgmR>r RIDF H$Sy>Z
H$O©nwadR>çmMr EImXr Mm§Jbr `moOZm V`ma H$amdr.
12.6 eoVrjoÌmV _moR>çm à_mUmV YmoHo$ AgVmV, Vo dma§dma {Z_m©U hmoVmV. Ë`mgmR>r eoVrjoÌmbm hmoUmam
H$O©nwadR>m d {d_m `m ~m~r VnmgyZ Ë`m~m~V H$m`_ñdê$nr Cnm``moOZm H$amdr. Ë`mgmR>r Vkm§À`m g{_VrZo
`mMm Aä`mg H$amdm d BVa g{_Ë`m§Zr Ë`m~m~V Ho$boë`m {e\$maer {dMmamV ¿`mì`mV.
13. AmOmar d Am{W©H$Ñï>çm H$_Hw$dV ghH$mar g§ñWm nwZd©gZ : J«m_rU ^mJmVrb AmOmar AgUmè`m
CËnmXZ à{H«$`m, godm d BVa àH$maÀ`m ghH$mar g§ñWmMo àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r `m g{_VrZo Aer {e\$mag Ho$br
H$s EH$ amï´>r` nmVirda ghH$mar nwZd©gZ g{_Vr ñWmnZ H$amdr.
13.2 amï´>r` ghH$mar nwZd©gZ g{_Vr ñWmnZ H$aVmZm H|$Ð gaH$maZo amÁ` gaH$mam§À`m _XVrZo amï´>r`
ghH$mar nwZd©gZ d g§ñWm g§ajU {ZYr AmOmar g§ñWmgmR>r ñWmnZm H$amdm. Ë`mMm Z_wZm d nmÌVm {ZH$f \§$S>
dmQ>n H$aÊ`mgmR>r amï´>r` ghH$mar g{_VrZo R>admdoV. BVa joÌmVrb \§$S>mà_mUoM ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mo Adgm`Z \§$S>
amÁ` gaH$mam§H$S>o CnbãY AgmdoV. Ë`m_YyZ {d{eï> ì`dgm` H$aUmè`m ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm _XV Úmdr.
13.3 `m g{_VrZo Aer {e\$mag Ho$br H$s EImÚm g§ñWoV {dbrZ hmoÊ`mgmR>r qH$d ì`dgm` ~§X
H$aÊ`mgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmao EH$gmaIo {ZH$f / _mJ©Xe©H$ VÎdo V`ma H$amdrV. hr _m©Xe©H$ VÎdo gd© amÁ`m§Zr
14. amÁ`KQ>ZoVrb XwéñVr : ghH$ma hm {df` amÁ` gaH$mam§À`m AIË`m[aVrb Amho. Ë`m_wio {d{dY
amÁ`mVrb ghH$ma{df`H$ H$m`ÚmV EH$gmaIonUm Agbm nm{hOo, Ë`m_wio ghH$mar g§ñWm ñdm`Îm d bmoH$emhr
nÕVrZo H$ma^ma H$aVrb. AZoH$ amÁ`mV _m°S>ob ghH$mar H$m`Úmà_mUo g_m§Va H$m`Xo àMbrV AmhoV. amÁ`KQ>ZoV
~Xb H$ê$Z ghH$mar g§ñWm§Mr ñdm`ÎmVm {Q>H${dbr nm{hOo. Ë`mgmR>r Cƒm{YH$ma g{_VrZo nwT>rb {e\$maer
14.1 `m g{_VrÀ`m {e\$maer 106 amÁ`KQ>Zm XwéñVr {dYo`H$ 2006 _Ü`o g_m{dï> AmhoV. Ë`m_Yrb
_w»` H$b_o Imbrb à_mUo AmhoV.
14.1.1 amÁ`KQ>ZoMo H$b_ 19 (1) gr gy{MV H$aVo H$s, ghH$mar g§ñWm `m g§KQ>Zm AmhoV, Ë`m_wio
Ë`m§À`mda H$moUVohr ~§YZ KmbVmZm Vo H$b_ 19 (4) A§VJ©V Agbo nm{hOo. Oo ñnï> H$aVo H$s, ghH$mar g§ñWm
g^mgXm§Zr ñWmnZ Ho$boë`m Ë`m§À`m _mbH$sÀ`m AmhoV d Ë`m§Mo {Z`§ÌU d ì`dñWmnZ Ë`m§À`m g^mgXm§H$Sy>ZM
Ho$bo nm{hOo.
amÁ`KQ>ZoMo H$b_ 19 _Yrb H$b_ 1 À`m CnH$b_ gr _Ü`o g§KQ>Zm `m eãXmZ§Va ""ghH$mar g§ñWm''
hm eãX g_m{dï> H$aVmZm ghH$mar g§ñWmMr nwT>rb ì`m»`m (ZdrZ CnH$b_-EM) Zwgma nwT>rb ì`m»`m Úmdr.
ghH$mar g§ñWm hr EopÀN>H$, bmoH$emhr, g^mgXm§Mo {Z`§ÌU, g^mgXm§Mm Am{W©H$ gh^mJ d ñdm`ÎmVm `m
ghH$mar VÎdmda AmYm[aV ñWmnZ Ho$bobr d MmbUmar g§ñWm hmo`.''
14.1.2 ghH$mar g§ñWm~m~V IX-A Z§Va IX-B hm ^mJ amÁ`KQ>ZoV g_m{dï> H$aVmZm g{_Vrbm Aer
^rVr dmQ>V hmoVr H$s n§Mm`V amÁ` g§ñWm d ZJanm{bH$m§À`m ~amo~aM ghH$mar g§ñWmgwÕm gaH$maÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmImbrb
g§ñWm hmoV, Agm AW© hmoB©b. Ë`m_wio hm ^mJ amÁ`KQ>ZoV g_m{dï> H$aVmZm bmoH$g^oÀ`m H${_Q>rZo Aer XjVm
¿`mdr H$s ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm darb dmŠ`aMZm bmJy hmoUma Zmhr. WmoS>Š`mV ghH$mar g§ñWm gaH$maÀ`m {Z`§ÌUmImbr
AgUma ZmhrV.
14.1.3 Cƒm{YH$mar g{_VrZo ghH$mar g§ñWoMr nwT>rb ì`m»`m amÁ`KQ>ZoV g_m{dï> H$amdr Ago åhQ>bo.
""ghH$mar g§ñWm `m ñdm`Îm, bmoH$m§Zr ñdoÀN>oZo EH${ÌV `oD$Z, gdmªÀ`m g_mZ JaOm d BÀN>m nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r,
g§`wŠV _mbH$s VÎdmda bmoH$emhr VÎdmZwgma {Z`§{ÌV Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m VgoM Ë`m amÁ` AWdm H|$Ð gaH$maÀ`m
àMbrV ghH$mar H$m`ÚmZwgma Zm|XUr Ho$boë`m qH$dm Zm|XUr Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m Am{U ghH$mar VÎdo d _yë`mZwgma
MmbUmè`m g§ñWm hmoV.''
14.14 243 ZJ ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m A{YH$mar d g§MmbH$ _§S>imVrb gXñ`g§»`m d Ë`m§Mm H$m`©H$mb:
(1) ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>imV {H$Vr gXñ` g§»`m Agmdr, ho amÁ` gaH$maÀ`m H$m`ÚmV
Z_yX Ho$bobo AgVo; na§Vw 21 nojm OmñV gXñ` g§MmbH$ _§S>imV ZgmdoV.
(2) g§MmbH$ _§S>imMm H$m`©H$mb (_wXV) {ZdSy>Z Amboë`m VmaIonmgyZ nwT>o 5 df} BVH$m amhrb.
g§MmbH$ _§S>imda {ZdSy>Z Amboë`m gXñ`mbmM g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m {ZdS>UyH$sV _VXmZ H$aÊ`mMm h¸$ Agob
d Ë`mbmM MoAa_Z qH$dm ìhmB©g MoAa_Z qH$dm AÜ`j AWdm CnmÜ`jmMr {ZdS>UyH$ bT>{dVm `oB©b / Vmo
g^mgXM darb nXmÀ`m {ZdS>UyH$sbm C^o amhÊ`mg nmÌ Agob.
(3) Or ì`ŠVr g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m {ZdS>UyH$sV nS>br Agob Ë`mbm nwÝhm H$mhr H$maUmZo OmJm [aŠV
Pmbr Agë`mg AWdm BVa H$maUmñVd ñdrH¥$V gXñ` åhUyZ KoVm `oUma Zmhr.
14.15 243 ZK g§MmbH$ _§S>imMr {ZdS>UyH$ :
ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m gd© {ZdS>UyH$m KoUo gd©gmYmaU g^oÀ`m AIË`m[aV AgVo. VgoM gd©gmYmaU g^m
KoUo/ ~mobmdUo hr ~m~ g§MmbH$ _§S>imÀ`m AIË`m[aV Agmdr Aer {e\$mag `m g{_VrZo Ho$br.
14.16 243 ZL g§MmbH$ _§S>i aÔ H$aUo :
Á`m ghH$mar g§ñWm_Ü`o gaH$maMo ^mJ^m§S>db, H$O© AZwXmZ AWdm h_r {Xbobr Zgob `m àH$maÀ`m
H$moUË`mhr ghH$mar g§ñWoÀ`m g§MmbH$ _§S>i ~aImñV H$aVm `oUma Zmhr. Á`m ghH$mar g§ñWoV gaH$maMo WmoS>oVar
^mJ^m§S>db Agob AWdm Am{W©H$ _XV qH$dm h_r {Xbobr Agob Aem ghH$mar g§ñWmMo g§MmbH$ _§S>i
~aImñV H$aVm `oB©b.
g§MmbH$ _§S>i ~aImñVr~m~V `m g{_VrZo Aer {e\$mag Ho$br H$s, Á`m ghH$mar g§ñWm_Ü`o 51% nojm
H$_r gaH$maMo ^mJ^m§S>db Agob Aem ghH$mar g§ñWmMo g§MmbH$ _§S>i ~aImñV H$aVm `oUma Zmhr.
15 ~hþamÁ`r` ghH$mar g§ñWm H$m`Xm 2002 _Ü`o XwéñVr :
~hþamÁ` ghH$mar g§ñWm H$m`Xm 2002 hm Joë`m 7 dfm©nmgyZ ^maVmV ApñVËdmV Amho, Vmo A{YH$
ì`mnH$ d ghH$mar g§ñWmMo ì`mdhm[aH$ àíZ gmoS>{dU`mgmR>r Cn`wŠV R>amdm Agm Ë`m_Ü`o ~Xb H$aÊ`mMr
JaO {Z_m©U Pmbr Amho, åhUyZ `m g{_VrZo Ë`m_Ü`o ~Xb H$aÊ`mgmR>r H$b_mZwgma XwéñË`m gyM{dë`m Ë`m
nwT>rbà_mUo AmhoV (1) ghH$mar g§ñWoMr Am§Vaamï´>r` nmVirda pñdH$mabobr ì`m»`m ^maVmV bmJy H$amdr. Or ghH$mar
g§ñWm `m EopÀN>H$, ñdm`Îm d bmoH$emhr ñdê$nmÀ`m g§ñWm Agë`mMo Xe©{dVo.
(2) `m H$m`ÚmV ghH$mar g§ñWm `m {VMm dmna H$aUmè`m g^mgXm§À`m _mbH$sÀ`m d {Z`§ÌUmImbrb
g§ñWm hmoV, Ë`m_wio `m H$m`ÚmV "{H«$`merb g^mgXmMr' ì`m»`m g_m{dï> H$amdr d Ë`mZwgma {H«$`merb
g^mgXmMr ì`m»`m H$m`ÚmV g_m{dï> H$amdr. øm H$m`ÚmZwgma \$ŠV {H«$`merb g^mgXmZmM {ZdS>UyH$sbm C^o
amhVm `oB©b d _VXmZ H$aVm `oB©b.
(3) `m g{_VrZo {e\$mag Ho$br H$s `m ghH$mar H$m`ÚmV H§$nZr H$m`Úmà_mUo {dídñVnUmMr VaVyX
H$amdr. Vr gd© g§MmbH$m§Zm ~§YZH$maH$ amhrb. VgoM Vr g§MmbH$ _§S>imVrb pñdH¥$V gXñ`m§Zmhr ~§YZH$maH$
(4) Ym{_©H$ d amOH$s` g§KQ>ZmZm ghH$mar g§ñWm_Ü`o ~§Xr KmbÊ`Mr VaVyX H$amdr.
(5) ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm ^m§S>db ~mOmamVyZ npãbH$ BíeyÛmao _VXmZmg nmÌ ZgUmao ^mJ^m§S>db Jmoim
H$aÊ`mMr VaVyX H$amdr.
`m H$m`ÚmVrb XwéñË`m Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
goŠeZ 3 - ì`m»`m :
goŠeZ 22 (5) (gr) - ghH$mar g§ñWoMo ~hþamÁ`r` ghH$mar g§ñWoV ê$nm§Va H$aÊ`mMr VaVyX
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g§X^© :
Report of the High Power Committee on co-operatives (2009)
Published by : Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
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VËdmda AmYm[aV ZdrZ g§ñWmË_H$ n`m©` ghH$mar g§ñWm§Zm CnbãY Pmbm.
B. Com. Part-III : Co-operative Development
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-V
Unit 1 sub point
D) High Power Committee Report on co-operatives
(Shivajirao Patil Committee Report)
Indian co-operative movement completed a hundred years. Over the years it has actived
several achievements in various sectors. However, Indian co-operative movement is facing
various problems and challenges during era of globalization. They are realted to the
government, administration and control and new global environment. In order to slove these
problems some specific meansures are needed. Therefore, a conference of state co-operative
ministers held on 7th December, 2004 at New Delhi, resolved that Government of India may
constitute a High powered committee to review the achievements of co-operative movement
during the last hundred years and the prepare a rood map recommending steps to be taken
to address challenges being faced by the movement in changing scenario of globalization.
Accordingly, a high powered committee on co-operatives was consitutued by the
Government of India on 10th May 2005.
Members : following were the members of this committee 1.
Shri Shivajirao G. Patil (Chairman)
Dr. S. S. Sisodia, member
Shri. H. K. Patil, member
Dr. Amrita Patel, member
Dr. Y.S.P. Thorad, member
Shri. Satish Chander, member secretary
Terms and References :
The terms Reference of the committee are as follows 1.
To review the Indian co-operative movement during last one hundred years.
2. To identify the challenges being faced by the co-operative sector and to suggest
measures to solve them and to enable the co-operative movement to keep pace with changing
socio-economic environment.
3. To suggest an appropriate policy and legislative fram work with changes in cooperative legislation in the contry, to ensure the democratic authonomous and professional
functioning of co-operatives and amendments to the multistate co-operative societies Act
4. Any other incidental issue a deemed necessary by the committee for its
This committee has collected and complied the main recommendations of various
committees and commission on co-operation set up since 1904. Also it has collected sectorwise
achievements of co-operatives. The committee deliberated upon and finalized it
recommendatiions for the amendement of the constitution to ensure autonomous, free and
democratic functioning of co-operatives. It also finalized various suggestions to further
amend the multi-state co-operative societies Act 2002.
The recommendation of this committee are mainly divided into Two as follows,
Recommendations on proposed amendementnts of the consitutuion.
Recommendations on further amendments to the MSCS Act 2002.
The committee has envisioned that co-operative as primarily, autionomous, economic
institutions of autonomous, economic institutions of user members. It sees them as selfreliand and self-sustaining institutions functioning in a free, fair and trasparent manner in
keeping with the priciples and values of the co-operative movement.
Amendment to the Constitution :
1. The committee took note of the situation prevailing in the administration and governance
of co-operatives in the country. It was felt that co-operative societies is a state subject and
various states have enacted their own co-operative societies Acts. So, there in need for
uniformity in co-operative legislation, particulary in respect of autonomous and democratic
functioning of co-operatives. There is also a need to the removal of co-operatives from
excessive bureaucratic control and interference, several states have passed paralled legislative
on the lines of the model co-operative Act to cover co-operatives which donot government
The committee therefore, supports the view that co-operative autonomy can be ensureal
by making certain amendments in the constitution. So that co-operative legislation would
brought in confirmity with the provisions of the constitution. This committee submitted it's
interim Report containing recommendations on the constitution Amendment bill &
Amendments to multi state co-operative societies Act 2002 to the government on 7th June
1) The HPC (High Powered Committee) analyzed the situation in respect of co-operatives
prevailing in the states as well as in centre and that introducing new part IX-B after IX-A
of the constitution on the bill proposes, along with Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRI) and
Muncipalities would imply that co-operatives are a part of governance. The committee is
of the view that the anology applied to Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalika may not hold good
for co-operatives. The Panchayati Raj institution and Municipalities are meant for governance
of the people where as the spirit of co-operative is self-governance.
Article 19 (1) (c) with Article 19 (4) guarantees the right of the citizens to form
association or unions, but doesnit explicitly include the right to form co-operatives. Cooperative societies fall in the state list and are excluded from the central list. Trade unions
are also included in the concurrent list. Therefore, it is important to make explicit what is
implicit in Article 19 (1) (c) - that co-operatives are associations and any restrictions on them
have to be within the Framework of Article 19 (4).
Further by law, executive orders & court ruling shows that co-operatives are creatures
of government but not of their user members. So, it is necessary to have a detinition of cooperatives in the constitution. Which clearly indicate that they are promoted owned, controlled
and managed only by their user members.
The committee feared that by introducing part IX-B after part IX-A of the constitution
along with Panchayati Raj institutions (PRI) and Municipalties would imply that co-operatives
are a part of goverance, because of PRI and Municipalties and governace institutions. The
Introduction of a part on co-operative societies after the Article dealing with them may be
construed as implying that co-operatives are also governance institutions. So, standing
committee of parliament may also be requested to took into this aspect and consider the need
of insertion of this part an appropriate place in the constitution to ensure that this constural
is dispelled.
A) The Recommendatiions for insertion of co-operative societies in fundamental
Rights under Article 19 (1) (c) :
The Committee recommends the introduction of the following clauses under Article 19
(1) (c) of te constitution.
(1) The word "Co-operative Societies shall be in after the word "Association" in sub-clause
(2) A new sub-clause (h) shall be added which defines co-operatives as which implies that
to form and run co-operatives based on principles of voluntary, democratic member
control, member economic participation and autonomous functioning.
B) Recommendations on proposed Insertion of co-operative societies in Part
IX-B :
(1) The following part on the co-operatives societies shall be inserted at an appropriate
place which would keep away it from the governance institutions. Clause-wise suggestions
of the HPC are given below.
(2) The co-operative Societies.
243. ZH Definitions : In this part as
Active member : is one who participates in the working of co-operative, using it's
services as prescribed in the by laws of the co-operative.
Authorized person : means a person authorized under Article 243 ZQ.
'Board' means the governing body of a co-operative society by whatever name called
to which the direction and control of the management of the affairs of a society is
"A co-operative Society" - is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily
to meet their common needs & aspirations through a Jointly owned and democratically
controlled enterprise and adhering to the co-operative principles and values, registered
or deemed to be registered under any law relating to co-operative societies for the time
being in force in any state or the centre.
'Government' means central or state Government.
Multi-state co-operative society means a society with area of operation in more than
one state and registered or deemed to be registered under any law in force relating to
such co-operative.
"office bearer" means a president, vice president, chairperson, vice-chairperson, secretary
trasurer and included any other person to be elected by the Board of Directors.
State level co-operative society means a co-operative society having its area of operation
extending to the whole of a state and defined as such in any law made by the state
'Year' means the year ending on 31st day of March.
243 ZI Incorporation of co-operative societies :
The legislature of state shall, by law, make provisions with respect to the incorporation,
regulation and winding up of co-operative societies based on the principles of voluntary,
democratic control, member economic participation and autonomous functioning.
243 ZJ Number and term of members of Board of Directors and its office bearers:
The Board shall consist of such number of directors as may be provided by a state
legislature but the maximum number of directors shall not exceed more than 21.
Only active members are eligible to vote and stand for election to its Board of directors
But ministers would not be eligibility to be elected as chairman or vice-chairman or
president or vice-president of the co-operative society. Also, those members, who have
to stand for election of Board of Directors would not have any interest in any business
of the society.
The term of elected members of the Board of Directors & its office bearers shall be
five years from the date of election only elected members of the Board of Directors
shall be eligible to vote in election and to be elected as chairman or vice chairman,
president or vice president of the Board.
Any casual vacancy arised may be filled by co-option by the Board, if the term of office
of the Board is less than half of its original term.
The legislature of state shall provide for co-option of members, by the Board, who
having experience in the Field of banking, Management, finance etc. provided that
number of such co-opted members shall not exceed more than two. Also, the candidate
who have lost in election to the Board shall not be co-opted on the Board.
243 ZK Election of members of Board :
According to the law of state legislature, the election of a co-operative society shall
be conducted before the expiry of the term of the Board of a co-operative society shall be
conducted by the Board of a co-operative society. However, state legislature shall provide
for the procedure and guidelines for conducting the elections.
243 ZL Supersession of Board of Directors :
The bill provides that no Board of a co-operative society shall be superseded or kept
under suspension for a period more than 6 months. However in case of a co-operative
society, other than multi state co-operative society, which is doing banking Business this
provision is applicable for oney year instead of six months, where there is no government
share holding of loan or financial assistance or any guarantee by the government.
The committee suggested that no supercession of the Board of Directors should be
allowed in any case where government shareholding is less than 51%
243 ZM Audit of accounts of co-operative societies :
Every co-operative society, by law, shall make a provisions for it's audit at least once
in a year, by a auditor approved by law. This auditor should be appointed by a general body
of a co-operative society. The accounts of every co-operative society shall be audited within
a period of six months of the every financial year.
243 ZN Convening of the general body meeting :
By law the annual general body meeting of the co-operative society shall be convened
within a period of six months from close of the financial year to transact the business.
243 ZO Right of a member to get information :
By Law, Every co-operative society should provide books, information, accounts to
every member of the co-operative society regarding it's business earried.
Every member in the management of the co-operative society should attend the minimum
number of meetings.
Also, Every member should be provided mandatory co-operative education and training.
243 ZP Returns :
Every co-operative society shall file returns within six months of the close of every year
to authority designated by state government. These returns should include Annual Report,
audited statement of accounts, plan for surplus disposal, List of amendments in by - laws,
date of general body meeting, conduct of elections, when due etc.
243 ZQ Offences and Penalties :
The legislature of state, by law make provisions for offences and penalties regarding
the following defaults.
Wilfully making false return, provide false information, wilfully not providing any
informatiion required, Disobedience for any act, by a member, employee or officer or for
any corrupt practies by any one.
243 ZR Application to Multi-state co-operative societies and union Territories:
The provision of this part shall apply to a multi-state co-operative society and union
Amendment to the Multi-state co-operative societies Act 2002 :
This committee took note that the MSCS Act 2002 is in operation, since last six years.
There is a need to make the Act more comprehensive to solve the practical problems faced
by multistate co-operative societies.
In regards this, the committee has furnished following recommendations.
1) The internationally accepted definition of co-operative society should be introduced,
which reflects its voluntary, autonmous and democratic nature.
In order to ensure that the co-operatives are user owned and user controlled a concept
of "active member" may introduced in the Act and accordingly, a definition of 'active
member' may be included. The act should provide that only active members shall have
the right to vote/ contest elections.
The committee also recommended that provision for fiduciary rrespensibility as progvided
in the companies Act should be introduced. It should be mandatory for the directors
of the co-operative boards. This provision also applicable to the co-opted experts on
the Board.
Provisions may be introduced to put restriction on political and religious organizations.
Also, provision for raising capital through issue of non voting shares and IPO may be
These are some major recommendation of the High power committee headed by
Shivajirao Patil committee on co-operatives, 2005.
Recommendations of the HPC on co-operatives :
The followings are the main recommendations of the HPC.
According to this committee, future co-operatives are primarily autonomous, economic
institutions of user members. These members are united voluntarily, to meet their
common economic, social and cultural needs by the co-operatives. Which are jointly
owned and democratically controlled enterprises. They are self reliant and self sustaining
institutions functioning in a free, fair and transperent maneer in keeping with the
principles and values of co-operatives. Member centrality and member development are
the key drivers and professionalism, quality and integrity the hallmarks. Education for
awareness building would be an integral part of co-operative.
Keeping the above features of co-operatives, the committee has analysed the problems
and challenges facing the co-operatives in the scenario of increasing competition. The
committee has categoried these problems in to two as, functional problems as
membership, Governance and operations these are the internal problems of the cooperatives and external problems as politicization and the control / Interference by
The legal enablement is a major requirem for co-operatives, so it is a core
recommendations. The committee has examined the 106th constitution Amendment bill
and the MSCS Act 2002 and proposed the clausewise amendments.
The committee has given suggestions regarding appropriate amendment in the cooperative Act by laws of the co-operatives.
A progressive and enabling legislation :
Presently co-operatives are operating under restrictive laws. So, it is necessary that a
progressive and enabling legislation which facilities the working of the co-operatives. So
they can greatly complete with other corporates. So, committee recommended that.
5.1 The model co-operatives Act proposed by Choudhari Brahm Prakash Committee
and endrosed by all recent committees should be enacted as a single law replacing existing
state Acts.
5.2 The parallel law existing in various states has poor utility and problems faced,
there can be no viable alternative to a single enabling law which is member centric and based
on co-operative principles replacing the existing state Acts.
5.2.1 The amendments suggested by model co-operative Act and the Vaidyanathan
committee are comprehensive in nature. However considering the need for a few more
changes and the greater emphasis need on some issues the following may be considered.
5.2.2 The government has no power of rule making the power of the state is incorporated
in the Act itself. All matters within the purview of co-operative societies should be included
in the Act in by laws.
5.3 Keeping in view, the need for a clear legal recognitiion of co-operative as
economic institutions The clear definition of co-operatives is needed as "co-operatives are
autonomous associations of persons united voluntarily to meet their common needs and
aspirations through a Jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise and adhering
to the co-operative principles and values." This definition should be included in the constitution
of India, MSCS Act 2002 and in all the state co-operative societies Acts.
5.4 In order to increase the member participation in co-operatives and enable them
to do away with non-user members, the MSCS Act and state co-operative societies Acts must
1) A defination of active member as "an active member is one who participates in
the affairs of the co-operative, using its services, according to by - laws of the co-operative.
2) The active members who have a stake in the Business to have the right to vote
and contest elections to the board.
3) In order to exit to non-user members, the provisiion in by-laws is made for
cessation of membership on failure to fulfill the obligations as specified as use of minimum
level of services in terms of quantum and period specified and the required participation in
5.5 In order to improve the effectiveness of Boards Particularly their trusteeship role
and fiduciary responsibility, to ensure accountability and professionalization of the
organization, the law should provide for.
5.5.1 The roles and responsibilities of the co-operative Board and paid executives and
managers should be clearly defined. The board should idealy confine itself to formulating
policies and major business decisions, laying down plans and periodie goals, where as day
to day decisiion should be taken by the executives.
5.5.2 A fair provision for fiduciary responsibility as provided in the companies Act,
should be mandatory for the directors on co-operative Boards. Board also to disclose certain
information to avoid confilict of interest following are suggestions in this regard as,
1) Disclosure of interests by Directors : Every director of a co-operative, who is in
any way directly or indirectly concerned or interested in a contract on behalf of co-operative,
shall disclose the nature of concern or interest at a meeting of the Board of directors.
2) Interested Director not to be present in Board's proceddings. (1) No director of a
co-operative shall present as a director in the discussion of or note on any contract entered
on behalf of the co-operative.
5.5.3 Fit and proper criteria for Board members should be laid down by the cooperative in its by laws.
5.5.4 The co-opted experts should be specialists in business related areas of the cooperative should decide in regards the expertise, that would be useful for its operations. In
business decisions the co-opted member should be allowed to vote.
5.5.5 It should be mandatory to any person elected as a director on the Board to under
go for prescribed training programmes within six months of being elected, in order equipping
skills and knowledge required to perform satisfactorily discharge his responsibilities. failure
to do so will result in his disqualification as a director.
5.5.6 In regards to the qualifications for to post of Managing directors of the cooperative. Its shall be specified in the by-laws of co-operatives.
5.6 In order to remove the political interference in the co-operative, it is necessary
that along with the recommendations in the model co-operative Act, the law should provide
5.6.1 Voting rights linked to patronage and restricted to active membership. This will
ensure that only active members have right to elect the management of the society. Political
personalities are the active members, they can be entitled to be on the boards and participate
in the management if elected.
5.6.2 It is appropriate that in the higher tier co-operative it is ensured that user member
of the co-operatives is to be given his right in decision making.
5.6.3 Rotational retirement of Board members : is to be allowed for fresh thinking
and for the continutity in management.
5.6.4 This committee recommended that restriction on voting right to members should
be provided for the first tweleve months after Joining the co-operatives. This provision will
guard against mass enrolement in co-operatives for the purpose of elections.
5.6.5 Restrictiion on contribution to political and religious organization.
5.7 The co-operatives, who has received government equity contribution should be
returned to the government, where in cases co-operatives are unable to return the government
equity, they may enter into an MOV with the permission of government.
5.8 In order to enhance the competitiveness, the law should enable co-operatives to.
5.8.1 Decide their organizational structure and staffing recruitment policies, service
conditions and remuneration, as approved by the Board.
5.8.2 Measures such as formation of Joint ventures, partnership, subsidiaries and
strategic alliances with co-operatives and other corporates are adopted.
5.8.3 Co-operatives should operate without any imposed area restrictions. They are
hampered due to their area of operation and membership in it. So, they are not getting the
benefit of economics of scale.
5.8.4 They should have flexibility in bust decisions, mobilizing funds and surplus
6. Constitutiion Amendment : According to this committee there is need that state
co-operative societies Acts follow the Model co-operative Act. So it recommends the need
for a constitution Amendment.
7. The Role of Government : Governments would ensure the qutonomous functioning
of the co-operatives to strengthen them.
7.1 Government should design a policy for faciliating the functioning of co-operatives
with free and fair means. It should be based by legislative and executive measures that open
and free market conditions should be provided to co-operatives. Hence, government should
permit the entry of co-operatives to any line of economic activity as chosen by the members.
7.2 Conversion of equity held in co-operatives into grant or soft loan.
7.3 Government should execute an agreeement / MOU with co-operatives, that have
received government equity, loans and gurantees, so as government should play a mutually
accepted role till equity / loan is not repaid.
7.4 Government should not depute officers to occupy key positiions in co-operatives
except on an explicit request from co-operative.
7.5 If, Government has deputed the officers to hold key positions, they are given a
minimum tensure of 3 years.
7.6 Government should provide a grant for the member education, Manager's training
and board members and leadership development.
7.7 The government should refrain from the setting targets for formation of cooperatives. In some states the government departments themselves are engaged in the taks
of organizing co-operatives, This task should be left to the unions and federations of the cooperatives and the people.
Development orientation to planning for co-operative :
8.1 It is important that due recognitation is given to co-operatives as a third sector of
the economy and it's development, particulasly for the weaker segments.
8.2 In order to frame the planning and policies, an independent permanent body
should be formed at national level namely co-operative commission for the developmeent
of co-operatives. It should be autonomous body.
9. Enhancing competitiveness : In order to enhance competitiveness and
professionalism in co-operatives, HPC recommends as.
9.1 Structure of the co-operatives should be examined. It should be make cost effective
and encouraging the net-working amongst the co-operatives.
9.2 While consolidating of business through mergers of co-operatives for successful
corporate use, the interest of members is protected.
9.3 In order to adopt new technologies and management information systems, federal
co-operatives should take responsibilities to support their member organizations, particularly
the small co-operatives, who are not able to build up their own information system or use
of IT based technology.
9.4 A legal provision shuld be made for highertier co-operatives should desist from
competing in business with their constituent members.
10. Human Resource Development and the need for Professionalism :
In regards to the human resource development in co-operatives committee recommends
10.1 In order to sensitize members regarding their rights, responsibilities regarding the
co-operative society co-operatives should undertake member awarness and education
programmes continuously.
10.2 The concept of family membership in co-operative should be considered to attrach
youth special efforts shall be made to facilitate women and youth participation in cooperatives. The business activities of the co-operatives are reoriented such as to facilitate
greater number of women to participate at different levels in the co-operatives.
10.3 It should be made obligatory to the co-operative leaders to undergo training on
co-operative and business management within six months of their being elected.
10.4 The management of co-operatives are oriented on business development, methods
of enhancing member participatiion and strategies for maximizing member capital.
10.5 Chief executive of co-operatives should adopt appropriate criteria based on the
business and size of the co-operative.
10.6 The co-operatives should avail expert assistance from time to time co-operatives
should appoint suitable expertise, specialists etc. Higher tier organizations should provide
the help to small co-operatives.
10.7 Co-operative ledership should be educated, trained and groming and talented.
Therefore Board and management of co-operatives should be considered this need.
10.8 Various schemes like Training and personnel, Resource centre sheme of NCDC
should be availed by co-operatives and in addition a central government scheme for setting
up such resource centres be considered.
10.9 In order to provide trained professional to co-operative management a co-operative
university should be set up and for this purpose NCUI, HRD Ministry and UGC should
provide necessary support for it. Existing taining institute should be utilized for this purpose.
10.10 Every co-operative should spell out its HRD policy in its by-laws and it should
be applicable to al members, employees, Board of Directors etc. Also, it should specify
manpower planning, recruitment procedures, professionalization. Every co-operative should
reserve 2% amount of it's annual budget for training and member education and skill
upgradation at all levels.
11. Capital formation and financial sustainability :
It this regards committee recommended as,
11.1 Considering the inability of large proportion of members to increase share capital,
there is need for external support. So, central and state governments should provide a
budgefary scheme of soft loans to farmers for capital participation in co-operatives. Such
scheme are in force under the ageis of RBI. Under which soft loans / interest free loans are
provided to agricultural produce processing units towards initial share capital contribution.
11.2 This committee recommended that full income tax exemption is offerred to all cooperatives. It causes to save the reserves of co-operatives. This measure incentive for the
co-operatives will strengthen the capital base of co-operatives. Such type of exemption is
given in global level by 65% of the countries.
11.3 Committee is of the view that government participation in share capital of cooperatives brings governemt control on freedom and autonomy of co-operatives. So it is not
recommended. Therefore in order to provide help to co-operatives they can provide grants
or interest free loans, they should be strictly repatrible.
11.4 Wherre the co-operatives have avalied the benefit of initial share capital participation
support by government, this must be redeemed at the earliest.
11.5 Most of the co-operatives have their own limitations to raise capital from their
members. Co-operatives like manufcaturing / processing / services / banking etc. required
to raise higher capital.
Therefore, they have to raise capital from financial market as well as debt also.
The financially sound co-operatives are capital intensive. So it is recommended that
such co-operatives promote an Umbrella organization. Which are source of capital from
market, arrange for debt and provide the requirred financial and technical help to cooperatives. Such models in respect of co-operatives in many countries. The financial
instruments are specifically structured in the form of bonds, debentures, special shares etc.
for the help of grassroot level co-operatives.
11.6 The share of co-operative banks in rural credit is declining steadily and is around
20%. Because of they have very limited their own funds and depend upon refinance from
NABARD. For the refinance NABARD is dependent upon General Line of Credit (GLC)
from RBI. But now GLC support is withdrawn by RBI. So NABARD carit provide edequate
refinance to co-operatives. Many co-operatives banks are weak and unable to raise funds
from the market. So, there is strong need for an alternative organizational set up to mobilize
funds and to bridge the gap in the co-operative credit and banking structure.
11.7 Co-operatives in various countries have adopted different strategies to augment
their equity. In India, co-operatives should develop the financial instruments to raise capital
according to their business by keeping in mind one member-one vote concept.
11.8 Service sector have high potential for growth. It's growth is hampered due to lack
of adequate funding. The NCDC is set up to provide institutional finance to co-operatives
but it has a limited portfolio in funding service co-operatives. This may be diversified to
include all service sub-sectors.
11.9 In order to meet high capital requirements of value added co-operative business
projects, there should be debt financing and other financing options alike Canada and USA.
Farm improvement and marketing co-operatives Loans Act (FIMCLA) in Canads & USA,
under this Act, the ministry is liable to pay the lender 95% of the loss sustained as a result
of loans made.
12. Access to Credit / Finance :
Regarding the issue of lack of credit to farming community, the committee recomended
12.1 To provide incentives to become members of co-operatives to those who are
outside the credit system. These incentives are in the form of soft loan / grants for the
purpose of share capital contribution to co-operatives.
12.2 To conduct a detailes study on the reasons for large sections of rural and agrirultural
population, which is not covered by formal credit system. Therefore emphasis is needed to
make modifications to enable larger coverage of these population.
12.3 In order to meet the credit needs of the credit worthy farmers of weak PACS a
seperate credit line is to be considered.
12.4 Those farmers are ineligible for NABARD fundaling for them SHGs are to be
formed comprising non-defaulting members.
12.5 A additional avenue of refinance to co-operatives should be provided by drawing
a suitable scheme of fundng by RIDF.
12.6 There is high degree of risk in agriculture In order to meet these recurring risks,
the whole issue of finance and insurance needs a fresh look and permanent solution, an
expert committee can study the issue with rrecommendations made by various studies.
13. Rehabilitation of sick and weak co-operatives :
13.1 In order to addrress the problems of sick units of co-operatives engaged in
manufacturing, processing, services and other activities relating to rural economy. The
committee recommens that a National co-operative Rehabilitation committee is to be set up.
13.2 While setting up the Rehabilitation committee, It is recommended that a National
co-operative Rehabilitation and institutional protection fund for revival of sick units be
created by the Government of India, with contribution from the states. It's modalities and
eligible criteria for disbursal from the fund are to be determined. The Rehabilitation committee
may be the authority for approving disbursals from the fund. Liquidation funds available
with the states alike orhte existing sectorial funds to support industry specific co-operatives.
13.3 It is recommended that uniform guidelines for easy exist by way of mergers or
clousers are to be framed. These guidelines will have to be adopted by all the states.
14. Constitution Amendment : The co-operation is a state subject, so there is need for
uniformity in co-operative legislation for autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives several states have their paralled legislation for co-operatives on the lines of the
Model co-operatives Act. The co-operative autonomy can be ensured only when certain
amendments are introduced in the constitution. Therefore HPC has made following
14.1 The recommendations of the committee on the 106th constitution Amendment Bill
2006, introduced in Loksabha. The main clauses in respect of which committee suggested
are as follows.
14.1.1 Article 19 (1) (c) of the constitution explictly imply that co-operatives are
associations so any restrictions on them have to be within the framework of Article 19 (4).
It is necessary to have a definition of co-operatives in the constitutiion, which will clearly
indicate that they are promoted, owned, controlled and managed by only their user members.
The insertion of the word "co-operative societies" after the word association in subclause (c) of clause (1) of Article 19 and a definition of co-operatives (new sub clause (h))
to form and run co-operatives based on principles of voluntary, democratic member control,
member economic participation and autonomous functioning is recommended.
14.1.2 The Committee has fear that by introlducing new part IX-B after part IX-A of
the constittion along with Panchayat Raj institution (PRI) and municiplaties would imply
that co-operatives are a part of goverance, The insertion of this part may be at an appropriate
place in the constitutiion to ensure that this construal is dispelled.
14.1.3 HPC recommended that following definition of co-operative Society should be
included. "A co-operative society is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily
to meet their common needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically
controlled enterprise and adhering to the co-operative principles and values, registered or
deemed to be registered under any law relating to co-operative societies for the time being
inforce in any state or the centre.
14.1.4 243 ZJ Number and Term of members of Board of Directors and its office
Bearers :
1) The Bill specifies that maximum members of directors on the Board shall not
exceed twenty one except the state level co-operative society.
2) This committee recommended that the term of office of elected members of the
Board and its office bearers shall be five years from the date of election further it recommended
that only elected members of the Board of Directors shall be eligible to vote in the election
and to be elected as Chairman or Vice-Chairman or President or Vice-President of the Board.
3) The committee also have recommended that the candidates who have lost in
elections to the Board shall not be co-opted on the Board either on casual vaccancy or
243 ZK Elections of Members of Board :
All elections of the co-operative societies shall vest in the General Body of co-operative
society and committee recommends that the functions of holding meetings of general body
shall vest in the Board of co-operative society.
243 ZL Supersession of Board of Directors :
Where there is no government shareholding of loan or financial assistance or any
guarantee the government. In this regards no board of a co-operative society shall be
superseded. Where there is a minor government share holding of financial assistance or any
guarantee by the government can be superseded.
The committee has suggested that no supercession of the board of directors should be
allowed in any case where government share holding is less than 51%.
15. Amendments in Act 2002 :
The Multi-state co-operative societies Act 2002 has been in operation of the last seven
years and there is need to make the Act more comprehensive and to mitigate practical
problems being faced by Multi-state co-operative societies under this Act, the committee has
proposed clausewise amendments in MSCS Act 2002 as follows.
1) The internationally accepted definition of co-operative society should be introduced.
Which reflects it's voluntary, autonomous and democratic nature.
2) In order to ensure that the co-operatives are user owned and user controlled a concept
of 'active member' may be introduced in the Act and accordingly a definition of active
member may be included. The act should provide that only active members shall have the
right to vote/ contest elections.
3) The committee recommended that provision of fiduciary responsibility as in companies
Act should be introduced. It should be mandatory for the directors of the co-operative
boards. This provision also applicable to the co-opted experts on the Board.
4) Provisions may be introducted to put restriction on political and religious organizations.
5) Also, provision for raising capital through issue of non voting shares and IPO may
be included.
Detailed amendment with regard to :
Section 3 - definition :
Section 22 (5) (c)
- Conversion of a co-operative society into MSCS
Section 25 (4)
- Persons who may become members
Section 28
- Members not to exercise rights till due payment made
Section 30 (1)
- Expulsion of members
Section 30 (2)
- Readmission of expelled members
Section 31
- Vote of members
Section 35 (1)
- Redemptiion of shares
Section 38 (3)
- Constitution powers and functions of General Body
Section 39 (1) (K)
- Annual General Meeting of General Body
Section 41
- Board of Directors
Section 43 (2)
- Disqualifications for being a member of Board
Section 44 (1) & (2)
- Prohibition to hold office of chairperson or President or
Sections 45 (5), (6) & (7) - Election of members of Board
Sections 46 (1) & (2)
- Holding of office in co-operative society
Sections 49 (2)(b) & m
- Powers and functions of Board
Section 50 (3)
- Meeting of Board
Section 52 (1)
- Powers and functions of chief Executive
Sections 53 (1)
- Committees of Board
Section 63 (1) (b)
- Disposal of Net Profits
Section 65
- Restriction on contribution
Section 67 (1) (iii)
- Restriction on Borrowing
Section 70 (7) (a)
- Appointment and removal of auditor
Section 84 (1)
- Reference of Disputes
Section 99 (2)
- Appeals.
References :
1) "Report of the High Powerd Committee co-operatives" (2009)
Published by : Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.
B. Com. Part-III : Co-operative Development
Additional part of study material as per revised syllabus
of concerned subject for the Semester-V
Unit 3 sub point
Subunit : NAFED - Corporatisation of Marketing and
Production co-operative (Kurian-Alagh Committee Report)
A high level committee on formation of co-operative business as companies was set up
in 1st November 1999. The Chairman of the committee was "Y. K. Alagh." This committee
has to draft a legislative framework for the formation of co-operative business as companies
and to convert existing co-operative business into companies under a regulatory framework
similar to that of a private limited companies. The committee submitted it's reprt to the
government on 15th March 2000. It's recommendations are as follows.
Recommendations :
1) A statutory and regulatory framework is to be framed, which creates the potential
for producer-owned enterprises to complete with other enterprises on a competitive footing.
The company Act is useful to various types of companies viz. Private limited, public limited,
trusteeship companies and nidhis. It's specific and appropriate provisiions are applicable to
them. Company Act provides them provisions for the formation and registration of producer
companies. It included the mutual assistance and co-operative principles within the more
liberal regulatory framework. With suitable adaptions. It also provides an opportunity to cooperative institutions to voluntarily transform themselves into the new form of producer
companies. This facility will be available to inter-state co-operative, whose objects extend to
more than one state.
2) The conversion of inter-state co-operatives to producer companies is to be purely
3) Member equity may not be publicly Traded and only be transferred after the
approval of the Board of Directors of the producer company. The producer company is not
vulnerable to take over by the multinationals or other companies.
4) The inter-state co-operative society can be converted into producer company only
of the 2/3 rd majority of the members of the concerned society.
5) The new form of company woulld be recognised as "Primary producers" i. e. The
members related to this company are to be promary producers.
6) The object of the producer company is production, Processing. manufacture and
sale of primary produces as well as allied matter among with other things.
7) There is provision for converted producer company to go back to the original fold
of co-operative in state co-operative law.
8) In state co-operative laws, The Registrar's approval is required for the governance
and esecially business. This regulatory and restrictive system is main obstacles to cooperatives being competitive in a market economy. In order to complete in market economy
quick decisions are required regarding financial and administrative matters, for which
autonomy is essential alike other business.
The minister of law, Justic and company affairs and shipping Shri. Arun Jately introduced
the companies Bill, 2001 in Loksabha (Second Amendment). Th Bill seeks fo facilitate
formation of co-operative business as companies as per the provisions of the companies Act,
The committee headed by Y. K. Alagh recommended the amendment of the companies
Act 1956. According to the recommendations of the committee the producer companies Bill
was introduced in the parliament and became law on 6th February 2003, as part IX-A
producer compaines in the companies Act 1956. Based on the co-operative principles of
mutual assistance, It provides an alternative to the institutional form that is presently available
to co-operative enterprises.
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eVH$mÀ`m AIoaÀ`m H$mbI§S>mV am°~Q>© AmodoZ, Mmb©g ~°~oO, hoÝar Q>m¡Zo `m§gma»`m {dMmad§Vm§Zr ì`dñWmnZm~m~V
emór` {dMmam§Mr _m§S>Ur Ho$br. \«o$S>[aH$ Q>oba `m§Zr gd©àW_ ì`d{ñWV d {dñV¥V ñdê$nmV emór`
ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m {gÕm§VmMr _m§S>Ur Ho$br. emór` ì`dñWmnZmMo _hÎd CÚmoJOJVmbm nQ>ë`m_wio emór`
ì`dñWmnZmMm CÚmoJjoÌm_Ü`o _moR>çm à_mUmV Adb§~ Ho$bm OmD$ bmJbm. OdiOdi 1930 Vo 1940 n`ªV
CÚmoJjoÌmda emór` ì`dñWmnZmMm à^md hmoVm. `m H$mimV {d{dY ì`dñWmnZ {dMmad§Vm§Zr CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb
_mZdr KQ>H$m§Mo _hÎd {deX Ho$bo. `mZ§VaÀ`m H$mimV CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb _mZdr KQ>H$mMo, _mZdr g§~§YmMo _hÎd
dmT>V Jobo. ì`dñWmnZmbm _mZdr, gm_m{OH$ Ñ{ï>H$moU {Xbm Jobm. 1960 Z§Va OnmZr ì`dñWmnZ nÕVrMo
_hÎd dmT>V Jobo. AZoH$ {dMmad§Vm§Zr ì`dñWmnZm~m~V AZoH$ AmYw{ZH$ {dMmam§Mr, g§H$ënZm§Mr _m§S>Ur
Ho$br. CXm. ì`yhaMZmË_H$ ì`dñWmnZ, PoS> {gÕm§V, C{ÔîQ>m{Y{ð>V ì`dñWmnZ, g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ,
ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^, VUmd ì`dñWmnZ BË`mXr 21 ì`m eVH$m_Ü`o OmJ{VH$sH$aUmMr à{H«$`m A{YH$ J{V_mZ
Pmë`mZo OmJ{VH$ n`m©daUmV `eñdr hmoÊ`mgmR>r CÚmoJg§ñWm A{Ve` gImobnUo AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ g§H$ënZm§Mm,
V§ÌmMm, nÕVtMm Adb§~ H$ê$ bmJë`m. CÚmoJjoÌmMo ì`dñWmnZ AmYw{ZH$ nÕVtZr, {gÕm§Vm§Zr Ho$bo OmD$
bmJë`mZo CÚmoJjoÌmMm gdm}ƒ {dH$mg Pmbm. Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ åhUOo ì`dñWmnZ emómMm CÚmoJjoÌm_Ü`o
Adb§~ H$aUo hmo`. à^mdr Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZmMo bm^, _hÎd Imbrb _wÔçm§À`m AmYmao {deX Ho$bo OmVo.
1. CËnmXZ gmYZm§Mo AMyH$ g§H$bZ : CËnmXZ {H«$`obm àma§^ H$aÊ`mnydu Amdí`H$ Ë`m CËnmXZ
gmYZgm_J«rMo AMyH$ g§H$bZ H$amdo bmJVo. CXm. {d{dY àH$maMm H$ƒm _mb, `§Ìgm_J«r, hË`mao, CnH$aUo,
O_rZ, B_maV, D$Om©gmYZo BË`mXr. `m gd© KQ>H$m§Mr IaoXr `mo½` doir, `mo½` à_mUmV, `mo½` {H$_Vrg, `mo½`
XOm©V H$amdr bmJVo. IaoXr {H«$`oMo emóewÕ nÕVrZo ì`dñWmnZ Ho$ë`mg emór` IaoXrMo bm^ CÚmoJ g§KQ>Zog
àmá hmoVmV. WmoS>Š`mV, à^mdr IaoXr ì`dñWmnZm_wio CËnmXZ gmYZm§Mo AMyH$ g§H$bZ H$ê$Z EHy$U CËnmXZ
IMm©_Ü`o ~MV H$aVm `oVo.
2. dñVy g§emoYZ d {dH$mg : J«mhH$m§À`m Anojm, AmH$m§jm, AmdS>r{ZdS>r gVV ~XbV AgVmV.
J«mhH$dJ© Zoh_r ZdZdrZ dñVy§H$S>o AmH${f©V hmoV AgVmo. ~XbË`m \°$eZà_mUo J«mhH$m§À`m _mJUr_Ü`ohr ~Xb
hmoVmo. `m_wio CÚmoOH$m§Zm dñVy g§emoYZ d {dH$mgmMr à{H«$`m A{daV gwê$ R>odmdr bmJVo. dñVy g§emoYZm_Ü`o
nyU©V: ZdrZ dñVyMm emoY KoUo qH$dm dñVyMm {d{dY JwU{deofm§n¡H$s EH$m qH$dm H$mhr JwU{deofm§_Ü`o ~Xb
H$aUo A{^àoV Amho, Va dñVy {dH$mgm_Ü`o dñVy g§emoYZmbm _yV© ñdê$n XoUo d dñVyMr Cn`wŠVVm dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r
dñVyÀ`m JwUdÎmo_Ü`o gVV gwYmaUm H$aUo A{^n«oV Amho. ì`dñWmnZ emómÀ`m _XVrZo dñVy g§emoYZ d
{dH$mg H$m`© Ho$ë`mg `m H$m`m©Mr AMyH$Vm dmT>Vo.
3. H$_©Mmar {Z`wŠVr : AmYw{ZH$ `wJmV ì`dgm`mVrb _mZdr KQ>H$mg A{Ve` _hÎd àmá Pmbo Amho.
H$_©Mmè`m§Zm ì`dgm`mMo EH$ _hÎdmMo g§gmYZ g_Obo OmVo. H$_©Mmè`m§À`m ghH$m`m©da d {Zð>oda g§KQ>ZoMo
`e Adb§~yZ AgVo, `mMr gd© KQ>H$m§Zm OmUrd Pmbr Amho. `m_wio H$_©Mmè`m§Mr ^aVr d {ZdS> A{Ve`
H$miOrnd©H$ d {dMmanyd©H$ H$amdr bmJVo. CÚmoOH$ H$_©Mmar ^aVr d {ZdS>rÀ`m {H«$`oMo AMyH$ {Z`moOZ,
g§KQ>Z, {ZX}eZ d {Z`§ÌU H$ê$Z ì`dgm` g§ñWog `mo½` d nmÌ H$_©Mmar àmá H$ê$ eH$VmV.
4. H$_©Mmar {dH$mg : H$_©Mmar {dH$mgmVyZ ì`dgm` {dH$mg `m VÎdmMo _hÎd CÚmoOH$m§Zm nQ>bo Amho.
`m_wio Vo ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m _mÜ`_mVyZ H$_©Mmar {dH$mgmgmR>r gVV à`ËZerb Agbobo {XgVmV. CXm. ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m
d {ZU©`mÀ`m à{H«$`oV H$_©Mmè`m§Zm gh^mJ, gVV H$m`©àmoËgmhZ, H$_©Mmè`m§Zm {dMma d _VñdmV§Í`, A{YH$ma
àXmZ, à^mdr d J{V_mZ ZoVË¥ d BË`mXr H$_©Mmar KQ>H$mMo à^mdr ì`dñWmnZ Ho$ë`m_wio H$_©Mmar {dH$mgmg
MmbZm {_iVo. H$_©Mmè`m§Zm H$m`© d _mZ{gH$ g_mYmZ bm^ë`mZo Vo g§KQ>Zb
o m nyU© ghH$m`© d {Zð>m ~hmb H$aVmV.
5. H$_©Mmar-_mbH$-ì`dñWmnZ g§~§Y ÑT> : H$_©Mmar, _mbH$ d ì`dñWmnZ ho CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb
VrZ à_wI _yb^yV KQ>H$ AmhoV. `m {VKm§_Ü`o {dídmg, ghH$m`© d gm_§Oñ` Agob, Va CÚmoJg§ñWm `eñdr
hmoVo. H$_©Mmar d _mbH$ `m§À`mV g»` d gbmoIm àñWm{nV H$aUo ho ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$ à_wI H$m`© Amho.
ì`dñWmnZmZo Amnë`m ì`dñWmnZ H$m¡eë`mMm d AZw^dmMm Cn`moJ H$ê$Z `m XmoZ KQ>H$m§V EH$ê$nVm gmYyZ
Ë`m§Mr eŠVr g§ñWoÀ`m `emV namd{V©V Ho$br nm{hOo.
6. CËnmXZ C{Ôï>m§Mr gmÜ`Vm : CËnmXZmMo C{Ôï> {H$_mZ gmYZm§V, à`ËZmV, IMm©V gmÜ` H$aUo ho
àË`oH$ CnH«$_mMo A§{V_ Ü`o` AgVo. CËnmXZ {H«$`m H$m`©j_VoZo d n[aUm_H$maH$VoZo nyU© Pmë`mg CËnmXZmMo
C{ÔîQ> ghO gmÜ` hmoVo. à^mdr d emóewÕ CËnmXZ ì`dñWmnZm_wio CËnmXZ gmYZm§Mo AMyH$ g§H$bZ,
CËnmXZ {H«$`oMo AMyH$ {Z`moOZ, CËnmXZ Cn{d^mJm§_Ü`o AMyH$ g_Ýd`, CËnmXZ g_ñ`m§{déÕ AMyH$ {ZU©`,
CËnmXZ H$m`m©da H$mQ>oH$moa {Z`§ÌU R>odUo eŠ` hmoVo.
7. ^m§S>db C^maUr : ^m§S>db C^maUr ho CÚmoJg§ñWoMo EH$ àmW{_H$ d _yb^yV H$m`© Amho. CÚmoJmMo
ñdßZ, H$ënZm àË`jmV `oÊ`mgmR>r nwaoem ^m§S>dbmMr Amdí`H$Vm AgVo. Amdí`H$VoBVHo$M ^m§S>db {H$_mZ
IMm©V g§nmXZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r Am{W©H$ `moOZm AmImdr bmJVo. ^m§S>dbmMo AMyH$ ì`dñWmnZ Ho$ë`m_wio Am{W©H$
`moOZobm {ZpíMV `e àmá hmoVo. ^m§S>dbr JaOoMm A§XmO, ^m§S>db C^maUrÀ`m _mJm©Mr {ZdS>, ^m§S>db aMZm,
^m§S>dbmMo à~§YZ hr gd© H$m`} à^mdr {dÎm ì`dñWmnZm_wio H$m`©j_VoZo nyU© hmoVmV.
8. g§J«hU d _mbgmR>m {Z`§ÌU : CËnmXZ g§ñWoMo Am{W©H$ `e ~è`mM A§er H$m`©j_ g§J«hU d
_mbgmR>m {Z`§ÌUmda AmYm[aV AgVo. g§J«hU ì`dñWmnZm_wio gmYZgm_J«rMo gwa{jV OVZ, _mbmMr ^m¡{VH$
_moOUr, AMyH$ _mb hmVmiUr _mbmMo dJuH$aU d gm§Ho${VH$sH$aU d _mbmMo {heo~ boIZ hr gd© H$m`}
AMyH$nUo nma nS>VmV. VgoM _mbgmR>m ì`dñWmnZm_wio _mbgmR>m n`m©á nmVirg amIUo, _mbgmR>çmMo
gwa{jV OVZ d nwadR>m, _mbgmR>m _moOUr, _mbgmR>m qH$_V{ZpíMVr hr gd© H$m`} H$m`©j_VoZo nyU© hmoVmV.
WmoS>Š`mV, g§Jh« U d _mbgmR>m H$m`m©Mo AMyH$ {Z`moOZ, g§KQ>Z, {ZX}eZ d {Z`§ÌU Ho$ë`m_wio CËnmXZ IMm©V
~arM ~MV hmoV.o
9. _mb hmVmiUr d A§VJ©V dmhVyH$ : CÚmoJg§ñWo_Ü`o H$ƒm _mb, hË`mao d CnH$aUm§Mr _mb
hmVmiUr d A§VJ©V dmhVyH$ {Z`{_V H$amdr bmJVo. hr XmoÝhr H$m`} H$m`©j_VoZo Ho$ë`mg gmYZgm_J«rMm
Anì``, ZmgYyg hmoV Zmhr. AMyH$ _mb hmVmiUr d gwa{jV A§VJ©V dmhVwH$sgmR>r `m XmoÝhr H$m`mªMo
emóewÕ nÕVrZo ì`dñWmnZ H$aUo Amdí`H$ R>aVo.
10. dñVy d godm§Mo {dVaU : AmYw{ZH$ `wJmV dñVy d godm§À`m {dVaU {H«$`og CËnmXZ {H«$`onojm
A{YH$ _hÎd àmá Pmbo Amho. dmT>Ë`m ñnY}_wio {dVaU godoMo _hÎd {Xdg|{Xdg dmT>V Amho. `m_wio {dVaU
H$m`m©Mo à^mdr ì`dñWmnZ H$amdo bmJVo. {dH«$`d¥Õr, J«mhH$d¥Õr, ~mOmanoR> d bm^d¥Õr Aem {d{dY
C{Ôï>m§Mr gmÜ`Vm H$m`©j_ {dVaU ì`dñWmnZmda AmYm[aV AgVo. Om{hamV, àË`j {dH«$s, {dH«$sníMmV
godm, ~mOmanoR> g§emoYZ, dmQ>n_mJ©-_Ü`ñWm§Mr {ZdS>, J«mhH$ g§nH©$ BË`mXr H$m`} AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m
V§ÌmÀ`m, e¡ë`m§À`m gmhmæ`mZo nma nmS>ë`mg A§{V_ {dVaU H$m`m©g H$m`©j_Vm àmá hmoVo.
11. `§ÌaMZm : ì`mdgm{`Z H$m`} H$m`©j_VoZo nma nmS>Ê`mgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmar `§Ìo, hË`mao,
CnH$aUo, godmH|$Ðo, H$m`©H|$Ðo BË`mXtMr `mo½` OmJr _m§S>Ur H$aUo åhUOo `§ÌaMZm hmo`. `mo½` d emór` aMZo_wio
H$m`©àdmhmg `mo½` {Xem, JVr d gmVË` àmá hmoVo. `§ÌaMZo~m~V AMyH$ nydm©Zw_mZ d {Z`moOZ Ho$ë`mg, AMyH$
{ZU©` KoVë`mg d `§ÌaMoZoMo à^mdr {Z`§ÌU Ho$ë`mg `§ÌaMZm AmXe© hmoVo. WmoS>Š`mV, `§ÌaMZoMo emóewÕ
nÕVrZo ì`dñWmnZ H$aUo Amdí`H$ Amho.
12. AmXe© H$m`©dmVmdaU : CËnmXZ ñWimdarb H$m`©n[apñWVr d H$m`©dmVmdaU CËgmhdY©H$ d
Amamo½`Xm`H$ Agbo nm{hOo. H$m_Jmam§Mo H$m`©g_mYmZ, H$m`©j_Vm n`m©`mZo g§KQ>ZoMr H$m`©j_Vm `mo½`
H$m`©pñWVrda Adb§~yZ AgVo. ì`dñWmnZmZo H$m`©n[apñWVr_Yrb gd© KQ>H$m§Mo AMyH$ {Z`moOZ, g§KQ>Z,
g_Ýd` d {Z`§ÌU Ho$bo nm{hOo. ì`dñWmnZmZo H$m`©dmVmdaUmVrb gd© KQ>H$m§~m~V AMyH$ {ZU©` KoD$Z
H$m`©dmVmdaU gwa{jV ~Z{dbo nm{hOo.
13. JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU : AmYw{ZH$ `wJm_Ü`o dñVy d godm§À`m JwUdÎmobm {deof ñWmZ Amho. OmJ{VH$
~mOmanoR>o_Ü`o dñVyÀ`m JwUdÎmobm gdm}ƒ _hÎd {Xbo OmVo. gÚ:{ñWVrV JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmMr OmJm g_J«
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmZo KoVbobr Amho. ì`dgm`mVrb gd© KQ>H$m§Zr g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m à{H«$`oV ^mJ
KoVë`mg ì`dgm`mÀ`m H$m`©j_VoV _moR>r dmT> hmoVo. A§{V_ dñVy d godm§À`m gdm©oƒ JwUdÎmogmR>r g_J« JwUdÎmm
ì`dñWmnZ AË`§V Amdí`H$ Amho.
14. ì`dgm`mMr H$m`©j_Vm, CËnmXH$Vm : ì`dgm`mMr H$m`©j_Vm d CËnmXH$Vm hr ~è`mM A§er
AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ nÕVr d V§Ìmda AmYm[aV AgVo. ì`mdgm`rZ H$m`mªMo AMyH$ {Z`moOZ, g§KQ>Z, {ZX}eZ
d {Z`§ÌU Ho$ë`mZo AMyH$ {ZU©` à{H«$`o_wio, {d{dY {d^mJm§Vrb `mo½` g_Ýd`m_wio, ObX g§XoedhZm_wio d
J{V_mZ ZoV¥Ëdm_wio Ë`m§Mr H$m`©j_Vm, CËnmXH$Vm C§MmdVo. n[aUm_V: ì`dgm`mMr H$m`©j_Vm d CËnmXH$Vmhr
15. ì`dgm` {dñVma d {dH$mg : à^mdr ì`dñWmnZ ho ì`dgm` {dñVma d {dH$mgmMo EH$ _yb^yV
gmYZ Amho. AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ {dMmam§Mm, g§H$ënZm§Mm Adb§~ H$ê$Z CËnmXZ gmYZm§Mm H$_mb dmna d
CËnmXZ IMm©V ~MV H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo. CXm. ì`yhaMZmË_H$ ì`dñWmnZ, C{Ôï>m{Y{ð>V ì`dñWmnZ BË`mXr.
WmoS>Š`mV, Hw$eb ì`dñWmnZm_wio ì`dgm`mÀ`m bm^j_VoMr d¥Õr hmoVo. n`m©`mZo ì`dgm`mMm {dñVma d
{dH$mg hmoVmo.
16. J«mhH$ g_mYmZ : J«mhH$ g_mYmZmda J«mhH$m§Mm nmqR>~m, ghH$m`© d {Zðm> AmYm[aV AgVo.
ì`dgm`mZo J«mhH${hVmMm {dMma Ho$ë`mg J«mhH$hr ì`dgm`{hVmMm {dMma H$aVmV. J«mhH$m§Zm amñV {H$_VrV,
XO}Xma, Amdí`H$ Ë`m à_mUmV dñVy d godm§Mm nwadR>m Ho$ë`mg J«mhH$m§Zm gwIg_mYmZ àmá hmoVo. CËnmXZ d
{dVaU H$m`m©À`m AMyH$ {Z`moOZ d {Z`§ÌUm_wio dñVy d godm§À`m JwUdÎmo_Ü`o dmT> hmoD$Z CËnmXZ IMm©V KQ>
hmoVo. AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ J«mhH$m§er gVV g§nH©$ gmYyZ Ë`m§À`m Anojm, BÀN>m OmUyZ KoVo d Ë`mZwgma
Amnë`m CËnmXZ d {dVaU YmoaUmV `mo½` Vo ~Xb H$aVo. `m_wio J«mhH$ gwIr ~ZVmV.
17. g_mOH$ë`mU : AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZmH$S>o gm_m{OH$ Ñ{ï>H$moU Agë`mZo Vo g_mO{hVmMm,
H$ë`mUmMm àmYmÝ`mZo {dMma H$aVo. Z¡g{J©H$ gmYZg§nÎmrMm `mo½` dmna, amoOJmadmT>rg MmbZm, `§Ì d
l_eŠVrMm _hÎm_ Cn`moJ, `mo½` ì`mnmar àWm§Mm Adb§~, Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVm àñWmnZogmR>r à`ËZ Aem
{d{dY gH$mamË_H$ H¥$Vt_wio g_mOH$ë`mU, CÞVr eŠ` hmoVo. WmoS>Š`mV, AmYw{ZH$ d J{V_mZ ì`dñWmnZ
ì`dgm`mMm H$ma^ma H$m`©j_VoZo MmbdyZ g_mO{dH$mgmbm MmbZm XoVmV.
18. amï´>{dH$mg : XoemVrb CÚmoJjoÌm_Ü`o AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ nÕVr, VÎdm§Mm Adb§~ Ho$ë`mg
CÚmoJjoÌmMm {dñVma d {dH$mg hmoVmo. Hw$eb ì`dñWmnH$m§_wio XoemVrb Z¡g{J©H$ gmYZg§nÎmrMm, _Zwî`~imMm
gw`mo½` d n[anyU© dmna hmoVmo. CÚmoJjoÌmÀ`m {dH$mgm_wio amoOJmadmT>rg MmbZm {_iVo. dñVy d godm§Mo _moR>çm
à_mUmV CËnmXZ Pmë`m_wio bmoH$m§À`m amhUr_mZm§Mm ñVa C§MmdVmo. à^mdr ì`dñWmnZm_wio CÚmoJjoÌmMm
{dH$mg Pmë`mZo amï´>mÀ`m Am{W©H$ d Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dH$mgmbm MmbZm {_iVo. amï´>r` CËnmXZmV d CËnÞmV dmT>
19. CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m nyd©{ZYm©[aV CÔoem§Mr nyV©Vm : CÚmoJg§ñWoMo ì`dñWmnZ Hw$eb d ~w{Õ_mZ
ì`dñWmnH$m§À`m hmVr Agob Va Vo AMyH$nUo H$_©Mmè`m§À`m H$m`mªMo d à`ËZm§Mo {Z`moOZ, g§KQ>Z, {ZX}eZ
d {Z`§ÌU H$aVmV. `m_wio H$m`©àdmhmg `mo½` {Xem d JVr àmá hmoD$Z H$m`m©Mr H$m`©j_Vm C§MmdVo.
CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m nyd©{ZYm©[aV CÔoem§Mr nyV©Vm hmoVo d {Vbm Am{W©H$ ñW¡`© bm^Vo.
20. Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVm : ì`dñWmnZmbm _mZdr Ñ{ï>H$moZ XoÊ`mMo _m¡{bH$ H$m`© EëQ>Z _o`mo `m§Zr Ho$bo
Amho. AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ {dMmad§Vm§Zr ì`dgm` g§ñWoVrb _mZdr KQ>H$mMo _hÎd {d{dY àH$mao {deX Ho$bo
Amho. AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ H$_©Mmar g_mYmZmgmR>r d {dH$mgmgmR>r gVV à`ËZerb AgVo. `m AZwf§JmZo
H$_©Mmè`m§Zm {d{dY àH$maÀ`m godm-gw{dYm nwa{dë`m OmVmV. `m_wio H$m_Jma-ì`dñWmnZ-_mbH$ `m§À`mV
ñZoh d gbmoIm d¥{Õ§JV hmoVmo. H$m_Jmam§Zm nyU© H$m`©, _mZ{gH$, Am{W©H$ g_mYmZ bm^Vo. `m_wio CÚmoJjoÌmV
Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVm àñWm{nV hmoÊ`mg _XV hmoVo.
21. ~mø KQ>H$m§Mo {hVg§dY©Z : CÚmoJg§ñWo_Ü`o CËnmXZ d {dVaU `m XmoZ _yb^yV {H«$`m nma nmS>ë`m
OmVmV. na§Vw, `m {H«$`m H$m`©j_VoZo nma nmS>Ê`mgmR>r g_mOmVrb {d{dY ì`ŠVr KQ>H$m§Mr, g§ñWm§Mr _XV
¿`mdr bmJVo. CXm. nwadR>mXma, AmZwf§{JH$ godm nwa{dUmè`m g§ñWm, {dVaU {H«$`oV gh^mJr hmoUmao _Ü`ñW,
emgZ, ñWm{ZH$ ñdamÁ` g§ñWm, gm_m{OH$ g§ñWm BË`mXr. `m g§ñWm§Mo Am{W©H$ {hVg§~§Y CÚmoJg§ñWo_Ü`o
Jw§Vbobo AgVmV. CÚmoJg§ñWoMo Hw$eb ZoV¥Ëd à{e{jV ì`dñWmnH$ dJ© H$arV Agob, Va Vo gm_m{OH$ {hVmMo
^mZ R>odyZ `moOZm d YmoaUm§Mr AmIUr H$aVmV. `m_wio AmnmoAmn {d{dY gm_m{OH$ KQ>H$m§Mo {hVg§ajU d
{hVg§dY©Z hmoVo.
`m{edm`, CÚmoJjoÌmMo ì`dñWmnZ AmYw{ZH$ nÕVrZo, V§ÌmZo Ho$bo OmV Agob, Va Ë`mMo AZoH$ bm^
g§~§{YV CÚmoJg§ñWobm, CÚmoJjoÌmbm, gm_m{OH$ KQ>H$m§Zm d amï´>mbm àmá hmoVmV. CXm. ì`dgm` n`m©daUmVrb
à{VHy$b KQ>H$m§da `eñdr _mV, Va AZwHy$b KQ>H$m§Mm à^mdr Cn`moJ, AmYw{ZH$ V§ÌkmZmMm ghO Adb§~,
OmJ{VH$ ñnY}da _mV, CËnmXZ gmYZm§_Ü`o AMyH$ g_Ýd`, ObX amï´>{dH$mg, {Z`m©Vd¥Õr, amîQ´>mÀ`m g§nÞVoV
d g_¥ÕrV dmT> BË`mXr.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZmVrb AmYw{ZH$ àdmh :
(Recent Trends In Industrial Management)
21 ì`m eVH$mÀ`m àma§^mnmgyZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ A{Ve` doJmZo {dH${gV hmoV Amho. AZoH$
ì`dñWmnZ {dMmad§Vm§Zr ZdZdrZ g§H$ënZm _m§Sy>Z ì`dñWmnZ emó g_¥Õ Ho$bo Amho. `m gd© Zdg§H$ënZm§Mm
CÚmoJ joÌm_Ü`o _moR>çm à_mUmV Adb§~ Ho$bm OmV Amho. OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m nmíd©^y_rda ì`yhaMZmË_H$
ì`dñWmnZ, {gŠg {g½_m, g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ `m g§H$ënZm§Zm A{Ve` _hÎd àmá Pmbo Amho.
gÚpñWVrV AZoH$ CÚmoJ g§ñWm§Zr Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZmVrb `m AmYw{ZH$ {dMmam§Mm, àdmhm§Mm Adb§~
H$ê$Z OmJ{VH$ ~mOmanoR> nmXmH«$m§V Ho$br Amho. Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZmVrb H$mhr _hÎdmMo AmYw{ZH$ àdmh,
{dMma Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ
2. CnH«$_ g§gmYZ {Z`moOZ
3. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^
1. JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ
(Quality Management) :
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmV _w»`V: VrZ KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. JwUdÎmm gwYmaUm, JwUdÎmm h_r d JwUdÎmm
{Z`§ÌU. JwUdVm ì`dñWmnZ \$ŠV dñVyÀ`m JwUdÎmoda àH$me Q>mH$V Zmhr Va dñVy_Ü`o Cƒ JwUdÎmm AmUVo.
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ JwUdÎmm h_r~amo~a dñVy d {VÀ`m {Z_m©U nÕVrda {Z`§ÌU R>oD$Z JwUdÎmoV A{YH$ gmVË`
JwUdÎmm gwYmaUm (Quality Improvement) :
JwUdÎmm gwYmaUoÀ`m AZoH$ nÕVr ApñVËdmV AmhoV. `m_Ü`o dñVy gwYmaUm à{H«$`m gwYmaUm d
J«mhH$H|${ÐV gwYmaUm `m KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m Imbrb nÕVr d V§Ìm§À`m AmYmao
JwUdÎmm gwYmaUm gmÜ` hmoVo.
1. ISO 9004-2000 : `m_Ü`o
H$m_{Jar gwYmaUogmR>r _mJ©Xe©H$ gwMZm, VÎdo Z_yX Ho$br AmhoV.
2. ISO 15504-4 : 2005 : _m{hVr
V§ÌkmZ - à{H«$`m VnmgUr ^mJ 4 - à{H«$`m gwYmaUm d à{H«$`m
j_Vm R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r _mJ©Xe©Z.
3. GFD - Quality Function Deployment : JwUdÎmm
4. Kaizen : {Za§Va
H$m`} AJH«$_mZo H$aUo.
5. Zero Defect Program :
6. Six Sigma : gm§p»`H$s`
g§»`mË_H$ à{H«$`m {Z`§ÌUmda AmYm[aV
g§H$ënZm, H$m`m©Vrb Xmof _moOÊ`mMo V§Ì
7. PDCA - Plan, Do, check, Act : JwUdÎmm
8. Quality Circle : JwU
9. Taguchi Methods : g§»`mË_H$
10. The Toyota Production System :
11. Konsei Engineering :
12. TQM - Total Quality Management : g§nyU©
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ
13. TRIZ - Theory of Inventive Problem Sloving
14. BPR - Business Process Reengineering.
JwUdÎmm à_mU
(Quality Standards) :
Am§Vaamï´>r` à_mUrH$aU g§KQ>ZoZo (ISO)1987 _Ü`o JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ nÕVr à_mUmMr {Z{_©Vr Ho$br.
`m_Ü`o ISO 9000 : 1987 à_mU loUr_Ü`o ISO 9001 : 1987, ISO 9002 : 1987 Am{U ISO 9003 : 1987
B. Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. hr à_mUo doJdoJù`m àH$maÀ`m CÚmoJm§Zm bmJy hmoVmV.
Am§Vaamï´>r` à_mUrH$aU g§KQ>Zm R>am{dH$ dfmªZr gXa à_mUm§Mm AmT>mdm KoVo. `mMr Z{dZ Amd¥Îmr
1994 _Ü`o V`ma Ho$br. Ë`mg ISO 9000 : 1994 loUr Ago åhUVmV. `m_Ü`o ISO 9001 : 1994, 9002 :
1994 Am{U 9003 : 1994 `m Amd¥Î`m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
gZ 2000 _Ü`o `m loÊ`m_Ü`o _moR>r gwYmaUm H$aÊ`mV Ambr. ISO 9000 : 2000 loUr, ISO 9002 d
9003 à_mUo EH$Ì H$ê$Z Ë`mEodOr EH$M à_mU ISO 9001 : 2000 ApñVËdmV Ambo Amho. {S>g|~a 2003
nmgyZ ISO 2000 d 2003 hr _mZHo$ d¡Y g_Obr OmV ZmhrV.
`m loÊ`m_Ü`o 14-10-2008 _Ü`o WmoS>r gwYmaUm Ho$br Amho.
ISO 9004 : 2000 Mr
H$mJXnÌo _wë`_mZH$
ISO 9001 : 2000 nojm
A{YH$ H$m_{Jar gwYmaUm
H$er H$amd`mMr `mMr _mJ©Xe©H$ VÎdo gm§{JVbr AmhoV. ISO Mo JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ nÕVr _mZH$ ì`dgm`
g§KQ>ZoVrb H$m`©à{H«$`m d nÕVr à_m{UV H$aVo. ISO 9000 _mZH$ ho dñVy qH$dm godoMr JwUdÎmm à_m{UV
H$aV Zmhr.
Zo gZ 2005 _Ü`o ISO 22000 ho _mZH$ ImÚ CÚmoJmgmR>r bmJy Ho$bo Amho. ISO Zo BVa
CÚmoJm§gmR>rhr _mZHo$ bmJy Ho$br. CXm. Vm§{ÌH$ _mZH$ - TS 16949, ISO 9001 : 2000 A°Q>mo_mo{Q>ìh
CÚmoJm§gmR>r, ISO Zo JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmg ghmæ` H$aUmar AZoH$ _mZHo$ {Z_mU Ho$br. AmhoV. EH$ JQ>
à{H«$`m§Mo dU©Z H$aVmo. (ISO 12207 d ISO 15288) Am{U BVa à{H«$`m§Mr VnmgUr d gwYmaUm§Mo dU©Z H$aVmo.
(ISO 15504).
Software Engineering Institutue H$S>o
ñdV:À`m à{H«$`m VnmgUr d gwYmaUm nÕVr AmhoV. CMMI
- Capability Maturity Model integrated à{H«$`m VnmgUrgmR>r.
JwUdÎmm h_r
- à{H«$`m gwYmaUogmR>r.
(Quality Assurance) :
JwUdÎmm hr H$mhr EH$m ì`ŠVrMr qH$dm EH$m {d^mJmMr O~m~Xmar ZgVo. g§KQ>ZoVrb àË`oH$ KQ>H$, dñVy
qH$dm godoÀ`m {Z{_©Vr à{H«$`o_Ü`o àË`j qH$dm AàË`j ñdê$nmV gh^mJr hmoV AgVmo. Aemdoir àË`oH$OU
Agm {dMma H$aVmo H$s, JwUdÎmoMr H$miOr Xwgam H$moUrVar hmoB©b. `m_wio JwUdÎmoH$S>o Xwb©j hmoVo. Aemdoir
dñVy godm§Mm XOm© Cƒ amhÊ`mgmR>r `m§À`m {Z{_©VrMr H$m`©nÕVr {ZpíMV H$amdr {VMr A§_b~OmdUr A{Ve`
H$m`©j_VoZo d H$m¡eë`nyd©H$ H$amdr bmJVo.
JwUdÎmm h_r åhUOo dñVy d godo_wio {d{eð> JaOm§Mr g_mYmZ nyVu hmoB©b `m{dfjrMm {dídmg
XoÊ`mgmR>r Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m gd© {Z`moOZ~Õ d nÕVera {H«$`m H$m`} hmoV. JwUdÎmm h_r_Ü`o ì`dñWmnZ d
J«mhH$ XmoKm§Mohr {hVg§~§Y Jw§Vbobo AgVmV. JwUdÎmm h_r J«mhH$ d ì`dñWmnZ `m XmoKm§À`mV Agm {dídmg
{Z_m©U H$aVo H$s, g§KQ>ZoÀ`m {H«$`m§_Ü`o dñVy d godobm Cƒ JwUdÎmm XoÊ`mMr j_Vm Amho d `mo½` {Z`§ÌUmÛmao
XOm©da dmB©Q> n[aUm_ H$aUmè`m KQ>H$m§Mo {Z_w©bZ Ho$bo OmVo.
JwUdÎmm h_rMr _w»` XmoZ d¡{eï>ço AmhoV. EH$ C{Ôï>mg AZwê$n åhUOo Á`m CÔoemgmR>r dñVy {Z_m©U Ho$br
Amho. Vmo CÔoe nyU© Pmbm nm{hOo d XmoZ AMyH$ dñVy `mMm AW© Xmofm§Mo nyU© {Z_y©bZ. JwUdÎmm h_r_Ü`o H$ƒm
_mbmMm XOm©, OwiUr H$m`©, dñVy Am{U KQ>H$, CËnmXZmer g§~§{YV godm, ì`dñWmnZ, CËnmXZ d VnmgUr
à{H«$`m `m§À`m {Z`_Zm§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
JwUdÎmm h_r A§VJ©V Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m {H«$`m :
JwUdÎmm h_r {H«$`m§_Ü`o Imbrb KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
dñVy AmamIS>m h_r
g§gmYZ à{V H$m`© h_r
CËnmXZ {H«$`m h_r.
dñVyÀ`m XOm© `mo½` amhÊ`mgmR>r H§$nZrZo `mo½` YmoaU, H$m`©nÕVr, JwUdÎmm h_rMr nÕVr {ZpíMV Ho$br
nm{hOo. JwUdÎmm h_rA§VJ©V Imbrb H$m`mªMm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
® VnmgUr d MmMUr
® H$m_{Jar VnmgUr
® à{H«$`m {Z`§ÌU
® {OdZ d {dídg{Z`Vm MmMUr
® gd}jU Am{U àWm, H$m`©nÕVr d JwU {Z`§ÌU àíZmMr VnmgUr
® VnmgUr _moOUr gmYZo, hË`mao `m§Mo {Z`§ÌU
® Zmng§Vr d nwU© H$m_m§Mo {díbofU
® J«mhH$ VH«$matMo {díbofU
® {dH«$s naVMm AmT>mdm
® JwUdÎmm IMm©Mo {díbofU
® ñnY©H$m§À`m dñVyMm Aä`mg.
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ nÕVrMo \$m`Xo
(Benefits of Quality Management Systems)
ñnYm© j_VoV dmT> Am{U amï´>r` d Am§Vaamï´>r` nmVirda Zmdbm¡{H$H$ dmT>.
J«mhH$m§Mr JaOnyVu, g_mYmZnyVu.
`mo½` AmamIS>m, `mo½` XOm©Mr h_r, Ëd[aV AmXoe nyV©Vm, H$m`©j_ godm.
J«mhH$m§Mm {dídmg dmT>Vmo d g§KQ>ZoMr H$m`©j_Vm dmT>Vo.
gVV g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmgmR>r qH$dm H$m`PoZgmR>r nm`m.
g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmgmR>r H$m`©j_ gmYZ.
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ nÕVrMo KQ>H$
(Elements of Quality Management Systems)
Zo JwUdÎmo~m~V EHy$U 20 _mZHo$ / {ZH$f {ZpíMV Ho$bo AmhoV. ISO-9000 à_mU {MÝhmgmR>r
{ZpíMV Ho$boë`m {ZH$fm§ZmM JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ nÕVrMo {ZH$f / KQ>H$ åhUVmV.
1. JwUdÎmm nÕVr (Quality System) : `m {ZH$fmZwgma H§$nZrZo Amnbr JwUdÎmm nÕVr {ZpíMV Ho$br
nm{hOo. Vr {ZpíMV, ñnï>, {Z:g§{X½Y d {b{IV ñdê$nmV Agmdr. JwUdÎmm nÕVr YmoaUo, H$m`©nÕVr,
H$m`©AmXoe, AmMmag§{hVm Aem ñdê$nmV ñnï> Agmdr. JwUdÎmm nÕVr g{dñVa ñdê$nmV XñVEodOm_Ü`o
{b{hbobr Agmdr. `m XñVEodOmg "JwUdÎmm _m{hVr nwpñVH$m' (Quality Manual) Ago åhUVmVm.
2. AmamIS>m / {Z`§ÌU (Design Control) : H§$nZrZo Amnë`m CËnm{XV dñVy§Mr àmê$n à{H«$`m
(Design Process) AMyH$nUo {ZpíMV Ho$bobr Agmdr. Ë`mg§~§YrMo g{dñVa d ñdV§Ì XñVEodO V`ma
H$amdoV. `mMà_mUo àmê$n à{H«$`o_Ü`o AmXmZ d àXmZ KQ>H$ (Inputs and Outputs) {ZpíMV AgmdoV.
Ë`m§Mrhr Zm|X ñdV§Ì XñVEodOm_Ü`o H$amdr. Ë`mà_mUo dñVy AmamIS>çmMr {Z`{_V VnmgUr H$ê$Z Ë`mV
gwYmaUm H$amdr.
3. IaoXr (Purchasing) : A§{V_ dñVyÀ`m {Z{_©VrgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmè`m gmYZgm_J«rMr IaoXr
`mo½` d gj_ nwadR>mXmamH$Sy>Z Ho$br nm{hOo. nwadR>mXmamÀ`m `mo½`VoMr nyd©VnmgUr H$amdr. gm_J«r IaoXrnydu
Ë`mMo à_mU, XOm©, JwUd¡{eï>ço {ZpíMV H$amdrV. IaoXrMo A{YH$ma g_j A{YH$mè`mg AgmdoV. J«mhH$m§Zm
gmYZgm_J«r VnmgUrMo ñdmV§Í` Agmdo.
4. gmYZgm_J«rMo g§ajU : CËnmXZ gmYZgm_J«r _m¡ë`dmZ Agë`m_wio Ë`m§Mo g§J«hU d g§ajU
emóewÕ nÕVrZo H$aÊ`mV `mdo. H$ƒm _mb d gm_J«r Ëd[aV AmoiIVm `mdr d Ë`m§Mm Cn`moJ H$aVm `mdm
åhUyZ Ë`m§Mo AMyH$ dJuH$aU H$ê$Z `mo½` OmJr _m§S>Ur H$amdr. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m _yi JwUY_m©_Ü`o ~Xb
hmoUma Zmhr, Aem nÕVrZo Ë`m§Mo gwa{jV OVZ H$amdo.
5. gm_J«r AmoiI d emoY (Product Indentification and Traceability) : {d{eï> H$ƒm _mb
CËnmXZmÀ`m H$moUË`mhr AdñWo_Ü`o AgVmZm ghO d Ëd[aV AmoiIVm Ambm nm{hOo. VgoM Agm H$ƒm _mb
CËnmXZ à{H«$`o_Ü`o Ëd[aV gmnS>Uo Amdí`H$ Amho. gm_J«r AmoiI d emoY KoÊ`mMo ñdmV§Í` d A{YH$ma
J«mhH$m§Zm Agbo nm{hOoV.
6. XñVEodOm§Mo {Z`§ÌU (Documents Control) : ISO à_mUnÌ g§nmXZmÀ`m à{H«$`o_Ü`o XñVEodOm§Zm,
H$mJXnÌm§Zm A{Ve` _hÎd Amho. `m_wio XñVEodOm§Mo boIZ emór` nÕVrZo {~ZMyH$ Pmbo nm{hOo. Amdí`H$
Vo gd© XñVEodO V`ma Ho$bo nm{hOoV d Vo AÚ`mdV R>odmdoV. XñVEodOm§Mo boIZ H$moUr Ho$bo? Ë`mg H$moUr
_mÝ`Vm {Xbr? Ë`m§Mr àmW{_H$ VnmgUr H$moUr Ho$br? Ë`m§Mm Zm_mo„oI Vn{ebmgh H$mJXnÌm§_Ü`o Zm|X{dbobm
Agmdm. n[anyU© XñVEodOm_wio Ë`mg A{YH¥$VVm, H$m`Xo{eaVm àmßV hmoVo.
7. ì`dñWmnZmMr O~m~Xmar (Management Responsibility) : ISO n«_mUnÌ H$m`©àUmbr_Ü`o
ì`dñWmnZmbm A{Ve` _hÎMmMr ^y{_H$m nma nmS>mdr bmJVo. ì`dñWmnZmbm ISO à_mUnÌ g§nmXZmÀ`m
_mo{h_oMr à^mdr ZoV¥Ëd H$amdo bmJVo. `mo½` Ago YmoaUmË_H$ {ZU©` ¿`mdo bmJVmV. JwUdÎmm YmoaUmMo `mo½`
XñVEodOm_Ü`o boIZ H$ê$Z Ë`m§Mr n[anyU© _m{hVr H$_©Mmè`m§Zm g_OmdyZ gm§{JVbr nm{hOo. gd© H$_©Mmè`m§Zm
gVV H$m`©àoaUm XoD$Z `m _mo{h_o_Ü`o {H«$`merb Ho$bo nm{hOo. `mo½` d gj_ A{YH$mè`mMr JwUdÎmm g§MmbH$
qH$dm JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnH$ åhUyZ {Z`wŠVr Ho$br nm{hOo. JwUdÎmm H$m`©àUmbrÀ`m H$m_{JarMm {Z`{_V AmT>mdm
KoVbm nm{hOo. ì`dgm`m§VJ©V gXa _mo{h_og nmofH$ dmVmdaU{Z{_©Vr H$aUo Amdí`H$ AgVo.
8. J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm§Mm AmT>mdm (Contract Review) : ISO à_mU{MÝh BÀNw>H$ H§$nZrZo àW_
J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm, Anojm OmUyZ KoVë`m nm{hOoV. J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm§Mm gVV AmT>mdm KoVbm nm{hOo.
J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm§Mr ì`dpñWVnUo nyV©Vm H$aVm `oB©b BVH$s ì`dgm`mMr Vm§{ÌH$, Vm§{ÌH$ d g§KQ>ZmË_H$ j_Vm
Amho H$m `mMm AmT>mdm ì`dñWmnZmZo KoVbm nm{hOo. VgoM J«mhH$m§À`m Anojm d ñdV:À`m gm_Ï`m©{df`r
KoVboë`m AmT>mì`mg§~§Yr `mo½` Vr H$mJXnÌo V`ma H$ê$Z Vr OnyZ R>odmdrV.
9. à{H«$`m {Z`§ÌU
(Process Control) :
ì`dgm`m_Yrb ì`mdgm`rZ H$m`} nma nmS>Ê`mgmR>r Ho$ë`m
OmUmè`m à{H«$`m, Cn{H«$`m, H$m`©nÕV `m§Mo AMyH$ {Z`moOZ Ho$bobo Agmdo. à{H«$`m-Cn{H«$`m§Mr AmIUr d
{ZpíMVr {dMmanyd©H$ d VÁkmÀ`m gëë`mZo H$amdr. à{H«$`m nyVugmR>r dmnabr OmUmar gm_J«r, H$ƒm _mb d
CnH$aUo à_m{UV AgmdrV. H$_©Mmar dJ© Hw$eb d H$m`©j_ Agmdm. `§Ìo, CnH$aUo `m§À`m hmVmiUrMr,
dmnamMr, XoI^mbrMr nÕV {ZpíMV d emór` Agmdr. `m gd© Jmoï>tMo boIZ `mo½` XñVEodOm§_Ü`o H$amdo.
10. VnmgUr d MmMUr (Inspection and Testing) : JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌUmgmR>r gmYZm§Mr, à{H«$`m§VJ©V
_mbmMr d A§{V_ dñVy§Mr VnmgUr d MmMUr gj_ A{YH$mè`m§Ûmao d A{Ve` H$mQ>oH$moanUo Ho$br nm{hOo.
VnmgUr d MmMUr KoÊ`mMr nÕV emór` Agmdr. VnmgUr d JwU {Z`§ÌUmgmR>r àJV gmYZm§Mr d V§ÌmMr
{ZdS> H$amdr. A§{V_ dñVyÀ`m gdm}ƒ JwUdÎmogmR>r IaoXr Hoo$boë`m gd© àH$maÀ`m gmYZgm_J«rMr, àË`oH$
à{H«$`oZ§Va à{H«$`m§VJ©V _mbmMr d A§{V_ à{H«$`oZ§Va CËnm{XV dñVy§Mr gImob JwUdÎmm VnmgUr Ho$br nm{hOo.
JwUdÎmm VnmgUr d MmMUr H$m`m©À`m `mo½` Ë`m Zm|Xr ñdV§Ì XñVEodOm_Ü`o H$amì`mV.
11. VnmgUr d MmMUrMr pñWVr (Inspection and Test Status) : dñVyÀ`m JwUdÎmm VnmgUr d
MmMUr H$m`m©Mr boIr Zm|X ñdV§Ì XñVEodOm_Ü`o H$amdr. `m XñVEodOm_Ü`o AÚ`mdV Zm|Xr Agmì`mV.
g§~§{YV gj_ A{YH$mè`m§Mo A{^àm`, eoao d ñdmjar Agmdr. gmYZgm_J«r, A§{V_ dñVy JwUdÎmoÀ`m
X¥{ï>H$moUmVyZ "ñdrH¥$V'H$s "AñdrH¥$V' `mMm ñnï> C„oI XñVEodOm_Ü`o H$amdm.
12. JwUdÎmm VnmgUr d MmMUr CnH$aUo (Inspection and Test Equipments) : H§$nZr_Ü`o
JwUdÎmm VnmgUr d MmMUrgmR>r dmnabr OmUmar gmYZo d CnH$aUo à_m{UV, dñVw{Zð>, emór` d AMyH$
AgmdrV. gXa gmYZm§Zm, CnH$aUm§Zm gd©_mÝ`Vm d bmoH${à`Vm Agmdr. gmYZo d CnH$aUo AmYw{ZH$
AgmdrV. Ë`m§Mr g{dñVa _m{hVr g§~§{YV XñVEodOm_Ü`o Z_yX H$amdr.
13. A`mo½` _mbmMo {Z`§ÌU (Control of Non-Conforming Product) : A§{V_ dñVyÀ`m nyd{© ZYm©[aV
JwUdÎmoer gwg§JV Aem dñVy d {dg§JV dñVy `m§Mo ñnï> dJuH$aU Ho$bo nm{hOo. {dg§JV dñVy CËnmXZmÀ`m
à{H«$`oV `oUma ZmhrV `mMr nyU© XjVm JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnH$mZo KoVbr nm{hOo. {dg§JV dñVy d _mbmMr `mo½`
nÕVrZo {dëhodmQ> bmdbr nm{hOo. `mMà_mUo gwg§JV _mbmMr AmoiI, VnmgUr, H$mJXnÌo, _yë`_mnZ
BË`mXr~m~VMm ñnï> C„oI g§~§{YV H$mJXnÌm§_Ü`o, XñVEodOm_Ü`o H$aÊ`mV `mdm.
14. gwYmamË_H$ `moOZm (Correction Plan) : H§$nZrZo JwUdÎmm H$m`©àUmbrMm VÁkm§_m\©$V d
emñÌr` nÕVrZo gVV AmT>mdm KoVbm nm{hOo. ApñVËdmVrb H$m`©àUmbr_Yrb C{Udm, ÌwQ>tMm gVV emoY
KoVbm nm{hOo. Ë`m{déÕ à^mdr `moOZm H$ê$Z H$m`©àUmbrMr JwUdÎmm C§Mm{dbr nm{hOo. H$m`©àUmbr_Ü`o gVV
gwYmaUm H$ê$Z {VMr CËnmXH$Vm dmT>dmdr. doimodoir Ho$boë`m gd© gwYmaUm d gwYmamË_H$ `moOZm§Mr boIr Zmo§X
15. hmVmiUr, g§J«hU, ~m§YUr d nmR>dUr (Handling, Storage, Packageing and Delivery):
H$ƒm _mb, à{H«$`m§VJ©V _mb d A§{V_ CËnmXZ `m§Mr hmVmiUr, g§J«hU, ~m§YUr d nmR>dUr nÕV nyd©{ZpíMV
d emór` Agmdr. `m {H«$`m H$aÊ`mgmR>r dmnabr OmUmar `§Ìo d gmYZo XO}Xma d à_m{UV AgmdrV, Va `m
{H«$`m H$aUmam H$_©Mmar dJ© à{e{jV d Hw$eb Agmdm. `m gd© à_wI H$m`mªÀ`m H$m`©nÕVrMo {d{hV Z_wÝ`mV
XñVEodOrH$aU H$amdo. hr gd© H$m`} H$m`©j_VoZo Ho$ë`mg gd© AdñWoVrb _mbmMm Anì`` Z hmoVm Ë`m§Mm
_hÎm_ dmna hmoVmo.
16. A§VJ©V JwUdÎmm VnmgUr (Internal Quality Audit) : H§$nZrZo JwUdÎmm H$m`©àUmbr{df`r
AmIbobr YmoaUo, KoVbobo {ZU©`, nyd©{Z`mo{OV H$m`©nÕVr d H$m`©gyMZm Ho$bobo {ZX}eZ `m gdmªMr A§_b~OmdUr
à^mdrnUo hmoVo H$m Zmhr `mMr VnmgUr JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnH$mZo Ho$br nm{hOo. hr VnmgUr {Z`{_V Xa VrZ
qH$dm ghm _{hÝ`m§Zr KoÊ`mV `mdr. A§VJ©V JwUdÎmm VnmgUrgmR>r à{e{jV H$_©Mmar dJ© {Z`wŠV H$amdm. `m
VnmgUrÀ`m Zm|Xr, Ë`m~m~VMo Ahdmb `m§Mr Zm|X `mo½` H$mJXnÌm_Ü`o H$aÊ`mV `mdr.
17. JwUdÎmm Xáa (Quality Rrecords) : ISO H$m`©àUmbr_Ü`o {b{IV Zm|Xr, H$mJXnÌo, XñVEodO
`m§Zm A{Ve` _hÎd Amho. ì`dgm`m_Yrb àË`oH$ H$m`m©Mo, H¥$VrMo, {ZU©`mMo, H$m_{JarMo nÕVera boIZ
ñdV§Ì XñVEodOm_Ü`o Ho$bo nm{hOo. gd© H$mJXnÌo, XñVEodO `mo½` H$mbmdYrn`ªV OVZ Ho$bo nm{hOoV.
18. à{ejU (Training) : ISO JwUdÎmm _mo{h_o_Ü`o ì`dgm`mVrb gd© KQ>H$m§Mm g{H«$` gh^mJ
Amdí`H$ AgVmo. ì`dgm`mÀ`m gdmªJrU JwUdÎmm d¥ÕrgmR>r gd© H$_©Mmè`m§Zm gImob {ejU-à{ejU XoD$Z
H$m`©Hw$eb ~Z{dbo nm{hOo. `mgmR>r VÁkm§_m\©$V à{ejU H$m`©H«$_m§Mo {Z`{_V Am`moOZ Ho$bo nm{hOo. à{ejUmMo
gVV _yë`_mnZ H$ê$Z à{ejU H$m`©H«$_mV gwYmaUm Ho$br nm{hOo. H$_©Mmè`m§Zm à{ejU KoÊ`mgmR>r àmoËgm{hV
19. {dH«$sZ§Va godm (Servicing) : ISO H$m`©nÕVr_Ü`o {dH«$sZ§VaÀ`m godm§Zm \$ma _hÎd Amho.
`m§{ÌH$, Vm§{ÌH$ d XrK©H$mbrZ dñVy§À`m X¥{ï>H$moUmVyZ `m godm§Zm \$ma _hÎd Amho. H§$nZrZo `m godm§{df`rMo
YmoaU d H$m`©nÕVr ñnï>nUo {ZpíMV H$amdr. ho YmoaU d H$m`©nÕVr {b{IV, A{YH¥$V d Omhra Agmdr.
J«mhH$m§À`m Anojm, JaOm, AS>MUr {dMmamV KoD$Z ho YmoaU d H$m`©nÕVr {ZpíMV H$amdr.
20. gm§p»`H$s` V§Ìo (Statistical Techniques) : H$m`©nÕVrÀ`m d H$m_{JarÀ`m JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌUmgmR>r
AmYw{ZH$, dñVw{Zð> d emór` gm§p»`H$s` V§ÌmMm Adb§~ H$amdm. gm§p»`H$s` V§Ìm_wio JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU \$ma
à^mdrnUo H$aVm `oVo. gm§p»`H$s` V§ÌmMr d Ë`m§Mm Adb§~ H$aÊ`mÀ`m nÕVrMr ì`dpñWV Zm|X g§~§{YV
H$mJXnÌm§_Ü`o H$amdr.
JwUdÎmm nÕVr à_mUnÌ àmárMr H$m`©nÕV
(Quality System Certification Procedure) :
à_mUnÌ XoUmè`m g§ñWoH$S>o A{YH¥$V Z_wÝ`mV AO© H$aUo.
JwUdÎmm nÕVrMr Vk g{_Vr_m\©$V àmW{_H$ VnmgUr.
VnmgUrnyd© ^oQ>.
g§ñWoVrb JwUdÎmm nÕVrMr àË`j VnmgUr.
ÌwQ>r Xya H$aÊ`mgmR>r g§ñWm gwYmamË_H$ Cnm` `moOVo.
naVmdm àXmZ.
naVmdm AmT>mdm.
JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU (Quality Control) : dñVy{Z{_©VrÀ`m à{H«$`oV A§{V_ dñVyÀ`m JwUdÎmobm
gdm©{YH$ _hÎd Amho. J«mhH$m§Mo g_mYmZ, JOanyVu, _mJUrMo n«_mU, H§$nZr{df`r à{V_m Aem AZoH$ Jmoï>r
A§{V_ dñVy /godoÀ`m JwUdÎmoda AmYm[aV AgVmV.
Oo. E_. Owa°Z `m§À`m _Vo, ""JwUdÎmm åhUOo dñVyÀ`m {d{dY d¡{eï>çm§Ûmao d {ZXm}fm§_wio J«mhH$mg
{_imbobo g_mYmZ hmo`.''
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m {dH$mg à{H«$`oVrb Q>ßno :
1. VnmgUr (Inspection)
2. JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU (Quality Control)
3. JwUdÎmm h_r (Quality Assurance)
4. g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ (Total Quality Management)
1. VnmgUr
CËnmXZ {Z`§ÌUmÀ`m gd© nÕVr_Ü`o VnmgUr `m AË`§V _hÎdmÀ`m H$m`m©Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. VnmgUr
{H«$`oMo Ü`o` `mo½` XOm©Mr dñVy àmá H$aUo ho AgVo. A{YH¥$V XOm©, à_mUmZwgma CËnm{XV dñVyV qH$dm godoV
{d{eï> JwU qH$dm ñd^m{dH$ JwU AmhoV H$m ho _moOÊ`mÀ`m d _yë`_mnZmÀ`m à{H«$`og VnmgUr åhUVmV.
ì`m»`m : Aë\$moS>© d ~oÅ>r `m§À`m _Vo, ""VnmgUr åhUOo CËnm{XV dñVy R>a{dboë`m V\$mdV _`m©XoV
Amho, `mgmR>r dñVyMr MmMUr {deofV: _moOUr gmYZmZo KoÊ`mMr H$bm hmo`.''
JwU {Z`§ÌU H$m`©H«$_m§VJ©V VnmgUr {H«$`m Imbrb C{Ôï>o gmÜ` H$aVo.
1. ~mX Pmboë`m, H$_r àVrÀ`m gd© dñVy ~mOybm H$mTy>Z R>odUo. J«mhH$m§Zm \$ŠV Mm§Jë`mM XOm©À`m dñVy
àmá hmoVrb `mMr XjVm KoUo. ho VÎd, {Z`_ gd© AdñWm§_Yrb dñVy§Zm bmJy Ho$bo OmVmV. CXm. H$ƒm _mb,
AY©n¸$m _mb d n¸$m _mb.
2. VnmgUr_wio Amdí`H$Vonojm bhmZ qH$dm _moR>o gwQ>o ^mJ, H$ÀÀ`m _mbmVrb Xmof, CËnmXZ à{H«$`oVrb
Xmof emoYyZ H$mT>Vm `oVmV. `m_wio CËnmXZ {H«$`oMr nwZamd¥Îmr H$amdr bmJV Zmhr. Aem àH$mao H$ƒm _mb, gwQ>o
^mJ, AY©n¸$m _mb `m§Mo JwU {Z`§ÌU H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo. VgoM dñVy§À`m JwUmda {Z`§ÌU R>odVm `oVo.
àñWm{nV à_mUm§er H$ƒm _mb, dñVy qH$dm H¥$Vr gmÜ`VoMr VwbZm H$aÊ`mMr H$bm åhUOo VnmgUr
hmo`. à_mU {ZpíMV / ñnï> Zgob Va VnmgUr {H«$`m AMyH$nUo H$aVm `oV Zmhr.
VnmUrMo _hÎd :
1. {ZpíMV Ho$boë`m JwU{deofmà_mUo H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMm XOm© Zgob, Va CËnmXZmMr {H«$`m gwê$ Ho$br OmV
Zmhr. `m_wio nwT>rb AZmdí`H$ {H«$`m d Ë`mda hmoUmam IM© Q>mibm OmVmo.
2. AmYr Pmboë`m à{H«$`m§_Ü`o MwH$sMm _mb V`ma Pmbm Agob Va Aem MwH$sÀ`m AY©nŠŠ`m _mbmda
nwT>rb à{H«$`m Ho$ë`m OmV ZmhrV.
3. VnmgUr_wio CËnmXZ nyU©V: aÔ H$aÊ`mMo Q>miVm `oVo. Ë`m_wio CËnmXZ IM© pñWa amhVmo.
4. VnmgUr_wio MwH$sÀ`m dñVy J«mhH$m§Zm {dH$ë`m OmV ZmhrV. `m_wio J«mhH$m§_Ü`o CËnmXH$m{df`r
{dídmg {Z_m©U hmoVmo.
5. VnmgUr_wio n«_wI, _moR>çm H$m`m©Mo bhmZ {H«$`m§_Ü`o {d^mOZ H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo.
6. Am¡Úmo{JH$ VnmgUr ho ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$ à^mdr V§Ì åhUyZ CX`mg Ambo Amho.
7. VnmgUr_wio n[adV©Zr` ^mJm§Mr d gwQ>çm ^mJm§Mr {Z{_©Vr H$aVm `oVo.
8. VnmgUrÀ`m gmYZm§_Ü`o d nÕVr_Ü`o _moR>m {dH$mg Pmë`m_wio OwZr `§Ìo, `§Ìgm_J«r ~XbyZ Ë`m OmJr
AmYw{ZH$ `§Ìo, `§Ìgm_J«r ~g{dUo eŠ` hmoVo.
Vnmg{ZgmÀ`m A§Jr Imbrb JwUd¡{eï>ço d H$m¡eë` Agob Va Vmo VnmgUr H$m`© à^mdr d n[aUm_H$maH$
H$ê$ eH$Vmo. CXm. AMyH$ {ZarjU eŠVr, gyú_ Ñï>r, VnmgUr gmYZo hmVmiÊ`mMo H$m¡eë`, AMyH$ AmH$bZ,
H$m`©nÕVr{df`r gImob kmZ, àm_m{UH$nUm, dŠVeranUm, CËnmXZ gmYZm§{df`r nyU© kmZ, _yë`_mnZ, VwbZm
H$m¡eë`, JwUà_mUmMr _m{hVr BË`mXr.
VnmgUrMo àH$ma
(Types of Inspection)
Vnmg{Zgmbm VnmgUrÀ`m AZoH$ àH$mam§VyZ `mo½` àH$mamMr {ZdS> H$amdr bmJVo. H$m`m©Mo ñdê$n,
àH$ma, H$m`©nÕVr, dñVyMo JwUà_mU, dñVyMr g§»`m BË`mXr KQ>H$ {dMmamV KoD$Z Vmo `mo½` VnmgUr àH$mamMr
{ZdS> H$aVmo. AMyH$ VnmgUr nÕVrZo VnmgUr Ho$br VaM VnmgUrMo CÔoe g\$b hmoVmV.
1. à{V~§YmË_H$ VnmgUr : `m nÕVr_Ü`o Xmofm§Mm emoY KoUo, Xmofm§_mJrb H$maUo {ZpíMV H$aUo d
Aer H$maUo Xya hmoÊ`mgmR>r Cnm``moOZm gwM{dUo `m {H«$`m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. `m nÕVrMm _w»` CÔoe Xmofm§Mr
{Z{_©VrM hmoD$ Z`o åhUyZ I~aXmar KoUo hm Amho. `m nÕVr_wio ^{dî`mVrb Xmofm§À`m CËnÎmrg Amim KmVbm
2. Cnm`mË_H$ VnmgUr : CËnmXZmMr {H«$`m nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va hr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo. MwH$sMo H$m`©
d Xmof`wŠV dñVy H$moUË`m H$maUm_wio {Z_m©U Pmbr Ë`m H$maUm§Mm emoY d Ë`m H$maUmMo CƒmQ>Z H$aÊ`mgmR>r
`mo½` Cnm``moOZm `m nÕVrV gwM{dbr OmVo. `m nÕVrV _w»`V: A`mo½`, H$_r XOm©À`m dñVy, Mm§Jë`m
dñVy§nmgyZ Xya H$aUo A{^àoV Amho.
3. {H«$`mË_H$ VnmgUr : CËnmXZmÀ`m à{H«$`oVyZ dñVy nwT>o gaH$V AgVmZm àË`oH$ à{H«$`oÀ`m {R>H$mUr
dñVy Ano{jV JwUdÎmoBVH$s Amho H$m Zmhr `mMr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo. åhUyZ `m nÕVrg {H«$`mË_H$ VnmgUr
4. H|$Ðr^yV VnmgUr : `m nÕVr_Ü`o H$ƒm _mb, dñVyMo hbHo$ d bhmZ gwQ>o ^mJ JwU {Z`§ÌU
{d^mJm_Ü`o VnmgUrgmR>r AmUbo OmVmV. VnmgZrg `mo½` gmYZm§À`m gmhmæ`mZo `m dñVy§À`m doJdoJù`m
VnmgÊ`m Amnë`m {d^mJmV H$aVmV. VnmgUr_Ü`o CÎmrU© Pmboë`m dñVy CËnmXZ {d^mJmV nwT>rb {H«$`m§gmR>r
nmR>{dë`m OmVmV.
5. H$m_mÀ`m {R>H$mUr VnmgUr : AdKS> d AmH$mamZo _moR>çm dñVy JwU {Z`§ÌU {d^mJmV dmhÿZ
ZoUo eŠ` ZgVo. `m_wio VnmgZrg ñdV: H$m_mÀ`m {R>H$mUr OmD$Z Aem dñVy§Mr VnmgUr H$aVmV. H$ƒm _mb,
AY©n¸$m _mb, n¸$m _mb Aem {VÝhr àH$maÀ`m dñVy§Mr VnmgUr `m nÕVrA§VJ©V Ho$br OmVo.
6. àW_ ZJ VnmgUr : Á`m ì`dgm`mV AY© ñd`§M{bV d nyU© ñd`§M{bV `§Ìo, `§Ìgm_J«r AgVo,
Aem ì`dgm`mV àW_ MmMUrgmR>r WmoS>çm dñVy V`ma Ho$ë`m OmVmV. Ë`m§Mr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo. Oa
dñVy_Ü`o H$mhr C{Udm / Xmof AmT>ië`mg Ë`mà_mUo `§Ìo, gm_J«r, hË`mao `mV `mo½` Vo ~Xb d hbdmhbd
Ho$br OmVo. nwÝhm MmMUr dñVy V`ma Ho$ë`m OmVmV. Ë`m§Mr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo. Á`m doir MmMUr dñVy
Ano{jV JwU{ZH$f nyU© H$aob Ë`m doirM g§~§{YV `§ÌmÀ`m _XVrZo CËnmXZ{H«$`og àma§^ Ho$bm OmVmo.
7. _mJ©Xe©H$ dñVy§Mr VnmgUr : à{V ZJ VnmgUr nÕVrMr {dñVm[aV Amd¥Îmr åhUOo hr nÕV hmo`.
EH$mM dñVyda doJdoJù`m à{H«$`m doJdoJù`m `§Ìm§À`m _XVrZo Ho$ë`m OmV AgVrb, Va àW_ H$mhr ZJ gd©
`§Ìm§À`m gmhmæ`mZo CËnm{XV Ho$bo OmVmV. Ë`m§Mr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo. Oa CËnm{XV dñVy Ano{jV XOm© gmÜ`
H$arV Agob, Va CËnmXZmÀ`m {H«$`og àma§^ Ho$bm OmVmo.
8. _w»` q~Xy VnmgUr : hr nÕV à{V~§YmË_H$ VnmgUr nÕVrMm EH$ ^mJ g_Obr OmVo. CËnmXZ
{H«$`oÀ`m R>amdrH$ _Ü`dVu q~Xyn`ªV H$m`© nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va H$m`m©Mr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo. H$m`© Ano{jV
JwU{ZH$f nyU© H$arV Agob VaM Ë`mda nwT>rb {H«$`m gwê$ Ho$ë`m OmVmV.
9. A§{V_ q~Xy VnmgUr : CËnmXZmMr {H«$`m nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va CËnm{XV dñVyMr A§{V_ VnmgUr Ho$br
OmVo. `m VnmgUr_Ü`o CÎmrU© Pmboë`m dñVy ~mOmanoR>oV {dH«$sgmR>r nmR>{dë`m OmVmV. `m VnmgUr_Ü`o dñVy§Mr
H$m`©j_Vm, AmXoemà_mUo {Z{_©Vr, gmÜ`Vm, ~møñdê$n BË`mXr KQ>H$m§Mr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo.
2. JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU
(Quality Control) :
JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU ho ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$ _hÎdnyU© H$m`© Amho. JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU åhUOo Aer nÕVr
gmYZm§Mm d V§ÌmMm g_wh {H$ Á`mAmYmao {ZpíMV Ho$boë`m d¡{eï>çm§à_mUo {H$_mZ IMm©V dñVy {Z{_©Vr Pmbr
H$m ho nmhUo, VnmgUo hmo`. Ab\$moS>© d ~oÅ>r `m§À`m _Vo, ""JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU åhUOo EH$ Aer nÕVr Á`mÀ`m
AmYmao dñVy§Mr JwUdÎmm, J«mhH$m§Zr R>adboë`m {deof dU©ZmMo Am{U `m§{ÌH$ VgoM {Z{_©Vr H$m¡eë`m§Mo g_mYmZ
H$ê$ eH$Vrb {VWn`ªV dmT>dUo. `m nÕVrMm _w»` CÔoe MyH$sÀ`m Jmoï>r emoYyZ ZmH$maÊ`mnojm `mo½` dñVy§Mr
{Z{_©Vr H$aUo hm Amho.
JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌUmÀ`m VrZ _wb^yV ~mOy :
1. _mÝ`Vm H$m`© : ho H$m`© dñVyÀ`m VnmgUrer g§~§{YV Amho. `m_Ü`o Á`m dñVy Ano{jV d¡{eï>çm§Zwgma
{Z_m©U Pmë`m AmhoV Ë`m ~mOybm H$mT>ë`m OmVmV d Á`m dñVy§_Ü`o Xmof AmhoV Ë`m dñVy Zmng§V Ho$ë`m OmVmV.
_mÝ`Vm H$m`m©V (VnmgUr) Imbrb KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. CXm. g§gmYZm§Mr VnmgUr, à{H«$`m VnmgUr,
A§{V_ _mb VnmgUr, JoO VnmgUr, Zm ng§V _mbmMr {dëhodmQ>, X¡Z§{XZ g_ñ`m R>a{dUo. B.
2. à{V~§YmË_H$ H$m`© : H$ƒm_mb, BVa KQ>H$, `m§{ÌH$ à{H«$`m qH$dm _mUgo `m§À`mVrb Xmofm§Mr
O~m~Xmar {ZpíMV H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m_Yrb Xmof emoYUo. `m_wio dma§dma CX²^dUmao Xmof Q>miVm `oVmV. JwUdÎmoMo
à{V~§YmË_H$ H$m`© åhUOo JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU hmo`. `m_Ü`o Imbrb KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. CXm. à{H«$`m
j_VoMm Aä`mg, An`em§Mo g§»`mË_H$ {díbofU, {Z[ajH$m§Mo à{ejU, Xmof Xya H$aUmè`m nÕVtMm Aä`mg
3. h_r H$m`© (Assurance Function) : h_r H$m`© åhUOo àË`oH$ JwUdÎmm JwUd¡{eï>çmMr VnmgUr
H$aUo qH$dm CËnmXZ MH«$mVrb àË`oH$ AdñWoV nwZ©{ZpíMV _mZH$m§Mr nyV©Vm CËnmXZ H$aVo H$m ho VnmgUo hmo`.
h_r H$m`m©V AZoH$ KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. CXm. J«mhH$ VH«$mar, JwUdÎmm n[ajU, JwUdÎmm {ZpíMVr,
VnmgUrV AMwH$Vm, JwUdÎmo~m~V A{YH$mè`m§Mo Ahdmb B.
VnmgUr d JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌUmMo \$m`Xo :
1. J«mhH$ g_mYmZ d ñnY©H$m§er ñnYm© H$aÊ`mgmR>r A§{V_ _mbmMr JwUdÎmm `mo½` nmVirg amIbr
2. dñVy_Ü`o dmnabo OmUmao gwQ>o ^mJ Xmofa{hV AmhoV H$m d OwiUr à{H«$`ogmR>r `mo½` AmhoV H$m `mMr
H$miOr KoVbr OmVo.
3. CËnmXZ godm d _Zwî`~i `m§Mm _hÎm_ dmna, gXmof H$m_mÀ`m à_mUmV KQ> d {H$_mZ IMm©V CËnmXZ
`m Jmoï>r gmÜ` hmoVmV.
4. gXmof _mbmda nwT>rb à{H«$`m Q>mië`m_wio l_doioV, `§ÌdoioV VgoM O_m IMm©V, `§ÌIMm©V ~MV
5. Cƒ XOm©À`m dñVy {Z{_©Vr_wio J«mhH$m§Zm nyU© Cn^moJ g_mYmZ {_iVo. J«mhH$ dñVy{Zð>, g§KQ>Zm {Zð>
~ZVmV. `m_wio dñVybm XrK©H$mbrZ ~mOmanoR> àmá hmoVo.
3. JwUdÎmm h_r
(Quality Assurance)
4. g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ
(Total Quality Management)
20 ì`m eVH$m_Ü`o "JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ' `m g§H$ënZoMm CÚmoJjoÌmda _moR>m à^md hmoVm. na§Vw 21 ì`m
eVH$mÀ`m àma§^mnmgyZ AW©ì`dñWoVrb gd© joÌm§da "g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmMm' à^md Amho. gÚ:pñWVrV
àË`oH$ ì`dgm`mZo "g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ' H$m`©H«$_mMm ñdrH$ma Ho$bobm {XgyZ `oVmo. OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m
à{H«$`o_Ü`o `m H$m`©H«$_mg n`m©` Zmhr Ago åhQ>bo OmVo.
J«mhH$m§Zm gdm}ƒ g_mYmZ XoÊ`mgmR>r ì`dgm`mVrb àË`oH$ KQ>H$mbm gdm}ƒ H$m_{JarMo àXe©Z
H$aÊ`mgmR>r `mo½` dmVmdaU {Z_m©U H$ê$Z àd¥Îm d ào[aV H$aUo åhUOo g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ hmo`.
ES>dS>© S>oq_J `m§Zm g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ g§H$ënZoMo _w»` Jwê$ Ago AmXamZo g§~moYbo OmVo. Ë`m§Zr
`m ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m 14 VÎdm§Mr _m§S>Ur H$ê$Z Ë`mMr gmd©{ÌH$Vm dmT>{dbr. Omogo\$ Owa°Z `m {dMmad§VmZo
"JwUdÎmm {ÌgyÌr' d JwUdÎmm gwYmaUoÀ`m Xhm AdñWm§Mr _m§S>Ur H$ê$Z `m ì`dñWmnZmMr bmoH${à`Vm d
Cn`wŠVVm dmT>{dbr Amho.
g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmbm OmJ{VH$ _mÝ`Vm {_idyZ XoÊ`mMo _mobmMo H$m`© H$mAmoê$ B{eH$mdm `m§Zr
Ho$bo Amho. OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m `wJmV g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmMm {dH$mg doJmZo hmoV Amho. H$mhr {dMmad§Vm§À`m
_Vo, 21 ì`m eVH$mVrb J{V_mZ OmJ{VH$ n`m©daUm_Ü`o `eñdr hmoÊ`mMm EH$_od AmXe© _mJ© åhUOo g_J«
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmMm CnH«$_m_Ü`o gImob d à^mdr Adb§~ H$aUo hmo`.
ì`m»`m 1. ""g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ åhUOo ì`dgm` ì`dñWmnZmMo VÎdkmZ hmo`. Oo J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm d
CnH«$_mMr C{Ôï>o `m§À`mV K{Zð> g§~§Y Agë`mMo _mÝ` H$aVo. CÚmoJ d dm{UÁ` `m XmoÝhr joÌm§V Vo `mo½`
("TQM is a corporate business management philosophy which recognises that customer
needs and business goals are inseparable. It is appropriate within both industry and commerce."
- By British Quality, Association)
2. Om°Z {Jb~Q>© `m§À`m _Vo, ""J«mhH$ g_mYmZmg gdm©{YH$ _hÎd XoUo, Ë`m§À`m VH«$matMo {ZagZ H$aUo,
JwUdÎmm dmT>{dUo d Iwbr {ZU©` à{H«$`m A§JrH$maUo åhUOo g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ hmo`.''
3. _m`Ho$b ñQ>°hb `m§À`m _Vo, ""gmYZgm_J«r d à{H«$`m `m ñVam§da JwUdÎmm {Q>H${dUo åhUOo g§nyU©
JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ hmo`.''
4. ^maVr` gm§p»`H$s` g§ñWm, h¡Xam~mX `m§À`m _Vo, ""g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ åhUOo EH$mpË_H$
g§KQ>ZmË_H$ Ñ{ï>H$moU hmo`. `mÛmao J«mhH$m§Zm g_mYmZr R>odÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§À`m BÀN>m gmVË`nyU© VÎdmda nyU©
Ho$ë`m OmVmV d Oo `mo½` g_ñ`m {ZagZ H$m`©nÕVrgh dñVy, godm d à{H«$`m gmVË`mZo gwYmaÊ`m~m~V àË`oH$
OU gVV g§KQ>ZoA§VJ©V H$m`©_¾ AgVmV.''
g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmMr _ybVÎdo
(Fundamentals of TQM) :
{d{dY {dMmad§Vm§Zr g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmMr _ybVÎdo Imbrbà_mUo gm§{JVbr AmhoV.
1. _hÎdmMo VÎdkmZ : AmYw{ZH$ `wJmV g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ EH$ AË`§V _hÎdmMo VÎdkmZ åhUyZ
gd©_mÝ`Vm {_imbobr Amho. H$maU ho VÎdkmZ ì`dgm`mVrb gd© KQ>H$m§À`m JwUdÎmmdmT>rMm AmJ«h YaVo.
2. nr. S>r. gr. E. VÎd : g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmV "`moOZm A§_b~OmdUr-VnmgUr-Cnm`mË_H$
H¥$Vr (Plan-do-check-Action-PDCA Principle) `m VÎdm§Mm A{Ve` gImobnUo A§JrH$ma Ho$bm OmVmo.
3. J«mhH$m§Mm gh^mJ : g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m `epñdVogmR>r J«mhH$m§Mm àË`j d g{H«$`
gh^mJ AË`§V Amdí`H$ AgVmo. dñVyMm AmamIS>m {ZpíMVrnmgyZ Vo {dH«$`moÎma godmn`ªV J«mhH$m§À`m Anojm,
Ë`m§À`m Ñï>rZo _hÎdmMr d¡{eï>ço OmUyZ KoD$Z `m Anojm d d¡{eï>çm§Mm A§V^m©d dñVy_Ü`o H$amdm bmJVmo.
4. Cƒ ì`dñWmnZ : g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m H$m`©H«$_mbm Cƒ ì`dñWmnZmMm nyU© nmqR>~m
Agbm nm{hOo. Ë`m§Zr H$_©Mmè`m§Zm gVV H$m`©àoaUm XoD$Z `m H$m`©H«$_m_Ü`o g{H«$` Ho$bo nm{hOo. `m H$m`©H«$_mMm
nmR>nwamdm H$aÊ`mgmR>r `mo½` Ë`m `moOZm d YmoaUm§Mr AmIUr Ëd[aV d AMyH$ Ho$br nm{hOo.
5. H$_©Mmè`m§Mm gh^mJ : g§KQ>ZoVrb gd© _mZdr KQ>H$m§Mm CËñ\y$V© nmqR>~m d g{H«$` ghH$m`© `m
H$m`©H«$_mg Agbo nm{hOo. `mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmZo H$_©Mmè`m§À`mV OmUrd OmJ¥Vr Ho$br nm{hOo. g§KQ>ZoV
AZwHy$b dmVmdaU{Z{_©Vr Ho$br nm{hOo.
6. nwadR>mXmam§er K{Zð> g§~§Y : ì`dñWmnZmZo àW_ àm_m{UH$ d gj_ nwadR>mXmam§Mr {ZdS> Ho$br
nm{hOo d Z§Va Ë`m§À`m {dH$mgmgmR>r à`ËZ Ho$bm nm{hOo. nwadR>mXmam§er AË`§V ghH$m`m©Mo d gbmo»`mMo g§~§Y
àñWm{nV Ho$ë`mg XO}Xma gmYZgm_J«rMm nwadR>m {Z`{_V, Amdí`H$ Ë`m à_mUmV àmá hmoVmo.
7. J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm : J«mhH$m§À`m Anojm, JaOm d g_mYmZ `mg g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmV AË`§V
_hÎdmMo ñWmZ Amho. J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm {dMmamV KoD$Z dñVy§À`m aMZoV, JwUY_m©V, {dVaU d {dH«$`moÎma godoV
AZwê$n ~Xb Ho$bo OmVmV.
8. X¡{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZ (Daily Management) : g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ H$m`©H«$_mV X¡{ZH$
ì`dñWmnZ VÎdmMm H$m`©j_nUo Cn`moJ Ho$bm OmVmo. X¡{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZmV amoOÀ`m H$m_mMo {Z`moOZ d {Z`§ÌU
amoOÀ`m amoO Ho$bo OmVo. VgoM g_ñ`m§{déÕ Ë`mM {Xder Cnm`mË_H$ `moOZm AmIbr OmVo.
9. CËnmXZ ì`dñWmnZ : AMyH$ CËnmXZ ì`dñWmnZ hm `m H$m`©H«$_m§Mm _w»` AmYma Amho. CËnmXZ
{Z`moOZ d {Z`§ÌU hr H$m`} H$m`©j_VoZo Ho$ë`mg gXa H$m`©H«$_mMr AMyH$Vm C§MmdVo.
10. JwUdÎmogmR>r dñVy AmamIS>m : J«mhH$m§À`m Anojm d JaOm§Zwga dñVyMm AmamIS>m {ZpíMV Ho$bm
OmVmo. `m A§VJ©V dñVyMr A§VJ©V d ~møaMZm a§J, ê$n, Md, AmamIS>m, Cn`mo{JVm, {Q>H$mD$nUm Aem {d{dY
KQ>H$m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
11. CËnmXZ IM© : CËnmXZ IMm©V ~MV H$aUo ho àË`oH$ CÚmoJg§ñWoMo _w»` Ü`o` AgVo. na§Vw `m
H$m`©H«$_m§VJ©V dñVyÀ`m JwUdÎmoer H$moUVrhr VS>OmoS> Z H$aVm CËnmXZ IMm©V ~MV H$aÊ`mMm à`ËZ Ho$bm
12. gdmªer g§~§{YV : ì`dgm`mVrb gd© {d^mJ, Cn{d^mJ, H$m`}, {H«$`m, KQ>H$, CnKQ>H$, à{H«$`m,
ì`ŠVr, ì`{ŠVg_yh BË`mXtMm `m H$m`©H«$_mV g_mdoe hmoVmo. gdmªÀ`m nyU© `moJXmZm{edm` hm H$m`©H«$_ `eñdr
hmoD$ eH$V Zmhr.
13. à{V~§YmË_H$ H$m`m©g _hÎd : g_ñ`m, àíZ, AS>MUr {Z_m©U hmoD$ Z`oV åhUyZ à{V~§YmË_H$
Cnm``moOZm Ho$br OmVo. `m_wio g_ñ`m§Mr Vrd«Vm H$_r hmoVo.
14. dñVwpñWVr KQ>H$ : g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmV dñVwpñWVrbm gdm©{YH$ _hÎd {Xbo OmVo. `mMmM
AW© ì`{ŠVJV _Vo, gyMZm, {dMma, à{V{H«$`m `m§Zm Xwæ`_ g_Obo OmVo.
g§nyU© JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZmMr gmYZo
(Tools of TQM)
1. ~|M_mH$sªJ - Bench Markeing
2. gwYmaUm g§YrMm emoY - Identification of Improvements Opportuniting
3. H$m`©_mZ _mnZ - Measurement of Performance
4. gdmªMm gh^mJ - Total Participation
5. ~Xbm§Mr A§_b~OmdUr - Implementation of Changes
6. Ü`o` d CÔoem§Mo g§XoedhZ - Communication of Missions & Aims
7. J«mhH$ H|$ÐñWmZ - Customer Focus
8. ì`dñWmnZmMr dMZ~ÕVm - Management Commitment
9. g_J« JwUdÎmm ì`dñWmnZ H$m`©H«$_m§_Ü`o g_Ýd` - Co-ordination of TQM Programme
10. g_ñ`m {ZagZmMr nÕVera à{H«$`m - Systematic Problem Solving
11. gm§p»`H$s` JwU {Z`§ÌU - Statistical Quality Control
12. JwUdÎmm _§S>io - Quality Circles
13. dmXir MMm© - Brain Storming
14. H$maH$sX© _mJ© {ZpíMVr - Career Path Map
15. ì`yhaMZmË_H$ {Z`moOZ - Strategic Plan
16. gmVË`nyU© {ejU à{H«$`m - Countinuous Leaarning Process
17. _yë`_mnZ à{H«$`m - Evaluation Process.
JwUdÎmm n[ajU
(Quality Audit) :
ì`dgm` g§KQ>ZoÀ`m JwUdÎmm nÕVrÀ`m ì`dñWmnZmVrb EH$ _yb^yV KQ>H$ åhUOo JwUdÎmm n[ajU hmo`.
JwUdÎmm nÕVrMr n[aUm_H$maH$Vm dmT>Ê`mgmR>r d _yë`_mnZmgmR>r _m{hVr d AmH$S>odmar nwa{dUo JwUdÎmm
n[ajUmV A{^àoV Amho. JwUdÎmm n[ajU ho ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$ Ago gmYZ Amho H$s Á`mV JwUdÎmoer g§~§{YV
_yë`_mnZ, nS>VmiUr B. H$m`mªMm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
JwUdÎmm n[ajU åhUOo EH$ Aer nÕVera Am{U ñdV§Ì Aä`mg nÕVr Á`mÀ`m AmYmao Mm§Jë`m H¥$Vr
Am{U Ë`m§À`m g§b¾ n[aUm_ Ë`mM~amo~a R>adbobr _m§S>Ur Am{U R>adboë`m g§ñWoÀ`m _m§S>UrÀ`m `mo½` dmnamZo
CÔoenyVu hmody eH$Vo ho _mÝ` H$aUo.
A Systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and
related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements and implemented effectively and are suitable to achieves objectivs.
JwUdÎmm n[ajUmMr C{Ôï>o :
1. JwUdÎmm nÕVrMo KQ>H$ {ZX}{eV Amdí`H$Vmer AZwê$n AmhoV H$s ZmhrV ho R>a{dUo. VgoM XwéñVr
d gwYmaUogmR>rMr joÌo emoYUo.
2. ~|M_mH©$ R>a{dUo d Ë`mAmYmao nÕVrMr gwYmaUm {dH${gV H$aUo d {VMo _yë`_mnZ.
3. ì`dñWmnZmbm JwUdÎmm nÕVrÀ`m {d{dY KQ>H$m§Mr AZwê$n à^mdrnUm, `mo½`Vo~m~V {ZpíMV nwamdm
gmXa H$aUo.
4. {d{eï> JwUdÎmm C{Ôï>o gmÜ` hmoÊ`mgmR>r A§_b~OmdUr H$amd`mÀ`m JwUdÎmm nÕVrMm à^mdrnUm
5. JwUdÎmm nÕVr_Yrb Xmof, C{Udm emoYUo.
6. JwUdÎmm `moOZm§Mr A§_b~OmdUr H$aUmè`m H$_©Mmè`m§Mr `mo½`Vm d H$m¡eë`m§Mo _yë`_mnZ H$aUo.
7. {d{dY {d^mJm_Yrb gwg§dmX, ghH$m`©d¥Îmr dmT>{dUo.
2. CnH«$_ g§gmYZ {Z`moOZ
(Enterprise Resource Planning - ERP)
CnH«$_ g§gmYZ {Z`moOZ åhUOo CnH«$_ ì`dñWmnZmMr H$m`©j_Vm C§MmdÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZ g§gmYZm§Mm
à^mdr Cn`moJ d g§nyU© ì`dgm`mMo gd©g_mdoeH$ ì`dñWmnZ H$aÊ`mMo EH$ V§Ì d g§H$ënZm Amho. ERP JÇ>m
(Package) åhUOo gd©g_mdoeH$ gm°âQ>doAa n°Ho$Og hmo` H$s Á`m_Ü`o gd© ì`md`m{`Z H$m`mªer g§~§{YV
Software Packages Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. àma§{^À`m H$mimV ERP n°Ho$OMm CÔoe {Z_m©U CÚmoJ d Ë`m_Yrb
_w»` {dH«$s ì`dñWmnZ, CËnmXZ ì`dñWmnZ, {heo~ boIZ d Am{W©H$ àH$aUo B. H$m`mªMo {Z`moOZ d
ì`dñWmnZ H$aUo, Agm hmoVm. na§Vw gÚpñWVrV gd© àH$maÀ`m CÚmoJ ì`dgm`m_Ü`o d {d{dY àH$maÀ`m
H$m`mªMo d {H«$`m§Mo {Z`moOZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r `m g§H$ënZoMm gd©Ì _moR>çm à_mUmV Adb§~ Ho$bm OmVmo.
àUmbrMr à{VH¥$Vr Aer V`ma Ho$br OmVo H$s, Á`m_Ü`o ì`dgm`mVrb gd© _wb^yV à{H«$`m
g_m{dîQ> AgVmV.
ì`dgm`mÀ`m à_wI ì`mdgm{`Z à{H«$`m§Mm ERP Software ho EH$ Amagm / à{V_m AgVo. Cƒ
XOm©À`m J«mhH$ godm, CËnmXH$Vm, IM© H$nmV, _mbgmR>çmMr `mo½` nmVir B. _wb^yV C{Ôï>m§À`m nyV©VogmR>r
ERP VÎdm§Mo ghmæ` KoVbo OmVo. ERP _wio E - H$m°_g© d dmQ>n gmIirÀ`m à^mdr ì`dñWmnZmgmR>r Mm§Jbm
nm`m KmVbm OmVmo. ERP ho `moOZm d doimnÌH$ {dH${gV H$aVo. `m_wio `mo½` g§gmYZo, `mo½` doir, {H$_mZ
_mo~Xë`mV g§nmXZ H$aVm `oVmV. CXm. _Zwî`~i, gmYZ gm_J«r, `§Ìgm_J«r, ^m§S>db B.
~m~V H$mhr MwH$sMo _Vàdmh :
1. ERP
2. ERP
3. ERP
4. ERP
5. ERP
6. ERP
7. ERP
8. ERP
åhUOo OmñV H$m_ d nÕVr.
_wio AZoH$ H$_©Mmar H$m`©_wŠV hmoD$ eH$VmV.
hr nyU©V: ì`dñWmnZmMr O~m~Xmar Amho.
\$ŠV ì`dñWmnH$ / {ZU©` H$Ë`mªgmR>r Amho.
\$ŠV {Z_m©U g§KQ>ZmgmR>r Amho.
\$ŠV ERP A§_b~OmdUr g§KmgmR>r Amho.
_wio g§KQ>Zm g§W ~ZVo.
n°Ho$O gdmªMr H$miOr KoVo.
n°Ho$O àË`oH$mg Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
10. ERP \$ma I{M©H$ Amho.
11. ERP {edm` g§KQ>Zm `eñdr hmoD$ eH$Vo.
9. ERP
Mr CËH«$m§Vr
Evolution of ERP :
_mbgmR>m ì`dñWmnZ
d {Z`§ÌU (Inventory
JwXm_m_Ü`o _mb `mo½` nmVirg R>odÊ`mMr ì`mdgm{`Z {H«$`m d _m{hVr V§ÌkmZ `m§Mo EH${ÌH$aU
åhUOo _mbgmR>m ì`dñWmnZ d {Z`§ÌU hmo`.
Management &
gm_J«r JaO {Z`moOZ
CnH«$_ gmYZ {Z`moOZ
CËnmXZ à{H«$`m§Mo doimnÌH$ V`ma H$aÊ`mgmR>r
gm_J«r JaO {Z`moOZ ho Software Application
Mm dmna H$aVo.
CËnmXZmÀ`m à{H«$`m§_Ü`o g_Ýd` gmYÊ`mgmR>r
{Z_m©U JaO {Z`moOZ Software Application Mm
dmna H$aVo.
ì`dgm`m§VJ©V à{H«$`m§Mr H$m_{Jar C§Mm{dÊ`mgmR>r
ERP Multi - Module Application
(Material Requirement Planning)
{Z_m©U JaO {Z`moOZ
Requirement Planning)
hr EH$ Computer System (g§JUH$ àUmbr) Amho. ì`dgm` g§KQ>ZoV doJdoJio {d^mJ H$m`©aV
AgVmV. Ë`m§Mr H$m`}hr doJdoJù`m ñdê$nmMr AgVmV. Aem gd© H$m`m©g§~§YrV _m{hVr, Ë`m§Mr XodmUKodmU, EH${ÌVnUo EH$mM g§JUmH$m_YyZ hmoV AgVo. `mg ghmæ` H$aUmè`m gd© gmYZm§Zm, doJdoJù`m
à{H«$`m§Zm ERP g§M åhUbo OmVo. Á`m_Ü`o EH$M Database (EH$_oH$m§er g§~§{YV _m{hVrMm gmR>m) AgVmo.
`mM Database À`m gh^mJm_wio doJdoJù`m {d^mJm§Mr _m{hVr, Ë`m§Mo XiUdiU EH$_oH§$er hmoV AgVo.
_Ü`o {d{eï> àH$maMo
Module (Programme
JQ>) g_m{dï> AgVmV.
WmoS>Š`mV, ERP _Ü`o EH${ÌVnUo CnH«$_mVrb gd© {d^mJ Am{U Ë`m§Mr H$m`©o hmoV AgVmV. hr gd©
H$m`} EH$mM g§JUH$ àUmbr_Ü`o AgyZ gd© {d^mJm§À`m d¡{eï>çnyU© JaOm `m_wio nyU© hmoVmV.
_mJUr d nwadR>çmMm A§XmO d Ë`mV g_Vmob ERP _wio gmYbm OmVmo. J«mhH$ d nwadR>mXmam§er g§~§{YV
AZw_mZ, {Z`moOZ, doimnÌH$ V§Ì `m§Mm CnH«$_ {Zhm` g§M åhUOo ERP hmo`. `m{edm` `mA§VJ©V {dH«$s,
{dnUZ, à{H$`m, IaoXr, AW©nwadRm, dñVy {dH$mg d _Zwî`~i B. _Ü`o g_Ýd` gmYbm OmVmo.
Mo \$m`Xo
Benefits of ERP
nÕVrMr àñWmnZm Ho$ë`m_wio g§KQ>Zog AZoH$ àË`j, AàË`j bm^ àmá hmoVmV. àË`j
bm^m§_Ü`o H$m`©j_VoV dmT>, AMyH$ {ZU©` à{H«$`ogmR>r _m{hVrMo EH${ÌH$aU, J«mhH$m§Mm ËdarV à{VgmX B.
bm^m§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. AàË`j \$m`Úm_Ü`o H§$nZrMr Mm§Jbr à{V_m, Zmdbm¡{H$H$mV dmT>, J«mhH$ g_mYmZ
Aem AZoH$ \$m`Úm§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. ERP nÕVr_wio ì`dgm` g§KQ>Zog AZoH$ Ñî` d AÑî` ñdê$nmMo \$m`Xo
nÕVrMo \$m`Xo Imbrbà_mUo ñnï> Ho$bo OmVmV.
7. bd{MH$VoV dmT>
1. _m{hVrMo EH${ÌH$aU
8. JwUdÎmm IMm©V KQ>
2. C{Ôï>nyVu doioV KQ>
9. g§gmYZmMm n[anyU© Cn`moJ
3. `mo½` doioV AmXoe nyV©Vm
10. AMyH$ {díbofU d {Z`moOZ j_Vm
4. H$m`©nyVu doioV KQ>
5. J«mhH$m§Zm nyU© g_mYmZ
11. _m{hVrÀ`m AMwH$VoV dmT> d {ZU©`j_VoV
6. nwadR>mXmam§À`m H$m_{JarV gwYmaUm
12. AmYw{ZH$ V§ÌkmZmMm dmna.
CËnmXZ {Z`moOZ
gm_wJ«r ì`dñWmnZ
{dH«$s d dmQ>n
AW© {d^mJ
ERP System
_Ü`o AmXoe nyV©VoMr nÕVr
XoI^mb XwéñVr
{~b {Z_[Vr
d {H«$`mË_H$
{dH«$s d
nÕVrÛmao _m{hVrMo g§H$bZ
gm°âQ>doAaMo H$m`m©Ë_H$ _moS>çwbg :
ERP Software
ware Module
_moS>çwbg ApñVËdmV Amho. àË`oH$
ERP Soft-
ho g§KQ>ZoVrb à_wI H$m`m©Ë_H$ H$m`©joÌmMr Z¸$b AgVo. H$mhr gd©gmYmaU _moS>çwbg
Imbrbà_mUo1. Am{W©H$ _moS>çyb
2. CËnmXZ _moS>çyb
3. _Zwî`~i _moS>çyb
4. gm_J«r ì`dñWmnZ _moS>çyb
5. CËnmXZ {Z`moOZ _moS>çyb
6. `§ÌñWi XoI^mb _moS>çyb
7. IaoXr XoI^mb _moS>çyb
8. {dnUZ XoI^mb _moS>çyb
9. {dH«$s d dmQ>n _moS>çyb.
Mo VmoQ>o :
AmYw{ZH$ `wJm_Ü`o ERP V§Ì A{Ve` Cn`wŠV g_Obo OmV Agbo Var `m V§ÌmMo gwÕm H$mhr VmoQ>o AmhoV.
Vo {dMmamV KoD$Z ho V§Ì ñdrH$mam`Mo H$m Zmhr `m{df`r {ZU©` KoVbm OmVmo.
1. I{M©H$.
2. ERP A§_b~OmdUrg XrK© H$mbmdYr.
3. H$_©Mmè`m§_Ü`o Vm§{ÌH$ kmZ, H$m¡eë`m§Mm A^md.
4. H$_©Mmè`m§Zm à{ejUmMr JaO.
5. Cƒ ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m nmR>tã`mMr JaO.
6. VÁkm§À`m _XVrMr gVV JaO.
7. {eñVrMr JaO.
8. H$_©Mmè`m§Mm ~Xbmg {damoY.
9. ì`dgm` à{H«$`m§À`m nwZ©A{^`m§{ÌH$sMr JaO.
10. V§ÌkmV ~Xbm§Mr eŠ`Vm.
ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Xm
(Competitive advantages)
~mOmanoR>o_Ü`o AZoH$ ì`dgm`g§ñWm ì`mdgm{`Z H$m`} H$aV AgVmV. `mn¡H$s AZoH$ g§ñWm EH$mM
àH$maMo H$m`© H$aV AgVmV. àË`oH$ g§ñWoH$S>o Oar gmYZgm_J«r, _Zwî`~i, Vm§{ÌH$ j_Vm Odinmg
EH$gmaIr Agbr Var àË`oH$ g§ñWobm {_iUmao `e Ag_mZ ñdê$nmMo AgVo. EImXr g§ñWm AË`wƒ `e,
gÝ_mZ g§nmXZ H$aVo. `mCbQ> AZoH$ g§ñWm gd©gmYmaU `e g§nmXZ H$aVmV. `m {dg§JVr_mJrb _w»` H$maU
åhUOo àË`oH$ ì`dgm` g§ñWoMr gmYZg§nÎmrMm H$_mb Cn`moJ H$aÊ`mMr j_Vm H$m¡eë` H$_r OmñV AgVo.
Or ì`dgm`g§ñWm ñdV:Mr Jm^mgj_Vm AmoiIVo, {dH$grV H$aVo {VMm H$_mb Cn`moJ H$aVo. Aer g§ñWm
ñnYm©H$m§À`m VwbZoV CÎmw§J `e d bm^ g§nmXZ H$aVo. AmOÀ`m OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m `wJmV `eñdr hmoÊ`mgmR>r,
OmJ{VH$ ñnY}V ñdV:Mo doJionU {gÕ H$aÊ`mgmR>r àË`oH$ ì`dñWmnZmZo Amnë`m Jm^m j_Vm A{YH$ gj_
H$aÊ`mMm d ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ {_i{dÊ`mMo Ü`o` R>odbo nm{hOo.
ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ g§H$ënZm
(Concept of Competitive Advantage)
ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ hr ì`yhaMZmË_H$ ì`dñWmnZmVrb EH$ _yb^yV d _hÎdnyU© g§H$ënZm Amho. ñnYm©Ë_H$
bm^ `m g§H$ënZoÀ`m {d{dY {dMmad§VmZr Ho$boë`m ì`m»`m Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
1) "Competitive advantage grows fundamentally out of the value a firm is able take the
form of prices lower than competition for equivalent benefits or the provision of unique benefits
that more than offset a premium price."
- Michael Porter.
""EImXr ì`dgm` g§ñWm {VÀ`m J«mhH$m§gmR>r Oo _yë` {Z_m©U H$ê$ eH$Vo Ë`mVyZ _ybV: ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^
{Z_m©U hmoVmo. g_mZ bm^mgmR>r ñnY©H$m§nojm H$_r qH$_V AmH$maUo qH$dm dmT>rd (A{YŠ`) qH$_Vrnojm OmñV
Agm_mÝ` \$m`Xo XoÊ`mMr ì`dñWm H$aUo `mn¡H$s EImXoê$n Vmo YmaU H$aVmo.''
2) "Competitive advantage is any feature of a business firm that enables into earn a high
return on investment despite counter pressure from competitors.
- Pits and Snow
ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ åhUOo EImÚm ì`dgm`mMo Ago H$moUVohr d¡{eï>ç hmo` H$s Oo Ë`mg ñnY©H$m§H$Sy>Z àVrX
~md Agbm Var Jw§VdUwH$sda Cƒ _mo~Xbm {_idyZ XoVo.''
3) "Competitive advantage is what sets an organization apart, that is its distinctedge. That
distinct edge comes from the organisation core competencies, which might be in the form of
organizational capabities the organization does something that others cannot do or does it better
than others can do it."
- Stifan Robins, Merry Colter
""ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Xm hr ì`dgm` g§ñWoMo doJionU Xe©{dUmar ~m~ Amho. Ë`mVyZ ì`dgm`g§ñWm {deof
daMT> Agë`mMo {XgVo. Ago {deof {ZdS>rÀ`m à{H«$`o_wio Mm§Jbo-dmB©Q> loð>Ëd g§ñWobm {VÀ`m Jm^m j_VoVyZ
àmá hmoV AgVo. BVa g§KQ>Zm§Zm H$aVm Z `oUmè`m {deof {H«$`m EImXr g§KQ>Zm H$aVo qH$dm BVam§nojm \$ma
Mm§Jë`m nÕVrZo Ë`m {H«$`m H$aVm `oVmV. `m ~m~r_wio ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Xm {dH${gV hmoVmo.
4) "A capability of circumstance that enables a corporation to earn higher than the averatxge
profits in a particular industry"
- Stoner, Freeman, Gilbert
{d{eï> CÚmoJjoÌmV EImXr g§ñWm gamgarnojm OmñV Z\$m Á`m j_Vo_wio qH$dm n[apñWVr_wio {_idy
eH$Vo Ë`mg ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ Ago åhUVmV.
ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`ÚmMr d¡{eï>ço (Characteristics of Competitive Advantage) :
ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Xm `m g§H$ënZoÀ`m {d{dY {dMmad§Vm§Zr doJdoJù`m ñdê$nmV ì`m»`m Ho$boë`m AmhoV.
`m ì`m»`m§À`m AmYmao gnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`ÚmMr d¡{eï>ço Imbrbà_mUo gm§JVm `oVmV.
1. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ hr ì`dgm` g§KQ>ZoMr ì`yhaMZm AgVo.
2. ì`dgm`g§ñWoÀ`m dñVy d godm ~mOmamVrb BVa ñnY©H$ dñVy d godm§À`m VwbZoV gdm}ËH¥$ð> Agë`m
nm{hOoV. J«mhH$m§Mr àW_ ng§Vr g§ñWoÀ`m dñVy d godm§Zm Agmdr.
3. ~mOmanoR>oVrb ñnY}V gdm©V nwT>o åhUOo àW_ H«$_m§H$mg amhÿZ ñnY}Mo gd© bm^ {_i{dUo, ñnYm©Ë_H$
bm^ g§H$ënZoV A§V^y©V Amho.
4. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ hr {XK©H$mbrZ ì`yhaMZm Amho.
5. ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`ÚmgmR>r CËnmXZ d {dnUZ `m XmoÝhr {H«$`m AVrCËH¥$ð>nUo nma nmS>Uo Amdí`H$ Amho.
6. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ ì`whaMZoÀ`m ghmæ`mZo g§KQ>ZoZo ~mOmanoR>o_Ü`o A{Ve` _hÎdmMo d à^mdr ñWmZ
g§nmXZ H$aUo Amdí`H$ Amho.
7. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ àmárgmR>r g§KQ>ZoZo g§~§{YV ñnY}Mm EH$ IoimSy> åhUyZ ñdV: doJdmZ Ioi H$ê$Z
ñnY}da _mV H$amd`mMr AgVo.
8. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ Ioim_Ü`o g§ñWoZo ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m gd© {H«$`m ñnYm©Ë_H$ ñdê$nmV nma nmS>ë`m
ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`ÚmMo _hÎd
(Importance of competitive Advantage) :
OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m à^mdm_wio ~mOmanoRo >Vo rb ñnYm© {Xdg|{Xdg doJmZo dmT>V Amho. ñnYm©`Šw V ~mOmanoR>_o Ü`o
`eñdr hmoÊ`mgmR>r ì`dgm` g§ñWobm Amnë`m ñnY©H$m§nojm AmJir doJir, Cƒ àVrMr H¥$Vr H$amdr bmJVo.
CXm. dñVy/godoMm XOm© `mo½` amIV {VMr qH$_V ñnY©H$m§nojm H$_r amIUo qH$dm ñnY©H$ dñVy/godmnojm Amnbr
dñVy/godm AmJir doJir d¡{eï>çnyU© Amho. ho J«mhH$m§Zm nQ>dyZ XoUo. `m_wio ì`dgm` g§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZm§Zm,
godm§Zm J«mhH$m§Mm _moR>m à{VgmX àmá hmoVmo. n`m©`mZo Aem g§ñWobm _moR>çm à_mUmV ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ àmá hmoVmo.
ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Xm {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mMo d {Q>H$dÊ`mMo _hÎd Imbrb _wÔçm§À`m AmYmao {deX H$aVm `oVo.
1) IM© dV©Z g_OVo : ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^mgmR>r IM© ZoV¥Ëd ì`whaMZm pñdH$maë`mZ§Va d Ë`mZwgma _yë`
gmIir {díbofU Ho$ë`m_wio H$moUH$moUË`m H$m`©ñWimda d {H«$`m Cn{H«$`m_Ü`o IM© dmM{dVm `oB©b ho g_OVo
d `mà_mUo `mo½` Ë`m {R>H$mUr IM© dmM{dÊ`mgmR>r à^mdr Cnm``moOZm Ho$ë`mg ì`dgm`g§ñWoMr ì`whaMZm
`eñdr hmoD$Z {Vbm ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ àmá hmoVmo.
2) {d^oXZmMm AmYma : J«mhH$m§Zm dñVy qH$dm godoÀ`m qH$_VrÀ`m VwbZoV A{YH$ _yë` àmá hmoV
Agob Va Ë`m§Mm _moR>m à{VgmX g§~§{YV ì`dgm` g§ñWobm àmá hmoVmo. J«mhH$m§Zm A{YH$ _yë` H$go {_idyZ
XoVm `oB©b. `m àíZmMo CVa emoYVmZm {d^oXrH$aUmMo _mJ© gwMV OmVmV. CXm. dñVyMm a§J, ê$n, Md, A§VJ©V,
~møaMZm, XOm© `mn¡H$s H$moUVm AmYma {ZdS>ë`mg J«mhH$m§Zm A{YH$ _yë` àmá hmoB©b ho g_OVo. WmoS>Š`mV,
{d^oXZmgmR>r AMyH$ AmYma {ZdS>Uo eŠ` hmoVo.
3) ñnYm©Ë_H$ n[apñWVrMo _yë`_mnZ : ñnYm©Ë_H$ n[apñWVrMo _yë`_mnZ H$em nÕVrZo H$amdo d
Vr AZwHy$b ~ZÊ`mgmR>r H$moUVr {deof H¥$Vr H$aUo Amdí`H$ Amho. `m{df`rMo _mJ©Xe©Z ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^m_wio
hmoVo. CnH«$_m§VJ©V Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m {d{dY {H«$`m§Mo gImob gyú_ {díbofU H$ê$Z H$moUË`m {H«$`m§Mm IM©
{H$_mZ amIUo eŠ` Amho d H$moUË`m {H«$`m, dñVy doJio nU {_idyZ Xody eH$VmV. CXm. CËnmXZ, {dnUZ,
aMZm, n|Q>tJ B.
4) Vm§{ÌH$ ~Xbm§Mo ì`dñWmnZ : 21 ì`m eVH$m_Ü`o dñVw_Yrb Vm§{ÌH$ KQ>H$mbm A{Ve` _hÎd
àmá Pmbo Amho. OmJ{VH$ J«mhH$ dñVy_Yrb Vm§{ÌH$ AmYw{ZH$Vog àW_ ng§Vr XoVmV. AmYw{ZH$ Zd{dH$grV
V§ÌkmZ dñVy_Ü`o A§V^©yV Agmdo Aer Z{dZ {nT>rMr Anojm AgVo. ì`dñWmnZmMo V§ÌkmZ joÌmda gVV bm^
R>odyZ H$moUVo Z{dZ V§ÌkmZ g§emo{YV {dH$grV Pmbo Amho, Vo Amnë`m CËnmXZmMr JwUdÎmm dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r
{H$VnV Cn`wŠV Amho. Ë`mMr ì`dhm`©Vm d Am`wî` {H$VnV Amho VgoM Vm§{ÌH$ ~XbmMo ñnYm©Ë_H$ _hÎd
{H$Vr Amho. CËnmXZmMo Vm§{ÌH$ KQ>H$mÀ`m AmYmao H$amdo H$m? Aem {d{dY àíZm§Mr CÎmao ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^mMr
ì`yhaMZm {ZpíMV Ho$ë`mg àmá hmoV OmVmV.
5) n`m©`r dñVy§~m~V ì`yhaMZm : gÚ:pñWVrV gd©M CnH«$_m§Zm n`m©`r H$aUmÀ`m g§H$Q>mMm gm_Zm
H$amdm bmJV Amho. H$moUË`mhr dñVy / godobm ~mOmanoR>oV AZoH$ n`m©` CnbãY Agë`mZo ~mOmanoR>oVrb ñnYm©
{Xdg|{Xdg Vrd« ~ZV Amho. `mMm à{VHy$b n[aUm_ CËnmXZmÀ`m _mJUrda hmoV AgVmo. Aem doir n`m©`r
H$aUmMo {díbofU H$go H$amdo? n`m©`r H$aUmnmgyZ CËnmXZm§Mo g§ajU H$go H$amdo? n`m©H$aUmda H$moUË`m
_mJmªZr _mV H$amdr? `m{df`rÀ`m ì`yhaMZm AmIÊ`mg ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ ì`yhaMZm pñdH$maë`mZo _XV hmoVo.
6) ñnY©H$m§À`m {ZpíMVrg ghmæ` : OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m n[a{ñWVr_wio ~mOmamVrb ñnYm© {Xdg|{Xdg
dmT>V Amho. `m_wio ñnY©H$m§À`m g§»`oV gVV dmT> hmoV Amho. `mo½` ñnYm© JwUdÎmm dmT>rg d emídV
{dH$mgmgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgVo. ñnY}_wio J«mhH$m§Zmhr {ZdS>rMr g§Yr d XO}Xma dñVy§Mr h_r {_iVo. `m_wio
CËnmXZm§Zm EH$/XmoZ Mm§Jbo ñnY©H$ AgUo Amdí`H$ AgVmV. Mm§Jë`m ñnY}_wio g§~§{YV CÚmoJjoÌmÀ`m
{dH$mgmbm MmbZm {_iVo. ñnY©H$ {ZdS>rÀ`m à{H«$`o_wio Mm§Jbo dmB©Q> ñnY©H$ g_OÊ`mg _XV hmoVo. Aem
àË`oH$ ñnY©H$mer H$go g§~§Y, dV©Z R>odmdo `m{df`r {ZU©` KoUo eŠ` hmoVo.
7) g§~§{YV CÚmoJmVrb A§mVag§~§YmMm Cn`moJ d {Z`§ÌU : ì`dgm` joÌmVrb AZoH$ CÚmoJ nañna
g§~§{YV, nañnam§da Adb§~yZ AgVmV. CXm. dmhZ CÚmoJm§Mm g§~§Y a~a, a§J, bmoI§S>o, nmobmX, H$mM Aem
{d{dY CÚmoJm§er `oV AgVmo. CÚmoJmVrb Am§Vag§~§YmMo {díbofU Ho$ë`mg H$moUË`m Am§Vag§~§Ym_wio ñnYm©Ë_H$
bm^ {_iy eH$Vmo ho g_OVo. Ñí` Am§Vag§~§Y gmYÊ`mgmR>r EH$m KQ>H$mZo Xwgè`m KQ>H$m~amo~a _yë`gmIirVrb
{H«$`m dmQy>Z KoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. WmoS>Š`mV, EH$m CÚmoJmZo Amnë`mH$S>rb gd©loð> {H«$`m§Mo ghmæ` g§~§{YV
CÚmoJmg Ho$ë`mg `m CÚmoJmVrb {H«$`m§Mr JwUdÎmm dmT>rg _XV hmoVo.
ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`ÚmMo KQ>H$ (Elements of Competitive Advantage)
ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ (\$m`Xm) hm EH$ àH$maMm Ioi, {H«$S>m AgyZ g§ñWoZo Ë`m~m~V à^mdr ì`yhaMZm Ho$br
nm{hOo. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ ì`yhaMZo_Ü`o Imbrb KQ>H$ A§V^y©V AmhoV.
1. ñnYm©Ë_H$ JwádmVm© (Competitive Intelligence) : ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r g§ñWoH$S>o
ñnYm©Ë_H$ JwádmVm© Agmì`m bmJVmV. H§$nZrZo ñnY©H$m§À`m g§emoYZ d {dH$mg H$m`©H«$_, {H«$`m, CËnmXZ V§Ì,
{dnUZ V§Ì, {dH«$s ì`yhaMZm, Om{hamV V§Ì, qH$_V YmoaUo, AmXmZo àmárMo _mJ© B. KQ>H$m~m~V Jmon{Z` _m{hVr
d AmH$S>odmar g§H${bV Ho$br nm{hOo. `mgmR>r H§$nZrZo EH$ ñnYm©Ë_H$ JwádmVm© g§K (Competitive Intelligence Team) ñWmnZ Ho$bm nm{hOo. `mg§KmV Hw$eb, AZw^dr, à^mdr ì`{ŠV_Îd Agboë`m bmoH$m§Mr {ZdS>
Ho$br nm{hOo. `m g§Kmg `mo½` Vo gd© A{YH$ma XoD$Z Cƒ ì`dñWmnZmg H|$ìhmhr ^oQ>Ê`mMr Ë`m§Zm nadmZJr
Agmdr. `m g§KmVrb Jwáhoam§Zr ñnY©H$, _`m©`r g§ñWmVrb darb KQ>H$m§~m~V Jmon{Z` _m{hVr {_idyZ
{VÀ`mda g§ñH$aU H$ê$Z Vr Cƒ ì`dñWmnZmbm gmXa H$amd`mMr AgVo. `m Jmon{Z` _m{hVrÀ`m AmYmao Cƒ
ì`dñWmnZ Amnbr _hÎdmMr YmoaUo, `moOZm, ì`yhaMZm {ZpíMV H$aV AgVmV. `m {d^mJmÀ`m H$m`©j_Voda
ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^mMo à_mU Adb§~yZ AgVo.
2. ñnYm©Ë_H$ ~i (Competitive Strenth) : ñnYm©Ë_H$ JwádmVm©Mm bm^ CR>{dÊ`mgmR>r CnH«$_mH$S>o
ñnYm©Ë_H$ ~i AgUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. `mgmR>r Om{Udnyd©H$ d H$m`©j_VoMo à`ËZ H$amdo bmJVmV. H§$nZrMo
_Zwî`~i ñnYm©Ë_H$ Agbo nm{hOo. `mgmR>r _Zwî`~i ^aVr d {ZdS>rMo H$m`© A{Ve` H$m¡eë`nyd©H$ d
emóewÕ nÕVrZo nma nmS>mdo bmJVo. `mo½` d nmÌ ì`ŠVtMr {ZdS>, {dMma ñdmV§Í` d A{YH$ma àXmZ, gVV
d gImob à{ejU, H$m`©~hþ_mZ, AmYw{ZH$ V§ÌmMr, `§ÌmMr {ZdS>, {MÝhm§H$ZmMo X¥T>rH$aU B. _mJmªMm Adb§~
H$ê$Z ñnYm©Ë_H$ ~i dmT>{dVm `oVo.
3. ñnYm©Ë_H$ _m{hVr (Competitive Information) : ñnYm©Ë_H$ JwádmV}BVH$sM ñnYm©Ë_H$ _m{hVr
{_i{dUo _hÎdnyU© AgVo. ì`dgm`A§VJ©V Ho$ë`m OmUmè`m gd© ì`mdgm{`Z {H«$`m-Cn{H«$`m, ì`dñWmnZ
{H«$`m§{df`r gImob, n[anyU©, AMyH$ _m{hVr CnbãY Agbr nm{hOo. `mM~amo~a g§ñWm~mø, KQ>H$m~m~V
g§nyU© d gImob _m{hVr d AmH$S>odmar g§H${bV Ho$br OmVo. ñnYm©Ë_H$ _m{hVr H$er {_idmdr, {VMo
{díbofU H$go H$amdo, Ë`mVyZ {ZîH$f© H$go H$mT>mdoV d Ë`m§Mm àË`j Cn`moJ H$gm H$amdm `m{df`r gImob
_m{hVr, AZw^d, H$m¡eë` g§~§{YV A{YH$mè`mH$S>o Agmdo. ñnYm©ËH$ _m{hVr hr CnH«$_mMr _hÎdmMr
kmZg§nÎmr g_Obr OmVo.
4. ñnYm©Ë_H$ OmoIr_ (Competitive Risk) : ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ àmárgmR>r ì`dgm` g§ñWobm ñnYm©Ë_H$
OmoIr_ pñdH$mamdr bmJVo. H$moUË`mhr ñnY}À`m IoimV YmoH$m, OmoIr_hr AgVoM. g§ñWoZo Amnë`m j_Vm,
~bñWmZo {dH${gV H$ê$Z, A{YH$ OmoIr_ pñdH$maÊ`mMr V`mar Ho$br nm{hOo. OmoIr_rMr Xwgar ~mOy åhUOo
Z\$m hmo`. åhUOoM OmoI_rMo \$i Z\$m AgVo Va {OWo OmoIr_ Zmhr {VWo Z\$m Aën AgVmo. ñnYm©Ë_H$
OmoI_rÀ`m AMyH$ A§XmO, Aä`mg, {díbofU, {ZîH$f© H$mTy>Z {VÀ`m{déÕ à^mdr Cnm``moOZm Ho$ë`mg
OmoIr_ g§nyZ {VMo n[adV©Z ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^mV hmoVo.
5. ñnYm©Ë_H$ ~Xb (Competitive Change) : ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ àmárgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmZo gd© {H«$`m_Ü`o
ñnYm©Ë_H$ ~Xb Ho$bm nm{hOo. ñnYm©Ë_H$ ~Xb _w»`V: Imbrb joÌmV Ho$bo OmVmV. CXm. V§ÌkmZ, {dnUZ,
dñVy§Mm XOm©, CËnmXZ IM©, _Zwî`~i d ZoV¥Ëd B. CnH«$_m_Ü`o ñnYm©Ë_H$ V§ÌkmZ, ñnYm©Ë_H$ {dnUZ,
ñnYm©Ë_H$ dñVy XOm©, ñnYm©Ë_H$ CËnmXZ IM©, ñnYm©Ë_H$ _Zwî`~i d ñnYm©Ë_H$ ZoV¥Ëd {Z_m©U Ho$bo nm{hOo.
WmoS>Š`mV, g§ñWoVrb gd© KQ>H$, {H«$`m, Cn{H«$`m B. joÌm_Ü`o ñnYm©Ë_H$Vm AmUbr nm{hOo d Ë`m§Mr
H$m`©j_Vm, JwUdÎmm dmT>{dÊ`mMm gVV à`ËZ Ho$bm nm{hOo. ñnYm©Ë_H$ ~Xbm_wio ñnY©oda _mV H$aUo d
`eñdr hmoUo eŠ` hmoVo.
6. ñnYm©Ë_H$ Q>moH$ (Competitive Edge) : OmñVrV OmñV ñnYm©Ë_H$ àmárgmR>r "ñnYm©Ë_H$ Q>moH$'
{Z_m©U H$aUo Amdí`H$ Amho. ñnYm©Ë_H$ Q>moH$ àmárgmR>r ì`dñWmnZ Imbrb _mJmªMm Adb§~ H$ê$ eH$Vo.
CXm. ñnYm©Ë_H$ g§ñH¥$Vr {Z_m©U H$aUo, kmZ ì`dñWmnZ A§{JH$maUo, gdmªMm ñnYm©Ë_H$ gh^mJ dmT>{dUo,
{Z`§ÌUmEodOr ghmæ`H$mar gh^mJmMr ^w{_H$m pñdH$maUo, A{YH$ma àXmZ, {dMma ñdmV§Í` B. ñnYm©Ë_H$ Q>moH$
H§$nZrZo gmÜ` Ho$bo VaM H§$nZr ñnY}V AJ«oga amhÿZ ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ {_idy eH$Vo.
WmoS>Š`mV, ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ àmárgmR>r àË`oH$ H§$nZrZo darb ghm KQ>H$ AmË_gmV H$aUo Amdí`H$
Amho. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ `m g§H$ënZoMo ñdê$n d ì`már darb KQ>H$mdê$Z ñnï> homVo. ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ hr _mohr_,
Midi ZgyZ Vr gVV MmbUmar à{H«$`m Amho. _mohr_ hr AënH$mbrZ AgVo. Va à{H«$`m hr gVV,
{XK©H$mbrZ AgVo. WmoS>Š`mV, ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^mbm gVV à{H«$`oMo ê$n {Xë`mg ì`dgm` g§ñWm {XK©H$min`ªV
~mOmanoR>oV AJ«^mJr amhÿZ _moR>çm à_mUmV ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ {_i{dVo.
_m`Ho$b nmoQ>©a `m§Zr ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Úm§À`m àmárgmR>r Imbrb VrZ ì`yhaMZm gwM{dë`m AmhoV.
ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^
IM© ZoV¥Ëd
bú` H|${ÐV
IM© bú` H|$Ð
{d^oXZ bú` H|$Ð
1. IM© ZoV¥Ëd (Cost Leadership) :
dñVy qH$dm godoMo CËnmXZ d {dVaU H$aÊ`mgmR>r EImXr g§ñWm à{VZJm_mJo Omo IM© H$aVo Vmo
ñnY©H$m§À`m IMm©nojm H$_r Agob Va {Vbm IM© ZoV¥Ëd H$aVm `oVo. `m_Ü`o H$_r JwUdÎmoÀ`m dñVy/godm V`ma
H$ê$Z IM© H$_r H$aUo A{^àoV Zmhr Va dñVy/godoMm XOm© ñnY©H$m§À`m dñVy/godm§BVHo$M amIyZ IM© H$_r H$aUo
`mV A{^àoV Amho.
Ooìhm H§$nZrMm ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Xm ñnY©H$m§À`m VwbZoV dñVy/godm§À`m H$_r CËnmXZ IMm©V AgVmo Voìhm
Ë`mg IM© ZoV¥Ëd Ago åhUVmV.
WmoS>Š`mV, dñVy/godm§Mr JwUdÎmm ñnY©H$m§À`m dñVy/godm§BVH$s amIyZ dñVy/godm§Mm EHy$U IM© ñnY©H$m§À`m
IM© VwbZoV H$_r amIUo IM© ZoV¥ËdmV A{^àoV Amho.
CËnmXZ/{dVaU IM© H$_r H$aÊ`mMo AZoH$ _mJ© ApñVËdmV AmhoV. CXm. _moR>çm à_mUmV CËnmXZ,
AmYw{ZH$ V§Ì, `§ÌmMr {ZdS>, AmYw{ZH$ CËnmXZ, {dnUZ nÕVr, AmH«$_H$ {dH«$s ì`yhaMZm, Hw$eb _Zwî`~i
B. `mn¡H$s `mo½` d ì`dhm`© _mJmªMm Adb§~ IM© ZoV¥Ëd H$ê$ BpÀN>Umar H§$nZr H$aVo. `m_wio dñVy§À`m àË`oH$
ZJm_mJo `oUmam IM© H$_r hmoD$ eH$Vmo. ì`dgm`mVrb gd© H$m`mªMr H$m`©j_Vm d JwUdÎmm Cƒ nmVirda
amIë`mg EHy$U IM© H$_r amhVmo. ~mOmanoR>oVrb Jar~ / gm_mÝ` J«mhH$dJ© qH$_Vr~m~V A{YH$ g§doXZerb
AgVmo. Aem J«mhH$dJm©bm AmH${f©V H$aÊ`mgmR>r IM© ZoV¥Ëd Cn`wŠV R>aVo. CÚmoJmVrb dñVy d godm§À`m
qH$_Vr gmYmaUnUo gma»`mM AgVrb Va IM© ZoV¥Ëd H$aUmè`m H§$nZrbm A{YH$ Z\$m {_iVmo. ñnYm© A{YH$
Vrd« Pmbr Var Aem H§$nZrH$S>o qH$_V WmoS>r H$_r H$aÊ`mMr bd{MH$Vm amhVo. CXm. JwOamV H$mo-Am°nao{Q>ìh
{_ëH$ _mH}$qQ>J \o$S>aoeZ (A_yb CËnmXZ), Q>mQ>m _moQ>g©, aZ~Šgr b°~, [abm`Ýg B§S>ñQ´>rO, ~OmO A°Q>mo B.
AJ«JÊ` H§$nÝ`m§Zr IM© ZoV¥Ëd ì`yhaMZoÛmao _moR>çm n«_mUmV Z\$m {_i{dbobm {XgVmo.
IM© ZoV¥Ëd g§nmXZ H$aÊ`mMo _mJ© :
1. _moR>çm n«_mUmV ì`dhma d CËnmXZmÛmao.
2. gd© H$m`}, {H«$`mV Cƒ H$m`©j_Vm AmUyZ.
3. H$_©Mmè`m§Zm H$_r doVZ XoD$Z.
4. CËnmXZmMo OmñVrV OmñV à_m{UH$aU H$ê$Z.
5. CËnmXZ, {dnUZ IMm©V KQ> H$aUmao V§ÌkmZ dmnê$Z.
6. H$ƒm_mb, gmYZgm_J«r {H$_mZ qH$_VrV {_idyZ.
7. H$_r qH$_Vrg àmYmÝ` XoUmè`m gamgar J«mhH$m§Mo g_mYmZ H$ê$Z.
8. _mJUrMm AMyH$ A§XmO d CËnmXZj_VoMm _hÎm_ dmna.
9. ^oXH$aU Wmon{dUo.
IM© ZoV¥Ëd dmnaÊ`mg `mo½` n[apñWVr :
1. dñVyÀ`m qH$_Vrda AmYm[aV ñnYm© _moR>çm n«_mUmV Agob Va.
2. à_m{UH$aU A{YH$ à_mUmV d ^oXH$aU AgboM Va Vo dadaMo Agob Va.
3. IaoXrXmam§Mr gm¡XmeŠVr _moR>r Agob d qH$_V H$_r H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§Mm X~md Agob Va.
4. J«mhH$m§Mr dñVy qH$dm CËnmXH$mda EH${Zð>Vm Zgob Va.
5. ^oXH$aU H$aÊ`mg \$maer g§Yr Zgob Va.
IM© ZoV¥ËdmMo \$m`Xo :
1. dñVy/godoMm EHy$U IM© H$_r Agë`mZo ñnY}nmgyZ g§ajU hmoVo.
2. AmXmZm§À`m (H$ƒm_mb, gmYZgm_J«r B.) qH$_VrV dmT> Pmbr Var Vr ghZ H$aÊ`mMr j_Vm AgVo.
3. A§{V_ dñVy / godm§À`m qH$_Vr H$_r Pmë`m Var ì`dgm`mV {Q>Hy$Z amhUo eŠ` hmoVo.
4. n`m©`r dñVy§À`m ñnY}g g_W©nUo Vm|S> XoVm `oVo.
5. H$_r IMm©V CËnmXZ d {dVaU H$ê$ Z eH$aUmè`m Z{dZ ñnY©H$mnmgyZ hmoUmè`m ñnY}nmgyZ g§ajU
6. _moR>m J«mhH$dJ© d ~mOmanoR> àmá hmoVo.
IM© ZoV¥ËdmVrb YmoHo$ :
1. IM© H$_r Agë`mZo {_iUmam \$m`Xm {XK©H$mbrZ ZgVmo Va AënH$mbrZ Agy eH$Vmo. ñnY©H$hr IM©
H$_r H$aÊ`mMo V§Ì AmË_gmV H$ê$ eH$VmV.
2. \$ŠV IM© H$nmVrda bj H|$ÐrV Ho$ë`mZo J«mhH$ {hVmH$S>o Xwb©j hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. dñVyÀ`m
JwUdÎmoer VS>OmoS> H$ê$Z qH$_V H$_r H$aUo `mo½` ZgVo.
3. Amnbo V§ÌkmZ ñnY©H$m§Zr AmË_gmV Ho$ë`mg qH$dm AmYw{ZH$ V§ÌkmZ pñdH$maë`mg IM© ZoV¥Ëd
g§nwï>mV `oVo.
4. lr_§V J«mhH$dJ© IM© ZoV¥Ëd H$aUmè`m H§$nZrH$S>o Xwb©j H$aVmV.
darb {ddoMZmdê$Z Agm {ZîH$f© {ZKVmo H$s, IM© ZoV¥Ëd ho H$m`m©Ë_H$ à^mdrnUmVyZ {Z_m©U hmoUo d
Q>rHy$Z amhUo Ano{jV AgVo. ñnY©H$ ghO Z¸$b H$ê$ eH$Vrb Ago IM© ZoV¥Ëd Agob Va Vo Aën{Odr R>aVo.
2. {d^oXZ / ^oXH$aU (Differentition) :
J«mhH$ Á`mgmR>r OmñV qH$_V XoÊ`g V`ma AmhoV. Aer {deof d¡{eï>ço dñVy/godo_Ü`o A§V^y©V H$aUo
åhUOo {d^oXZ ì`yhaMZm hmo`. dñVy qH$dm godo_Ü`o g_m{dï> Ho$boë`m Img AmJù`mdoJù`m d¡{eï>çm§À`m
Omoamda ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ {_i{dUo åhUOo ^oXH$aU hmo`.
Aer d¡{eï>ço dñVy/godo_Ü`o AgmdrV Aer J«mhH$m§Mr Anojm AgVo qH$dm Aem d¡{eï>çm_wio J«mhH$m§Zm
_moR>o, {deof g_mYmZ bm^V AgVo d `m OmñVrÀ`m g_mYmZmnmoQ>r J«mhH$ Aem dñVy/godobm OmñV qH$_V
XoÊ`mg V`ma AgVmV. EImXr H§$nZr J«mhH$m§Zm Img d¡{eï>ço ~hmb H$aV Agob d ñnY©H$m§Zm Ago H$aUo eŠ`
Zgob Va Aer H§$nZr {ZpíMVnUo ñnYm©Ë_H$ \$m`Xm àmá H$aVo.
lr_§V J«mhH$ dJ© ^oXH$aUmg àmYmÝ` XoVmV. dñVy/godo_Ü`o AgUmè`m {deof, Img, AmJù`m doJù`m
d¡{eï>çm_wio {VMo Cn`wŠVVm _yë`, AmH$f©H$Vm, JwUdÎmm, doJionU dmT>V AgVo. dñVy/godonmgyZ hmoUmè`m `m
bm^mnmoQ>r J«mhH$ Aem dñVy§Zm OmñV qH$_V XoÊ`mg V`ma AgVmV. Img d¡{eï>ço dñVy_Ü`o g_m{dï>
H$aÊ`mgmR>r `oUmè`m IMm©nojm dñVyMr qH$_V A{YH$ Agob Va g§ñWobm \$m`Xm hmoVmo. AÝ`Wm `mCbQ>
n[apñWVr Agob Va ZwH$gmZ hmoVo.
CXm. {hamohm|S>m H§$nZrZo gd©àW_ Qy> {ìhba JmS>çm§Mo BVa ñnY©H$ H§$nÝ`mÀ`m (~OmO, `m_mhm, gwPyH$s)
VwbZoV A{YH$ _m`boOMo ^oXH$aU H$ê$Z ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ _moR>çm à_mUmV {_idbm.
{d^oXZ gmÜ` H$aÊ`mMo _mJ© :
1. J«mhH$m§Mr AmdS>, Anojm, BÀN>m d ~XbVr \°$eZ Zwgma dñVy/godo_Ü`o `mo½` ~Xb H$ê$Z Ë`m§Mo
Cn`mo{JVm _yë` dmT>{dUo.
2. Cƒ JwUdÎm¡Mr h_r XoUo.
3. _yV© d A_yV© ñdê$nmV J«mhH$m§Zm A{YH$ g_mYmZ XoUo.
4. {d{eï> H§$nZrÀ`m J«mhH$m§Mr Am{W©H$ nV, gm_m{OH$ n«{Vð>m BVa J«mhH$m§À`m VwbZoZo A{YH$ Amho.
Aer dmVmdaU {Z{_©Vr H$aUo CXm. ñH$moS>m, hm|S>m, B.M.W., _{g©S>rO ~|P `m H§$nÝ`m§Mr dmhZo dmnaUmao J«mhH$
Am{W©H$ d gm_m{OH$ÑîQ>çm à{V{ð>V g_Obo OmVmV.
5. J«mhH$mbm dñVy/godoMo Oo _hÎd dmQ>Vo (_yë`) Vo dñVyÀ`m qH$_Vrnojm A{YH$ Amho. Aer J«mhH$m§À`m
_ZmV ^mdZm {Z_m©U H$aUo.
6. Cƒ JwUdÎmm, {dH«$`moÎma godm, AmYw{ZH$ V§ÌkmZ, Zd{Z{_©Vr, g§ñWoMr nV B. _YyZ ^oXH$aU {Z_m©U
Ho$bo OmVo.
7. dñVy/godo_Ü`o nyU© doJionU, Agm_mÝ`Vm, AmYw{ZH$Vm AmUUo.
^oXH$aU H$aÊ`mg `mo½` n[apñWVr :
1. ~mOmanoR> {dñV¥V AgVo na§Vw ApñVËdmVrb H§$nÝ`m à_m{UV dñVy§Mr {Z{_©Vr H$aVmV.
2. J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm, Anojm, ê$Mr, ng§Vr_Ü`o Iyn {d{dYVm AgVo.
3. OmñV qH$_V AmH$maÊ`mg n[apñWVr AZwHy$b AgVo.
4. {MÝhm§H$Zm{df`r EH${Zð>Vm {Z_m©U H$aUo d {Q>H${dUo eŠ` AgVo.
5. {dH«$` dmT> H$aUo eŠ` Agob Va.
^oXH$aUmMo bm^ :
1. {d{eð> ~«±S>~m~V J«mhH$m§À`m _ZmV EH${Zð>Vm {Z_m©U hmoVo. `m_wio ñnY}nmgyZ g§ñWoMo g§ajU hmoVo.
VgoM J«mhH$ dñVyÀ`m qH$_VdmT>rMr \$maer qMVm H$arV ZmhrV.
2. nwadR>mXmam§Zr gmYZgm_wJ«rÀ`m qH$_VrV dmT> Ho$br Var hr dmT> ghZ H$aÊ`mMr j_Vm g§~§{YV
CnH«$_mg àmá hmoVo.
3. Z{dZ ñnY©H$m§nmgyZ g§ajU hmoVo.
4. n`m©`r dñVy/godmnmgyZ ñnY}Mm YmoH$m H$_r amhVmo.
5. _moR>çm à_mUmV bm^, ~mOmanoR>oMm {dñVma, J«mhH$ g§»`oV dmT>, {dH«$s C{Ôï>nyVu B. bm^ {_iVmV.
^oXH$aUmMo YmoHo$ :
1. ñnY©H$m§Zr CËnmXZ JwnrVo, g§~§{YV j_Vm, V§ÌkmZ AmË_gmV Ho$ë`mg dñVy/god|Mo doJionU,
ImgnUm g§nwï>mV `oVmo. Ago ^oXH$aU H§$nZrbm {XK©H$mb \$m`Xoera R>aV Zmhr.
2. dadaMo, gm_mÝ` ^oXH$aU Aën{Odr R>aVo.
3. \$ma A{YH$ dñVyMo _yë`, doJionU nQ>dyZ XoÊ`mgmR>r à^mdr OmhramV V§ÌmMm Adb§~ H$amdm
bmJVmo. `m_wio Om{hamV IM© dmT>Vmo.
5. Ooìhm AZoH$ H§$nÝ`m g_mZ {d^oXZ S>mdnoM dmnê$ bmJmV. Voìhm {d^oXZmMm AmYma hiyhiy H$_r
hmoV AgVmo d eodQ>r Zï> hmoVmo.
6. {d^oXZ IM© A{YH$ Agob d OmñV qH$_V AmH$maUr_wio hmoUmam bm^ H$_r Agob Va {d^oXZ
ì`dhm`© R>aV Zmhr.
dñVw_Yrb _yV© ñdê$nmVrb d¡{eï>çm§Mo AZwH$aU H$aUo ñnY©H$m§Zm eŠ` AgVo. na§Vw {d{eð> CnH«$_mdarb
{dídmg EH${Zð>Vm Aer A_yV© d¡{eï>ço {dH$grV Ho$ë`mg Ë`mMo AZwH$aU H$aUo ñnY©H$m§Zm eŠ` ZgVo. `m_wio
{d^oXZ ì`yhaMZm `eñdr hmoÊ`mg d {XK©H$mi bm^Xm`H$ R>aÊ`mg ghmæ` hmoVo.
3. bú`H|${ÐV ì`yhaMZm (Focused strategy) :
bjH|$[ÐV ì`yhaMZm åhUOo ~mOmanoR>oÀ`m {d{eï> ^mJmda bj H|${ÐV H$aUo qH$dm à`ËZ EH$dQ>Uo hmo`.
Vm§{ÌH$ n[a^mfoV ~mOmamVrb {d{eï> ^mJmbm H$moZmS>m (Nice) Ago åhUVmV. J«mhH$m§Mr {d{eï> KQ>H$m§À`mAmYmao
dJ©dmar Ho$br OmVo qH$dm Ë`m§Mo g_yh V`ma Ho$bo OmVmV `mg ~mOmanoR>oMo I§S>H$aU (Segmentation) åhUVmV.
Aem {d{eï> I§S>mda IM© ZoV¥Ëd qH$dm ^oXH$aU H$aUo åhUOo bú`H|${ÐV ì`yhaMZm Adb§~Uo hmo`.
~mOmanoR>oMo ^mJ, I§S> nmS>Ê`mgmR>r {d{eï> AmYma KoVbo OmVmV. CXm. d`mZwgma, qbJ^oXmZwgma,
CËnÞmZwgma, ì`dgm`mZwgma J«mhH$m§Mo JQ> nmS>Uo. ^m¡Jmo{bH$ KQ>H$mÀ`m AmYmao nyd©, npíM_, X{jU, CÎma
{d^mJ, eha d J«m_rU {d^mJ B.
bú`H|${ÐV ì`yhaMZm H$er gmÜ` hmoVo ? :
IM© ZoV¥Ëd qH$dm ^oXH$aU _moR>çm à_mUmV H$aUmè`m g§ñWoH$Sy>Z ~mOmanoR>oVrb {d{eï> H$moZmS>o (N>moQ>o
N>moQ>o ^mJ, {d^mJ) Xwb©{jV amhVmV qH$dm Ë`m§À`mH$S>o \$mago, Om{Udnyd©H$ bj {Xbo OmV Zmhr. Aem \$Q>r
(Gaps) ~mOmamV VemM amhÿZ OmVmV. na§Vw ho MwH$sMo Amho. ~mOmamVrb àË`oH$ H$moZmS>çmH$S>o {d{eof bj XoUo
Amdí`H$ Amho. CXm. _moQ>magm`H$bgmR>r ñnoAa nmQ>©g², Q>m`a CËnmXZ H$aUmè`m H§$nZrZo ñHw$Q>a, _monoS>ogmR>r
bmJUmè`m ñnoAa nmQ>©, Q>m`aÀ`m CËnmXZmda bj H|$ÐrV Ho$bo nm{hOo. AÝ`Wm hr ì`dgm`g§Yr Xygar EImXr
ñnY©H$ H§$nZr CMbÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. lr_§V, Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$Ñï>çm à{Vð>rV J«mhH$ dJ© Ë`m§Zm
{_iUmè`m Img godogmR>r, dmJUwH$sgmR>r OmXm n¡go _moOÊ`mg V`ma AgVmV. `mCbQ>, ~mOmamV Agmhr
J«mhH$dJ© AgVmo H$s Omo dñVy§Mr JwUdÎmm, Img d¡{eï>ço, Img godm `mnojm dñVy§À`m qH$_Vrbm àmYmÝ` XoVmo.
CXm. Jar~, gm_mÝ` J«mhH$dJ© H$_r qH$_Vrg AJ«H«$_ XoVmV.
bú`H|${ÐV ì`yhaMZm H$moUË`m n[apñWVrV `mo½` R>aVo ? :
1. ~mOmanoR>oMm {d{eï> ^mJ / I§S>
{deof bj XoÊ`mMr Amdí`H$Vm AgVo.
d¡{eï>çnyU©, AZÝ` ñdê$nmMm AgVmo. Aem ^mJmda
2. ~mOmanoR>oV I§S> BVH$m _moR>m Agmdm H$s, {VWo {deof godm {Xë`mg bm^ {_iy eHo$b.
3. CÚmoJjoÌmVrb _moR>çm H§$nÝ`m§Zm `m bhmZ I§S>mda bj Ho§$ÐrV H$aÊ`mg doi, ag ZgVmo.
4. ~mOmamVrb `m {deof I§S>mV ^{dî`mV dmT> hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm Agmdr.
5. hr ì`yhaMZm pñdH$maUmè`m H§$nZrH$S>o {d{eï> ^mJmH$S>o {deof godm XoÊ`mMo H$m¡eë`, j_Vm Agmdr.
6. J«mhH$ g§~§Y d dñVw{Zð>m `m KQ>H$m§À`m Omoamda bú`H|$ÐrV H§$nZr ñnY©H$m§nmgyZ Amnbo g§ajU H$ê$
bú`H|${ÐV ì`yhaMZoMo \$m`Xo :
1. ñnY}nmgyZ g§ajU àmá hmoVo.
2. _`m©{XV {d{eï> ^mJmbm {deof godm {Xë`m_wio n`m©`r dñVy§À`m ñnY}nmgyZ g§ajU hmoVo.
3. Z{dZ ñnY©H$mnmgyZ g§ñWoMo g§ajU hmoVo.
4. J«mhH$m§À`m g§ñWm dñVy {Zð>o_wio WmoS>çm qH$_VdmT>r_wio {dH«$s à_mUmda à{VHy$b n[aUm_ hmoV ZmhrV.
5. bú`Ho§${ÐV g§ñWoÀ`m {deofrH$aUm_wio J«mhH$ n`m©`r dñVyH$S>o AmH${f©V hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm ZgVo.
6. à~i J«mhH$ BVa ñnY©H$ H§$nÝ`mH$S>o OmV ZmhrV. H$maU Aem H§$nÝ`m J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm ^mJ{dÊ`mg
CËgwH$ ZgVmV.
bú`H|${ÐV ì`yhaMZoMo YmoHo$ :
1. `m ì`yhaMZogmR>r {deof j_Vm d àm{dÊ`mMr JaO AgVo d ho àm{dÊ` {_i{dUo AdKS> d
{XK©H$mbrZ à{H«$`m AgVo.
2. ~mOmanoR>oVrb BVa ^mJmH$S>o diÊ`mMr bd{MH$Vm H$_r amhVo.
3. ~mOmanoR>oMm I§S> AënH$mbrZ Agob Va H§$nZrMo Am{W©H$ ZwH$gmZ hmoVo.
4. _moR>çm ñnY©H$ H§$nÝ`m ^{dî`mV ~mOmamVrb {d{eï> I§S>mda bú` H|$ÐrV H$aÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm Agy
5. bú`H|$ÐrV H§$nZrMo CËnmXZmMo d {dH«$sMo à_mU bhmZ Agob Va IM© OmñV `oVmo.
_m`Ho$b nmoQ>©a `m§Zr ñnYm©Ë_H$ bm^ {_i{dÊ`mÀ`m IM© ZoV¥Ëd, {d^oXZ d bú`H|$Ð `m VrZ ì`yhaMZm
gm§{JVë`m AmhoV. `m àË`oH$ ì`yhaMZoMo \$m`Xo-VmoQ>o gmnoj d bd{MH$ AmhoV. ~mOmamVrb ~XbË`m
n[apñWVrMm A§XmO KoD$Z `mo½` ì`yhaMZm {ZdS>Uo `mo½` R>aVo. IM© ZoV¥Ëd d {d^oXZ `m ì`yhaMZm g§nyU©
CÚmoJmgmR>r dmnaVm `oVmV. na§Vw bú`H|$Ð ì`yhaMZm ~mOmanoR>oÀ`m {d{eï> ^mJmgmR>r dmnaVm `oVo. `m{R>H$mUr
ì`dgm`g§ñWm bhmZ ~mOmanoR> I§S>mg EH$Va IM© H$_r H$ê$Z qH$dm {deof d¡{eï>ço dñVy_Ü`o g_m{dï> H$ê$Z
H$m`© H$aV AgVo. WmoS>Š`mV, IM© ZoV¥Ëd d ^oXH$aU `m§Mr ñnYm©Ë_H$ ì`már _moR>r Amho. Va bú`H|$ÐrV
ì`yhaMZoMr ì`már _`m©{XV Amho.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ nona-1
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 7 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
gm_J«r ñdrH¥$Vr Am{U {ZJ©_Z
(Receipt and Issue of Material)
CÚmoJY§Úm_Ü`o gm_J«r ñdrH¥$Vr Am{U {ZJ©_Z `mbm \$ma _hÎd Amho. gm_J«rÀ`m XodmUKodmUr_wioM
CÚmoJY§ÚmMo H$m`© gwairVnUo MmbVo. CÚmoJY§Úm_Ü`o qH$dm CËnmXZ CÚmoJm_Ü`o O|ìhm gd© àH$maÀ`m gm_J«rMr
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$m`m©gmR>r (Job) JaO AgVo Voìhm Vr gm_J«r doioda CnbãY H$ê$Z KoUo _hÎdmMo Amho.
^m§S>manmbbm gm_J«rMr JaO {H$Vr Amho, {H$Vr _mb {e„H$ Amho ho nmhÊ`mgmR>r gm_J«rMr nmVir nhmdr
bmJVo. hr _mbgmR>m nmVir Imbrbà_mUo AgVo.
1. Ý`yZV_ _mbgmR>m nmVir
(Minimum Level)
2. _hÎm_ _mbgmR>m nmVir
(Maximum Level)
3. nwZamXoe _mbgmR>m nmVir
4. YmoH$mXm`H$ nmVir
(Re-order Level)
(Dauger Level)
5. nwZ_m©JUr gmR>m (Am{W©H$ _mJUr gmR>m)
_mbgmbm nmVir R>a{dÊ`mMr C{Ôï>ço :
(A) ^m§S>manmbbm _mbgmR>m nmVir nm{hë`mZo {H$Vr _mb {e„H$ Amho d {H$Vr _mbmMr _mJUr
H$amd`mMr ho R>a{dVm `oVo.
(~) \$ma OmXm _mbgmR>m amhÿ Z`o qH$dm \$ma H$_r nU _mbmMm gmR>m amhÿ Z`o `mMr H$miOr KodyZ CËnmXZ
{d^mJmg nwaogm hmoB©b BVH$m gmR>m H$aVm `oVmo.
_mbgmR>m nmVirMo doJdoJio àH$ma Am{U Ë`mMr _m{hVr nwT>rbà_mUo KoVm `oB©b.
1. Ý`yZV_ _mbgmR>m nmVir (Minimum Level) : CËnmXZ à{H«$`m H$aVmZm Ë`m_Ü`o I§S> nSy> Z`o
åhUyZ R>am{dH$ BVŠ`m H$ƒm _mbmMm gmR>m H$amdm bmJVmo. `mgmR>r dñVygmR>çmMr EH$ R>am{dH$ nmVir
{ZpíMV H$amdr bmJVo. {Vbm Ý`yZV_ dñVygmR>m nmVir Ago åhUVmV. `mbm {H$_mZ dñVygmR>m nmVir Ago
XoIrb åhUVmV. `m nmVirnojm _mbgmR>m H$_r hmoUma Zmhr `mMr XjVm ¿`mdr bmJVo.
Ý`yZV_ gmR>m nmVir AmoiIÊ`mgmR>r Imbrb KQ>H$ bjmV ¿`mdo bmJVmV.
(i) dñVy
dmnamMm gamgar Xa.
(ii) ZdrZ
_mb {_iÊ`mgmR>r gamgar {H$Vr doi bmJob.
(`mbmM nwZamXoe H$mbmdYr d dñVy nwadR>çmMr doi AgoXoIrb åhUVmV.)
gyÌ Minimum Stock = Re-order level - Average consumption during normal delivery time.
2. _hÎm_ _mbgmR>m nmVir (Maximum Stock Level) : JmoXm_m_Ü`o dñVyMm OmñVrV OmñV {H$Vr
gmR>m H$aVm `oB©b `mMo à_mU R>a{dUo åhUOo _hÎm_ dñVygmR>m nmVir hmo`. _hÎm_ dñVygmR>m hr EH$
dñVygmR>çmMr _`m©Xm doi hmo`. `m _`m©Xonojm A{YH$ dñVygmR>m H$aVm H$m_m Z`o. _hÎm_ dñVygmR>çm_wio
^m§S>db AS>Hy$Z amhmVo, gmR>dUyH$ IMm©V dmT> hmoVo `mMm {dMma Ho$bm nm{hOo. AWm©V Imbrb n[apñWVr_wio
_hÎm_ dñVwgmR>m H$amdm bmJVmo.
^{dî`mV H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr Vrd« Q>§MmB© ^mgUma Agob Va.
H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_VrV ^a_gmR> dmT> hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm Agob Va.
(iii) ^{dî`mV
CËnmXZmV I§S> nSy> Z`o Ago dmQ>V Agob Va.
J«mhH$m§Zm dñVyMr H$_VaVm ^mgy Z`o.
_hÎm_ dñVygmR>m nmVir {ZpíMV H$aUmao KQ>H$ :
(A) dñVygmR>çmMm dmna Am{U dmnamMr JVr
(~) ^m§S>dbmMr CnbãYVm
(H$) qH$_VrV hmoUmao MT>CVma
(S>) _mb Iam~ hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm
(B) _mb {_iÊ`mg bmJUmam doi
(B©) gmR>dUyH$sMr j_Vm d gmo`.
_hÎm_ dñVygmR>m nmVirnojm A{YH$ _mbmMr gmR>dUyH$ Z Ho$ë`mZo hmoUmao \$m`Xo (A) ^m§S>db H$_r Jw§VyZ amhVo.
(~) gmR>dUyH$ IMm©V KQ> hmoVo.
(H$) Mmoar, _mbmMr JiVr, VyQ> \y$Q> B. Mo n«_mU H$_r hmoVo.
gyÌ Minimum Stock = Re-order level + Re-ordering quantity - (minimum consumption x minimum
delivery time)
3. nwZamXoe nmVir / q~Xy (Re-order Level / Point) : _mbgmR>m Ý`yZV_ nmVirbm nmohmoMÊ`mnydu
ZdrZ _mbgmR>m IaoXrgmR>r AmXoe Úmdm bmJVmo. Á`m nmVirbm ZdrZ _mbgmR>m IaoXrMo AmXoe {Xbo OmVmV
{Vbm nwZamXoe nmVir/q~Xy åhQ>bo OmVo.
nwZamXoe nmVir {ZpíMV H$aUmao KQ>H$ (A) AmXoe {Xë`mZ§Va _mb {_iÊ`mg {H$Vr doi bmJob d Ë`mXaå`mZ CËnmXZmgmR>r bmJUmam _mb
(~) Ý`yZV_ AmXoe n[a_mU
(H$) Ý`yZV_ gmR>m nmVir
(S>) _mbmMr A{YH$m{YH$ {H$Vr JaO Amho
(B) AmXoe àmárg AZno{jV H$maUm_wio {H$Vr doi bmJob B.
H$moUË`mhr CÚmoJmbm _mbgmR>çmMr Ý`yZV_ nmVir amIUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. _hÎm_ dñVygmR>m nmVir
d Ý`yZV_ dñVygmR>m nmVir `mÀ`m _Yrb nmVir åhUOo nwZamXoe nmVir Ago åhUVm `oB©b.
gyÌ (A) Re-ordering level = Maximum Consumption x Maximum delivery
(~) Re-ordering level = Minimum Stock + Average Consumption during normal delivery
4. dñVygmR>m YmoH$m nmVir (Danger level) : Ý`yZV_ nmVirnojm Imbr Agboë`m _mbgmR>m
nmVirg YmoH$m nmVir Ago g§~moYbo OmVo. H$moUVrhr CÚmoJg§ñWm Amnë`m _mbgmR>çmMr Ý`yZV_ nmVir
JmR>ë`mZ§Va Vm~S>Vmo~ ZdrZ IaoXrMo AmXoe XoV AgVo. na§Vw H$mhr doim Am{W©H$ AS>MUr_wio qH$dm _mbmMm
AmXoe XoD$Z XoIrb _mb doioV àmá Z Pmë`mZo dñVygmR>m nmVir YmoH$m nmVirn`ªV nmohmoMVo. dñVygmR>m YmoH$m
nmVirn`ªV Joë`mZ§Va CÚmoJg§ñWobm Vm~S>Vmo~ JVrZo hmbMmb H$ê$Z ZdrZ IaoXr H$amdr bmJVo AÝ`Wm
CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb CËnmXZmMm doJ H$_r hmoVmo. Ë`mMm n[aUm_ ~è`mMdoim CËnmXZ ~§X H$aÊ`mda hmoVmo. hr
n[apñWVr `oD$ Z`o `mgmR>r `wÕnmVirda IaoXr H$aUo Amdí`H$ Amho Am{U {deof åhUOo dñVygmR>m YmoH$m
nmVirÀ`m Imbr OmUma Zmhr `mMr nwaonya XjVm ¿`mdr bmJVo.
gyÌ Danger Level = Average rate of consumption x Emergency supply time.
5. gamgar dñVygmR>m nmVir (Average stock level) : CÚmoJg§ñWobm AMyH$ Ý`yZV_ AmXoe n[a_mU
d AMyH$ dñVygmR>m nmVù`m {ZpíMV H$aÊ`m_Ü`o H$mhr AS>MUr `oV AgVrb Va Aemdoir ~è`mM g§ñWm
gamgar dñVygmR>m nmVir {ZpíMV H$aVmV.
gyÌ Average Stock level = Minimum stock level x 1/2 Re-order Quantity
6. Ý`yZV_ AmXoe n[a_mU (Economic order Quantity) : H$moUË`mhr CÚmoJg§ñWobm Amnë`m
CÚmoJmVrb CËnmXZ à{H«$`m AI§{S>V amhmdr Ago dmQ>V AgVo. H$maU IaoXr AmXoe à_mU AmXe© Agob Va
{ZpíMVM g§ñWobm \$m`Xm hmoVmo. nU IaoXr à_mU OmñV Agob Va g§ñWobm IM© A{YH$ H$amdm bmJVmo. Ë`mMm
n[aUm_ IM© dmT>Uo, hmVmiUr IM©, _mb Iam~r_wio ZwH$gmZ, g§J«hZ IM© dmT>Uo B. da hmoVmo. `mCbQ> IaoXrMo
à_mU H$_r Agob Va AmXoe IM© dmT>Vmo. CXm. {Z{dXm _mJUr IM©, XyaÜdZr IM©, Q>nmb IM©, àdmg IM©
_mbgmR>m IaoXrMo AmXe© à_mU R>a{dÊ`mgmR>r Imbrb XmoZ KQ>H$ {dMmamV ¿`mdo bmJVmV.
(A) _mb dmhUo / gm§^miUo IM©
(Cost of carrying stock)
(~) _mb àmár / AmXoe IM© (Cost of acquisition / ordering)
Ý`yZV_ AmXoe n[a_mU åhUOo IaoXrMo Ago à_mU H$r Á`m à_mUmg _mb dmhUo d _mb àmár `m§Mo IM©
g_mZ AgVmV. àË`oH$ CÚmoJg§ñWoZo Ago Ý`yZV_ AmXoe n[a_mU {ZpíMV/ R>admdo bmJVo. H$maU Ago Ho$ë`mZo
_mbmÀ`m gmR>çmV {dZmH$maU ^m§S>db Jw§VyZ amhmV Zmhr Am{U Xwgao åhUOo CËnmXZ H$m`m©V I§S> nS>V Zmhr.
gyÌ - Ý`yZV_ AmXoe n[a_mU =
= AmXoe XoÊ`mMm IM©
= df©^amV bmJUmè`m _mbmMr n¡emVrb qH$_V
= dñVygmR>m _yë`mer dñVygmR>m R>odÊ`mÀ`m IMm©Mr eoH$S>odmar.
_mbgmR>çmMo dmQ>n
(Issue of Material)
_mbgmR>çmMo dmQ>n H$aÊ`mMr AmXe© H$m`©nÕVr {dH${gV H$aÊ`mgmR>r Imbrb _wÔo {dMmamV ¿`mdo
1. _mbgmR>m Aem nÕVrZo R>odmdm H$s Ë`mMo dmQ>n ËdarV H$aVm `oD$ eHo$b.
2. MwH$sÀ`m nÕVrZo _mbmMo dmQ>n hmoD$ Z`o åhUyZ _mbgmR>çmMo `mo½` Vo dJuH$aU H$aUo Amdí`H$
3. `mo½` Ë`m A{YH$mè`mÀ`m nadmZJrZoM dmQ>n H$amdo.
CXm. _mbmMo {d{eï> Aem A{YH$mè`mMo ghrZwgma Ambobo _mJUrnÌ.
4. Or ì`ŠVr _mb KoD$Z OmÊ`mgmR>r `oVo {VMr `mo½` Vr AmoiI nQ>dyZ KoD$ZM _mb Úmdm.
5. _mbmMo dmQ>n H$aVmZm Vo H$_rV H$_r doioV d bdH$a ìhmdo AÝ`Wm CËnmXZ H$m`© ~§X nS>Ê`mMr
^rVr AgVo.
6. _mbmMo dmQ>n Ho$ë`mZ§Va Vm~S>Vmo~ Ë`mMr {~ZH$mS>© qH$dm _mbgmR>m {H$Xu_Ü`o Zm|X H$amdr.
7. dmQ>n Ho$boë`m _mbmMr _mbgmR>m {d^mJmZo qH$_Vrgh _mbgmR>m a{OñQ>a_Ü`o Zm|X H$amdr ho Zm|XrMo
H$m_ _mbgmR>m H$aUmè`m ì`{ŠVH$S>o gmonyd Z`o.
8. A{YH$ma Zgboë`m ì`{ŠVbm _mbmÀ`m gmR>çm_Ü`o hñVjon H$aÊ`mg nadmZJr H§$nZrZo XoD$ Z`o.
_mbgmR>m Zm|XUr
(Stok Records)
: _mbgmR>m Zm|XUr Imbrb VrZ àH$mamZo Ho$br OmVo.
1. {~Z H$mS>©
2. ñH§$Y H$sX©
3. _mbgmR>m IVmdUr.
1. {~Z H$mS>© (Bin Card) : {~Z H$mS>© Ago {R>H$mU, a°H$ qH$dm H$nmQ> hmo` H$s {OWo _mb/ gm_J«rMm
gmR>m Ho$bm OmVmo. àË`oH$ {~Zbm ñdV§Ì Ago H$mS>© AgVo. `mMm Cn`moJ {~Z_Ü`o _mbmMm {H$Vr gmR>m Amho
ho nmhÊ`mgmR>r hmoVmo. `mbm gmR>m H$mS>© Agohr åhQ>bo OmVo. `m H$mS>©_Ü`o _mbmMm Vnerb, H$moS> Z§~a, {~Z
Z§~a, gmR>çmMr {H$_mZ nmVir, H$_mb nmVir, nwZamXoe q~Xy d AmXoe g§»`m `m§Mr _m{hVr AgVo.
{~ZH$mS©_Ü`o aH$mZo nmS>bo OmVmV. `m aH$mÝ`m§_Ü`o _mbmMr ñdrH¥$Vr, _mb ñdrH$maboMr Zm|X, H«$_m§H$, _mb
{Xbm, _mb _mJUr Z§~a, {e„H$ _mb, eoam EdT>çm _m{hVrMo aH$mZo AgVmV. H$mhr doim Á`mXmMo aH$mZo
{Z_m©U Ho$bo OmVmV Am{U Ë`m_Ü`o H$mhr {d{eï> H$m_mgmR>r "amIrd _mb' d "AmXoemà_mUo _mb' Ago aH$mZo
KmVbo OmVmV. {~Z_Ü`o _mb R>odë`mMr Vm~S>Vmo~ Zm|X Ho$br OmVo hr Zm|X {~Z H$mS>© _Ü`o _mbmMr ñdrH¥$Vr
(Receipt) `m aH$mÝ`mV Ho$br OmVo. `mbmM Zm§do (Debit) {~Z H$mS>© åhUVmV. gd© {Xboë`m / nmR>{dboë`m
_mbmMr Zm|X _mb {Xbm (Issue) `m aH$mÝ`mV Ho$br OmVo. `mbmM O_m (Credit) {~ZH$mS>© åhUVmV.
{~ZH$mS>©_Ü`o _mbmMr AmdH$ d OmdH$ `mMr Zm|X d¡`{ŠVH$nUo (Personally) Ho$br OmVo. àË`oH$ `w{ZQ>Mr
Zm|Xhr Ho$br OmVo _mÌ qH$_VrMm / XamMm Vnerb `m_Ü`o {bhrbm OmV Zmhr. _mbmMm {e„H$ gmR>m
H$moUË`mhr jUr g_OÊ`mgmR>r _mbmMr Zm|X, _mb {e„H$ aH$mÝ`m_Ü`o Ho$br OmVo. åhUyZM {~Z H$mS>© hr
{d{eï> Aer OmJm / {R>H$mU hmo` H$s Á`m nÕVrÛmao AmnUmg _mbmMr H$m`_ñdê$nr Zm|X nhmd`mg {_iVo.
Oa _mbmMr ñdrH¥$Vr Am{U {ZJ©_Z Am{U {e„H$ gmR>m `m_Ü`o V\$mdV Agë`mMo {XgyZ Amë`mg {~ZH$mS>©_Yrb
gÜ`mMm gmR>m d IamoIarMm (actual) gmR>m `mMr _moOXmX Ho$br OmVo Am{U IamoIarÀ`m gmR>çmà_mUo
{~ZH$mS>©_Ü`o _mbmMr OwidUr (adjustment) Ho$br OmVo.
{~Z H$mS>©Mm hoVy :
(A) {~Z H$mS>© _mbmMo dhZ {H$Vr Pmbo Amho Am{U IamoIa (actual) {H$Vr _mb {e„H$ Amho ho Xe©{dVo.
(~) {~ZH$mS>©_wio A§VJ©V Z\$m-VmoQ>m nÌH$ V`ma H$aUo Am{U Vmio~§X V`ma H$aUo gmono OmVo. `mgmR>r
_mb àË`j _moOÊ`mMr JaO ^mgV Zmhr.
(H$) {~ZH$mS©_wio {Z`{_V _mbmMr `mXr H$aUo gwc^ hmoVo.
{~Z H$mS>©Mm Z_yZm
gm_J«r / _mb : .........................
{~Z Z§~a : .........................
H$moS> Z§. : .........................
_hÎm_ nmVir : .........................
Eg. Eb. \$mo{bAmo : .........................
Ý`yZV_ nmVir : .........................
AmXoe nmVir : .........................
_mbmMr ñdrH¥$Vr
MbZ Z§.
_mbmMo {ZJ©_Z
{e„H$ _mb
{~Z H$mS>©Mo \$m`Xo :
1. {~Z H$mS>© _mbgmR>m {Z`§ÌUmMo g§nyU© MH«$ (cycle) XmI{dVo.
2. {~Z H$mS>© _mbmMm g§nyU© Vnerb `m_Ü`o _mb AmXoe, amIrd _mb, AmXoemà_mUo _mbmMo {ZJ©_Z
Am{U _mbmMm {e„H$ gmR>m `m gd© ~m~r XmI{dVo.
3. _mbmMm VwQ>dS>m hmoD$ Z`o `mgmR>r {~Z H$mS>© Vem àH$maMr VaVyX H$aVo. Ë`m_wio ^{dî`mV H$moUVmhr
AS>Wim `oV Zmhr.
4. EH$Xm _mbmMr _mJUr Amë`mZ§Va Vmo Vm~S>Vmo~ XoD$Z Ver Zm|X Ho$br OmV Agë`mZo {ÛéŠVr
hmoÊ`mMm g§^d Q>iVmo.
5. {e„H$ Agbobm _mb H$_r hmoV Agë`mg doioV ZdrZ _mbmMr _mJUr / IaoXr H$aVm `oVo qH$dm
AmXoe XoVm `oVmo.
_mbgmR>m IVmdUr
(Store Ledger) :
_mb {Z`§ÌU nÕVr_Yrb hr EH$ _hÎdmMr Zm|X Agbobr IVmdUr hmo`. `m IVmdUr_wio _mbmMr
{ZpíMV Aer g§nyU© `mXr V`ma H$aVm `oVo. `m IVmdUrV {~Z H$mS>©à_mUoM aH$mZo AgVmV. `m ì`{V[aŠV
Á`mXmMm EH$ aH$mZm Ë`m_Ü`o AgVmo Vmo åhUOo aH$_oMm aH$mZm hmo`. _mbmÀ`m ñdrH¥¥$VrMr qH$dm {Xboë`m
_mbmMr qH$_V `m_Ü`o Zm|X Ho$br OmVo. _mbgmR>m IVmdUr gÜ`m Agboë`m dñVyMr qH$_V H$moUË`mhr doir
XmIdy eH$Vo.
hr _mbgmR>m IVmdUr IM© H$m`m©b`mV (cost office) gm§^mibr OmVo. _mbgmR>m {d^mJmV qH$dm
g§J«hU {d^mJmV Zmhr. H$maU 1. _mbgmR>m {d^mJmVrb H$_©Mmè`m§H$Sy>Z _mbmMr VnmgUr Ho$br OmVo. {~Z H$mS>©dê$Z qH$dm _mbgmR>m
IVmdUrdê$Z Ver ImoQ>r Zm|X Ho$br OmV Zmhr.
2. IM© H$maHy$Z (cost clerk) nojm H$_r nmVirÀ`m ì`{ŠVH$Sy>Z _mbmMo _yë`_mnZ Ho$bo OmV Zmhr.
3. `m H$maHy$Zr H$m_mVyZ _mbgmR>m {d^mJmVrb ì`ŠVtZm WmoS>r gyQ> {_iVo.
_mbgmR>m IVmdUr g§X^m©V Imbrb _wÔo {dMmamV ¿`mdo bmJVmV.
(A) gmYmaUV: ho gwQ>çm nmZm§Mo nwñVH$ AgVo Am{U àË`oH$ nmZ ho _mbmÀ`m KQ>H$mgmR>r
ñd§VÌnUo Zmo§XrgmR>r AgVo.
(~) `m_Ü`o "_mbmMr ñdrH¥$Vr', "_mbmMo {ZJ©_Z' d "{e„H$ _mb' ho aH$mZo AgVmV. àË`oH$ aH$mÝ`mV
naV CnaH$mZo AgVmV Ë`m_Ü`o _mbmMr g§»`m, nwï>Ï`© H$mJXnÌ H«$, _mbmMm Xa d a¸$_ `m _m{hVtMm g_mdoe
Ho$bm OmVmo.
(H$) _mb ñdrH¥$VrZ§Va "[agrQ>' _Ü`o Ë`mMr Zm|X Ho$br OmVo. _mb nmR>{dë`mZ§Va "_mb {Xbm' `m
aH$mÝ`mV Zm|X Ho$br OmVo. àË`oH$ aH$mÝ`mVrb Zm|XrZ§Va eodQ>r _mbmMr {e„H$ Xe©{dbr OmVo.
(S>) `m IVmdUrV "AmXoemZwgma _mb' Am{U H$mhr H$m_m{Z{_Îm "amIrd _mb' ho OmXmMo aH$mZo XoIrb
H$Yr H$Yr R>odbo OmVmV.
(B) gd© _mbmMr ñdrH¥$Vr, {ZJ©_Z d {e„H$ _mbgmR>m `mMr H$mhr KQ>H$m§À`m AmYmao qH$_V {ZpíMV
Ho$br OmVo Am{U H$mhr H$mbmdYrZ§Va Vr aH$_oÀ`m aH$mÝ`mV Xe©{dbr OmVo.
_mbgmR>m IVmdUr-Z_wZm
\$mo{bAmo/nmZ Z§. : .........................
dñVygmR>m _hÎm_ `mXr : .....................
_mbmMo dU©Z : .........................
nwZamXoe nmVir : .........................
_mbgmR>m H$moS> Z§. : .........................
Ý`yZV_ nmVir : .........................
{~Z H$mS>© Z§. .........................
AmXoe H$mbmdYr : .........................
Ý`yZV_ AmXoe g§»`m : .....................
_mbmMr ñdrH¥$Vr
Or.Ama. `w{ZQ>
_mbmMo {ZJ©_Z
a¸$_ E_.Ama. `w{ZQ>
a¸$_ `w{ZQ>
{~Z H$mS>© d _mbgmR>m IVmdUr `mVrb \$aH$ :
{~Z H$mS©
_mbgmR>m IVmdUr
1. _mbgmR>çmVrb {~Z H$mS>©er {MH$Q>dyZ R>odbo OmVo. 1. IM© Am°{\$g_Ü`o gm§^mibo OmVo.
2. ^m¡{VH$ `w{ZQ>~m~V _m{hVr nwa{dbr OmVo.
2. `m_Ü`o `w{ZQ>À`m g§»`o~m~V VgoM Ë`mÀ`m
én`mVrb _yë`m~m~V _m{hVr nwa{dbr OmVo.
3. `m_Ü`o Zm|Xr _mbgmR>m {d^mJmVrb ì`{ŠV_m\©$V 3. `m_Ü`o Zm|Xr IM© H$maHy$ZmH$Sy>Z Ho$ë`m OmVmV.
Ho$ë`m OmVmV.
4. n«Ë`jmV {H$Vr _mb ñdrH$mabm qH$dm {Xbm
4. "_mb ñdrH$maboMr ZmoQ>' _mbmMr _mJUr `mÀ`m
`mÀ`mdê$Z Zm|Xr Ho$ë`m OmVmV.
AmYmao Zm|Xr Ho$ë`m OmVmV.
5. A§VJ©V {d^mJmVrb XodmU KodmU {~Z H$mS>©_Ü`o 5. XmoZ {d^mJmVrb _mbmMr XodmU KodmU IM©
{XgyZ `oV Zmhr.
CÔoemgmR>r {bhÿZ Zm|Xr Ho$ë`m OmV Agë`mZo
Ë`m {XgyZ `oVmV.
6. ì`dhma hmoV AgVmZm Ë`mMr _m{hVr KoVbr OmVo. 6. ì`dhma Pmë`mZ§Va \$ma H$mimZo Ë`mMr _m{hVr
KoVbr OmVo.
7. àË`oH$ ì`dhmamMr ñdV§Ì _m{hVr KoVbr OmVo.
7. ì`dhma hm gmam§e énmV _{hÝ`mVyZ EH$XmM
{bhrbm OmVmo.
dñVygmR>m {ZJ©_UmVrb dñVyMr qH$_V {ZpíMV H$aUo
(Pricing of Material Issues) :
g§Jh« rV Ho$bobm H$ƒm _mb, dñVygmR>m CËnmXZ {d^mJmbm Ë`mÀ`m _mJUrà_mUo nmR>{dbm OmVmo. CËnmXZ
{d^mJmbm dñVygmR>m nmR>{dÊ`mnydu Ë`mMr qH$_V {ZpíMV H$amdr bmJVo. dñVyMr IaoXr H$aVmZm H$amdm bmJbobm
IM©, dmhVyH$ ^mS>,o h_mbr BVa IM© ho gd© J¥hrV Yê$Z _JM H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr qH$_V {ZpíMV H$amdr bmJVo.
A§{V_ CËnm{XV dñVyMr qH$_V {ZpíMV H$amd`mMr Agë`mg H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr qH$_V AJmoXa {ZpíMV H$amdr
JmoXm_mVyZ nmR>{dë`m OmUmè`m _mbmMr qH$_V {ZpíMV H$aÊ`mÀ`m {d{dY nÕVr ApñVËdmV AmhoV.
g§J«hZ {d^mJ à_wImZo àË`oH$ nÕVrÀ`m JwU-Xmofm§Mm Aä`mg H$ê$Z Mm§Jbr nÕVr H$moUVr `mMm {dMma
H$ê$Z Vr nÕV Amnë`m CÚmoJm_Ü`o _mbmMr qH$_V {ZpíMV H$aVmZm dmnamdr. _mbmÀ`m qH$_Vr {ZpíMV
H$aÊ`mÀ`m Imbrb nÕVr gm§JVm `oVrb.
(A) IM© qH$_V nÕVr
(Cost Price Method) :
`m nÕVrbm àË`j qH$_V nÕV (Actual Price Method) Agohr åhUVmV. Á`mdoir H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr
IaoXr Ho$br OmVo Ë`mdoir àË`jmV Úmdr bmJbobr Ë`mMr qH$_V d g§~§{YV BVa IM© {dMmamV KodyZ dñVyMr
qH$_V {ZpíMV Ho$br OmVo. `m_Ü`o Imbrb nÕVtMm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
1. àW_ AmV àW_ ~mhoa nÕVr (First in First Out Method-FIFO) : `m nÕVrV JmoXm__Ü`o
VmarIdma àW_ Amboë`m _mbmMm àW_ {dMma Ho$bm OmVmo. JmoXm_m_Ü`o àW_ Ambobm _mb àW_ nmR>{dbm
OmVmo. _mbmMr qH$_V {ZpíMV H$aVmZm Ë`mMr IaoXr qH$_V J¥hrV Yê$Z Ë`mM qH$_Vrbm _mb nmR>{dbm
OmVmo. JmoXm_mVyZ _mb nmR>{dVmZm àW_ Ambobm _mb àW_ nmR>{dbm OmVmo Z§Va {ÛVr` IaoXrMm, V¥Vr`
IaoXrMm _mb nmR>{dbm OmVmo.
CXm. àW_ IaoXr 200 ZJ é. 20 à{VZJ
{ÛVr` IaoXr 100 ZJ é. 15 à{VZJ
V¥Vr` IaoXr 250 ZJ é. 18 à{VZJ
darbà_mUo IaoXr Ho$br Agob Va CËnmXZ {d^mJmH$S>o _mb nmR>{dVmZm àW_ _mbmMr qH$_V é. 20
à{VZJ à_mUo, {ÛVr` _mbmMr qH$_V é. 15 à{VZJ à_mUo d V¥Vr` _mbmMr qH$_V é. 18 à{VZJ à_mUo
nmR>dmdo. àW_ IaoXr Ho$bobm _mb g§në`mZ§VaM Xwgam _mb nmR>dmdm Aem arVrZo _mb CËnmXZ {d^mJmH$S>o
nmR>{dbm OmVmo.
~mOmanoR>oV H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_VrV {Xdg|{Xdg KQ> hmoV Agob Va hr nÕV dmnaUo \$m`Xoera R>aVo.
VgoM H$ƒm _mb dmnamMr JVr H$_r Agob d qH$_V A{YH$ Agob Va `m nÕVrMm Adb§~ H$aUo `mo½` R>aVo.
àW_ Ambobm _mb àW_ nmR>{dë`mZo Ë`mMm XOm©, JwUY_© {Q>Hy$Z amhmVmo. Vgo Z Ho$ë`mg JwUY_© qH$dm XOm©
H$_r H$_r hmoV OmVmo.
JwU :1. hr nÕVr g_OyZ KoÊ`mg VgoM dmnaÊ`mg A{Ve` gmonr Amho.
2. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_Vr CVaV AgVmZm Aem doir øm nÕVrMm dmna H$aUo `mo½` R>aVo.
3. A{YH$ qH$_VrÀ`m d H$_r JVrZo dmnaë`m OmUmè`m dñVygmR>r hr nÕV Cn`wŠV Amho.
4. VmpÎdH$Ñï>çm XoIrb hr nÕV ~amo~a Amho H$maU `m_Ü`o àW_ Ambobm _mb àW_ nmR>{dbm OmVmo.
5. `m nÕVrV {e„H$ _mbmÀ`m qH$_VrMr {ZpíMVr ~mOma^mdmà_mUo Ho$br OmVo. `m_Ü`o àW_
_mbmnmgyZ ZwH$Ë`mM IaoXr Ho$boë`m _mbmMm XoIrb g_mdoe hmoVmo.
6. _mbmMr IaoXr qH$_V _mb nmR>{dVmZm AmH$mabr OmV Agë`mZo V`ma hmoUmè`m dñVyMr qH$_V
AMyH$nUo {ZpíMV hmoVo. Ë`m_wio H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr IaoXr qH$_V dgyb hmoVo.
7. ì`dhmam§Mr g§»`m H$_r Agob d _mbmÀ`m qH$_Vr ñWra AgVrb Va hr nÕV `mo½` R>aVo.
Xmof :1. EH$mdoir nmR>{dboë`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_Vr doJdoJù`m {XgVmV.
2. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_VrV dma§dma ~Xb hmoV Agob Va CËnmXZ {d^mJmbm nmR>{dboë`m _mbmÀ`m
XamV {heo~r` qH$dm boIZr` MyH$m hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm ZmH$maVm `oV Zmhr. Aemdoir qH$_V {ZpíMV H$aVmZm
{deof H$miOr ¿`mdr bmJVo.
3. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_Vr JVrZo ~XbV AgVrb Va Ë`mà_mUo _mb nmR>{dVmZm qH$_VrV ~Xb hmoV
AgVmV. Ë`m_wio EH$mdoir CËnm{XV Pmboë`m dñVyMr doJdoJir qH$_V {ZpíMV hmoV AgVo.
4. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_Vr JVrZo dmT>V AgVrb Va hr nÕVr Cn`moJr R>aV Zmhr. H$maU ~mOma
qH$_Vrnojm H$_r qH$_VrV _mb nmR>{dbm OmVmo.
2. eodQ>r AmV àW_ ~mhoa nÕV (Last In First Out Method - LIFO) : àW_ AmV àW_ ~mhoa
nÕVrÀ`m ~amo~a {déÕ Aer hr nÕV Amho. `m nÕVrV eodQ>r IaoXr Ho$bobm _mb àW_ nmR>{dbm OmVmo. Vmo
_mb g§në`mZ§VaM Ë`mÀ`m AJmoXa IaoXr Ho$bobm _mb nmR>{dbm OmVmo. Aem arVrZo gdm©V eodQ>r IaoXr
Ho$boë`m _mbmMr àW_ CMb Ho$br OmVo d gdm©V àW_ IaoXr Ho$bobm _mb gdm©V eodQ>r nmR>{dbm OmVmo.
CXm. 1 OyZ 200 ZJ é. 25 à_mUo
15 OyZ 150 ZJ é. 30 à_mUo
25 OyZ 300 ZJ é. 35 à_mUo.
darbà_mUo H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr IaoXr Pmbr Agob Va CËnmXZ {d^mJmMr _mJUr nyU© H$aVmZm àW_ 25
OyZ amoOr IaoXr Ho$bobm _mb nmR>{dbm OmVmo. Z§Va 15 OyZMm _mb nmR>{dbm OmVmo Am{U gdmªV eodQ>r 1 OyZMm
_mb nmR>{dbm OmVmo. hm _mb nmR>{dVmZm Ë`mÀ`m qH$_Vr Vmo H$ƒm _mb IaoXr H$aVmZm Or hmoVr VrM {ZpíMV
R>odbr OmVo.
`m nÕVrMm Adb§~ àW_ Xwgè`m _hm`wÕmÀ`m H$mimV A_o[aHo$V H$aÊ`mV Ambm. H$mVS>r Am°B©b, Vm§~o
BË`mXr CÚmoJm§_Ü`o `m nÕVrMm Adb§~ _w»`ËdoH$ê$Z Ho$bm OmVmo.
JwU :1. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr àË`j d Iar qH$_V _mb nmR>{dVmZm {dMmamV KoVbr OmV Agë`mZo CËnmXZmVyZM
{VMr dgybr hmoV AgVo.
2. `m nÕVrV eodQ>Mr IaoXr àW_ ~mhoa Aem nÕVrZo eodQ>r IaoXr Ho$bobr dñVy n«W_ ~mhoa H$mT>br
OmV Agë`mZo ~mOmamV Agboë`m qH$_Vrer hr qH$_V {_iVr OwiVr amhmVo.
3. ì`dhmam§Mr g§»`m H$_r Agob Am{U qH$_V nmVir pñWa Agë`mg `m nÕVrMm Adb§~ H$aUo gmono
4. H$ƒm _mb _moR>çm n«_mUmV Amdí`H$ Agob Am{U n«Ë`oH$ ZJmMr qH$_V XoIrb A{YH$ Agob Va
hr nÕV Cn`wŠV Amho.
5. H$À`m _mbmMr qH$_V nmVir dmT>V AgVmZm hr nÕV Cn`wŠV R>aVo. Ë`m_wio V`ma Pmboë`m dñVybm
ñnYm©Ë_H$ qH$_V R>odVm `oVo. Ë`mMà_mUo Z\$m H$_r XmIdyZ Am`H$amMm ^md H$_r H$aVm `oVmo.
6. _mJrb H$m§hr _{hÝ`mV _mbmMr qH$_VdmT> d qH$_VKQ> hmoV Agob Va `m nÕVrMm dmna H$ê$Z Z\$m
VmoQ>çmMo à_mU pñWa R>odVm `oVo.
Xmof :1. {\$bmo (FIFO) nÕVrà_mUo `m nÕVrVhr {heo~mÀ`m, boIZr` MwH$m hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm ZmH$maVm `oV
2. Am`H$a {d^mJmg hr nÕV _mÝ` Zmhr.
3. {e„H$ _mbmMr qH$_V Mmby ~mOma qH$_Vrà_mUo hmoV Zmhr. hr qH$_V Vmio~§Xm_Ü`o \w$Jbobr {XgVo
_mÌ àË`jmV Vr dmñVdmnojm H$_r {XgVo.
4. `m nÕVrV _mb IaoXrMr qH$_V _mb nmR>{dVmZm AmH$mabr OmVo. `m_wio EH$mM doir CËnm{XV
Pmboë`m dñVyMr qH$_V EH$M R>odbr OmVo.
(~) gamgar {H§$_V nÕV
(Average Cost Method) :
H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr IaoXr H$aVmZm Vr EH$X_ IaoXr Z H$aVm doJdoJù`m doir Ho$br OmVo. Aemdoir hm
_mb ñdV§Ì d doJim R>odUo eŠ` Zmhr. Vmo EH$_oH$m§V {_gimdm bmJVmo qH$dm {_gibm OmVmo. {d{eð> doir
IaoXr Ho$bobm _mb {d{eð> doir CËnmXZ {d^mJmH$S>o nmR>{dbm OmB©b ho gm§JVm `oV Zmhr. H$mhr doim CËnmXZ
{d^mJ JaO Agë`m{edm` _mbmMr _mJUr H$aV Zmhr åhUyZ `m n[apñWVrV {\$\$mo (FIFO) qH$dm {b\$mo
(LIFO) hr nÕV Cn`moJr R>aV Zmhr. BWo gamgar qH$_V nÕVrà_mUo qH$_V {ZpíMV H$aUo `mo½` R>aVo. `m
gamgar nÕVrV Imbrb H$mhr nÕVr gm§JVm `oVrb.
1. gmYr gamgar nÕV (Simple Average Method) : doJdoJù`m doir IaoXr Ho$boë`m _mbmMr
à{VZJ qH$_V {dMmamV KodyZ Ë`m AmYmao gamgar qH$_V {ZpíMV Ho$br OmVo {Vbm gmYr gamgar nÕV
CXm. 500 ZJ é. 20 à{VZJ
1000 ZJ é. 25 à{VZJ
1500 ZJ é. 30 à{VZJ
gmYr gamgar qH$_V =
20 + 25 + 30
= 25
darb nÕVrV IaoXrMo à_mU {dMmamV Z KoVm \$ŠV doim bjmV KoVë`m OmVmV. `m nÕVrMm
CÚmoJg§ñWoZo Adb§~ Ho$ë`mg VmoQ>m hmoVmo. darb CXmhaUmV EHy$U IaoXr IM© én`o 80,000 `oVmo. na§Vw _mbmMr
EHy$U qH$_V é. 75000 (3000 x 25) AmH$mabr OmVo.
2. ^mam§{H$V gamgar qH$_V nÕV
(Weighted Average Method)
: `m nÕVrV _mbmMr qH$_V
{dMmamV KoD$Z nmR>dmd`mÀ`m _mbmMr qH$_V {ZpíMV Ho$br OmVo. H$maU ~è`mM doim H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr
qH$_V H$_r qH$dm OmñV dgyb hmoD$ eH$Vo.
CXm. 500 ZJ x é. 20 à{VZJ
1000 ZJ x é. 25 à{VZJ
1500 ZJ x é. 30 à{VZJ
^mam§{H$V gamgar qH$_V =
20) + (1000 x 25) + (1500
500 + 1000 + 1500
= é. 26.67
`m nÕVrV H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr nwaonya qH$_V dgyb hmoVo. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_VrV _moR>çm à_mUmV ~Xb
hmoV AgVrb Va hr nÕV \$m`Xoera R>aVo.
JwU :1. hr nÕV dñVw{Zð> Am{U nÕVera Amho Ë`m_wio A\$amV\$arbm g§Yr Zmhr.
2. H$ÀÀ`m _mbmÀ`m qH$_VrV JVrZo ~Xb hmoV AgVrb Va hr nÕV Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
3. H$À`m _mbmÀ`m IaoXrMr g§nyU© a¸$_ dgyb hmoVo.
4. `m nÕVrZo {ZpíMV Ho$bobr qH$_V Iar AgVo H$maU Á`m qH$_Vrbm _mbmMr IaoXr Ho$br. Ë`mM
qH$_Vrbm dñVy {Xbr OmVo.
5. àË`oH$ doir _mb nmR>{dVmZm qH$_V {ZpíMV H$amdr bmJV Zmhr. Oa ZdrZ IaoXr Ho$br Agob Va
`m Jmoï>rMm {dMma Ho$bm OmVmo.
6. gamgar qH$_V ~mOma qH$_VrÀ`m Odinmg AgVo.
7. Am`H$a {d^mJmMr `m nÕVrbm _mÝ`Vm Amho.
Xmof :1. CËnmXZ {d^mJmH$S>o _mb nmR>{dÊ`mMo à_mU, g§»`m A{YH$ Agob Va hr nÕV Adb§~Uo AdKS>
2. {e„H$ am{hboë`m _mbmMr qH$_V {ZpíMVr Mmby ~mOma qH$_Vrà_mUo hmoV Zmhr.
3. àË`oH$ ZdrZ IaoXrZ§Va ^mam§{H$V gamgar qH$_VrV ~Xb H$aUo ^mJ nS>Vo.
darb XmoZ nÕVtì`{V[aŠV gamgar qH$_V nÕVrV Imbrb Mma nÕVtMmhr g_mdoe hmoVmo.
1. R>am{dH$ _wXVrMr gmYr gamgar qH$_V nÕVr (Periodic Simple Average Price Method)
2. R>am{dH$ _wXVrMr ^mam§{H$V gamgar qH$_V nÕVr (Periodic weighted Average Price Method)
3. ~XbVr gmYr gamgar qH$_V nÕVr (Moving Simple Average Price Method)
4. ~XbVr ^mam§{H$V gamgar qH$_V nÕVr (Moving Weighted Average Price Method)
(H$) BVa nÕVr
(Other Methods) :
dmT>rd qH$_V nÕVr (Inflated Price Method)
{d{eï> qH$_V nÕVr (Specific Price Method)
AmYma gmR>m nÕVr (Base stock Method)
_hÎm_ / gdm}ƒ AmV àW_ ~mhoa nÕVr (Highest in first out Method - HIFO)
~mOmanoR> qH$_V nÕVr (Market Price Method)
à_mU^yV qH$_V nÕVr (Standard Price Method)
(i) _yb^yV à_mU qH$_V
(ii) Mmby n«_mU qH$_V.
7. nwZdm©na qH$_V nÕVr (Re-use Price Method)
dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrR>a{dVm§Zm darb gd© nÕVtMm CÚmoJg§ñWm Amnmnë`m gmo`rZwgma bmJy hmoUmè`m nÕVtMr
{ZdS> H$aVmV.
References :
1. Industrial Management
2. Cost Accounting
3. Cost Accountancy Principles
and Practice
4. Basics of cost Accounting
Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ
M. E. Tukaram Rao
Pattanshetti P. T. & Palekar D. R.
Jain and Narang
U. K. Saxena & C. D. Vashistha
: E_. Or. nmVH$a d S>m°. EZ. ~r. ^mJdV
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ nona-1
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ 4
ì`yhemñÌ ì`dñWmnZ
(Logistics Management)
àñVmdZm :
ì`dñWmnZ hr gd© KQ>H$m§Mr EH$ JaO åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVo. ì`dñWmnZA^mdr H$moUVohr H$m`©
nyU©Ëdmg ZoD$ eH$V Zmhr. {d{dY àH$maÀ`m H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr {Z{_©Vr, dmhVyH$ d JwXm_ H$m`© VgoM dñVw d
godm§Mo CËnmXZ B. H$m`m©g IynM dmd àmá hmoV Amho, n[aUm_r Ë`mÛmao {d{dY ì`dgm` d amoOJmag§Yr {Z_m©U
hmoV AmhoV, qH$~hþZm Aem H$m`mªMm {dñVma {Xdg|{Xdg dmT>V Amho, `m gdmªer g§~§YrV AWdm Ë`mMm EH$
A{d^mÁ` ^mJ åhUyZ ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ _hÎdmMo ~Zbobo Amho. Joë`m Mma XeH$mV g§emoYZ, {ejU d
OmJ{VH$sH$aUm_wio dmhVyH$, JwXm_ d VËg_ H$m`m©_wio ì`dgm` ì`yhemómMm {dH$mg hmoV Amho. ì`yhemó
ì`dñWmnZ hr ì`dñWmnZmMr EH$ A{^Zd emIm åhUyZ Zmdménmbm Ambobr Amho. ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm
{dH$mg àmW{_H$ VgoM ^{dî`H$mimÀ`m Ñï>rZo OUy EH$ Ñï>r åhUyZ ~Zbobo Amho. CËnmXZ d {dnUZ {df`H$
gd© H$m`} ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ A^mdr Xe©{dVm `oV ZmhrV.
Xwgè`m _hm`wÕmÀ`m H$mimV \«|$M g¡Ý`mZr ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm àW_ Adb§~ Ho$bm, Ë`mZ§Va
A_o[aH$Z g¡Ý` XbmZo hr g§H$ënZm àË`j dmnaÊ`mg gwê$dmV Ho$br, H$mbmÀ`m AmoKmV {d{dY joÌmVrb
Am_ybmJ« ~Xbm§_wio ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmg AZÝ`gmYmaU _hÎd àmá Pmbo.
AW© :
ì`yhemó (logistics) `m B§J«Or eãXmMr CËnÎmr J«rH$ eãX logistikos bmo{OpñQ>H$m°g `m eãXmnmgyZ
Pmbr. b°{Q>Z ^mfoV logisticcus bmo{OpñQ>H$g² hm eãX àM{bV hmoVm. AË`§V ì`mnH$ AWm©Zo ì`yhemó
ì`dñWmnZ hr g§ënZm dmnamV Amho. àmMrZ H$mimV g¡Ý`m§Mr hmbMmb H$aUmar H$bm AWdm g¡Ý` bT>mB©gmR>r
gwg‚m R>odUo, bT>mB©Mr V`mar H$aUo, g¡{ZH$m§Zm ImÚ, agX d Amdí`H$ gm{hË` nwa{dUo `m H$m`mªer ì`yhemó
ì`dñWmnZ {ZJS>rV hmoVo.
H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr {Z{_©Vr H$aUo, {d{dY Am¡Úmo{JH$ d Cn^mo½` {df`H$ dñVy§Mr {Z{_©Vr H$aÊ`mnmgyZ Vo
A§{V_ Cn^moJmn`ªVÀ`m gd© hmbMmbr, H$m`}, {H«$`m d Cn{H«$`m Am{U nwadR>m H$m`} Aem ì`mnH$ AWm©Zo
ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ hr g§H$ënZm ê$T> hmoV Jobr. {d{dY àH$maÀ`m OS> dñVw{df`rMo {dVaU ì`yhemñÌ
ì`dñWmnZm_wio gwb^ ~Zbobo Amho. ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo H$m`© {d{dY H$m`m©er nyaH$ ñdê$nmMo H$m`© hmo`,
`mÛmao g§nyU© JwUdÎmm {Z`§ÌU, qH$_V d IMm©Mo n¥ÏWH$aU VgoM g§nyU© {dVaUmMm IM© H$_r H$aUo Ae ñdê$nmZo
hr g§H$ënZm CÚmoJ d ì`dgm`mV dmnamV Amho. ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmV aMZm, àemgZ nÕVr Am{U {dVaU
gmIir Cnm` BË`mXtMm {dMma Ho$bm OmVmo. `m_Ü`o gd© ^mJ EH$Ì H$ê$Z nyU©Ëd _m{hVr XoUo, dmhVwH$sH$aU,
_mbmMr `mXr H$aUo (Inventory) VgoM _mb hmVmiUr d doð>Z gma»`m H$m`mªMm `m_Ü`o g_mdoe hmoV AgVmo.
ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ ho AI§{S>V ñdê$nmMo H$m`© hmo`, ho H$m`© H$Yrhr Z Wm§~Umao VgoM g§nyU© OJ^a
MmbUmao EH$ ì`dñWmnH$s` H$m`© hmo`. EH$ A{ÛVr` H$m`© åhUyZ ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVo.
WmoS>Š`mV ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ åhUOo {d{dY àH$maÀ`m dñVw§Mm nwadR>m, H$ƒm _mb, à{H«$`m _mb, _mb
gmR>m, _m{hVr V§ÌkmZ VgoM _mb hmVmiUr B. H$m`} nyU©Ëdmg nmohM{dUo Aem AWm©Zo ì`dñWmnZ emómV hr
g§H$ënZm àM{bV Amho.
ì`m»`m :
1. {\$brn H$moQ>ba `m§À`m _Vo, ""J«mhH$m§À`m JaOm nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r ^m¡{VH$Ñï>çm H$ƒm _mb, {d{dY
àH$maÀ`m dñVy d A§{V_ _mbmÀ`m àdmhmMo {Z`moOZ, A§_b~OmdUr d {Z`§ÌU B. Z\$m àmárÛmao H$aUo hmo`.''
2. A_o[aH$Z H$m¢pÝgb Am°\$ bmo{OpñQ>Šg _°ZoO_|Q>, ""ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ hr {Z`moOZ, A§_b~OmdUr
d {Z`§ÌUmMr Aer à{H«$`m hmo` H$s Á`mÛmao AË`§V H$m`©j_, H$_r IMm©V H$ƒm _mb gmR>{dUo, à{H«$`m`wŠV
_mb d A§{V_ dñVy VgoM VËg_ _m{hVr d godm Cn^moŠË`m§À`m JaOmZwgma àXmZ H$aUo hmo`.''
ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo hoVy
H$ƒm _mb, à{H«$`m`wŠV _mb, dñVy, g§nyU© _mbmMr `mXr nwadR>m gmIirÛmao à^mdrnUo d H$m`©j_nUo
àXmZ H$aUo, dñVy§Mr hmbMmb H$aUo hm ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm àmW{_H$ hoVy hmo`. H$_r IMm©V J«mhH$m§Zm
Ano{jV godm nwa{dÊ`mÀ`m hoVyZo ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ _hÎdmMo ~Zbobo Amho. ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo hoVy
nwT>rbà_mUo 1) `mo½` n«_mUmV H$ƒm _mb R>odUo : CËnmXZ H$m`m©gmR>r H$ƒm _mb, à{H«$`m`wŠV _mb `mo½` Ë`m
à_mUmV V`ma R>odmdm bmJVmo, àg§Jr Ë`mgmR>r `mo½` Vr Jw§VdUyH$ H$amdr bmJVo, Ë`mMm A§{V_ n[aUm_ Z\$m
àmárda hmoV AgVmo. CËnmXZmgmR>r OmXm _mb V`ma R>odë`mg, OmXm _mbgmR>çmÛmao Jw§VdUwH$sV d IaoXr
H$m`m©V dmT> hmoVo, Ë`m{déÕ CËnmXZmgmR>r _mbmMr H$_VaVm d VwQ>dS>m {Z_m©U Pmë`mg CËnmXZ H$m`© ~§X
nS>Ê`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo, `m Xmohm|Mm {dMma H$ê$Z ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmÛmao CËnmXZ H$m`m©gmR>r `mo½`
à_mUmV H$ƒm _mb R>odbm OmVmo, Ë`mMm IM© H$_r H$aUo hm ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm EH$ hoVy hmo`.
2) _mb nmohmoM H$aÊ`mV {dídmgmh©Vm d gmVË`Vm {Z_m©U H$aUo : hm ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm
_w»` hoVy hmo`. CÚmoJ d ì`dgm`mV dñVy d godm doimnÌH$mZwgma, `moOZoZwgma CnbãY H$aUo _hÎdmMo Amho.
CËnmXZ d {dH«$s H$m`m©V `mo½` Vmo g_Ýd` amhÊ`mgmR>r ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo `moJXmZ _hÎdmMo Amho.
{d{dY gmYZm§Ûmam dmhVyH$ H$m`© d _mb nmohmoM H$aVmZm `mo½` {Z`moOZ H$amdo bmJVo, VgoM CËnmXZ d
Cn^moJmgmR>r dñVy nwadR>m H$m`m©V gmVË`Vm amIUo JaOoMo Amho, Ë`m hoVy§Zr ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo H$m`© hmoV
AgVo, `m_wio J«mhH$m§Mr {dídmgmh©Vm VgoM J«mhH$m§~amo~a XrK©H$mbrZ g§~§Y R>odÊ`mg _XV hmoB©b.
3) dmhVyH$ ^mS>o aH$_oV H$mQ>H$ga {Z_m©U H$aUo : dmhVyH$sMo ^mS>o hm ì`yhemó IMm©Vrb _w»`
KQ>H$ hmo`. dmhVyH$sMm IM© ì`dñWmnZmÛmao doJdoJù`m nÕVrZo H$_r R>odVm `oVmo. dmhVyH$ ^mS>o aH$_oV
H$mQ>H$ga H$aUo hm Ë`m_mJrb EH$ hoVy hmo`, Ë`mgmR>r {d{dY _mJmªMm Adb§~ H$amdm bmJVmo. ^mS>o EH$ÌrH$aU,
dmhVyH$sÀ`m gmYZmMr {ZdS>, _mJm©Mo {Z`moOZ, dmhVyH$ ^ma EH$Ì H$aUo, bm§~ A§VamgmR>r OhmOmÛmao _mbmMr
dmhVyH$ B. _mJ© ñdrH$mamdo bmJVmV.
4) dñVy§Mo H$_rV H$_r ZwH$gmZ : dmhVyH$ H$m`m©Vrb ZwH$gmZr_wio EHy$U IMm©V dmT> hmoVo. dñVy§Mo
A`mo½` d MyH$sMo doðZ, nmR>{dboë`m _mbmMr A`mo½` hmVmiUr, Ag§VwbrV ^ma B. H$maUmZo dñVy§Mo dmhVyH$
H$m`m©V ZwH$gmZ hmoV AgVo, Vo Q>miÊ`mgmR>r _mb hmVmiUrgmR>r `m§{ÌH$s gmYZm§Mm dmna, g§VwbrV ^ma Am{U
dñVy§Mo `mo½` doð>Z B. Ûmao dñVy§Mo ZwH$gmZ H$_rV H$_r R>odVm `oVo. WmoS>Š`mV H$_rV H$_r ZwH$gmZ R>odUo ho
ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$ C{Ôï> hmo`.
5) ObX à{VH«$s`m XoUo : hm ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm EH$ hoVy hmo`. hm KQ>H$ ì`dgm` j_Voer
g§~§YrV AgyZ ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmÛmao J«mhH$m§Zm H$_r doioV `mo½` Vmo à{VgmX d godm nwadmdr bmJVo,
Ë`mgmR>r AmYw{ZH$ V§ÌkmZ, _m{hVr V§ÌkmZ d XiUdiU VgoM g§nH©$ _mÜ`_ B. Mm Adb§~ H$ê$Z
{ZU©`j_VoV `mo½` Vr gwYmaUm H$amdr bmJVo, n[aUm_r AMyH$Vm d g_`gyMH$Vm eŠ` hmooVo.
6) nwadR>m gmIir {Z_m©U H$aUo : CËnmXZmnmgyZ Vo A§{V_ Cn^moJmn`ªVÀ`m {d{dY {H«$`m, H$m`} nma
nmS>VmZm dñVy, H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMm nwadR>m H$amdm bmJVmo. Ë`mgmR>r `mo½` Vr nwadR>m gmIir {Z_m©U H$aUo ho
ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$ C{Ôï> hmo`.
ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo _hÎd
(Importance of Logistics Management)
ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm OwZm Ñ{ï>H$moZ g¡Ý` XbmnwaVm _`m©{XV hmoVm, na§Vw AmVm ì`yhemómg ì`dgm`
g§ñWm§_Ü`o _mÝ`Vm àmá hmoD$Z, ho _hÎdmMo ì`dgm{`H$ H$m`© ~Zbobo Amho. ì`dgm` g§ñWm§À`m X¥ï>rZo ì`yhemó
ì`dñWmnZmMo _hÎd {Xdg|{Xdg dmT>V Amho, ñnYm© {Z{_©VrMo ho OUy EH$ gmYZ ~Zbobo Amho. ì`yhemó
ì`dñWmnZmMo _hÎd H$mhr _wÔçm§À`m AmYmao :1) Cn^moŠË`m§n`ªV dñVy d godm§Mr CnbãYVm : H$moUË`mhr ñdê$nmÀ`m Ñí` d AÑí` dñVy d
godm§Mr CnbãYVm ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZm_wio eŠ` Pmbobr Amho. CËnmXZ, dmhVyH$, _mbgmR>m, {d_m, {dÎm
B. H$m`mª_wio A§{V_ Cn^moŠË`m§n`ªV dñVy d godm nmohM{dUo eŠ` Pmbobo Amho.
2) à^mdr d H$m`©j_nUo dñVy§Mr hmbMmb : ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZm_wio CËnmXZ H|$ÐmnmgyZ Vo
Cn^moJ H|$Ðmn`ªV dñVy§Mr hmbMmb eŠ` Pmbobr Amho, CËnmXZ H$m`m©gmR>r bmJUmè`m H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMr
CnbãYVm, {dVaU Ho$di ì`yhemómÀ`m AmYmaoM eŠ` hmoVo. dñVy `mo½` {R>H$mUr `mo½` doiog {dVarV,
CnbãY Ho$ë`mZo Ë`mVyZ JwUdÎmm gmYZo eŠ` Pmbobo Amho.
3) XoemVrb ì`mnma d dm{UÁ` H$m`m©Mm {dH$mg : ì`mnma d dm{UÁ`mÀ`m {dH$mgmV ì`yhemó
ì`dñWmnZmMo `moJXmZ AË`§V _hÎdmMo Amho. ì`mnma H$m`m©V {d{dY {R>H$mUr dñVy§Mr dmhVyH$, {dVaU,
J«mhH$m{^_yI godm nwa{dUo, CËnmXZ àdmh pñWa amIUo B. Ho$di ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZm_wio eŠ` Pmbobo Amho.
WmoS>Š`mV, ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZm_wio XoemVrb ì`mnma d dm{UÁ`mÀ`m {dH$mgmg _moR>r _XV Pmbobr Amho.
4) nm`m^yV godm gw{dYm§Mm {dH$mg : `m Ñï>rZo ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ AË`§V à^mdr d n[aUm_H$maH$
R>abobo Amho. `m_wio godm gw{dYm§Mm {dñVma Pmbobm Amho. dmhVwH$sMr {d{dY gmYZo, dmhVyH$ `§Ì gm_J«r,
_mb gmR>{dÊ`mMr gmo`, g§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aUo Am{U _m{hVr à{H«$`mH$aU {deofV: CËnmXZ, ImU d eoVr joÌmV
eŠ` Pmbobo Amho.
5) Xoem§VJ©V d {dXoemVrb ì`mnma H$m`m©Mm {dH$mg : CËnmXZ H|$ÐmnmgyZ Vo Cn^moJ H|$Ðmn`ªV
{dVaU H$m`m©V ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmÛmao JVr d {dídgZr`Vm {Z_m©U hmoVo, n[aUm_r Xoem§VJ©V VgoM
{dXoemVrb ì`mnma H$m`m©g JVr {_iVo. ì`mnma H$m`m©À`m Ñï>rZo ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ AË`§V _hÎdmMo, à^mdr
d n[aUm_H$maH$ R>abobo Amho.
6) XaS>moB© CËnÞmV dmT> : `m ÑîQ>rZo ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ AË`§V n[aUm_H$maH$ R>aboobo Amho. XaS>moB©
CËnÞmV ì`yhemómMr qH$_V d à_mU dmT>V Amho. dmhVyH$, {dVaU, CËnmXZ, JwXm_ B. Mm XaS>moB© CËnÞmda
AZwHy$b n[aUm_ hmoV Amho. WmoS>Š`mV XoemÀ`m XaS>moB© CËnÞ dmT>{dÊ`mV ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo `moJXmZ
{dMmamV KoÊ`mgmaIo Amho.
7) gmd©O{ZH$ {dVaU nÕVrg AmYma : XoemVrb gmd©O{ZH$ {dVaU H$m`m©g ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMm
_moR>m AmYma àmá Pmbobm Amho. `mo½` {R>H$mUr, `mo½` doioV d H$_rV H$_r IMm©V dñVy§Mo {dVaU, CnbãYVm
eŠ` Pmbobr Amho. ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZm_wio gmd©O{ZH$ {dVaU H$m`© AI§S>rVnUo d gwairVnUo gwê$ Amho.
8) XO}Xma J«mhH$ godm§Mm nwadR>m : gyú_ nÕVrZo ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZm_wio {dVaU _yë`mV d¥Õr hmoV
Amho. J«mhH$m§Zm CÚmoJ d ì`dgm` g§ñWm§H$Sy>Z XO}Xma godm nwa{dUo eŠ` Pmbobo Amho. J«mhH$ hm H|$Ðq~Xy _mZyZ
dmhVyH$, {dVaU, CËnmXZ d g§~§{YV H$m`} hmoV AgVmV. n[aUm_r XO}Xma godmnwadR>m eŠ` hmoVmo.
9) dñVy§Mo {dVaU : ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmÛmao CËnmXZmgmR>r H$ÀÀ`m _mbmMo, Amdí`H$ gm{hË`m§Mo
EH${ÌH$aU, CËnmXH$ Am{U Cn^moŠË`m§n`ªV {d{dY dñVy§Mo {dVaU ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZm_wio H$m`©j_[aË`m
eŠ` Pmbobo Amho.
10) CËnmXH$VoV gwYmaUm, IMm©V H$mQ>H$ga, amï´>r` gmYZm§Mm CËnmXZmgmR>r dmna B. ~m~r ì`yhemó
ì`dñWmnZm_wio eŠ` Pmbobo Amho.
ì`yhemó H$m`m©Vrb {d{dY {H«$`m/ KQ>H$ :
gd©gmYmaUnUo {d{dY KQ>H$m§À`m AmYmao ì`yhemómVrb H$m`©j_Vm {gÕ hmoVo. dmhVwH$sH$aU, H$ÀÀ`m
_mbmMo CËnmXZ d {dnUZ, JwXm_ H$m`}, _mb hmVmiUr VgoM dñVy§darb Amdoð>Z Aem H$m`m©VyZ ì`yhemómÀ`m
JaOm ñnï> hmoV AgVmV. CÚmoJ d ì`dgm`mVrb JaOm nyU© H$aÊ`mgmR>r g§~§{YV àË`oH$ KQ>H$mMo ghH$m`© d
JaO AnojV Amho. _w»` KQ>H$ hm ì`yhemó H$m`m©Mm EH$ Jm^m hmo`, Ë`m A^mdr ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ
CnamoŠV R>aVo. ì`yhemó H$m`m©Vrb {d{dY {H«$`m AWdm KQ>H$ nwT>rbà_mUo.
(A) dmhVwH$sH$aU : H$moUË`mhr XoemMr Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$ d ì`mdgm{`H$ àJVr _moOÊ`mMo
dm`w^ma_mnH$ åhUOo dmhVwH$sH$aU hmo`. ho g§nyU© OJ EH$m g§ñWoV énm§Va H$aUo Ho$di dmhVwH$sH$aUm_wio eŠ`
Pmbobo Amho. àË`oH$ XoemVrb g§ñH¥$VrMm {dH$mg H$aÊ`mV dmhVwH$sH$aUmMo `moJXmZ Amho. ì`yhemó H¥$Vr_Ü`o
dmhVwH$sH$aU hm _w»` KQ>H$ hmo`. dñVy d godm§Mr qH$_V IMm©À`m Ñï>rZo ì`yhemómZo AW©nyU© {hñgm Xe©dyZ,
{Z`§ÌUmÀ`m Ñ{ï>Zohr dmhVwH$sH$aU à^mdr R>abobo Amho. dñVy d godm nwadR>m gmIirVrb hm Ii~iOZH$
d {H«$`merb ^mJ hmo`, `mVyZ amoOJma, ì`dgm`mÀ`m AZoH$ g§Yr d AmìhmZo {Z_m©U Pmbobr AmhoV.
dmhVwH$sÀ`m godm gw{dYm/gmYZo (Transportion Infrastructure) : H$ƒm _mb, dñVy§Mr CËnmXZ
H|$ÐmnmgyZ Vo Cn^moJ H|$Ðmn`ªV hmbMmb H$aÊ`mV ì`yhemó nÕVr gdmªhÿZ _hÎdmÀ`m AmhoV. dmhVwH$sH$aU,
dñVy§Mr Zo-AmU d àdmg H$mimV dñVy§Mr gwa{jVVm VgoM gmR>m H$aVo. dmhVyH$sÛmao dñVy§À`m hmbMmbr
{d{dY nÕVrZo Ogo añVo dmhVyH$, aoëdo, hdmB© d gm_wÐrH$ àdmgmÛmao gwb^ hmoD$Z nm`m^yV godmgw{dYm§Mr
CnbãYVm eŠ` Pmbobr Amho. ^maVmV añVo dmhVwH$sMm {hñgm 39%, aoëdodmhVwH$sMm {hñgm 35% Va
Cd©[aV {hñgm hdmB© dmhVyH$ d gm_wÐrH$ àdmg dmhVwH$sÛmao Amho. dmhVwH$sH$aUmÀ`m gmYZm§Mr MMm© AWdm
_w»` KQ>H$ nwT>rbà_mUo :1) añVo dmhVyH$ : XoemÀ`m H¥$fr d Am¡Úmo{JH$ àJVrV gdm©V gmoB©Mo gmYZ åhUyZ añVo dmhVyH$sH$S>o
nmhÊ`mV `oVo. H$_r d _Ü`_ A§VamÀ`m {R>H$mUr VgoM Á`m {R>H$mUr BVa gmYZo nmohMy eH$V ZmhrV, Aem
{R>H$mUr añVo dmhVyH$ AË`§V gmoB©Mo Amho. añVo dmhVwH$s_wio dñVy§Mr KanmoM godm {_iVo H$s Or BVa gmYZm§Ûmao
eŠ` Zmhr. dmhVwH$sH$aUm_wio J«m_rU ^mJmVrb XyadaÀ`m A§Vamda VgoM J«m_rU Vo ehar d CbQ> nÕVrZo
{d{dY nm`m^yV godm gw{dYm nwa{dUo eŠ` Pmbobo Amho. dmhVwH$sH$aUm_wio XyadaMr IoS>r amï´>r` OrdZmÀ`m
_w»` àdmhmV AmUyZ dmhVwH$sMo Omio {dñVmabo Amho. dmhVyH$s_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ d H¥$fr H$m`m©~m~V ~hþ{dY
H$m`m©g d CËnmXZmg MmbZm {_imbobr Amho. Cn^moŠË`m§À`m dmT>Ë`m _mJUr_wio `mo½` dñVy§Mr `mo½` {R>H$mUr
Zo-AmU, dmhVyH$ eŠ` Pmbobr Amho. AmO g§nyU© Xoe^a dmhVwH$sMo Omio (network) {dñVmabo Amho. añVo
dmhVwH$sÛmao Ag§»` \$m`Xo eŠ` Pmbobo AmhoV. Vo WmoS>Š`mV nwT>rbà_mUo :(A) KanmoM godm : añVo dmhVwH$sVrb {d{dY gmYZm§_wio nwadR>m gmIirVrb {d{dY KQ>H$m§Ûmao {d{dY
dñVy§Mr KanmoM godm eŠ` Pmbobr Amho. añVo dmhVwH$s_wio dñVy§Mr KanmoM godm hm AË`§V _hÎdmMm \$m`Xm
(~) bd{MH$Vm : añVo dmhVyH$sVyZ `m Ñï>rZo {d{dY bm^ eŠ` Pmbobo AmhoV. dñVy§Mr Zo-AmU H$aUo,
A§{V_ Cn^moŠË`m§n`ªV dñVy CnbãY H$aÊ`mV añVo dmhVwH$sÛmao ~Xb eŠ` hmoV AgVmo.
(H$) {dídgZr`Vm
(S>) XyadaÀ`m A§Vamda dñVy nmohM{dUo
(B) JVr
(\$) gmVË`Vm
(J) IM© H$_r B.
2) aoëdo dmhVyH$ : àdmgr, dñVy d gm{hË` dmhVwH$sMo aoëdo ho _w»` gmYZ hmo`. XoemVrb ì`mnma d
dm{UÁ`{df`H$ H$m`m©V aoëdo dmhVyH$ _hÎdmMr ^y{_H$m ñdrH$maVo. Amdí`H$ dñVy§À`m nwadR>çm~m~V hm _w»`
_mJ© åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVmo, H$s Oo eodQ>À`m Q>moH$mn`ªV d ídmgmn`ªV n[aUm_H$maH$ R>abobo Amho. g§nyU©
OJ^amV Am¡Úmo{JH$aUmV d amï´>mÀ`m {dH$mgmV aoëdo dmhVwH$sZo _hÎdmMr ^y{_H$m ñdrH$mabr Amho. OJmVrb
gd© Xoe OmñVrV OmñV aoëdo dmhVyH$ gmYZmda Adb§~yZ AmhoV. H$ƒm _mb, AY©{Z{_©V _mb, IVo VgoM
Am¡Úmo{JH$ _mb, V`ma dñVy B. À`m dmhVwH$sgmR>r aoëdo dmhVyH$ ho àmW{_H$ gmYZ åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVo.
^maVr` aoëdoMm H$m`©{dñVma 62,800 {H$._r. Mm AgyZ Ë`mgmR>r XoemV EHy$U 6896 aoëdo ñQ>oeÝg
AmhoV. dñVy§À`m EHy$U dmhVwH$sn¡H$s 85% {hñgm aoëdoMm Amho. ^maVr` aoëdoH$S>o EHy$U 2,53,186 _mbS>~o
(d°JZ) AgyZ Ë`m§Mr j_Vm 10.6 AãO Q>Z BVH$s Amho. ^maVr` aoëdoÛmam _w»`V: H$moigm, nmobmX, {g_|Q>,
IVo, H$ƒm _mb, bmoI§S>r _mb, YmÝ` VgoM noQ´>mo{b`_ dñVy B. Mr dmhVyH$ hmoVo.
3) Ob_mJ© dmhVyH$ gmYZo : Amnë`m XoemV Ob_mJ©, gm_wÐrH$ àdmgmÛmao àdmgr d dñVy§Mr dmhVyH$
ho dmhVyH$sMo EH$ à^mdr gmYZ hmo`. gd©gmYmaUnUo AdOS>, _moR>m A{Y^ma Agboë`m dñVy H$_r IMm©V
nmohM{dÊ`mgmR>r Ob_mJ© dmhVyH$ AmXe© _mZbr OmVo, VWm{n Ob_mJ© dmhVyH$ gmYZ ho g§W J{VMo AgyZ
Ë`m_wio ~§Xam§À`m {R>H$mUr _mb nmohM{dÊ`mg {db§~ hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. H$_r A§VamdaÀ`m {R>H$mUr ho
gmYZ J¡agmoB©Mo VgoM H$m`m©À`m Ñï>rZo AdKS> ~ZVo.
OhmO CÚmoJm§_Ü`o ~moQ> H§$nZtMr _moR>r OhmOo, {ZpíMV doimnÌH$ ZgUmar dmhVyH$ H$aUmar ~moQ> AWdm
OhmOo, Am¡Úmo{JH$ godm nwa{dUmar OhmOo d Q±H$a gw{dYm (H$ÝQ>oZg©) B. Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo. ^maV Am{e`m
I§S>mV Ob_mJ© dmhVyH$s~m~V ghmì`m H«$_m§H$mda Amho. Va g§nyU© OJmV n§Yamì`m H«$_m§H$mda Amho. ^maVr`
OhmO CÚmoJmV EHy$U 510 OhmOo n¡H$s 240 naXoemVrb Am`mV-{Z`m©Vrer H$m`©aV AmhoV. EHy$U Am§Vaamï´>r`
ì`mnmamn¡H$s 95% _mbdmhVyH$ Ob_mJm©Ûmao hmoVo, Ë`mgmR>r ^maVmV _w»` ~§Xam§Mr g§»`m 11 BVH$s Amho.
Ob_mJ© dmhVyH$s_wio ^maVmÀ`m {Z`m©VrV 15% Zr A{YH$ dmT> Pmbobr Amho. VgoM Am`mV 14%Zr
dmT>bobr Amho. Ob_mJm©Ûmao AmnU noQ´>mo{b`_ nXmW©, Am°B©b, Z¡g{J©H$ d noQ´>mo{b`_ J°g (Eb.EZ.Or. d
Eb.nr.Or.) B. Am`mV H$aVmo. Va H$moigm, AÞYmÝ`, ñQ>rb, _moQ>mar, H$nS>o B. Mr dmhVyH$ Ob_mJm©Ûmao hmoVo.
4) hdmB© dmhVyH$ : àdmgr d dñVy§gmR>r dmhVyH$sMr hr gw{dYm \$ma ObX d I{M©H$ ñdê$nmMr Amho.
dmhVyH$sÀ`m BVa gd© gmYZm§Mr VwbZm H$aVm hdmB© dmhVyH$sV gdm©V H$_r YmoH$m _mZbm OmVmo. _w»`V: hdmB©
dmhVyH$ I{M©H$ AgyZ Zmed§V dñVy§gmR>r d Á`m dñVy§Mo Am`w_m©Z H$_r H$mimMo d Á`m§Mr [H§$_V OmñV AgVo,
Aem dñVy§gmR>r `m dmhVyH$ gmYZmMm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo, Ago AgyZhr ^maVmVrb hdmB© dmhVyH$sV 15-16%
Zr dmT> hmoV Amho.
^maVmVrb AmR> Am§Vaamï´>r` {d_mZVimdê$Z dñVy§gmR>r hdmB© dmhVyH$sMo H$m`© hmoVo Va 87 ñWm{ZH$
{d_mZVio d 28 _wbH$s {d_mZVio H$m`©aV AmhoV. `m dmhVyH$ gmYZm~m~V _w§~B©, MoÞB©, {X„r, H$mobH$Îmm,
~|Jbmoa d H$mo{MZ {d_mZVimda A{YH$ bj H|${ÐV H$aÊ`mV Ambobo Amho. {d_mZVimdê$Z gmYmaU 87%
dñVy§Mr Am`mV-{Z`m©V hmoV AgVo.
`m dmhVyH$ gmYZmg ^{dî`mV IynM dmd Agë`mZo emgZ ImOJr gh^mJrÛmao g§ñWm§Zm {Z_§{ÌV H$arV
Amho, Ë`mgmR>r nm`m^yV gw{dYm dmT>{dÊ`mMr Amdí`H$Vm Amho.
5) Zi_mJ© (nmB©nbmB©Z) : noQ´>mo{b`_ nXmW© d Z¡g{J©H$ dm`y dmhVwH$sgmR>r _w»`V: `m gmYZmMm
dmna Ho$bm OmVmo. H$ƒo Vob ewÕrH$aUmÀ`m H$maImÝ`mn`ªV dmhVyH$ H$aÊ`mgmR>r hm AË`§V à^mdr _mJ© R>aVmo.
H$m`m©Ë_H$ IM© H$_r bmJUo hm `m dmhVyH$ gmYZmMm \$m`Xm hmo`, Ho$di Ama§^rg H$amdr bmJUmar Jw§VdUyH$
OmñV AgVo. ^maVmV `m dmhVyH$ gmYZmMm dmna ImOJr d gmd©O{ZH$ joÌmVrb g§ñWm noQ´>mo{b`_ ewÕrH$aUmgmR>r
H$arV AmhoV. ^maVmVrb bîH$ar ^yàXoemV, npíM_ KmQ>mV H$ƒo bmoI§S> dmhVyH$sgmR>r gmYmaU 67 {H$._r.
Ûmao Z¡g{J©H$ dñVy§Mr dmhVyH$ hmoVo. ho dmhVyH$sMo gmYZ Z¡g{J©H$ àXwfU{da{hV (BH$mo \«|$S>br) ñdê$nmMo AgVo.
añVo d aoëdoÛmam Vob dmhVyH$sMm IM© dfm©Zwdf} dmT>V Amho. na§Vw CbQ> pñWVr Zi_mJ© dmhVyH$s~m~V Amho.
gd©gmYmaUnUo Zi_mJ© nÕVrZo dmhVyH$sMm IM© é. 1.15 à{VQ>Z, à{V {H$._r. Agm Amho. gÜ`m añVo
dmhVyH$sMm IM© à{V Q>Z, à{V {H$._r. é. 2.50 Agm Amho. ^maVmV df© 2010 AIoarg 80 AãO Q>Z Vob
dmhVyH$sMo C{Ôï> hmoVo.
6) XmoaI§S> _mJ© (amondo) : ^maVmV gmYmaU 16% ^m¡Jmo{bH$ joÌ\$i S>m|Jami, C§M gIb àXoem§Zr
ì`mnbobo Amho. Aem {R>H$mUr d {VWyZ Amdí`H$ dñVy§Mr dmhVyH$ H$aÊ`mgmR>r `m _mJm©Mm Adb§~ Ho$bm
OmVmo. C§M {R>H$mUr, S>m|Jami àXoemV dñVy§À`m dmhVyH$sMm hm _mJ© ObX VgoM Am{W©H$ Ñï>çm {H$\$m`Vera
_mZbm OmVmo. `m dmhVyH$ gmYZmMo \$m`Xo :(A) ho dmhVyH$ gmYZ n`m©daUmg YmoH$m H$arV Zmhr.
(~) XwJ©_, S>m|Jami d C§M {R>H$mUr H$_r A§VamÛmao dmhVyH$ eŠ` hmoV AgVo.
(H$) dmhVyH$sMr BVa gmYZo Am{W©H$Ñï>çm A{H$\$m`Vera Agë`mZo hr nÕV VwbZoZo {H$\$m`Vera R>aVo.
(S>) A{VdOZmÀ`m dñVy H$_r doioV dmhÿZ ZoUo eŠ` hmooVo.
`m dmhVyH$ gmYZmMm dmna ^maVmV {g{¸$_, _oKmb`, {_Pmoam_, {h_mMb àXoe d CÎmaàXoe Aem
{R>H$mUr Ho$bm OmVmo. gÜ`m XmoaI§S>_mJ} 175 {H$. _r. A§Va àdmgr d _mb_Îmm dmhVyH$sgmR>r CnbãY Amho.
Aem nÕVrZo dmhVyH$sH$aUmV darbà_mUo añVo, aoëdo, gm_wÐrH$àdmg, hdmB© dmhVyH$, Zi_mJ© d XmoaI§S>
_mJ© B. Mm Adb§~ Ho$bm OmVmo.
(B) JwXm_ H$m`© (Warehousing) : ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMo ho _hÎdmMo H$m`© åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV
`oVo. Am_ybmJ« ~Xbm§Mr à{H«$`m H$ê$Z AmYw{ZH$ JwXm_ H$m`© AË`§V à^mdr d n[aUm_H$maH$ R>abobo Amho.
{d{dY dñVy d godm§À`m nwadR>m gmIirV n[aUm_H$maH$Vm dmT>{dÊ`mV VgoM {ZU©` H$m`m©À`mÑï>rZo JwXm_o
_hÎdmMr R>abobr AmhoV. ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmV JwXm_o AmYmamMo H$m`© åhUyZ H$m`© H$aVmV. JwXm_ H$m`m©_wio
{d{dY C{Ôï>ço gmÜ` hmoÊ`mg _XV hmoVo. JwXm_o H$ƒm _mb, à{H«$`m`wŠV _mb, V`ma dñVy B.À`m CbmT>mbrV
dmT> hmoÊ`mg à_wI ^y{_H$m åhUyZ n[aUm_H$maH$ R>aVmV. JwXm_mMr H$m`} CËnmXH$Vm d qH$_V `m XmoZ
KQ>H$m§Ûmao R>a{dbr OmVmV. VgoM J«mhH$m§Mo g_mYmZ d JwXm_ H$m`m©Mm H$_r IM© hr C{Ôï>ço gmÜ` H$aÊ`mMm
à`ËZ Ho$bm OmVmo. ì`yhemó H$m`© OmioMr (ZoQ>dH©$) {ZdS> H$aVmZm Ho§$ÐrV qH$dm {dH|$ÐrV JwXm_ nÕVrMm
{dMma Ho$bm OmVmo. H|$ÐrV JwXm_ nÕVrV H$ƒm _mb {dVaUmda n«^mdr {Z`§ÌU R>odyZ H$m`m©darb IM© H$_r
R>odVm `oVmo, VWm{n {dH|$ÐrV JwXm_ nÕVrV {d{dY {R>H$mUr {dVaU H|$ÐmÛmam J«mhH$m§Zm CËH¥$ï> godm nwa{dUo
eŠ` Pmbobo Amho. JwXm_ H$m`m©Ûmam Z\$m d¥Õr, IMm©V H$mQ>H$ga, J«mhH$m§À`m godm nmVirV dmT>, ñnY}V
{Q>H$Uo B.gmR>r nwT>rb JaOm H$miOrnyd©H$ {dMmamV KoVë`m nm{hOoV.
(A) _mbgmR>m OmJoMm OmñVrV OmñV dmna H$aUo.
(~) CnbãY l_ d _Zwî`~imMr CËnmXH$Vm dmT>{dUo.
(H$) _mb_ÎmoMm H$_mb dmna H$aUo.
(S>) _mb hmVmiUr H$nmVrÛmao IM© H$_r H$aUo.
(B) dñVy d godm§À`m CbmT>mbrV dmT> H$aUo B.
AbrH$S>o _m{hVr V§ÌmkmZ d XiUdiUmMr àJV gmYZo d gw{dYm§_wio JwXm_ H$m`m©V n[aUm_H$maH$Vm
d H$m`©j_Vm {Z_m©U H$aUo eŠ` Pmbobo Amho. JwXm_ H$m`m©~m~V ObX _m{hVr nwa{dUo eŠ` Pmbobo Amho, na§Vw
ho gd© J«mhH$m§À`m Anojm, ì`dñWmnZmMo YmoaU, dñVy§Mm àH$ma, ~mOmanoR> ñnYm© B.da Adb§~yZ Amho.
ì`yhemó nÕVrV JwXm_ H$m`© hm A§VJ©V ^mJ hmo`. ñWybÑï>rZo {dMma H$aVm, JwXm_ H$m`© ho godm H$m`©
AgyZ nwadRm gmIirV Ë`mÛmao nwT>rb H$m`} nma nmS>br OmVmV.
(A) _mbgmR>m H$m`© : JwXm_ H$m`m©Mo ho àmW{_H$ d _w»` H$m`© hmo`. CËnmXZ d Cn^moJ MH«$mV
_mbgmR>m H$m`© AË`§V _hÎdmMo Amho. _mJUr {Z{_©VrV hm _hÎdmMm Xwdm hmo`. _mbgmR>m H$m`m©V {d{dY H$m`©
hmVr KoVbr OmVmV.
(~) _mb V`ma R>odUo : ~mOmanoR>mV dñVy, _mb {dVarV H$aÊ`mgmR>r JwXm_mV V`ma R>odmdm bmJVmo,
Ë`mÑï>rZo ho JwXm_mMo _w»` H$m`© R>aVo. Zm|XUr, AmXoe Zm|X{dUo d _mJUrZwgma JwXm_mVyZ _mb, dñVy J«mhH$m§n`ªV
nmR>{dbm OmVmo.
(H$) EH$ÌrH$aU : Ooìhm dñVy§Mm nwadR>m bhmZ à_mUmV {d{dY {R>H$mUr AgVmo, Ë`m n[apñWVrV EImÚm
{R>H$mUr _mbmMo EH$ÌrH$aU H$amdo bmJVo. KmD$H$ à_mUmVrb Am`mV-{Z`m©V H$m`mªgmR>r dñVy§Mo EH$ÌrH$aU
H$aUo AË`mdí`H$ R>aVo, Ë`mgmR>r `mo½` {Z`moOZmMr JaO {Z_m©U hmoVo.
(S>) _mbmMr {d^mJUr : darb C„o{Iboë`m EH$ÌrH$aU H$m`m©À`m nañna {damoYr ñdê$nmMo ho H$m`© hmo`.
_moR>çm à_mUmV Ambobm _mb, dñVy J«mhH$m§n`ªV {dVarV Ho$bm OmVmo.
(B) JmoXrVyZ _mb ^aUo : AZoH$Xm JwXm_mMm H$_rVH$_r dmna H$ê$Z JmoXrVyZ {d{eîR> {R>H$mUmnmgyZ
Cn^moJ H|$ÐmH$S>o dñVy, _mb nmR>{dbm OmVmo. Ë`mgmR>r AË`§V H$_r H$mimgmR>r JwXm_mV _mb R>odbm OmVmo.
(\$) {_lU : {d{dY dñVy CËnmXZ d {dVaU H$m`© hmVr KoUmè`m ì`dgm` g§ñWm§~m~V JwXm_mV dñVy
{_lUmMo H$m`© hmVr ¿`mdr bmJVo, Ë`mgmR>r gmoB©Mo {R>H$mUr {ZdS>bo OmVo.
(J) doï>Z : JwXm_ H$m`m©Vrb ho EH$ à^mdr H$m`© hmo`. AZoH$Xm JwXm_m_Ü`o doï>Z, nwZ: doï>Z H$m`©
Oê$arà_mUo hmVr KoÊ`mV `oVo.
(_) _mb CVa{dUo d CT>{dUo : JwXm_mMo ho A§{V_ H$m`© åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVo. _mb Amë`mZ§Va Vmo
CVa{dbm OmVmo. VgoM Cn^moJ d {dH«$s H|$ÐmH$S>o _mb dmhZm§Ûmao nmR>{dbm OmVmo.
WmoS>Š`mV ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmV JwXm_ H$m`© A{d^mÁ` ñdê$nmZo EH$ _hÎdmMo d à^mdr H$m`© R>aVo.
(C) _mbhmVmiUr H$m`© (Material Handling) : ì`yhemó H$m`m©V ho Q>miVm Z `oÊ`mgmaIo H$m`©
hmo`. dmhVwH$sH$aUmer g§~§{YV ñdê$nmMo ho H$m`© hmo`. CÚmoJ, ì`dgm`, JwXm_ H$m`m©V dñVy§Mr _mbhmVmiUr
H$m`© _hÎdmMr R>aVo. _mbhmVmiUr H$m`m©gmR>r {d{dY àH$maÀ`m gmYZm§Mm, gm{hË`m§Mm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo.
_mbhmVmiUr gm{hË`m§Mr {ZdS> H$aVmZm JwXm_ nÕVrMm {dMma ìhmdm bmJVmo. JwXm_mMr aMZm, CnbãY
OmJm, A§Va B.Mm {dMma H$ê$Z dñVy§Mr ghO hmbMmb {dZmAS>Wim hmoÊ`mÀ`m ÑîQ>rZo _mbhmVmiUr H$m`©
_hÎdmMo R>aVo. gd©gmYmaUnUo dñVy§Mm àH$ma d AmH$ma `mÛmao _mbhmVmiUr nÕV {ZpíMV H$amdr bmJVo.
JwXm_m§_Ü`o _mbhmVmiUr nwT>rb pñWVrV {Z_m©U hmoV AgVo.
(A) dmhZmVyZ _mb CVa{dUo.
(~) JwXm_mVrb {d{eï> {R>H$mUr _mb R>odUo d gaH${dUo B.
(H$) AmXoemZwgma _mb {dVarV H$aVmZm _mb MT>{dUo.
(S>) VnmgUr d doï>Z H$m`m©gmR>r _mbhmVmiUr.
(B) JÇ>o, ~m°Šg, nwR>çmMo ImoHo$ B. dmhZmV ^aUo.
_mb hmVmiUr H$m`m©V H$m`©j_Vm AgUo AË`§V Amdí`H$ Amho. _mbhmVmiUr hm l_CËnmXH$VoÀ`m
X¥ï>rZo EH$ g§doXZerb H$m`© åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVo. _mbhmVmiUrÀ`m Mm§Jë`m nÕVrZo hmbMmbrV JVr d
nwadR>m gmIir, {dVaU H$m`© AË`§V gwb^ d gmoB©Mo hmoV AgVo.
_mb hmVmiUrÀ`m nÕVr :
_mb hmVmiUr nÕVtMo dJuH$aU doJdoJù`m nÕVrZo hmoV.o JwXm_mV, CÚmoJ d ì`dgm`mV _mbhmVmiUrgmR>r
_mZdr l_mÀ`m, `m§{ÌH$s gmYZm§Mm, gm{hË`m§Mm d ñd`§M{bV `§Ìm§Mm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo. _mb hmVmiUrÀ`m
nÕVr nwT>rbà_mUo :(A) l_ nÕVr (Manual system) : JwXm_m_Ü`o, H$maImÝ`mV dmhVwH$sH$aUmdoir dñVy§À`m _mb
hmVmiUrgmR>r dmnabm OmUmam hm gd©gmYmaU àH$ma hmo`. _mb hmVmiUrMr hr nÕV ñdñV nÕV åhUyZ
AmoiIÊ`mV `oVo. AmH$mamZo H$_r Agboë`m dñVy§gmR>r hr nÕV AZwgabr OmVo. gd©gmYmaUnUo 20 {H$bmoÀ`m
AmVrb JÇ>o, ImoHo$ B.gmR>r JwXm_mV l_nÕVrMm Adb§~ Ho$bm OmVmo. dmhZmV _mb MT>{dUo d CVa{dUo
`mgmR>r `m nÕVrZo _mb hmVmiUr H$m`© hmoV AgVo. àJV XoemV hr nÕV H$_r dmnamV Amho.
(~) `§ÌmÛmao _mb hmVmiUr : `m nÕVrZo _mb hmVmiUr H$aVmZm {d{dY `§Ìm§Mm, gm{hË`m§Mm Adb§~
Ho$bm OmVmo. JwXm_mVrb aMZoZwgma _mb hmVmiUr gmR>r `mo½` `§ÌmMr {ZdS> H$aUo H«$_àmá R>aVo. _mb
hmVmiUrÀ`m `m nÕVr_wio l_, WH$dm, H§$Q>mim Xya H$aVm `oVmo. VgoM dñVy§Mr hmbMmb ObX, dñVy
hmbMmbrV {dídgZr`Vm amIyZ CËnmXH$Vm {Z_m©U H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo. `m_wio doioMr ~MV hmoV AgVo. dñVyMm
`mo½` àdmh amIVm `oVmo VgoM gwa{jVVoMr h_r XoD$Z _mb hmVmiUr H$m`m©V dñVy§Mo hmoUmao ZwH$gmZ H$_r H$aVm
`oVo, Ë`mgmR>r nwT>rb `§Ìm§Mm dmna Ho$bm OmVmo - MmH$mMr Q´>m°br, \$moH©$ {bâQ> Q´>H$, XmoaI§S> AWdm gmIirZo
AmoTy>Z ZoUo, gmo`rÀ`m MmH$mMr JmS>r, amoba, nÅ>m, gmIir, H«o$Z B.
WmoS>Š`mV ì`yhemó nÕVrV _mb hmVmiUr _hÎdmMr {H«$`m hmo`. _mb hmVmiUr H$m`m©Zwgma nwadR>m
gmIir H$m`© H$aVo. JwXm_mVrb aMZm d àmá n[apñWVrZwgma `mo½` Ë`m _mb hmVmiUr H$m`m©Mr {ZdS> H$amdr
(D) doï>Z H$m`© (Packaging) : doï>Z ho {dnUZmMo à^mdr gmYZ AgyZ Ë`mMm g§~§Y {dnUZ H$m`m©À`m
H¥¥$Vrer Amho. ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmV doï>ZmMm {dMma Ho$bm OmVmo. dñVy§À`m {H$_VrV doï>Z hm _hÎdmMm KQ>H$
åhUyZ AmoiIÊ`mV `oVmo. gd©gmYmaUnUo 5 Vo 30% IM© doï>Zmda hmoV AgVmo. dooï>Z H$m`m©Mr J«mhH$ /
Cn^mo½`{df`H$ dñVy d Am¡Úmo{JH$ dñVy doï>Z Ago d{J©H$aU Ho$bo OmVo.
dñVy doï>ZmÛmao {dnUmZmMo hoVy gmÜ` Ho$bo OmVmV. _mbgmR>m, _mb hmVmiUr d dmhVwH$sH$aU H$m`m©V
dñVy§Mo ZwH$gmZ Q>miUo hm doï>ZmMm _w»` hoVÿ hmo`. dñVy§Zm OmñVrV OmñV g§ajU Úmdo, J«mhH$m§Zm dñVy
dmnaÊ`mg `mo½` Agmdr `m Ñï>rZo doï>Z H$m`© AË`§V à^mdr d n[aUm_H$maH$ R>aVo. `m H$m`m©_wio CËnmXH$VoV
dmT> hmoVo. doï>Z H$m`m©da hmoUmam IM© hm KQ>H$ {dMmamV KoUo H«$_àmßV R>aVo. doï>Zm_wio dñVy§Mr H$m`©j_Vm
dmT>Vo, Ë`mMm EHy$U n[aUm_ åhUyZ H$m`m©darb IM© H$mhr à_mUmV H$_r hmoV AgVmo.
dñVy doï>ZmgmR>r bmHy$S>, ßb°pñQ>H$, KS>çm Ho$bobo nwÇ>o, YmVy, JdVmMm {~NmZm B. Mm dmna hmoV AgVmo.
dñVyÀ`m àH$mamZwgma (Zmed§VnUm, YmoH$mXm`H$, ^m§S>dbr dñVy, gwQ>o ^mJ, ZmOyH$ dñVy, KQ>H$ dñVy B.)
dñVy§Mo doï>Z R>admdo bmJVo.
ñdmÜ`m` :
1) ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZ åhUOo H$m`? Ë`mMo _hÎd WmoS>Š`mV {deX H$am.
2) ì`yhemó ì`dñWmnZmMr C{Ôï>ço ñnï> H$am.
3) ì`yhemó H$m`m©Vrb {d{dY KQ>H$ WmoS>Š`mV ñnï> H$am.
g§X^© J«§W :
1. Vinod V. Sople (2004)
Logistics Management, Pearson Education
2. S. K. Bhattacharyya (2008) - Logistics Management, S. Chand Pub;
3. Donald J. Bowersox &
David J. Closs (2002)
Logistical Management, Tata Megraw Hill Edition.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ nona-2
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 5 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 2 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmMr JaO/Amdí`H$Vm
(Need for Human Resource Planning)
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmV _Zwî`~imMr àmár, Cn`moJ, {dH$mg d Vo XrK©H$min`ªV ì`dgm`mV amhVrb
`m{df`r EH$ {ZpíMV `moOZm, ì`yhaMZm AmIUo A{^àoV Amho. ì`dgm`mVrb XrK©H$mbrZ H$m`©`moOZm
{dMmamV KoD$Z Ë`m ì`dpñWV nyU© hmoVrb ho Ü`o` S>moù`mg_moa R>oD$Z _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmMr AmIUr H$br
OmVo. _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ ho _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$ àmW{_H$, nm`m^yV d AË`§V _hÎdmMo H$m`© Amho.
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmMo H$m`© {dMmanyd©H$, H$m`©j_VoZo, Aä`mgnyd©H$ nma nmS>ë`mg Ë`mMo AZoH$ bm^ {d{dY
ì`dgm` KQ>H$m§Zm àmá hmoVmV. _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmMr JaO Imbrb nÕVrZo {deX H$aVm `oVo.
1. ì`mdgm{`Z H$m`} H$m`©j_VoZo, {Z`moOZmZwgma `mo½` {XeoZo, JVrZo, AI§S>nUo H$m`©aV amhÊ`mgmR>r
AMwH$ _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmMr JaO ^mgVo.
2. `mo½` g§»`oV, `mo½` j_VoMo, `mo½`VoMo, H$m`©Hw$eb, emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$X¥ï>çm gj_ _Zwî`~i
g§nmXZ H$aUo.
3. ì`mdgm{`Z Ü`o`o, C{Ôï>ço Ano{jV doioV, {H$_mZ IMmV gmÜ` H$aUo.
4. CËnmXZ g§gmYZmMm _hÎm_ dmna H$aUo.
5. EHy$U IM© {H$_mZ amIyZ {_iH$V l_Vm dmT>dyZ ì`dgm` g§KQ>Zobm Am{W©H$ ñW¡`© àmá H$ê$Z XoUo.
6. A§{V_ godm d CËnmXZmMr JwUdÎmm Cƒ amIyZ J«mhH$m§Zm g_mYmZ {_idyZ XoUo.
7. OmñV qH$dm H$_r g§»`oV H$_©Mmar ^aVrMo VmoQ>o, Xmof Q>miUo.
8. g§KQ>ZoV H$m`© H$arV Agboë`m H$_©Mmè`m~m~V ~T>Vr, ~Xbr, à{ejU {df`H$ {ZU©` KoUo gwb^
9. H$_©Mmè`m§Zm `mo½`VoZwgma, H$m`© dmQ>n, A{YH$ma àXmZ H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§Zm H$m`©g_mYmZ {_idyZ
XoÊ`mgmR>r, Ë`m§Mr g§KQ>Zodarb {dídmg, {Zð>m dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ Cn`wŠV R>aVo.
10. H$_©Mmar d ì`dñWmnZ `m§À`mV AË`§V gbmo»`mMo g§~§Y {Z_m©U Pmë`mZo Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh,
nañnam§{df`r A{dídmg {Z_m©U hmoV Zmhr. `m_wio Ë`mMo Xwîn[aUm_ Q>mibo OmVmV.
11. _¥V, {Zd¥Îm, ~T>Vr, nXmdZVr Pmboë`m H$_©Mmè`m§À`m OmJr ZdrZ `mo½` H$_©Mmar {Z`wŠV H$aUo
eŠ` hmoVo.
12. H$_©Mmar J¡ahOoar, AXbm~Xb, {Z`§{ÌV R>odbr OmVo.
13. AmYw{ZH$sH$aU, {dñVmarH$aUmÀ`m `moOZm `eñdr H$aVm `oVmV.
14. H$_©Mmar ^aVrMm IM© {H$_mZ amIbm OmVmo.
15. ^{dî`H$mbrZ JaO, Vm§{ÌH$ kmZ, \°$eZ, Vm§{ÌH$ ~Xb, g§emoYZ `m§Mm A§XmO H$ê$Z Ë`mZwgma
`mo½`, gj_ H$_©Mmè`m§Mr ^aVr d {ZdS> H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo.
16. ì`dgm` g§KQ>ZoV A`mo½`, AnmÌ, AH$m`©j_, ~o{eñV, Aàm_m{UH$ H$_©Mmar KoVbo OmV ZmhrV.
Ë`m_wio Ë`m§À`mnmgyZ hmody eH$Umao gd© n«H$maMo ZwH$gmZ, Xwîn[aUm_ Q>mibo OmVmV.
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmda n[aUm_ H$aUmao KQ>H$ :
(Factors affecting Human Resource Planning) :
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ åhUOo ì`dgm` g§ñWoÀ`m EH${ÌV `moOZm§Mr A_§b~OmdUr H$aÊ`mgmR>r _Zwî`
~imMr Amdí`H$Vm {ZpíMV d nyU© H$aÊ`mMr à{H«$`m hmo`. _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ ho _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m
à{H«$`oVrb EH$ AË`§V _hÎdmMo, àmW{_H$ d nm`m^yV ñdê$nmMo H$m`© Amho. `m_wio ho H$m`© AË`§V {dMmanyd©H$
d Cƒ H$m¡eë`mZo nyU© H$amdo bmJVo. AMyH$ _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmMo AZoH$ bm^ ì`dgm` g§KQ>Zobm àmá hmoVmV.
CXm. Hw$eb, AZw^dr, à{e{jV, àm_m{UH$ _Zwî`~imMr àmár, H$m`© CÔoem§Mr nyV©Vm, H$m`©àdmhmV gmVË`,
gmYZgm_J«rMm H$_mb dmna, Z\$m àmár, darð>-H${ZîR> gbmo»`mMo g§~§Y B. `m_wio _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ `m
_hÎdnyU© H$m`m©da à^md Q>mH$Umao KQ>H$ {dMmamV ¿`mdo bmJVmV. ho KQ>H$ Imbrbà_mUo -
1) _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnH$mMr {Z`moOZj_Vm :
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ ho _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnH$mMo EH$ AË`§V _hÎdmMo d àmW{_H$ ñdê$nmMo H$m`© Amho.
AMyH$ _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmgmR>r ì`dñWmnH$mH$S>o {d{dY JwU d¡{eï>çm§Mr, j_Vm§Mr Amdí`H$Vm AgVo. CXm.
XyaX¥ï>r, AZw_mZ j_Vm, {díbofUj_Vm, AMyH$ {ZîH$f© j_Vm, ~m¡{ÕH$ j_Vm, KQ>H$m§Mr à^mdembr _mnZ
j_Vm, H$ënH$Vm B. WmoS>Š`mV _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnH$mH$S>o gXa JwUd¡{eï>çm§Mm A^md Agob Va Vmo AMyH$
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ H$ê$ eH$V Zmhr. Ë`mZo Ho$boë`m _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmV H$mhr C{Udm, ÌwQ>r amhVmV d Ë`mMo
AZoH$ {XK©H$mbrZ Xyîn[aUm_ ì`dgm` g§ñWobm ghZ H$amdo bmJVmV. CXm. A`mo½`, AnmÌ ì`ŠVtMr {ZdS>,
H$_©Mmar-darð> gVV g§Kf©, H$m`©à_mU, JVr, JwUdÎmm H$_r, C{Ôï> nwVug {db§~ B.
2) ì`dgm`mA§VJ©V KQ>H$m§{df`r ñnï> _m{hVrMm A^md :
_Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnH$mH$S>o ì`dgm`mA§VJ©V KQ>H$m~m~V gË`, ñnï>, nw[anyU©, {dídg{Z` _m{hVr d
AmH$S>odmar CnbãY AgUo Amdí`H$ Amho. CXm. H$moUË`m {d^mJmV H$moUVr d {H$Vr nXo [aŠV AmhoV, `m
nXm§À`m emar[aH$, _mZ{gH$, e¡j{UH$, Vm§{ÌH$ nmÌVm, EHy$U nXg§»`m, Z{OH$À`m ^{dî`mV Z{dZ {Z_m©U
hmoUmè`m nXm§Mr eŠ`Vm, nXm§À`m JaOoMm H$mbmdYr B. hr _m{hVr {OVH$s AMyH$ d n[anyU© Agob {VVH$s
AMyH$Vm _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmbm àmá hmoVo. AMyH$ _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZm_wio CnH«$_mbm Amdí`H$VoBVHo$M d
Amdí`H$ `mo½`VoMo H$_©Mmar n«má H$aVm `oVmV.
3) ì`dgm`~mø KQ>H$m§~m~V A§XmO d Ë`m§Mo ghH$m`© :
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ `eñdr H$aÊ`mgmR>r AZoH$ ì`dgm`~mø KQ>H$m§Mo ghH$m`© ¿`mdo bmJVo. CXm.
à{gÕr _mÜ`_o, _Ü`ñV dJ©, amoOJma {d{Z_` H|$Ðo, gm_m{OH$ d H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm, ~oamoOJma dJ©, e¡j{UH$
g§ñWm B. `m KQ>H$m§Mr H$m`©nÕVr, ghH$m`m©Mr d¥Îmr, H$m`©j_Vm d àm_m{UH$nUm `mda CnH«$_mÀ`m _Zwî`~i
{Z`moOZ H$m`m©Mr n[aUm_H$maH$Vm AmYm[aV AgVo. `mM~amo~a l_~mOmamVrb n[apñWVr Hw$eb, AHw$eb
_Zwî`~imÀ`m CnbãYVoMo à_mU, Ë`m§À`m JaOm, Anojm, _mZ{gH$Vm, _Ü`ñVm§Mr d AZwf{§ JH$ godm nwa{dUmè`m§Mr
H$m`©nÕVr d _mZ{gH$Vm B. KQ>H$m§~m~V _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnZmZo Ho$bobo AZw_mZ {OVHo$ AMyH$, ì`dhm`©,
dñVy{Zð> Agob {VVHo$ `e _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmbm àmá hmoVo.
4) CnH«$_mMr ^{dî`H$mbrZ {Xem :
_Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnZmbm _Zwî`~imMo {Z`moOZ H$aVmZm CnH«$_mMm ^{dî`H$mbrZ {dH$mg, Ë`mMr JVr
qH$dm {dH$mgmVrb AS>Wio `m{df`r AMyH$ A§XmO H$amdm bmJVmo. `m_wio ^{dî`H$mbrZ _Zwî`~imMr JaO
^mJ{dÊ`mgmR>r dV©_mZH$mimVM `mo½` Vr nmD$bo CMbVm `oVmV. ì`dgm` joÌmVrb VoOr-_§XrMo ñdê$n,
{Xem, g§ñWonwT>rb g§Ü`m d AmìhmZo, Z{dZ V§ÌkmZ `m KQ>H$m§À`m AmYmao, ì`dgm` g§ñWoÀ`m {dñVmamMr qH$dm
AYmoJVrMr {Xem, doJ `m§Mr H$ënZm H$aVm `oVo. `m_wio CnH«$_mMr ^{dî`H$mbrZ {Xem AO_mdyZ _Zwî`~imMo
{Z`moOZ H$aUo `mo½` R>aVo.
5) ~XbVo n`m©daU :
OmJ{VH$sH$aUmÀ`m à^mdm_wio ì`dgm` n`m©daU gVV doJmZo ~XbV AgVo. `m_wio _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmbm
Ano{jV `e àmá hmoV Zmhr. l_~mOmamVrb n[apñWVr, ~oamoOJmarMo à_mU, Vm§{ÌH$, AVm§{ÌH$ _Zwî`~i,
~oamoOJmam§À`m JaOm, Anojm, _Ü`ñVm§Mr H$m`©nÕVr, BVa joÌmVyZ _Zwî`~img Agbobr _mJUr B. KQ>H$m§_Ü`o
~XbË`m n`m©daUm_wio gVV ~Xb hmoV AgVmV. `m_wio ho ~Xb {dMmamV KoD$Z Ho$bobo _Zwî`~h {Z`moOZ
A{YH$ ì`dhm`© d AMyH$ R>aVo.
6) emgH$s` {Z`_ d H$m`Xo :
H|$Ð d amÁ` emgZ H$_©Mmar ^aVr, {ZdS>, doVZ, H$m`©pñWVr, H$ë`mUH$mar gw{dYm B. ~m~V {Z`_,
ñWm`r AmXoe, H$m`Xo g§_V H$aV AgVo. `m gdmªMo H$mQ>oH$moa nmbZ H$aUo, gd© ì`mdgm{`H$m§da ~§YZH$maH$
AgVo. `m_wio _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnZmbmhr _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ H$aVmZm g§~§{YV emg{H$` AmXoe, {Z`_
{dMmamV ¿`mdo bmJVmV. AÝ`Wm emgH$s` H$madmB©bm gm_moao Omdo bmJVo.
7) gj_ H$_©Mmè`m§Mr CnbãYVm :
_Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmV àË`oH$ nXmgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmè`m H$_©Mmè`m§À`m `mo½`Vm nmÌVm, EHy$U g§»`m
d Ë`m§À`m ^aVrMo _mJ© {ZpíMV Ho$bo OmVmV. na§Vw {ZdS>boë`m ^aVrÀ`m _mJm©Ûmao Ano{jV j_VoMo, JwUdÎmoMo,
H$m¡eë`mMo nwago H$_©Mmar CnbãY Pmbo Zmhr Va _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmg Ano{jV `e àmá Pmbo Ago åhQ>bo OmV
8) _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmMr A§_b~OmdUr H$aUmam A{YH$mar dJ© :
H$moUË`mhr {Z`moOZmMo `e ho Ë`m {Z`moOZmÀ`m à^mdr A§_b~OmdUrda AmYm[aV AgVo. åhUyZ
_Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnZmZo _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZmÀ`m A§_b~OmdUrMr O~m~Xmar gj_, àm_m{UH$, H$m`©j_
A{YH$mar dJm©da gmondmdr. VgoM A{YH$mar dJm©Zohr àË`j A§_b~OmdUr H$aVmZm Amnë`m j_Vm§Mm,
H$ënH$VoMm, {M{H$ËgH$ d¥ÎmrMm nwaonya Cn`moJ H$amdm. `m_wio _Zwî`~i {Z`moOZ `eñdr hmoÊ`mg _XV hmoVo.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ nona-2
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 5 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
_Owar, doVZ aMZm d àemgZ `mda n[aUm_ H$aUmao KQ>H$ :
(Factors Influencing Wages and Salary Structure and Administration) :
_Owar, doVZ aMZm d àemgZ `mda n[aUm_ H$aUmao AZoH$ KQ>H$ AmhoV. Ë`m§Mr WmoS>Š`mV _m{hVr
Imbrbà_mUo :
1. doVZ, qH$_V d Z\$m `mVrb g§~§Y : doVZ, CËnmXZ qH$_V d Z\$m `m§Mo nañna {damoYr g§~§Y
Agë`mZo `m {VÝht_Ü`o g_Ýd` H$gm gmYmd`mMm hm àemgZmnwT>o àíZ C^m amhVmo. H$_©Mmè`m§Zm Amnë`m
H$m_m~Ôb OmñVrV OmñV _mo~Xbm {_imdm hr Anojm AgVo. Y§Úmbm hmoUmam Z\$m hm Amnë`m emar[aH$ d
~m¡{ÕH$ l_m_wio hmoVmo. Ë`m_wio doVZdmT>rÀ`m ñdê$nmV Ë`m Zâ`mVrb {hñgm AmnUmg {_imbm nm{hOo Ago
Ë`m§Mo _V AgVo. Ë`m_wioM doVZdmT>rMr _mJUr gVV hmoV AgVo. doVZdmT>r_wio CËnmXZIMm©V dmT> hmoVo.
CËnmXZIM© dmT>ë`mZo CÚmoJKQ>H$m§À`m Zâ`m_Ü`o KQ> hmoVo. ^mJYmaH$m§Zr CÚmoJKQ>H$mgmR>r ^m§S>db nwa{dbobo
AgVo d OmoIr_ ñdrH$mabobr AgVo Voìhm `m ñdrH$maboë`m OmoI_rMm bm^m§emÀ`m ê$nmV `mo½` _mo~Xbm
{_imbm nm{hOo; Aer Ë`m§Mr amñV Anojm AgVo. Oa doVZdmT>r_wio CËnmXZIM© dmT>bm d Zâ`mMo à_mU
KQ>bo Va Ë`m§Mr amñV Anojm nyU© H$aUo AeŠ` hmoVo. CËnmXZIM© d n[aUm_r CËnmXZ qH$_V dmT>ë`mZo dñVy§Mr
qH$_V/ {dH«$s dmT>dmdr bmJVo. `m_wio J«mhH$m§Zm Vr dñVy _hmJ nS>Vo. J«mhH$m§À`m VH«$mar d {damoY gwê$ hmoVmo.
g_mOmÀ`m {hVmH$S>o Xwb©j hmoVo. Voìhm `m {VÝhr dJmªZm g_mYmZ H$go bm^ob `m àíZmMm àemgZmbm gVV
{dMma H$amdm bmJVmo d Ë`m Ñï>rZo à`ËZerb amhmdo bmJVo.
2. CÚmoOH$, H$_©Mmar g§KQ>Zm d H$_©Mmar `m§Mr d¥Îmr : CÚmoOH$, H$_©Mmar g§KQ>Zm d H$_©Mmar
`m§À`m doVZ aMZoH$S>o nmhÊ`mÀ`m d¥Îmr_Ü`o d Ñ{ï>H$moUm_Ü`o \$aH$ AgVmo. H$_©Mmar dJm©Mr AmnUmg Anwao
doVZ {_iVo, Amnë`m l_mMm `mo½`, Ý`mæ` _mo~Xbm {_iV Zmhr AerM Zoh_r ^mdZm AgVo. Va ì`dñWmnH$m§Zm
qH$dm CÚmoOH$m§Zm AmnU H$_©Mmè`m§Zm Ë`m§À`m l_mMm nyU© _mo~Xbm XoVmo d Ë`m§Zr VH«$ma H$aÊ`mMo H$maU Zmhr
Ago dmQ>V AgVo. H$_©Mmar g§KQ>Zm§Mr AmnU H$_©Mmè`m§Mo {hVH$V} AgyZ H$_©Mmè`m§Zm doVZdmT> {_idyZ XoUo
ho Amnbo H$V©ì` Amho Aer YmaUm AgVo d Ë`mÑï>rZo Ë`m§Mo à`ËZ Mmby AgVmV. `m VrZ Ñ{ï>H$moUm§Mm doVZ
aMZoda d àemgZmda n[aUm_ hmoV AgVmo. gm_y{hH$ gm¡Xo~mOr hm _Owar/doVZ g_ñ`oda n[aUm_ H$aUmam
_hÎdmMm KQ>H$ Amho.
3. H$_©Mmè`mÀ`m JaOm d Am{W©H$ gwa{jVVm : CÚmoOH$, g_mO, H$_©Mmar g§KQ>Zm d H$_©Mmar `m
gdmªZmM ho VÎdV: _mÝ` AgVo H$s H$_©Mmè`m§À`m Am{W©H$ JaOm nyU© H$aÊ`mBVnV d Ë`m§Zm Am{W©H$ gwa{jVVm
bm^ob BVnV _Owar/ doVZ {_imbo nm{hOo. na§Vw àË`jmV ì`dhmamV H$_©Mmè`m§À`m Am{W©H$ JaOm§Mo _yë`m§H$Z
H$aUo, Am{W©H$ gwa{jVVm R>a{dUo d amhUr_mZ {ZX}em§H$mer _Owar / doVZ {ZJ{S>V H$aUo `m ~m~r \$ma H$R>rU
4. H$_©Mmè`m§Mr CËnmXH$Vm : VÎdV: H$_©Mmè`m§À`m CËnmXH$VoZwgma Ë`mbm _Owar / doVZ XoUo ho
`mo½` YmoaU Amho d Ë`mà_mUo {Xbr OmUmar _Owar / doVZ hm Ý`mæ` _mo~Xbm AgVmo. H$_©Mmè`mMo H$m_ AWdm
CËnmXZ d _Owar `m§Mm AÝ`moÝ` g§~§Y AgVmo. OmñV CËnmXZmgmR>r OmñV _Owar, H$_r CËnmXZmgmR>r H$_r
_Owar. na§Vw àË`j ì`dhmamV àË`oH$ H$_©Mmè`m§Mo H$m_ ho _moOVm `oÊ`mgmaIo AgV Zmhr. CXmhaUmW©,
H$maHw$Zr H$m_. `m{edm` H$m`Xoera VaVwXr d H$_©Mmar g§KQ>Zm§Mm `m nÕVrbm {damoY AgVmo.
5. l_~mOmamVrb n[apñWVr d doVZXma : AW©emómMo "_mJUr d nwadR>m' (Demand ans Supply)
ho VÎd l{_H$m§À`m ~m~VrVhr bmJy nS>Vo. l{_H$m§Mr _mJUr OmñV Agob d Ë`m_mZmZo l{_H$ CnbãY ZgVrb
Va _Owar / doVZ OmñV Úmdo bmJVo. `mCbQ> _mJUr H$_r Agob d l{_H$ _moR>çm à_mUmda CnbãY AgVrb
Va H$_r _Owar / doVZmda H$_©Mmar {_iy eH$VmV. åhUOoM _Owam§À`m _mJUr nwadR>çmMm doVZ aMZoda n[aUm_
hmoVmo d àemgZmbm doVZ / _Owar {ZpíMV H$aVmZm hr ~m~ {dMmamV ¿`mdr bmJVo.
VgoM Amnë`m CÚmoJKQ>H$mÀ`m joÌmV nydu ñWmnZ Pmbobo CÚmoJKQ>H$ H$m` XamZo _Owar / doVZ XoVmV
`mMmhr {dMma H$aUo Oê$Z AgVo. BVa {R>H$mUr Or _Owar / doVZ {Xbo OmVo, {ZXmZ VodT>r _Owar / doVZ
H$_©Mmè`m§Zm XoUo H«$_àmá AgVo.
6. gm¡XmeŠVr (Collective Bargaining Power) : CÚmoJKQ>H$mVrb H$_©Mmar g§KQ>ZoMr gm¡XmeŠVr
{H$Vr Amho `mMmhr _Owar d doVZ aMZoda n[aUm_ hmoVmo. H$_©Mmar g§KQ>Zm à~b, à^mdr Agob Va
H$_©Mmè`m§Zm {VÀ`m _mJUrZwgma OmñV XamZo _Owar / doVZ Úmdo bmJVo. na§Vw H$_©Mmar g§KQ>Zm Xw~©b Agob
Va {VÀ`m _mJUrH$S>o bj XoÊ`mMr ì`dñWmnZmg JaO AgV Zmhr. `m_wio H$_©Mmar g§KQ>ZoZo OmñV XamZo
_mJUr Ho$br Var H$_r XamZo l{_H$ {_iy eH$VmV.
7. gaH$mar YmoaU d \$m`Xo : H$_©Mmè`m§À`m g_ñ`m§À`m ~m~VrV gaH$ma Ho$di ~¿`mMr ^y{_H$m KoD$
eH$V Zmhr. H$_©Mmè`m§Zm `mo½` doVZ {_imdo. Ë`m§Mr H$m`© n[apñWVr Mm§Jbr Agmdr. Ë`m§Zm CÚmoJmÀ`m
{R>H$mUr Amdí`H$ Ë`m godm-gw{dYm CnbãY ìhmì`mV. Ë`m§Mo H$m_mMo Vmg R>amdrH$ Vmgm§nojm OmñV Agy
Z`oV. Ë`m§Zm H$m_ H$aVmZm `mo½` doir `mo½` VodT>r {dlm§Vr {_imdr. Ë`m§À`m Amamo½`mMo g§ajU ìhmdo. Ë`m§Zm
ZwH$gmZ^anmB© {_imdr ÑîQ>tZo gaH$ma YmoaU R>a{dVo d Ë`mMr A§_b~OmdUr ìhmdr `mgmR>r H$m`Xo H$aVo. `m
gdmªMm n[aUm_ _Owar / doVZ aMZoda hmoV AgVmo. _Owar d doVZ àemgZmbm _Owar / doVZ {ZpíMV H$aVmZm
`m gd© ~m~r ZOaog_moa R>odmì`m bmJVmV.
8. _mZ{gH$ d gm_m{OH$ KQ>H$ : _mZdmMo g_mYmZ, gwI ho Ho$di Am{W©H$ ~m~tÀ`mdaM Adb§~yZ
AgV Zmhr. _Owar d doVZ aMZoda n[aUm_ H$aUmao AZoH$ _mZ{gH$ d gm_m{OH$ KQ>H$ AmhoV. H$_©Mmè`mbm
{_iUmè`m _Owarda qH$dm doVZmda Ë`mMm g_mOmVrb XOm© R>aV AgVmo. Ë`mÀ`m VwbZmË_H$ `epñdVoMo Vo
_moO_mn Amho. EImÚm H$_©Mmè`mbm Xwgè`m {R>H$mUr H$m_ H$aUmè`m H$m_JmamÀ`m doVZmEdT>o qH$dm WmoS>o OmñV
doVZ Oar {_iV Agbo Var Ë`mbm ì`dñWmnZmH$Sy>Z Oa `mo½` qH$_V {_iV Zgob, Ë`mMm XOm© BVa
{R>H$mUmÀ`m H$m_Jmam§nojm ImbMm Agob Va Ë`mbm _mZ{gH$ g_mYmZ bm^V Zmhr d Vmo ZmoH$ar gmoSy>Z
OmÊ`mMm {dMma H$aVmo. gmYo CXmhaU Úmd`mMo Pmbo Va amÁ` dmhVyH$ _§S>imV H$maHw$Zmbm {_iUmè`m
nJmamnojm S´>m`ìhaMm nJma OmñV AgVmo. na§Vw g_mOmV H$maHw$Zmbm Or à{Vð>m AgVo, Vr S´>m`ìhabm AgV
Zmhr. VgoM EH$m g§KQ>Zonojm Xwgè`m g§KQ>ZoV Ë`mM H$m`m©gmR>r, nXmgmR>r, O~m~XmargmR>r H$_r doVZ Agob
qH$dm XOm©, à{Vð>m H$_r Agob VargwÕm H$_©Mmar Ag_mYmZr amhVmo. H$_©Mmè`m§À`m _mZ{gH$ d gm_m{OH$
{dMmam§Mm n[aUm_ _Owar d doVZ aMZoda hmoV AgVmo.
9. ñnYm© : Hw$eb H$_©Mmè`m§Zm AZoH$m§À`mH$Sy>Z ZmoH$argmR>r ~mobmdUo `oVo. Amnë`mbm Mm§Jbo, Hw$eb
H$_©Mmar {_imdoV Ë`m Ñï>rZo doJdoJù`m CÚmoJm§V ñnYm© {Z_m©U hmoVo. `m ñnY}_wio Hw$eb H$_©Mmè`m§Mm ^md
dYmaVmo d Ë`m§Zm OmñV doVZ Úmdo bmJVo. `mCbQ> EImÚm CÚmoJm_Ü`o H$m_ H$aUo ho gd© Ñï>tZr {hVmdh,
^yfUmdh Agob Ë`m {R>H$mUr ZmoH$ar {_imdr åhUyZ H$_©Mmè`m§_Ü`o ñnYm© {Z_m©U hmoVo. Aem doir H$_r
doVZmda H$_©Mmar {_iy eH$VmV. `mn«_mUo _mbH$m§Vrb qH$dm H$_©Mmè`m§Vrb ñnY}Mm _Owar d doVZ aMZoda
n[aUm_ hmoVmo.
10. CÚmoJKQ>H$mMr nJma XoÊ`mMr j_Vm : l{_H$m§Mr _Owar / doVZmMr _mJUr amñV Agob na§Vw
{VVH$s _Owar / doVZ XoUo EImÚm CÚmoJmbm Ë`mÀ`m Am{W©H$ Xw~©bVo_wio eŠ` AgV Zmhr d H$_r XamZo l{_H$
¿`mdo bmJVmV. Voìhm CÚmoJKQ>H$mÀ`m Am{W©H$ n[apñWVrMmgwÕm Ho$ìhm Ho$ìhm _Owar d doVZ aMZoda n[aUm_
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ nona-2
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 6 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh
(Industrial Disputes)
àñVm{dH$ :
XoemÀ`m Am{W©H$ d Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dH$mgmgmR>r CÚmoJjoÌm_Ü`o "Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVm' Zm§XUo Amdí`H$
AgVo. `mgmR>r H$m_Jma, _mbH$, ì`dñWmnZ `m§À`mV gbmo»`mMo, _¡{ÌnyU© g§~§Y Agmdo bmJVmV. na§Vw
_mbH$, ì`dñWmnZ `m§À`m VwbZoV H$m_Jma dJ© Am{W©H$ d gm_m{OH$Ñï>çm H$_Hw$dV AgVmo. _mbH$m§À`m
hmVmV gÎmm, g§nÎmr d A{YH$mam§Mo H|$ÐrH$aU Pmbobo AgVo. H$m_Jmam§H$S>o AkmZ, Xm[aÐç, Ag§K{Q>VnUm,
Aën{ejU B. AdJwUm§Mo H|$ÐrH$aU Pmbobo AgVo. `m_wio H$mhr ñdmWu, AmË_H|$Ðr, bmo^r _mbH$m§Zm
H$m_Jmam§Mr \$gdUyH$ H$aÊ`mV AmZ§X dmQ>Vmo. H$m_Jmam§À`m AkmZm_wio Ë`m§À`m Am{W©H$ \$gdUwH$sMr g§Yr
ì`dñWmnZmg {_iVo. na§Vw Á`mdoir H$m_Jmam§À`m \$gdUwH$sMr, {nidUwH$sMr n[agr_m JmR>br OmVo,
H$m_Jmam§À`m ghZeŠVrMm A§V hmoVmo, Ë`mdoir H$m_Jmam§Mm g§Vmn, Ag§Vmof ^S>Hy$ bmJVmo d `mg g§KQ>ZoÀ`m
_mÜ`_mVyZ IVnmUr {_imë`mg H$m_Jma Ag§Vmof CJ« ê$n YmaU H$aVmo d Ë`mMo ê$nm§Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmV
hmoVo. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh hm Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVog d {dH$mgmg bmJbobm EH$ emn Amho Ago åhUVmV. Am¡Úmo{JH$
H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_ BVHo$ ^`mZH$, CJ« AgVmV H$s, `m_wi§ g§nyU© CÚmoJjoÌmMo ApñVËdM YmoŠ`mV `oVo.
CÚmoJjoÌmMm {dH$mg R>ßn hmoVmo. Ë`mMo Xwîn[aUm_ CÚmoJjoÌmer g§~§{YV gd© KQ>H$m§Zm ^moJmdo bmJVmV. CXm.
CÚmoOH$, ^mJYmaH$, H$m_Jma, J«mhH$, g_mO, N>moQ>o ì`mdgm{`H$, nwadR>mXma, _Ü`ñW, emgZ, amï´>, AW©ì`dñWm
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_ nmhVm, Vmo CX²^dUmaM Zmhr qH$dm CX²^dë`mg Ë`mMo Ëd[aV, `mo½`
nÕVrZo {ZamH$aU hmoB©b `mgmR>r gd© g§~§{YV KQ>H$m§Zr H$m`©j_VoZo d àm_m{UH$nUo à`ËZ Ho$bo nm{hOoV. CXm.
H$m_Jma, _mbH$, ì`dñWmnZ, emgZ, H$m_Jma H$ë`mU A{YH$mar B. _mbH$ d H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm `m XmoÝhr
njm§Zr Amnbm Ah§H$ma ~mOybm R>odyZ H$m_Jma d g_mO {hVmgmR>r EH$m nmVirda `oD$Z, Iwë`m dmVmdaUmV
_Z_moH$ionUmZo EH$_oH$m§À`m AS>rAS>MUr {dMmamV KoD$Z Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo {ZamH$aU H$amdo. H$m_Jma,
_mbH$, ì`dñWmnZmZo nañnam§V Ago {dídmgmMo, gbmo»`mMo, ghH$m`m©Mo g§~§Y àñWm{nV H$amdoV H$s,
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhM CX²^dUma Zmhr. WmoS>Š`mV, XmoÝhr njm§Zr g§KQ>ZoÀ`m {hVmbm àYmÝ` XoD$Z, ñd{hVm~amo~a
Xwgè`m§À`m {hVmMm {dMma Ho$bm Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh hr g§kmM CÚmoJjoÌmVyZ Zmhrer hmoB©b.
ì`m»`m :
1. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`Xm 1947 _Yrb H$b_ 2 à_mUo, ""Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh åhUOo H$moUË`mhr
H$m_JmamMr ZmoH$ar, ~oH$mar qH$dm ZmoH$arÀ`m AQ>r qH$dm eVu qH$dm l_mÀ`m n[apñWVrer g§~§Y Agbobm
_mbH$ Am{U _mbH$ qH$dm H$m_Jma Am{U H$m_Jma qH$dm H$m_Jma Am{U H$m_Jma `m§À`mVrb H$bh qH$dm
("Industrial dispute means any dispute or difference between employers and employers or
between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen, which is connected with
the employment or non employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour
of any person.")
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo ñdê$n :
H$m_Jma d _mbH$ `m§À`mV H$m_mg§~§Yr H$moUË`mhr H$maUm_wio dmX, _V^oX Pmë`mg d dmXmMo,
_V^oXmMo doioV d g_mYmZH$maH$[aË`m {ZagZ Z Pmë`mg Ë`mMo ê$nm§Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmV hmoVo. H$m_Jmam§Mm
Ag§Vmof g§K{Q>V ñdê$nmV Agob Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CJ« ñdê$n YmaU H$aVmo d `m_YyZ g§n, Q>mio~§Xr, H$m_
~§X, Koamd, _moMm©, Vi R>moH$Uo, ~{hîH$ma, {ZXe©Zo, AghH$ma, _§XJVrZo H$m_ B. J¡aàH$ma CX²^dVmV.
1. g§n (Strike) : H$m_Jmam§À`m _mJÊ`m _mÝ` H$ê$Z KoÊ`mgmR>r g§n ho H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§À`m hmVmVrb
à_wI eñÌ Amho. ñdV:À`m _mJÊ`m ì`dñWmnZmZo _mÝ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§À`mda X~md Q>mH$Ê`mgmR>r H$m_Jma
g_yhmZo H$m_ ~§X R>odÊ`mMr Ho$bobr H¥$Vr åhUOo g§n hmo`.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`Xm 1947 Zwgma ""g§n åhUOo H$moUË`mhr CÚmoJmVrb H$m_ Mmby R>odÊ`mgmR>r qH$dm
H$m_ ñdrH$maÊ`mgmR>r qH$dm H$aÊ`mgmR>r Zo_boë`m H$m_Jmam§Zr gm_y{hH$ {dMmamZo H$m_ H$aÊ`mMo Wm§~{dUo
qH$dm ~§X H$aUo qH$dm H$m_ H$aÊ`mg gVV ZH$ma XoUo qH$dm gm_y{hH$ {dMmamZo H$m_ Z H$aUo.''
g§nmMo àH$ma : g§nmMo à_wI àH$ma Imbrbà_mUo.
(1) Am{W©H$ g§n : Am{W©H$ _mJÊ`m _mÝ` H$ê$Z KoÊ`mgmR>r Ho$boë`m g§nmg Am{W©H$ g§n Ago
åhUVmV. CXm .doVZ dmT>, ~moZg, Am{W©H$ ^Îmo, gdbVr B.
(2) ghmZw^yVrdOm g§n : EH$m CÚmoJ g§KQ>Zo_Yrb H$m_Jmam§Zr nwH$maboë`m g§nmg nmqR>~m ì`ŠV
H$aÊ`mgmR>r Xwgè`m CÚmoJ g§KQ>ZoVrb H$m_Jma gm_y{hH$Uo H$m_ ~§X H$aVmV. Ë`mdoir Ë`mg ghmZw^yVrXe©H$
g§n åhUVmV.
(3) gd©gmYmaU g§n : Á`mdoir {d{eï> àXoemVrb qH$dm CÚmoJmVrb OmñVrV OmñV qH$dm gd©
g^mgX g§nmV CVaVmV Ë`mdoir Ë`mg gd©gmYmaU g§n Ago åhUVmV. gd© H$m_Jma dJm©er g§~§{YV Agboë`m
gd©gmYmaU _mJÊ`m~m~V hm g§n Ho$bm OmVmo.
(4) ~¡R>m g§n : Á`mdoir H$m_Jma H$m_mMo {R>H$mU gmoS>Vhr ZmhrV VgoM H$m_hr H$aV ZmhrV Ë`mdoir
Ë`mg H$m_Jmam§Mm ~¡R>m g§n Ago åhUVmV. `mbmM hË`ma R>odUo, boIUr R>odUo (~§X) g§n Agohr åhUVmV.
(5) _§XJVr g§n : `m nÕVrV H$m_Jma H$m_mÀ`m {R>H$mUr CnpñWV AgVmV. H$m_ H$arV AgVmV.
na§Vw H$m_mMm doJ à_m{UV / {Z`{_V doJmnojm H$_r AgVmo.
2. Q>mio~§Xr
(Lock Out)
: H$m_Jmam§da XS>nU, X~md Q>mH$Ê`mgmR>r _mbH$ Q>mio~§Xr Omhra H$aVmo.
ì`dñWmnZmZo {ZpíMV Ho$boë`m AQ>r d eVu H$m_Jma Omon`ªV _mÝ` H$ê$Z H$m_mda hOa amhV ZmhrV Vmon`ªV
ì`dñWmnZmZo H$m_mMo {R>H$mU ~§X R>odÊ`mMr Ho$bobr H¥$Vr åhUOo Q>mio~§Xr hmo`. H$m_Jma g§KQ>ZoÀ`m eŠVrMm
A§XmO KoÊ`mgmR>r d A{VaoH$s H$m_Jmam§À`m A{VaoH$s H¥$Ë`mg à{V~§Y H$aÊ`mgmR>r Q>mio~§Xr Ho$br OmVo.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`Xm 1947 Zwgma, ""Q>mio~§Xr åhUOo Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§ñWoÀ`m _mbH$mZo H$m_mMr OmJm qH$dm
{R>H$mU VmËnwaVo ~§X H$aUo qH$dm H$m_ ñW{JV H$aUo qH$dm Ë`m Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§ñWoda H$m_mda R>odboë`m
ì`ŠVtn¡H$s gd© qH$dm {H$Vrhr ì`ŠVtZm H$m_mda R>odÊ`mg ZH$ma XoUo.''
3. Koamd (Gherao) : Koamd hr H$m_Jmam§Mr gm_y{hH$ H¥$Vr AgVo. `m_Ü`o _mbH$mg, _mbH$
à{V{ZYrg _mZdr gmIir_Ü`o ~§{XñV Ho$bo OmVo. Ë`mbm H$m_mMo, amhÊ`mMo {R>H$mU gmoS>Ê`mg à{V~§Y Ho$bm
OmVmo. Ë`mMo ~mhoa OmÊ`mMo _mJ© _mZdr H$S>o (Jmob) H$ê$Z ~§X Ho$bo OmVmV. _mbH$mg _mZdr Vwé§JmV ~§{XñV
Ho$bo OmVo. Koamd KmVboë`m ì`ŠVrg ~mhoa OmÊ`mg, H$moUVohr H$m_ H$aÊ`mg ñdmV§Í` {Xbo OmV Zmhr.
H$m`XoeraÑï>çm VgoM Z¡{VH$Ñï>çm Koamd A`mo½` AgVmV. H$maU Koamdm_wio ì`ŠVrÀ`m hmbMmb ñdmV§Í`mda
JXm `oVo. KoamdmÛmao ì`ŠVrda X~md, XS>nU Q>mHy$Z Ë`mbm A`mo½` _mJÊ`m _mÝ` H$aÊ`mg ^mJ nmS>bo OmVo.
4. Vi R>moH$Uo (Picketing) : Á`mdoir H$mhr H$m_Jma H$maImÝ`mÀ`m XadmOmOdi C^o amhÿZ BVa
H$m_Jmam§Zr H$m_mda hOa amhÿ Z`o åhUyZ Ë`m§Mo _Vn[adV©Z H$aV AgVrb Va Ë`mg Vi R>moH$Uo Ago åhUVmV.
Vi R>moH$Uo H¥$Vr_Ü`o Oa H$moUË`mhr n«H$maÀ`m qhgoMm A§V^m©d Zgob Va Vr nyU©V: H$m`Xoera g_Obr OmVo.
Amnbr ^y{_H$m, _mJÊ`m, AÝ`m` bmoH$m§Zm gm§JUo, Ë`m§Mm nmqR>~m {_i{dUo d Ë`mÛmao ì`dñWmnZmda X~md
Q>mH$Uo hm Vi R>moH$Uo H¥$VrMm _w»` CÔoe Amho.
5. ~{hîH$ma (Boy cott) : `m_Ü`o H$m_Jma H$maImÝ`mÀ`m CËnmXZmda ~{hîH$ma Q>mH$VmV. CËnm{XV
dñVy d godm§Mr IaoXr, dmna H$arV ZmhrV. g§nyU© g_mOmbmhr g§~§{YV H$maImÝ`mÀ`m CËnmXZmda ~{hîH$ma
Q>mH$Ê`mgmR>r AmdmhZ Ho$bo OmVo. ì`dñWmnZmg Amnë`m Ý`mæ` _mJÊ`m _mÝ` H$aÊ`mg àdÎm H$aÊ`mMm hm
Mm§Jbm _mJ© Amho. dñVy d godm§À`m {dH«$s_Ü`o IamoIaM KQ> Pmë`mg H$m_Jmam§À`m _mJÊ`m _mZ H$aUo
ì`dñWmnZmg ^mJ nS>Vo.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMr H$maUo
(Causes of Industrial Disputes)
_mbH$ dJ© d H$m_Jma dJ© `m§À`m_Ü`o AZoH$ H$maUm§_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dy eH$VmV. Am¡Úmo{JH$
H$bhm_mJrb H$maUmMo àm_w»`mZo VrZ àH$mam§_Ü`o dJr©H$aU Ho$bo OmVo. CXm. Am{W©H$, Am{W©Ho$Va d amOH$s`.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_ ^`mZH$ AgVmV. Ë`m_Ü`o CÚmoJjoÌmer g§~§{YV gd© KQ>H$ hmoaniyZ {ZKVmV.
`m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_mJrb H$maUo emoYUo, Aä`mgUo, {díbo{fV H$aUo AË`mdí`H$ R>aVo.
(A) Am{W©H$ H$maUo :
H$m_Jma Ag§Vmofm_mJrb _w»` H$maU åhUOo Am{W©H$ KQ>H$ hmo`. H$m_Jmam§Zm Ë`m§À`m emar[aH$ H$ï>mMm,
godoMm, H$m¡eë`mMm `mo½` _mo~Xbm XoUo ho ì`dñWmnZmMo AmÚ H$V©ì` Amho. na§Vw `m H$V©ì`mV ì`dñWmnZmZo
Hw$MamB© Ho$ë`mg Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dÊ`mMr XmQ> eŠ`Vm AgVo. Am{W©H$ H$maUm_Ü`o Imbrb à_wI
H$maUm§Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
1. doVZ : H$m_Jmam§Zm Ë`m§À`m H$m_mMm, H$ï>mMm `mo½` _mo~Xbm {_i{dÊ`mMm _yb^yV A{YH$ma Amho.
H$m_Jmamg `mo½` doVZ {_imë`mg Ë`mÀ`m Hw$Qw>§~mÀ`m gd© JaOm ^mJyZ Ë`mbm H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ ñdmñÏ` àmá hmoVo.
Am{W©H$ {dd§MZoVyZ Vmo _wŠV hmoVmo. `m_wio H$m_Jma dJ© gVV A{YH$ doVZmgmR>r PJS>V AgVmo. doVZàíZr
XmoKm§Zrhr åhUOoM _mbH$ d H$m_Jma `m§Zr Q>moH$mMr ^y{_H$m ñdrH$maë`mg Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh dmT>V OmVmo.
dmT>Vr _hmJmB©, amhUr_mZmMm IM© `m_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm nwaogo doVZ XoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. _yi doVZmda BVa
^Î`m§Mr a¸$_ Adb§~yZ Agë`mZo H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§Mm _yi doVZ dmT>{dÊ`mda ^a AgVmo. CXm. _hmJmB© ^Îmm,
eha ^Îmm, Ka^mS>o ^Îmm, {Zd¥Îmr doVZ, CËnmXZ B. WmoS>Š`mV, doVZdmT> ho Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo à_wI H$maU
2. {d{dY ^Îmo : H$m_Jmam§Zm _yi doVZm~amo~a BVahr ^Îmo {Xbo OmVmV. CXm. _hmJmB© ^Îmm, eha ^Îmm,
dmhVyH$ ^Îmm, Ka^mS>o ^Îmm, YwbmB© ^Îmm B. `m ^Î`m§Mo à_mU _yi doVZmda Adb§~yZ AgVo. H$m_Jmam§Zm
H$m_mer g§~§{YV Agboë`m IMmªMr ^anmB© XoÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§Zm `mo½` amhUr_mZmZo OJVm `oÊ`mgmR>r Ago ^Îmo
{Xbo OmVmV. ^Îmm hm doVZmMmM EH$ ^mJ Amho. na§Vw H$moUVo ^Îmo Úmd`mMo? d {H$Vr Úmd`mMo? hm dmXmMm
_wÔm AgVmo. ^Î`m§~m~V H$m_Jma AdmñVd _mJUr H$aV AgVrb Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo àg§J CX²^dVmV.
3. ~moZg d OmXm H$m_mMm _mo~Xbm : AmYw{ZH$ AW©ì`dñWoV "~moZg' hm H$m_Jmam§Mm Ý`mæ` h¸$
g_Obm OmVmo. ~moZg ho {db§{~V doVZ g_Obo OmVo. ~moZgÀ`m A[^bmfoZo H$m_Jma df©^a àm_m{UH$nUo,
H$m`©j_VoZo H$m_ H$aVmV. Aem doir ì`dñWmnZmZo H$m_Jmam§Zm `mo½` XamZo ~moZg XoD$Z Ë`m§À`m Xrnmdbr
AmZ§XmV gh^mJr Pmbo nm{hOo. na§Vw H$mhr _mbH$ H$m_Jmam§Zm `mo½` XamZo ~moZg XoÊ`mg ZmIwe AgVmV. Aem
n[apñWVrV H$m_Jmam§À`m ^mdZm§Mm CÐoH$ hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. `m_YyZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kfm©g Vm|S> \w$Q>Vo.
H$maImÝ`mH$S>o J«mhH$m§À`m AmXoemMr g§»`m OmñV Agob d Vo bdH$a nyU© H$aUo Amdí`H$ Agob Va
H$m_Jmam§Zm {Z`{_V H$m_mÀ`m doionojm OmXm doi H$m_ H$aÊ`mg gm§{JVbo OmVo. gm_mÝ`V: {Z`{_V doioÀ`m
doVZXamÀ`m XwßnQ> doVZXa OmXm doiogmR>r {Xbm OmVmo. CXm. {Z`{_V H$m_mÀ`m doioMm doVZXa Vmgmbm é.
20 Agob d H$m_JmamZo {Z`{_V doioZ§Va AmUIr EH$ Vmg OmXm H$m_ Ho$bo Va H$m_Jmamg `m OmXm VmgmMo
doVZ é.40 {Xbo OmB©b. OmñVrMo H$m_ d OmñVrÀ`m H$m_mMm doVZXa `m H$maUm_wio H$m_Jma d ì`dñWmnZ
`m§Mm g§Kf© hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo.
4. nJmar aOm : H$m_Jmam§Zm AZoH$ H$maUm§_wio aOm KoÊ`mMr JaO AgVo. CXm. ñdV:Mm AmOma,
Hw$Qw>§~mVrb ì`ŠVtMm AmOma, _mZ{gH$ AñdmñÏ`, Ym{_©H$ CËgd, gU, gm_m{OH$, gmd©O{ZH$ g_ma§^,
H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ AS>MUr, b¾, _w§O, dmT>{Xdg B. `mo½` H$maUm§gmR>r H$m_Jmam§Zm nJmar aOm XoUo C{MV R>aVo.
H$m_Jmam§Zm df©^amV {H$_mZ 12 Vo 15 nJmar aOm XoÊ`mMr gmo` Agmdr. na§Vw H$m_Jmam§Zm `mo½` H$maUm§gmR>r
nJmar aOm Z {Xë`mg Vo Ag_mYmZr, Ag§Vwï> ~ZVmV. `m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo.
5. nJmar gwÅ>r : EH$mM àH$maMo H$m_ gVV Ho$ë`mZo H$m_Jmam§Mm emar[aH$ WH$dm, H§$Q>mim, {ZéËgmh
dmT>V OmVmo. `mMm à{VHy$b n[aUm_ Ë`m§À`m H$m`©j_Voda hmoVmo. `mgmR>r H$m_Jmam§Zm H$mhr {Xdg {dlm§VrgmR>r
gwÅ>r XoUo `mo½` R>aVo. `m_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm emar[aH$, _mZ{gH$ ñdmñÏ` bm^yZ Vo VmOoVdmZo hmoD$Z, Omo_mZo H$m`©
H$aÊ`mg V`ma hmoVmV. na§Vw H$mhr _mbH$ nJmar gwÅ>r XoÊ`mg V`ma ZgVmV. n[aUm_V: H$m_Jma d _mbH$
`m§À`mVrb Xar é§XmdV OmVo.
6. Zâ`mV {hñgm : CËnmXZ gmYZm§_Yrb H$m_Jma hm EH$_od KQ>H$ gOrd Amho. Vmo Amnë`m
~wÕrÀ`m, H$m¡eë`mMm Cn`moJ H$ê$Z CËnmXZmÀ`m BVa gmYZm§H$Sy>Z H$m`© H$ê$Z KoV AgVmo. åhUOo g§KQ>ZoMo
`e, Z\$m, ~è`mM A§er H$m_Jma dJm©À`m ghH$m`m©da, à{VgmXmda Adb§~yZ AgVmo. Ë`m_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm
Zâ`mVrb `mo½` {hñgm XoUo Amdí`H$ R>aVo. na§Vw ì`dñWmnZ H$m_Jmam§Mm hm Ý`mæ` A{YH$ma _mJUr S>mdbV
Agob Va H$m_Jma Ag§Vmof dmTy>Z Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dy eH$Vmo.
7. H$m_mÀ`m doim : H$m_Jmam§À`m H$m_mÀ`m doim `mo½` Agmì`mV. H$m_Jmam§Zm EH$mM doir AmR>
Vmgm§nojm OmñV H$m_ H$amdo bmJy Z`o. H$m_mÀ`m doioV {dlm§VrMr doi A§V^y©V Agmdr. H$m_mÀ`m nmirV
AmR>dS>çmZo ~Xb H$amdm. gVV amÌnmir XoD$ Z`o. `m_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm H$m`©g_mYmZ bm^Vo. na§Vw ì`dñWmnZmZo
H$m_mMo doio~m~V A`mo½`, AÝ`m`H$maH$ YmoaU ñdrH$mabo Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh dmT>rg bmJVmo.
8. amhUr_mZmÀ`m IMm©V dmT> : ~mOmamVrb _hmJmB© H$_r Z hmoVm {Xdg|{Xdg dmT>V Agbobr
{XgVo. JJZmbm {^S>boë`m _hmJmB©_Ü`o gd©gm_mÝ` _mUgmbm OrdZ H§$R>Uo _wíH$sb Pmbo Amho. amhUr_mZmMm
IM© dmT>ë`mZo X¡Z§{XZ IMm©Mr Vm|S>{_idUr H$aUohr AdKS> Pmbo Amho. Aem n[apñWVrV H$m_Jmam§Zm `mo½`
amhUr_mZmZo OJVm `oB©b d Vo Am{W©H$ {dd§MZoVyZ _wŠV hmoVrb BVHo$ doVZ XoUo ì`dñWmnZmMo H$V©ì` R>aVo.
na§Vw ì`dñWmnZmZo `m H$V©ì`nyVuMr Q>mimQ>mi Ho$br Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh {Z_m©U hmoVmV.
9. doVZ _§S>imÀ`m {e\$maer~m~V Q>mimQ>mi : H$m_Jmam§Mo doVZ, doVZXa, doVZloÊ`m {ZpíMV
H$aÊ`mgmR>r d Ë`m_Ü`o doimodoir gwYmaUm H$aÊ`mgmR>r doVZ_§S>io ñWmnZ Ho$br OmVmV. doVZ _§S>imZo Ho$boë`m
{e\$maer ì`dñWmnZmZo bJoM _mÝ` H$ê$Z A§_bmV AmUë`m nm{hOoV. na§Vw doVZ_§S>imÀ`m {e\$maer bmJy
H$aÊ`mg ì`dñWmnZ Q>mimQ>mi, {Xa§JmB© H$aV Agob Va H$m_Jmam§Mm g§Vmn dmT>V OmVmo. H$mhr doiog
doVZ_§S>imÀ`m {e\$maer H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zog _mÝ` ZgVmV d `m {e\$maer ì`dñWmnZ A§_bmV AmUÊ`mMm
à`ËZ H$arV Agob Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kfm©g gwédmV hmoVo.
10. H$m_Jma ^aVr-~T>Vr~m~V MwH$sMo YmoaU : H$m_Jma ^aVr ~T>Vr~m~V ì`dñWmnZ MwH$sMo,
njnmVr, AÝ`m`H$maH$, d{ebo~mOrMo YmoaU Adb§~V Agob Va àm_m{UH$, JwUdmZ H$m_Jmam§Mo ZwH$gmZ hmoVo.
Ë`m§À`mda AÝ`m` hmoVmo. `m_wio H$m_Jma dJm©V ì`dñWmnZm~m~V MrS>, g§Vmn {Z_m©U hmoVmo. g§VmnmMm A{VaoH$
Pmë`mg Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kfm©g Vm|S> \w$Q>Vo.
11. H$m_Jma H$nmV : ì`dñWmnZmZo H$m_Jmam§Zm godoMr nyU© emídVr/h_r {Xbr nm{hOo. `m_wio
H$m_Jmam§Zm H$m`© d _mZ{gH$ g_mYmZ bm^Vo. `mCbQ> H$m_Jmam§À`m S>moŠ`mda H$nmVrMr gVV Q>m§JVr Vbdma
Agob Va Ë`m§Mo emar[aH$, _mZ{gH$ ñdmñÏ` {~KS>Vo. _mZ{gH$ Ag§VwbZm_wio H$m_Jma ^S>H$VmV d `mVyZ
Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kf© noQ>Ê`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo.
12. AÚ`mdV d ñd`§M{bV `§ÌmMm dmna d g§JUH$sH$aU : àË`oH$ CÚmoOH$ ì`dgm` {dñVmamMo,
{dH$mgmMo ñdßZ ~KV AgVmo. OmñV Z\$m {_i{dUo ho Va àË`oH$ ì`dñWmnZmMo _yb^yV Ü`o` AgVo. `mgmR>r
ì`dñWmnZ ZdZdrZ `moOZm§Mr AmUIr H$arV AgVo. CXm. AmYw{ZH$sH$aU, `m§{ÌH$sH$aU, dmOdrH$aU,
ñd`§MbZ, g§JUH$sH$aU B. Aem AÚ`mdV `§ÌmMm, V§ÌkmZmMm Adb§~ Ho$ë`m_wio _moR>çm à_mUmda CËnmXZ,
CËnmXZmÀ`m XOm©V dmT>, CËnmXZ IMm©V ~MV n`m©`mZo A{YH$ Z\$m hr Ü`o`o g\$b hmoVmV. `m_wio ì`dñWmnZ
gVV `m `moOZm§Mm nwañH$ma, nmR>nwamdm H$aV AgVmo. na§Vw `m `moOZm_wio H$m_Jma g§»`oV KQ> hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm
AgVo. H$mhr H$m_Jma godoVyZ H$_r, ~oH$ma hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. `m_wio H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm Aem `moOZm§Zm
H$S>mSy>Z {damoY H$aVmV. n[aUm_V: Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ag§Vmof C\$miyZ `oVmo.
13. Am{W©H$ {df_Vm d Zâ`mMr A`mo½` {d^mJUr : ^maVmbm ñdmV§Í` {_imë`mZ§Va Am¡Úmo{JH$sH$aUmÀ`m à{H«$`og JVr {_imbr. emgZmZo CÚmoJY§ÚmÀ`m {dH$mgmgmR>r CXma, ghH$m`m©Mo, gdbVrMo YmoaU
ñdrH$mabo. CÚmoOH$m§Zr `m YmoaUmMm bm^ CR>dyZ Amnë`m CÚmoJjoÌmMo Omio {dñVmabo. H$mhr CÚmoOH$m§Zr
ñdV:Mo Am¡Úmo{JH$ gm_«mÁ` àñWm{nV Ho$bo. na§Vw {dH$mgmMr \$io H$m_Jmam§Zm {_imbr ZmhrV. Zâ`mVrb WmoS>m
{hñgm H$m_Jmam§À`m doVZmda IM© H$aÊ`mV Ambm. `m_wio CÚmoOH$ d H$m_Jma `m§À`mVrb Am{W©H$ {df_VoMr
Xar é§XmdV Jobr. n[aUm_V: H$m_Jmam§Mm Ag§Vmof dmTy> bmJbm. Ë`m_wioM ^maVr` CÚmoJjoÌmV gVV
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dV Agbobo {XgyZ `oVmV.
(~) Am{W©Ho$Va H$maUo :
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh Oar _w»`V: Am{W©H$ H$maUm_wio CX²^dV Agbo Var, Am{W©Ho$Va H$maUm_wio CX²^dUmè`m
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo à_mU Xwb©j H$aÊ`mBVHo$ H$_r Zmhr. Am{W©Ho$Va H$maUm§_Ü`ohr H$m_Jmam§Mo {hVg§~§Y Jw§Vbo
Agë`mZo Vo Am{W©H$ KQ>H$mBVHo$M Am{W©Ho$Va KQ>H$m§Zm _hÎd XoVmV. `m_wio ì`dñWmnZmg Am{W©Ho$Va
H$maUm§Mmhr ghmZw^yVrZo {dMma H$amdm bmJVmo. AÝ`Wm Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo.
1. Ag_mYmZH$maH$ H$m`©pñWVr : H$m_Jma H$maImÝ`m_Ü`o Á`m{R>H$mUr H$m_ H$aVmV VoWrb
dmVmdaU, H$m`©n[apñWVr hr CËgmhdY©H$, Amamo½`Xm`H$ AgUo Amdí`H$ R>aVo. Ë`m_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm H$m`©g_mYmZ,
emar[aH$ ñdmñÏ`, _mZ{gH$ ñdmñÏ` bm^Vo. `mbCQ> H$m`©pñWVr {ZéËgmhr, H§$Q>midmUr d Amamo½`mg
hmZrH$maH$ Agob Va Ë`mMo à{VHy$b n[aUm_ H$m_Jmam§À`m earamda, _Zmda hmoVmV. Ë`m§Mm {MS>{MS>onUm,
g§Vmn dmT>V OmVmo. `mVyZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh dmT>V OmVmo.
2. H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§Zm _mÝ`Vm : CÚmoOH$m§Mm H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§H$S>o ~KÊ`mMm Ñ{ï>H$moU nyd©J«hXy{fV,
g§Hw${MV Agob Va `mVyZ AZoH$ g_ñ`m CX²^dVmV. CÚmoOH$ H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zog _mÝ`Vm XoV ZmhrV. g§KQ>Zm
ñWmnZog {damoY H$aVmV. ZdrZ, ñdV:À`m à^mdmImbr AgUmè`m g§KQ>Zog _mÝ`Vm, {VÀ`m {dñVmamgmR>r
à`ËZ, H$m_Jma ZoVo {dH$V KoUo, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§_Ü`o ^m§CUo bmdUo, g§n \$moS>Uo, g§KQ>ZoMo IƒrH$aU H$aUo
B. CÚmoOH$m§À`m Aem AZ¡{VH$ ~oH$m`Xoera, {d¿Zg§Vmofr d¥Îmr d H¥$Vr_wio H$m_Jma dJ© g§VßV hmoVmo. Ë`m§Mr
_mbH$ {damoYr ^mdZm Vrd« hmoVo. H$m_Jmam§Mm Ag§Vmof dmT>rg bmJVmo.
3. ~oH$m`XoeranUo H$m_Jmam§Zm godoVyZ H$_r H$aUo : AH$m`©j_, ~o{eñV, Mmoar, _mam_mar Ho$boë`m,
CÕQ> H$m_Jmam§Zm godoVyZ H$_r Ho$bo Va g§KQ>Zm Ë`m§À`m nm{R>er amhV Zmhr. na§Vw CÚmoOH$mZo ~oH$m`XoeranUo,
nyd©J«hXy{fVnUmZo, AÝ`m`mZo àm_m{UH$, JwUdmZ H$m_Jmam§Zm godoVyZ H$_r Ho$bo Va H$m_Jma {~WaVmV. g§Vá
hmoVmV. H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm _mbH$m§À`m `m H¥$Vrg {damoY H$aÊ`mgmR>r Am§XmobZ N>oS>VmV. `m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh
4. H$m_Jmam§Mr \$gdUyH$ : H$mhr CÚmoOH$ H$m_Jmam§Mr \$gdUyH$ H$aÊ`mgmR>r gVV ZdZdrZ _mJ©
emoYV AgVmV. H$m_Jmam§À`m \$gdUwH$s_Ü`o Ë`m§Mm ñdmW© XS>bobm AgVmo. na§Vw Á`mdoir AÝ`m`mMm A{VaoH$
hmoVmo. Ë`mdoir H$m_JmadJ© EH$Ì `oD$Z _mbH$mÀ`m \$gdUwH$sÀ`m YmoaUm{déÕ bT>m C^maVmV. `m_wio
Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kf© noQ>V OmVmo. H$m_Jmam§Zm H$_r doVZ, OmXm H$m_, OmñV doi H$m_, ^Îmo, ~moZg XoÊ`mg ZH$ma,
A`mo½` H$m`©pñWVr, ~T>Vr, ~XbrMo Am{_f, H$ë`mUH$mar `moOZm§~m~V ImoQ>r AmídmgZo, àbmo^Zo XmIdyZ
H$m_Jmam§Mr \$gdUyH$ d {nidUyH$ Ho$br OmVo.
5. _mbH$-H$m_Jma d¡_Zñ` : H$m_Jma-_mbH$, H$m_Jma-ì`dñWmnZ, H$m_Jma-H$m_Jma `m§À`mVrb
Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§~§Y ghH$m`m©Mo, {dídmgmMo, gm_§Oñ`mMo AgVrb Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dH$mgmbm MmbZm {_iVo.
`mCbQ> `m KQ>H$m§Vrb g§~§Y H$Qw>VoMo, A{dídmgmMo, J¡ag_OmMo, ÛofmMo, _ËgamMo AgVrb Va Am¡Úmo{JH$
g§~§Y {~KSy>Z Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh dmTy>Z Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVm ^§J nmdVo.
6. g§KQ>Zm§Mo nañna {damoYr YmoaU : amOH$s` nwT>mar, H$m_Jma ZoVo ñdV:À`m ñdmWm©gmR>r, ApñVËdmgmR>r
ñdV§Ì H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm ñWmnZ H$aVmV. `m_wio EH$mM H$maImÝ`mV, CÚmoJmV XmoZ-VrZ H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm
ApñVËdmV Agboë`m {XgVmV. àË`oH$ ZoVm ñdV:À`m g§KQ>ZoMo H$m`©joÌ d g^mgX dmT>{dÊ`mgmR>r à`ËZerb
AgVmo. àË`oH$ g§KQ>Zm H$moUË`mVar amOH$s` njmÀ`m n«^mdmImbr AgVo. `m_wio àË`oH$ g§KQ>ZoMr {dMmagaUr,
H$m`©nÕVr {^Þ Agbobr {XgVo. H$mhr g§KQ>Zm Ohmb_VdmXr AgVmV Va H$mhr _dmi_VdmXr AgVmV.
Ë`m_wio Ë`m§À`mV bhmZghmZ H$maUmdê$Z g§Kf© hmoV AgVmo d Ë`mMo ê$nm§Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmV hmoV AgVo.
H$mhr g§KQ>Zm§_Ü`o BVHo$ eÌwËd AgVmo H$s, Vo ñdV:À`m {hVmgmR>r H$m_Jma {hVmH$S>ohr Xwb©j H$aVmV.
7. d¡`{ŠVH$ H$maUo : H$m_Jmam§À`m d¡`{ŠVH$ H$maUm§_wiohr Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kfm©g dmMm \w$Q>bobr {XgVo.
CXm. aOm, J¡ahOoar, {ejm, X§S>, {eñV^§J H$madmB©, d¡`{ŠVH$ Ûof, _mZhmZr B. {H$aH$moi na§Vw d¡`{ŠVH$
ñdê$nmÀ`m H$maUm§_wio H$m_Jmam§_Yrb Ag§Vmof dmT>V OmVmo. d[aîR>m§H$Sy>Z An_mZ, njnmVr dmJUyH$, AÝ`m`,
~Xbr, nXmdZVr, doVZ H$nmV, ~T>Vr ZmH$maUo, à{ejUmMr g§Yr, BVa gw{dYm Z nwa{dUo B. d¡`{ŠVH$
H$maUm§Zmhr H$mhr doiog gmd©O{ZH$ ñdê$n àmá hmoD$Z Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kf© CX²^dy eH$Vmo.
8. emgH$s` YmoaUo : H|$Ð d amÁ` emgZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$m_Jmam~m~V {d{dY H$m`Xo, YmoaUo, {Z`_,
`moOZm Omhra H$aV AgVo. _w»`V: H$m_Jma {hVajUmgmR>r, g§dY©ZmgmR>r hr YmoaUo AmIbr OmVmV. na§Vw
YmoaUm§Mr g§{X½YVm, _mbH$Ym{O©Ur YmoaUo, YmoaUm{df`r J¡ag_O, Anwao AmH$bZ, ^rVr B. H$maUm§_wio
H$m_Jma emgH$s` YmoaUm§Zm {damoY H$aVmV. YmoaUm{déÕ Am§XmobZo, {ZXe©Zo H$aVmV.
9. ghmZw^yVr XmI{dÊ`mgmR>r g§n : H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm nañnam_Yrb gbmoIm, EoŠ` {Q>H${dÊ`mgmR>r
d Xe©{dÊ`mgmR>r EH$m g§KQ>ZoZo nwH$maboë`m g§nmg nmqR>~m XoÊ`mgmR>r BVa g§KQ>Zmhr g§nmV CVaVmV. CXm.
àmW{_H$ {ejH$m§À`m g§nmV _mÜ`{_H$, H${Zð> d d[að> _hm{dÚmb`rZ {ejH$, {ejHo$Îma H$_©Mmar nmqR>~m
Omhra H$aVmV.
10. g§XoedhZmMm A^md : ì`dñWmnZ d H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm `m§À`m_Ü`o àË`j, gVV g§XoedhZmMm
A^md Agob Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh {_Q>Ê`mEodOr dmT>rg bmJVmV. `m XmoÝhr KQ>H$m§Zm EH$Ì AmUÊ`mgmR>r
Ë`m§À`mV g_PmoVm KS>{dÊ`mgmR>r àm_m{UH$ Hw$eb _Ü`ñWm§Mr JaO AgVo. na§Vw XmoÝhr KQ>H$m§Mm nañnam§H$S>o
nmhÊ`mMm Ñ{ï>H$moU nyd©J«hXy{fV, g§Hw${MV Agob, _Ü`ñW Aàm_m{UH$ AgVrb, g§XoedhZ `§ÌUm AH$m`©j_
Agob Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh dmT>V amhVmV.
11. H$m_Jmam§Mm ì`dñWmnZmV gh^mJ : H$m_Jmam§Zm ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m à{H«$`oV gh^mJr H$ê$Z
Ë`m§À`m kmZmMm, H$m¡eë`mMm Cn`moJ g§KQ>ZoÀ`m {dH$mgmgmR>r H$ê$Z KoUo ho AmYw{ZH$ ì`dñWmnZmMo V§Ì Amho.
na§Vw H$mhr CÚmoOH$ H$m_Jmam§Zm {Z`moOZmÀ`m, {ZU©`mÀ`m à{H«$`oV gh^mJr H$ê$Z KoÊ`mg CËgwH$ ZgVmV.
`m_wio H$m_Jma ZmamO, CXmgrZ hmoVmV.
12. ~o{eñV d qhgm : H$mhr H$m_Jma ~o{eñV, qhgH$ d¥ÎmrMo AgVmV. ~o{eñV H$m_Jmam§À`m
{dÜd§gH$d¥Îmr_wio H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm ~XZm_ hmoVmV. Ago H$m_Jma ñd{hVm~amo~a BVa H$m_Jmam§Mo {hVhr YmoŠ`mV
AmUVmV. ~o{eñV H$m_Jmam§À`m dV©Zmbm H§$Q>miyZ ì`dñWmnZ Q>mio~§Xr bmJy H$aVo.
(H$) amOH$s` YmoaUo :
H$m_Jma g§KQ>ZmMr {Z{_©Vr H$m_Jma Midir_YyZ Pmbr nm{hOo. na§Vw XwX£dmZo ^maVmVrb AZoH$
g§KQ>Zm§Mr {Z{_©Vr amOH$s` nj, amOH$s` ZoVo `m§À`m nwT>mH$mamZo Pmbobr {XgyZ `oVo. amOH$s` nj ñdV:À`m
ñdmWm©gmR>r H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§Mm Cn`moJ H$ê$Z KoVmV. amOH$s` H$maUm§gmR>r H$m_Jmam§da Am§XmobZo H$aÊ`mgmR>r
XS>nU Q>mH$bo OmVo. na§Vw Aem Am§XmobZmnmgyZ H$m_Jmam§Mo H$mhrhr {hV gmYbo OmV Zmhr. `mCbQ> H$m_Jmam§Mo
AZoH$ àH$mao ZwH$gmZ hmoVo. Á`mdoir H$m_Jmam§Zm OmUrd hmoVo H$s, Amnbm Cn`moJ amOH$s` ZoË`m§Zr ñd{hVmgmR>r
Ho$bm Ë`mdoir Vo AñdñW hmoVmV. g§VßV hmoVmV. Aem doir Ë`m§À`m hmVyZ AZw{MV àH$ma, KQ>Zm KS>Ê`mMr
eŠ`Vm AgVo.
1. gmå`dmXr {dMmagaUr : a{e`mZo gmå`dmXr {dMmagaUrMm Ë`mJ Ho$bm AgVm Var ^maVmVrb
H$m_Jma ZoVo d H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§da `m {dMmagaUrMm AOyZ ~amM à^md Amho. `m {dMmagaUrZo H$m_Jmam§Zm
Am{W©H$, gm_m{OH$ à{VîR>m àmá H$ê$Z {Xbr. H$m_Jmam§À`m Km_mVyZ, aŠVmVyZ Zâ`mMr {Z{_©Vr hmoVo. na§Vw
Zâ`mVrb Aën {hñgm H$m_Jmam§Zm doVZ ê$nmZo {Xbm OmVmo. `m_wio H$m_Jmam§À`m _ZmV _mbH$m{df`r K¥Um,
MrS> {Z_m©U hmoVo. Amnë`m H$ï>mVyZ, Km_mVyZ {Z_m©U Pmboë`m n¡emVyZ _mbH$dJ© EofAmam_r, M¡ZrMo OrdZ
H§$R>V Amho. Aer ^mdZm H$m_Jmam§À`m _ZmV {Z_m©U Pmë`m_wio Ë`m§Mm g§Vmn CJ« hmoVmo. WmoS>Š`mV, gmå`dmXr
{dMmagaUrMm à^md H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zmda Agë`mZo _mbH$m§À`m H$m_Jma{hV{damoYr YmoaUm{déÕ àIa Am§XmobZ
N>oS>bo OmVo d _mbH$m§Zm Ë`m§À`m AÝ`m`r YmoaUmV ~Xb H$aÊ`mg ^mJ nmS>bo OmVo.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo n[aUm_ :
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMm CX²^d AZoH$ H$maUm§_wio hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$moUË`mhr
H$maUm_wio {Z_m©U Pmbm Var, Ë`mMo ^`mZH$ Xwîn[aUm_ Q>miVm `oV ZmhrV. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmer àË`j g§~§Y
Agboë`m CXm. H$m_Jma, _mbH$, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm B. VgoM àË`j g§~§Y Zgboë`m CXm. J«mhH$, g_mO, amï´>,
N>moQ>o, Xwæ`_, nyaH$ CÚmoJ B. Aem gd© KQ>H$m§Zm Ë`mMo Xwîn[aUm_ ghZ H$amdo bmJVmV. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo
à_wI Xwîn[aUm_ Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. l_{Xdgm§Mr hmZr : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dë`m_wio _moR>çm à_mUmda l_{Xdgm§Mr hmZr hmoVo.
g§n, Q>mio~§Xr, Koamd `m H$maUm§_wio EH$Xm dm`m Jobobo l_{Xdg naV H$Yrhr ^ê$Z H$mT>Vm `oV ZmhrV.
l_{Xdg dm`m OmVmo, åhUOo `m {Xder CËnmXZH$m`© hmoV Zmhr. Ë`m_wio amï´>r` CËnmXZ KQ>Vo. VgoM Ë`m
{XdgmMr l_, `§Ì, D$Om© eŠVr dm`m OmVo. `m_wio amï´>mMo, AW©ì`dñWoMo _moR>çm à_mUmda ZwH$gmZ hmoVo.
2. amï´>r` CËnÞmV KQ> : H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm d _mbH$ `m§À`mV g§Kf© CX²^dë`mg CÚmoJg§ñWm ~§X amhVo.
CËnmXZ H$m`© ~§X hmoVo. `m_wio amï´>r` CËnmXZmV, n`m©`mZo amï´>r` CËnÞmV KQ> hmoVo. XaS>moB© CËnÞ KQ>Vo.
AW©ì`dñWoda à{VHy$b n{aUm_ hmoVmV. eoAa ~mOmamV _§Xr `oVo. Am§Vaamï´>r` ~mOmamVrb nV H$_r hmoVo.
3. CÚmoJY§Úmda Xwîn[aUm_ : Á`m CÚmoJY§ÚmV Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh gwê$ AgVmo. Ë`m CÚmoJY§ÚmZm AZoH$
Xwîn[aUm_ ghZ H$amdo bmJVo. CÚmoJY§Xo ~§X Pmë`mZo ì`mdgm`rZ {H«$`m ApñVËdmV `oD$ eH$V ZmhrV.
CËnmXZmMo à_mU KQ>ë`mZo CËnmXZ IM© dmT>Vmo. pñWa IM© H$_r hmoV Zmhr, Z\$m H$_r hmoVmo. J«mhH$
XwamdÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm, ñnY©H$ g§ñWm ~mOmanoR> H$m~rO H$aÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm, Zmdbm¡{H$H$, nV T>mgiVo, CËnmXZ
H$m`© OmñV H$mi ~§X am{hë`mg `§Ìo, CnH$aUo, H$ƒm _mb, AY©n¸$m _mb Iam~ hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm.
^m§S>dbmMm dmna hmoV Zmhr na§Vw Ë`mda ì`mO Úmdo bmJVo. `m gdmªMm n[aUm_ ì`dgm`mMm VmoQ>m dmT>V OmVmo.
ì`dgm` AmOmar nS>VmV. CÚmoJY§ÚmMr {dgO©ZmÀ`m {XeoZo dmQ>Mmb gwê$ hmoVo.
4. J«mhH$m§Mo ZwH$gmZ : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMr CËnÎmr d J«mhH$ `m§Mm XwamÝd`ohr g§~§Y ZgVmZm Ë`mMo
Xwîn[aUm_ V_m_ J«mhH$m§Zm ghZ H$amdo bmJVmV. H$maImZo ~§X Pmë`mZo CËnmXZ H$m`© W§S>mdVo. _mJUrÀ`m
à_mUmV nwadR>m H$aVm `oV Zgë`mZo _Ü`ñWm§À`m J¡aàH$mam§Zm D$V `oVmo. CXm. H¥${Ì_ Q>§MmB©, H$mim~mOma,
^ogi, BVa dñVy IaoXrMr gŠVr, qH$_V dmT> BË`mXr. dñVy d godm§Mm nwadR>m _`m©{XV Agë`mZo J«mhH$m§Mr
\$gdUyH$, {nidUyH$ Ho$br OmVo. OrdZmdí`H$ dñVy, gmd©O{ZH$ CnH«$_ Aem CÚmoJm§V g§n, Q>mio~§Xr Ago
àH$ma CX²^dbo Va gd©gm_mÝ` OZVoÀ`m hmbAnoï>m§Zm gr_m amhV Zmhr. g§n {_Q>ë`mdahr n[apñWVrV gwYmaUm
hmoÊ`mg ~amM H$mi bmJVmo. g§nH$mimVrb VmoQ>m ^ê$Z H$mT>Ê`mgmR>r, H$m_Jmam§Zm Úmì`m bmJUmè`m OmXm
doVZmMr ^anmB© H$aÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZ dñVyÀ`m qH$_VrV dmT> H$aÊ`mMm _mJ© AZwgaVo. `m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$
H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_ J«mhH$dJm©g XrK©H$mb ^moJmdo bmJVmV Ago åhQ>bo OmVo.
5. H$m_JmamMo ZwH$gmZ : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_wio gdm©{YH$ ZwH$gmZ H$m_Jma dJm©Mo hmoVo. g§nH$mimV
H$m_Jmam§Zm doVZ {_iV Zmhr. Vo AmYrM Jar~ Agë`mZo Ë`m§Mo Xm[aÐç dmT>V OmVo. Ë`m§À`m Hw$Qw>§~mda
Cnmg_marMr, AY©nmoQ>r amhÊ`mMr doi `oVo. Ë`m_wio H$m_Jma ì`gZm{YZ d H$O©~mOmar hmoVmV. Ë`m§Mo _mZ{gH$
g§VwbZ T>iVo. Ë`m§À`m hmVyZ AZw{MV KQ>Zm KS>VmV. Ë`m§Mo H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ ñdmñÏ` b`mg OmVo. H$maImZm OmñV
H$mi ~§X am{hë`mg Ë`m§Mo H$m`©H$m¡eë` KQ>V OmVo. g§nmV gh^mJr Pmboë`m H$m_Jmam§Zm ì`dñWmnZmH$Sy>Z
njnmVr dmJUyH$ {_iVo. Ë`m§Zm ~T>Vr, à{ejUg§Yr, BVa gw{dYm ZmH$maë`m OmVmV. g§n A`eñdr Pmbm Va
ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m AÝ`m`H$maH$ AQ>tZm A{ZÀN>oZo g§_Vr XoD$Z H$m_mda hOa ìhmdo bmJVo. `mdoir H$m_Jmam§Mo
Am{W©H$ ZwH$gmZ hmoVo. gm_m{OH$ à{VîR>m Ywirg {_iVo. ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m X~md d XS>nUmImbr H$m`_ H$m_
H$amdo bmJVo.
6. CÚmoOH$mMo ZwH$gmZ : H$m_Jma-_mbH$ g§Kfm©Mo Xwîn[aUm_ _mbH$ dJm©ghr ghZ H$amdo bmJVmV.
H$maImZm ~§X am{hë`mZo VmoQ>m dmT>V OmVmo. CÚmoOH$mZo Ho$boë`m Jw§VdUwH$sg Agwa{jVVm àmá hmoVo. ^m§S>db
Jw§VdUwH$sda {Z`{_V, Mm§Jë`m XamZo bm^m§e {_iV Zmhr. gm_mÝ` ^mJm§Mo ^mJ_yë` KQ>Vo. CÚmoOH$m§Mm
Zmdbm¡{H$H$ H$_r hmoVmo. g_mOmMm CÚmoOH$mdarb {dídmg H$_r hmoV OmVmo. OZ_mZgmMm nmqR>~m H$_r hmoV
OmVmo. `mMm bm^ ñnY©H$, n`m©`r CÚmoOH$ KoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. CÚmoOH$mZo Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kf© {_Q>{dÊ`mgmR>r
àm_m{UH$ à`ËZ Ho$bo ZmhrV Va Ë`mMm VmoQ>m dmT>V OmD$Z Ë`mÀ`mda EH$ {Xdg H$maImZm ~§X H$aÊ`mMr nmir
7. Am¡Úmo{JH$ Aem§VVm : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmZo CJ«ê$n YmaU Ho$ë`mg Ë`m_YyZ g§n, Q>mio~§Xr, Koamd,
_moMm©, ~{hîH$ma, {R>æ`m Am§XmobZ Ago J¡aàH$ma CX²^dVmV. Ë`m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVm ^§J nmdVo. n[aUm_V:
Am¡Úmo{JH$ Aem§VVoMo Xwîn[aUm_ CÚmoJmer g§~§{YV gd© KQ>H$m§Zm gmogmdo bmJVmV. CXm. CÚmoOH$, H$m_Jma,
H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm, J«mhH$, nwadR>mXma, {dVaH$, g_mO, CÚmoJjoÌ, AW©ì`dñWm, Jw§VdUyH$Xma, amï´> B. Am¡Úmo{JH$
Aem§VVo_wio CÚmoJjoÌmV ZdrZ Jw§VdUwH$sMo à_mU KQ>Vo. `mMm {dnarV n[aUm_ amï´>mÀ`m Am{W©H$ d Am¡Úmo{JH$
{dH$mgmda hmoVmo. naH$s` Jw§VdUwH$sMo à_mUhr H$_r hmoVo.
8. H$m_Jmam§À`m H$m`©joÌmV KQ> : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_wio H$m_Jmam§Mo emar[aH$, _mZ{gH$ ñdmñÏ`
{~KS>Vo. g§nH$mimV H$maImZm ~§X Agë`mZo H$m_Jmam§Zm H$m_ ZgVo Ë`m_wio doVZ {_iV Zmhr. H$m_Jmam§nwT>o
Am{W©H$, H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ g_ñ`m {Z_m©U hmoVmV. `mo½` amhUr_mZmA^mdr H$m_Jmam§Mr emar[aH$eŠVr, _mZ{gH$
j_Vm d Amamo½`mda à{VHy$b n[aUm_ hmoVmo. `m gdmªMm n[aUm_ H$m_Jmam§À`m H$m`©H$m¡eë`mda, H$m`©j_Voda,
AmË_{dídmgmda d _ZmoY¡`m©da hmoVmo. `m_wio H$m_Jma g§nmZ§Va godm {Q>H${dÊ`mg, doVZdmT>rg, ~T>Vrg
Ag_W© R>aÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo.
9. amï´>r` g§nÎmrMr hmZr : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_wio amï´>r` g§nÎmrMr An[a_rV hmZr hmoVo. l_{Xdg,
l_eŠVr, `§ÌeŠVr, D$Om©eŠVr dm`m OmVo. Z¡g{J©H$ gmYZg§nÎmr, CËnmXZmMr gmYZgm_J«r `m§Mm Anì``,
Anwam dmna hmoVmo. `m_wio amï´>r` CËnmXZ KQy>Z amï´>r` CËnÞmV KQ> hmoVo. amï´>mÀ`m Am{W©H$ d Am¡Úmo{JH$
{dH$mgmbm {Ii ~gVo. amï´>mÀ`m gdmªJrU {dH$mgmMm doJ _§XmdVmo.
10. BVa CÚmoJm§da n[aUm_ : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh Oar EH$m CÚmoJjoÌmV CX²^dbm Var Ë`mMo nS>gmX
BVa CÚmoJjoÌm§V C_Q>VmV. CXm. ImU CÚmoJmV H$bh CX²^dë`mg Ë`mMo Xwîn[aUm_ bmoI§S>/nmobmX CÚmoJ,
`§ÌmoÚmoJ B. CÚmoJm§da hmoVmV. VgoM _moR>çm H$maImÝ`mVrb H$bhmMo n[aUm_ Xwæ`_, nyaH$, bhmZ CÚmoJ
g§ñWm§da hmoVmV. Ë`m§Mo ApñVËd YmoŠ`mV `oVo. H$maU N>moQ>çm CÚmoOH$m§Mr ZwH$gmZ ghZ H$aÊ`mMr j_Vm H$_r
AgVo. WmoS>Š`mV, _w»` CÚmoJmVrb Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_wio g§~§{YV CÚmoJm§Zmhr Am{W©H$ A[aï>m§Zm Vm|S> Úmdo
11. AW©ì`dñWoMr hmZr : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMr ì`mßVr _moR>r Agob Va g§nyU© AW©ì`dñWm YmoŠ`mV
`oV.o AW©ì`dñWo_i
w o A{ZpíMVVoMo g§H$Q> C^o amhVo. AW©ì`dñWoVrb BVa joÌm§nTw >ho r Am{W©H$ g§H$Q>,o A{ZpíMVVoMo
dmVmdaU {Z_m©U hmoVo. CXm. ~±qH$J, {d_m, dmhVyH$, Am`mV-{Z`m©V, dm{UÁ`, ^mJ~mOma, hþ§S>r ~mOma,
_wÐm~mOma, _Ü`ñW dJ© B. Jw§VdUyH$Xma A{ZpíMVVo_wio AW©ì`dñWoH$S>o nmR> {\$a{dVmV. naH$s` Jw§VdUwH$sMm
AmoK Wm§~Vmo. CÚmoOH$ ZdrZ ì`dgm` ñWmnZoMo YmS>g H$arV ZmhrV.
12. gmd©O{ZH$ _mb_ÎmoMo ZwH$gmZ : g§n, Q>mio~§Xr Aem n[apñWVr_wio H$m_Jmam§Mo _mZ{gH$ g§VwbZ
{~KS>V.o Am{W©H$ {dd§MZm, Cnmg_ma, Hw$Qw>~§ mMo hmb, ì`dñWmnZmMr _J«aw r B. H$maUm§Zr H$m_Jmam§Mm g§Vmn dmT>V
OmVmo. Aem doir Ë`m§À`m hmVyZ qhgH$H¥$Ë` KS>Ê`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. CXm. Eg.Q>r. ~g, aoëdo, emgH$s`
H$m`m©b`o, H$maImÝ`mda XJS>\$o H$, Ominmoi, _mbH$, A{YH$mè`m§Zm _mahmU B. H$m_Jmam§Mr gmamgma {dMmaeŠVr
{ddoH$ ~Yra Pmë`mZo Ë`m§À`m hmVyZ gmd©O{ZH$ _mb_ÎmoMo ZwH$gmZ hmoV.o Ë`m_wio g_mOmMo, amï´>mMo Am{W©H$ ZwH$gmZ
13. gm_m{OH$ Aem§VVm : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_wio gm_m{OH$ em§VVm YmoŠ`mV `oVo. H$m_Jma hm
g_mOmMm EH$ KQ>H$ Amho. Vmo Aem§V, Ag§Vwï> Pmë`mg gm_m{OH$ em§VVog ~mYm nmohmoMVo. g§n, Q>mio~§Xr,
Koamd, _moM}, CnmofU, ~§X `m_wio X¡Z§{XZ OZOrdZ {dñH$irV hmoVo. H$m_Jma g§Kfm©Zo CJ«ê$n YmaU Ho$ë`mg
Ë`m_YyZ XJS>\o$H$, Ominmoi, OmVr` X§Jbr, _mam_mar, IyZ Ago J¡aàH$ma CX²^dy eH$VmV. `m_wio gm_m{OH$
ñdmñÏ` {~KSy>Z gm_m{OH$ em§VVm ^§J nmdVo. g_mO {dH$mgmMr à{H«$`m R>ßn hmoVo.
14. Am{W©H$ d Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dH$mgmbm Iri : Am{W©H$ d Am¡Úmo{JH$ {dH$mgmMr JVr d doJ hm
Am¡Úmo{JH$ ñW¡`© d em§VVoda Adb§~yZ AgVmo. na§Vw Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMm _w»` Xwîn[aUm_ åhUOo Am¡Úmo{JH$
em§VVm ^§J nmdVo. H$maImZo, CËnmXZmÀ`m {H«$`m ~§X Pmë`mZo CÚmoJg§ñWm§Mm VmoQ>m dmT>V OmVmo. EHy$U CËnmXZ
KQ>Vo. ZdrZ Jw§VdUwH$sMm doJ H$_r hmoVmo. ZdrZ ì`dgm` ñWmnZoMo à_mU KQ>Vo. AW©ì`dñWog e¡{Wë` `oVo.
n[aUm_V: amï´>mÀ`m Am{W©H$, Am¡Úmo{JH$ àJVrMm _mJ© Iw§Q>Vmo.
15. Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§~§Y g§Kf©_` : g§n, Q>mio~§Xr, Koamd Aem àH$mam_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§~§Y H$bw{fV
hmoVmV. H$m_Jma d ì`dñWmnZ `m_Yrb H$Qw>Vm, Ûof, _Ëga, J¡ag_O dmT>V OmVmV. `m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh
{ZdiÊ`mEodOr {MKiV amhVmo. n[aUm_V: H$m_Jmam§Mo emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$ ñdmñÏ` hadVo.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Xwî`n[aUm_ A{Ve` Vrd« / CJ« AgVmV. CÚmoJjoÌmer g§~§{YV gd© KQ>H$m§Zm Vo
XrK©H$mi ^moJmdo bmJVmV. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_wio gm_m{OH$ ñdmñÏ` YmoŠ`mV `oVo. amï´>mÀ`m gdmªJrU {dH$mgmV
AS>ga {Z_m©U hmoVmo. `m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo bdH$amV bdH$a g_yi {ZamH$aU lo`ñH$a R>aVo.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh {Z_y©bZmMo Cnm`/_mJ© :
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh hm ^maVr` CÚmoJ joÌmbm bmJbobm EH$ H$b§H$ Amho. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_
XrK©H$mb CÚmoJjoÌmg d g§~§{YV KQ>H$m§Zm ghZ H$amdo bmJVmV. `m_wio Am¡ÚmoJH$ H$bh CX²^dUmaM ZmhrV
d CX²^dbo Var Ë`m§Mr Vrd«Vm H$_r amhrb d Ë`m§Mo bdH$a {ZagZ hmoB©b `mMr H$miOr H$m_Jma, _mbH$,
H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm `m§Zr KoVbr nm{hOo. `m gd© KQ>H$m§er {demb, {ZînjnmVr, Ñ{ï>H$moU, XyaÑï>r, g§KQ>Zm,
g_mO, amï´>{hV S>moù`mg_moa R>odyZ H$m`© d dV©UyH$ Ho$br, {ZU©` KoVbo Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dÊ`mMm
àíZM {Z_m©U hmoV Zmhr. na§Vw hmVmMr gd© ~moQ>o g_mZ ZgVmV. Ë`mMà_mUo `mn¡H$s EImXm KQ>H$ ñdmWu,
Amn_Vb~r, g§Hw${MV d¥ÎmrMm Agob Va Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh {Z_m©U hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. Aem doir
g_mO{hVmgmR>r emgZmbm Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmV hñVjon H$ê$Z Vmo gmoS>{dÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$amdm bmJVmo. ^maVr`
CÚmoJjoÌmV Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh Q>miÊ`mMo d {_Q>{dÊ`mMo {d{dY _mJ© Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
(A) Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh Q>miUo
(Prevention of Industrial Dispute)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm§Mo Xwîn[aUm_ nmhVm Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dUmaM ZmhrV `m§Mr XjVm KoUo AË`§V
_hÎdmMo R>aVo. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dë`mZ§Va Ë`m§À`m {ZamH$aUmgmR>r Cnm``moOZm H$aUo MwH$sMo R>aVo. H$maU
Aem n[apñWVrV Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_ ghZ H$amdo bmJVmV. `m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dyM Z`oV
åhUyZ à{V~§YmË_H$ Cnm``moOZm H$aUo lo`ñH$a R>aVo. CXm. amoJ Pmë`mZ§Va Vmo Xya H$aÊ`mgmR>r Am¡fYo
KoÊ`mEodOr, amoJ hmoD$M Z`o åhUyZ à{V~§YmË_H$ bg KoUo ehmUnUmMo R>aVo. `mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmZo àW_
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$moUH$moUË`m H$maUm§_wio {Z_m©U hmoD$ eH$Vmo Ë`m H$maUm§Mm emoY KoD$Z Vr H$maUo Xya
H$aÊ`mgmR>r à^mdr Cnm` `moOUo g§`w{ŠVH$ R>aVo. Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kfm©_mJrb H$maUmMo CƒmQ>Z Ho$ë`mZo
Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§~§Y ÑT> hmoD$Z Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dV ZmhrV. n[aUm_V: Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_
g_mOmVrb H$moUË`mM KQ>H$mbm ^moJmdo bmJV ZmhrV. CXm. CÚmoOH$, ^mJYmaH$, nwadR>mXma, H$m_Jma, _Ü`_
dJ©, J«mhH$, g_mO, amï´>, emgZ B. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh Q>miÊ`mgmR>r H$m_Jma-_mbH$ `m§Zr EH$Ì Ambo nm{hOo.
nañnam§Mo àíZ/ g_ñ`m g_OmdyZ KoVë`m nm{hOoV. {demb d ghmZw^yVrMm Ñ{ï>H$moU R>odyZ nañnam§Mo àíZ
gmoS>{dbo nm{hOoV. nañnam§_Ü`o ghH$m`m©Mo, {dídmgmMo dmVmdaU {Z_m©U hmoÊ`mgmR>r àm_m{UH$ à`ËZ Ho$bo
nm{hOoV. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh Q>miÊ`mMo à{V~§YmË_H$ _mJ© Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. H$m`©g{_Vr (Works Committee) : Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`Xm 1947 _Yrb H$b_ 3 Zwgma Á`m
CÚmoJg§ñWo_Ü`o 100 qH$dm Ë`mnojm A{YH$ H$m_Jma ZmoH$arda AmhoV qH$dm _mJrb 12 _{hÝ`mV ZmoH$arda
hmoVo. Aem H$moUË`mhr CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m _mbH$mbm H$m`©g{_VrMr ñWmnZm H$amdr Agm AmXoe emgZ XoD$
eH$Vo. Ë`mgmR>r emgZmbm gm_mÝ` qH$dm {deof ñdê$nmMm AmXoe H$mT>mdm bmJVmo. H$m`©g{_Vr_Ü`o _mbH$
d H$m_Jmam§Mo g_mZ à{V{ZYr AgVmV. H$m_Jma n«{V{ZYtMr {ZdS> {Z{X©ï> nÕVrZo H$amdr bmJVo. CÚmoJg§ñWoV
H$m_Jmam§Mr ^maVr` H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm H$m`Xm 1926 Imbr Zm|Xbobr H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm Agob Va Aem
g§KQ>ZoMm g„m Aem H$m`©g{_Vrda H$m_Jmam§Mo à{V{ZYr {ZdS>VmZm KoVbm nm{hOo. na§Vw ApñVËdmV Agboë`m
H$moUË`mhr H$m`ÚmImbr A{YH¥$V _mÝ`Vm {_imbobr CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm H$m`©g{_Vrda Amnbo
à{V{ZYr Zo_y eH$Vo. H$m_Jma-_mbH$ `m§À`mV ñZoh^mdmMo, ghH$m`m©Mo g§~§Y àñWm{nV H$aUo, Vo {Q>H${dUo,
XmoKm§_Yrb g_mZ {hVmÀ`m Jmoï>tda MMm© H$aUo, _V ì`ŠV H$aUo VgoM XmoKm§V H$moUË`mhr ~m~rg§~§Yr _V^oX
{Z_m©U Pmë`mg Vo {_Q>{dÊ`mgmR>r à`ËZ H$aUo hr H$m`©g{_VrMr H$V©ì`o AmhoV. H$m_Jma-_mbH$ `m XmoÝhr
KQ>H$m§Zm nañnam§À`m àíZm§Mr OmUrd ìhmdr d Ë`m§Zr EH$_oH$m§À`m ghH$m`m©Zo àíZm§Mr gmoS>dUyH$ H$amdr hm
`m g{_Vr ñWmnZo_mJrb _w»` CÔoe Amho. `m g{_VrMo H$m`© _`m©{XV Amho. g{_Vrbm H$m_Jmam§Mo doVZ,
ZmoH$arÀ`m AQ>r Aem {df`mda MMm© H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma ZgVmo.
2. ñWm`r AmXoe (Standing Order) : H$m_Jma d _mbH$ `m§À`mV {H$aH$moi H$maUm§dê$Z _V^oX
{Z_m©U hmoD$ Z`oV d Ë`m_YyZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dy Z`oV åhUyZ CÚmoJg§ñWoMo {Z`_ V`ma H$aUo Amdí`H$
R>aVo. `m {Z`_m§À`m AmYmao XmoÝhr KQ>H$m§Zm nañnam§À`m h¸$m§Mr, A{YH$mam§Mr, H$V©ì`m§Mr, O~m~Xmè`m§Mr
OmUrd H$ê$Z {Xbr OmVo. ñWm`r AmXoem_Ü`o XmoÝhr KQ>H$m§Mo A{YH$ma, h¸$, H$V©ì`o, O~m~Xmè`m Z_yX
Ho$boë`m AgVmV. `m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh Q>miyZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ ghH$m`© dmT>{dUo eŠ` hmoVo.
1946 À`m Am¡Úmo{JH$ amoOJma ñWm`r AmXoe H$m`ÚmZwgma Á`m H$maImÝ`mV 100 nojm OmñV H$m_Jma
AmhoV Ë`m H$maImÝ`mÀ`m _mbH$mZo H$m_Jmam§À`m gëë`mZo g§ñWoV ñWm`r AmXoe V`ma H$ê$Z Ë`mbm gaH$maMr
_mÝ`Vm ¿`mdr bmJVo. ñWm`r AmXoem_YyZ nwT>rb ~m~t~m~V {Z`_ Ho$bo OmVmV. (1) H$m_mMo Vmg,
H$m_Jmam§Zm H$i{dÊ`mMr nÕV (2) H$m_Jmam§Mo dJuH$aU (3) gwÅ>çm (4) nJmamMr VmarI d {Xdg (5)
doVZXa (6) godoVyZ H$_r H$aÊ`mMr d {eñV^§J H$madmB© nÕV. 1963 À`m XwéñVrà_mUo gaH$mabm AmXe©
ñWm`r AmXoemMo {Z`_ H$aÊ`mMm A{YH$ma àmá Pmbm Amho. Omon`ªV EImXr g§ñWm ñdV:Mo ñWm`r AmXoe
emgZmH$Sy>Z _mÝ` H$ê$Z KoV Zmhr Vmon`ªV Ë`m g§ñWog emgZmMo AmXe© ñWm`r AmXoe bmJy hmoVmV.
ì`dñWmnZmZo ñWm`r AmXoe l{_H$m§Zm g_OUmè`m ^mfoV V`ma H$ê$Z Vo H$m_mMo {R>H$mUr bmdbo nm{hOoV.
ñWm`r AmXoem§Mo nmbZ H$aUo XmoÝhr KQ>H$m§da ~§YZH$maH$ AgVo.
3. g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>io (Joint Consultation Councils) : g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>i hr `§ÌUm àW_
B§½b§S>_Ü`o ApñVËdmV Ambr. H$m_Jma d g§ñWmMmbH$ `m§À`m_Ü`o gbmo»`mMo g§~§Y àñWm{nV hmoÊ`mÀ`m
CÔoemZo g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>imMr ñWmnZm H$aÊ`mV Ambr.
Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§ñWoV {Za{Zamù`m {df`m§gmR>r ñdV§Ì d g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>io ñWmnZ Ho$br OmVmV. `m
g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>im_Ü`o H$m_Jma d ì`dñWmnZmMo g_mZ à{V{ZYr AgVmV. `m g{_Ë`m§_YyZ H$maImÝ`mg§~§Yr
AZoH$ àíZm§da gImob MMm©, {dMma{d{Z_` Ho$bm OmVmo d àíZmdarb Amnë`m {e\$maer ì`dñWmnZmg gmXa
Ho$ë`m OmVmV. g„mJma _§S>imÀ`m {e\$maer ñdrH$maUo ì`dñWmnZmda ~§YZH$maH$ ZgVo. na§Vw {e\$maer
_mJ©Xe©H$ ñdê$nmÀ`m Agë`mZo Ë`m eŠ`Vmo ZmH$maë`m OmV ZmhrV. g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>i Imbrb àíZmda
{dMma{d{Z_` H$ê$Z Amnë`m {e\$maer ì`dñWmnZmg gmXa H$aVo. CXm. H$m_Jmam§Mr gwa{jVVm, H$m_mg§~§YrÀ`m
{Z`_mV ~Xb, doioMr ~MV B. na§Vw `m _§S>imMo H$m`©joÌ _`m©{XV AgVo. hr _§S>io nwT>rb {df`mda MMm©,
g„m_gbV H$ê$ eH$V ZmhrV. CXm. H$m_Jmam§Mo doVZ, aOoMo {Z`_, OmXm H$m_mMo Xa B.
^maVm_Ü`o _moR>çm H$maImÝ`m§_Ü`o g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>im§Mr ñWmnZm H$aÊ`mÀ`m CÔoemZo 1957 gmbr
EH$ Cng{_Vr Zo_Ê`mV Ambr. `m g{_VrÀ`m {e\$maerZwgma H$mnS>, Á`yQ>, agm`Zo, H$mJX, gmIa, B§{O{ZA[a¨J,
{g_|Q>, MhmMo _io, drO H§$nZr, ~§Xa, dmhVyH$, nmoñQ> d VmaImVo, ImUr, aoëdo B. CÚmoJY§ÚmVyZ g§`wŠV g„mJma
_§S>io ñWmnÊ`mV `mdrV. Imbrb AQ>r ho CÚmoJY§Xo nyU© H$aV AgVrb VaM g§`wŠV g„mJma _§S>im§Mr ñWmnZm
H$aVm `oVo.
1. H$m_Jmam§Mr g§»`m 500 nojm OmñV Agmdr.
2. CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb H$m_Jmam§Mr g§KQ>Zm H$m`©j_ d _O~yV Agmdr.
4. {Ìnjr` `§ÌUm (Tripartiate Machinery) : 1941 À`m H$m_Jma n[afXoZo H$m_Jma, gaH$ma d
_mbH$ `m§Mo à{V{ZYr Agbobr H$m`_ ñdê$nmMr {Ìnjr` `§ÌUm ñWmnZ H$aÊ`mMr {e\$mag Ho$br. `m
{e\$maerà_mUo gaH$maZo ñWm`r H$m_Jma g{_Vr ñWmnZ Ho$br. hr g{_Vr H$m_Jmam§Mo àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mg§~§Yr
H$m_Jma H$m`Úm§VyZ EH$dmŠ`Vm KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mÀ`m X¥ï>rZo gaH$mabm g„m XoD$ eH$Vo. Ë`mMà_mUo Am¡Úmo{JH$
H$bh Q>miÊ`mÀ`m Ñï>rZo H$m_Jmam§À`m _hÎdmÀ`m àíZm§da H$m_Jma, _mbH$ d gaH$ma `m§À`mV MMm© KS>dyZ
AmUVo. _V^oX {_Q>{dÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aVo. hr g{_Vr {dMma{d{Z_` H$ê$Z gm_monMmamZo àíZ gmoS>{dÊ`mMm
à`ËZ H$aVo. na§Vw `m g{_Vrbm \$mago A{YH$ma ZmhrV d hr g{_Vr Ho$di g„m XoÊ`mMo H$m`© H$aVo.
5. VH«$ma {ZdmaU nÕVr (Grievances Procedure) : ì`dñWmnZmZo H$m_Jmam§~m~V AmIboë`m
`moOZm, YmoaUo, KoVbobo {ZU©` `m~m~V H$m_Jmam§Mo, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§Mo H$mhr Amjon, VH«$mar Agy eH$VmV.
CXm. H$m`©pñWVr, doVZ, ~moZg, ~T>Vr, Am{W©H$, Am{W©Ho$Va gdbVr B.~m~V VgoM _mbH$ qH$dm H$m_Jmam§Zr
ñWm`r AmXoe, gaH$mar AmXoe, _mbH$-H$m_Jma H$ama `m§Mo C„§KZ Ho$bo Agob Va `m~m~Vhr Xwgè`m njmV\}$
VH«$ma Ho$br OmVo. ì`{ŠVJV H$m_Jma, H$m_Jma g_yh, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm VH«$ma H$ê$ eH$VmV. àË`oH$
CÚmoJg§ñWoV H$m_Jmam§À`m VH«$matMo Ëd[aV, `mo½` nÕVrZo {ZamH$aU H$aÊ`mgmR>r ñdV§Ì, {d{eï> nÕV, `§ÌUm
ñWmnZ Ho$bobr AgVo. hr `§ÌUm H$m_Jma VH«$marMr Ëd[aV XIb KoD$Z Ë`mda g_mYmZH$maH$ VmoS>Jo H$mT>V
AgVo. `m_wio VH«$matÀ`m _wimVyZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dV ZmhrV. `mCbQ> VH«$matMo {ZagZ Ëd[aV d `mo½`
nÕVrZo Ho$ë`m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§~§Y K{Zï> ~ZVmV.
H$m_Jmam§À`m VH«$matMo {ZdmaU H$aÊ`mÀ`m à_wI XmoZ nÕVr ApñVËdm_Ü`o AmhoV.
(1) _wŠVÛma nÕVr : `m nÕVr_Ü`o H$m_Jma ì`dñWmnZmMr àË`j ^oQ> KoD$Z Ë`m§À`mnwT>o ñdV:Mr
VH«$ma boIr qH$dm Vm|S>r ñdê$nmV _m§S>Vmo. `m nÕVr_Ü`o H$m_Jmambm bdH$a Ý`m` {_iVmo. bhmZ ì`dgm`m_Ü`o
hr nÕV `mo½` R>aVo. `m nÕVr_wio VH«$marMo ñdê$n d Jm§^r`© ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m bdH$a bjmV `oVo.
(2) Q>ßß`mQ>ßß`mMr nÕV : `m nÕVr_Ü`o H$m_Jmam§À`m VH«$marMo {ZamH$aU Q>ßß`mQ>ßß`mZo d[að>
A{YH$mè`m§À`m gmIir_Ü`o Ho$bo OmVo. `m nÕVrMm CÔoe H$m_Jmam§Zm bdH$a Ý`m` {_imdm, A{YH$mè`m§_Ü`o
{ZU©`j_Vm `mdr, Cƒ A{YH$mè`m§Zm _hÎdmÀ`m àíZmda bj H|${ÐV H$aVm `mdo. _moR>çm ì`dgm`mV hr nÕV
Cn`wŠV R>aVo. `m nÕVrV VH«$matMo {ZamH$aU Imbrb Q>ßß`mVyZ Ho$bo OmVo.
n{hbm Q>ßnm : H$m_JmamZo àW_ Amnbr VH«$ma {d^mJr` nmVir_Yrb A{YH$mè`mH$S>o H$amd`mMr
AgVo. H$m_Jmam§À`m VH«$matMo àmW{_H$ AdñWoV {ZamH$aU H$aÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmZo `m A{YH$mè`mMr
{Z`wŠVr Ho$bobr AgVo. `m A{YH$mè`mZo VH«$ma XmIb Pmë`mnmgyZ 48 Vmgm§À`m AmV Amnbm {ZU©`
H$m_Jmamg H$idm`Mm AgVmo.
Xwgam Q>ßnm : {d^mJr` nmVir_Yrb A{YH$mè`mZo {Xboë`m {ZU©`m_wio H$m_JmamMo g_mYmZ Pmbo Zmhr
Va Vmo {d^mJ n«_wImH$S>o VH«$ma H$ê$ eH$Vmo. {d^mJ à_wImbm H$m_JmamÀ`m VH«$marda VrZ {XdgmV {ZU©`
¿`mdm bmJVmo.
{Vgam Qßnm : {d^mJ à_wImZo VH«$mar~m~V KoVbobm {ZU©` H$m_Jmamg _mÝ` Zgob Va Vmo VH«$ma {ZdmaU
g{_VrH$S>o Amnbr VH«$ma XmIb H$ê$ eH$Vmo. VH«$ma {ZdmaU g{_Vr_Ü`o H$m_Jma d ì`dñWmnZmMo g_mZ
à{V{ZYr AgVmV. g{_VrZo gmV {XdgmV Amnbm {ZU©` Úmd`mMm AgVmo.
Mm¡Wm Q>ßnm : VH«$ma {ZdmaU g{_VrMm {ZU©` H$m_Jmamg _mÝ` Zgob qH$dm g{_VrMm {ZU©` H$m_Jmamg
{_imbm Zmhr Va Vmo Amnbr VH«$ma ì`dñWmnH$mH$S>o H$aVmo. ì`dñWmnH$mZo H$m_JmamÀ`m VH«$marda VrZ
{XdgmÀ`m AmV {ZU©` ¿`md`mMm AgVmo.
nmMdm Q>ßnm : ì`dñWmnH$mZo {Xboë`m {ZU©`mZo H$m_JmamMo g_mYmZ Pmbo Zgob Va Vmo _w»`
ì`dñWmnH$ qH$dm g§MmbH$ _§S>imH$Co VH«$ma H$ê$ eH$Vmo.
6. CÚmoJY§ÚmVrb {eñVrMo {Z`_ (Code of Discipline in Industries) : ~o{eñVnUm hm ^maVr`
H$m_Jmam§Mm ñWm`r^md g_Obm OmVmo. ~o{eñV amhÊ`mV, dmJÊ`mV, H$m_ H$aÊ`mV H$mhr H$m_Jmam§Zm AmZ§X
d _moR>onUm dmQ>Vmo. `m_wio H$m_Jmam§_Ü`o {eñVrMo dmVmdaU {Z_m©U H$aUo hr àË`oH$ CÚmoJmnwT>rb J§^ra g_ñ`m
Amho. H$m_Jmam§_Ü`o {eñV {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mMm ì`dñWmnZmZo à`ËZ Ho$ë`mg H$m_Jma, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm Ë`mg
{damoY H$aVmV.
H$maImÝ`m_Ü`o {eñVrMo dmVmdaU Agob Va H$m`©àdmhmg `mo½` JVr, ì`dpñWVnUm àmá hmoD$Z
CËnmXZmMo Ü`o` g\$b hmoVo. `mMr OmUrd emgZ, H$m_Jma, H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm, CÚmoOH$ `m§Zm Pmë`m_wio,
CÚmoJjoÌmV {eñVrMo dmVmdaU {Z_m©U hmoÊ`mgmR>r {eñVrMo {Z`_ V`ma H$aÊ`mV Ambo. 1957 _Ü`o ^aboë`m
{Ìnj n[afXoV H$m_mJam§À`m {eñVrMm àíZ àW_ CnpñWV H$aÊ`mV Ambm. H$m_Jma d CÚmoOH$ `m XmoÝhr
njm§H$Sy>Z {eñV^§J hmoUma Zmhr Aem nÕVrZo {eñVrMo {Z`_ V`ma H$aÊ`mgmR>r EH$ Cng{_Vr ñWmnZ Ho$br.
`m Cng{_VrZo XoemVrb gd© CÚmoOH$m§Zm d H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm§Zm _mÝ` hmoVrb Aem nÕVrZo {eñVrMo {Z`_ V`ma
Ho$bo. `m Cng{_VrZo V`ma Ho$boë`m {eñVrÀ`m {Z`_m§V `mo½` Ë`m gwYmaUm H$ê$Z ho {Z`_ OyZ, 1958 nmgyZ
gd© gmd©O{ZH$ d ImOJr joÌmVrb CÚmoJY§Úm§Zm bmJy Ho$bo. `m {eñVrÀ`m {Z`_mV H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm d
CÚmoOH$m§Zr n[apñWVrZwê$n `mo½` Vo ~Xb H$ê$Z Ë`m§Mm A§_b Amnmnë`m CÚmoJg§ñWmV gwê$ Ho$bm. {eñVrÀ`m
{Z`_m§Mo g§{já ñdê$n Imbrbà_mUo Amho.
1. g§n d Q>mio~§Xr gyMZm XoD$Z H$amdr. H$m_Jmam§Zm XheV KmbUo d \$g{dUo `mg à{V~§Y H$aÊ`mV
Ambm Amho. H$m_Jmam§À`m hiyhiy H$m_ H$aÊ`mÀ`m àd¥Îmrg {damoY Ho$bm Amho.
2. H$moUË`mhr Jmoï>rMm EH$mM ~mOyZo {ZU©` XmoÝhr njm§Zm KoVm `oUma Zmhr.
3. gd© H$bh, VH«$mar eŠ`Vmo gaH$maZo C^maboë`m `§ÌUo_m\©$V gmoS>{dÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$amdm.
4. H$moUVrhr VH«$ma XmIb Pmë`mZ§Va {VMr gImob Mm¡H$er H$ê$Z gdmªZm _mÝ` hmoB©b Agm VmoS>Jm
5. H$m_Jmam§À`m nyd©g§_Vr{edm` H$m_mMo à_mU dm Vmg dmT>dy Z`oV.
6. CÚmoOH$m§Zr H$m_Jma g§KQ>ZoÀ`m {dH$mgmbm _XV H$amdr. H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm d H$m_Jma `m§À`mV \y$Q>
nmS>Ê`mMm à`ËZ H$ê$ Z`o.
7. Á`m A{YH$mè`m§À`m dV©Zm_who d H¥$Vr_wio H$m_Jma ~o{eñV dmJÊ`mg àd¥Îm hmoVmV. Aem A{YH$mè`m§da
H$R>moa H$madmB© H$amdr.
8. H$m_mÀ`m doioV H$m_Jmam§Zr H$m_Jma g§KQ>ZoMo H$m_ H$ê$ Z`o. Am¡Úmo{JH$ Aem§VVm CX²^dob Aem
H¥$Ë`mV gh^mJr hmoD$ Z`o.
9. CËnmXZ H$m`m©da n[aUm_ hmoB©b Ago H$moUVohr dV©Z XmoÝhr njm§Zr H$ê$ Z`o.
10. H$moUVmhr {ZU©`/H$ama Ëd[aV A§_bmV AmUmdm.
11. H$m_Jma g§KQ>ZoZo H$maImÝ`mÀ`m _mb_Îmog ZwH$gmZ nmohmoMob Ago H$moUVohr H¥$Ë` H$aÊ`mg
H$m_Jmam§Zm _‚mmd H$amdm.
darb {eñVrÀ`m {Z`_m§Mm A§_b Ho$ë`m_wio CÚmoJg§ñWm§_Ü`o {eñVrMo dmVmdaU {Z_m©U hmoÊ`mg _XV
Pmbr Amho. H$m_Jma-ì`dñWmnZ, _mbH$-H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm `m§À`m_Yrb Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§~§Y gbmo»`mMo,
gm_§Oñ`mMo ~ZyZ Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm§Mo à_mU KQ>bobo {XgyZ `oVo. {eñVrMo {Z`_ \$bXm`r hmoÊ`mgmR>r XmoÝhr
njm§Zr _ZmnmgyZ, n«m_m{UH$nUo, H$m`©j_VoZo {Z`_m§Mo nmbZ H$aUo JaOoMo R>aVo.
7. H$m_Jma H$ë`mU A{YH$mar (Labour Welfare Officer) : 1948 À`m H$maImZm H$m`ÚmZwgma
Á`m H$maImÝ`mV 500 qH$dm Ë`mnojm A{YH$ H$m_Jma H$m_ H$arV AmhoV. Aem H$maImÝ`mV H$m_Jma H$ë`mU
A{YH$mar Zo_Uo gŠVrMo Amho.
H$m_Jma H$ë`mU A{YH$mè`mMr H$m`} Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm§Mm à{V~§Y H$aUo, H$m_Jma d _mbH$ `m§À`mV Mm§Jbo g§§~§Y {Z_m©U H$aUo.
H$m_Jmam§À`m VH«$matMo {ZagZ H$aUo.
2. H$m_Jma H$ë`mUm~m~V ì`dñWmnZmg g„m, _mJ©Xe©Z H$aUo.
3. H$maImÝ`mVrb H$m`©pñWVr, dmVmdaU d H$m_Jmam§Mr {ZdmgmMr n[apñWVr gwYmaÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aUo.
4. H$m_Jmam§Mr _Vo, Anojm, _mZgemó OmUyZ H$m_Jma H$bh Q>miÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmg `mo½` Ë`m
gyMZm XoUo.
5. H$m_Jma d ì`dñWmnZ `m§À`mVrb àm_m{UH$ d à^mdr _Ü`ñW åhUyZ H$m`© H$aUo.
(~) Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh gmoS>{dUo - {_Q>{dUo
(Settlement of Industrial Dispute)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh CX²^dy Z`oV åhUyZ {H$Vrhr H$miOr, I~aXmar KoVbr Var H$mhr {Z`§ÌU~mø, Ah§H$mar
H$maUm_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§Kf© CX²^dVmV. H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm qH$dm ì`dñWmnZ `m§À`m A{VaoH$s, ñdmWu, nyd©Xy{fV,
Q>moH$mÀ`m ^y{_Ho$_wio H$m_Jma Ag§Vmof dmT>rg bmJVmo d `mMr n[aUVr g§n, Q>mio~§Xr_Ü`o hmoVo. Am¡Úmo{JH$
H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_ A{Ve` ^`mZH$ AgVmV d CÚmoJjoÌmer g§~§{YV gd© KQ>H$m§Zm Vo ghZ H$amdoM bmJVmV.
`m_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Ëd[aV d nyU©V: {ZamH$aU H$aUo AË`§V Amdí`H$ AgVo. ^maVm_Ü`o Am¡Úmo{JH$
g§Kf© gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r {ÌñVar` `§ÌUm {Z_m©U Ho$br Amho.
1. VS>OmoS>
CÚmoOH$ d H$m_Jma `m§À`mV Ag§Vmof {Z_m©U hmoÊ`mMr {MÝho Ooìhm {Xgy bmJVmV qH$dm hm g§Kf©
àmW{_H$ AdñWo_Ü`o AgVmo qH$dm Ë`m g§Kfm©À`m gwédmVrÀ`m AdñWoV AgVmo Voìhm Vmo g§Kf© gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r
H$m_Jma d CÚmoOH$ `m§Zr EH$Ì `oD$Z Vmo VS>OmoS>rÀ`m _mJm©Zo gmoS>dmdm Aer gaH$maMr ^y{_H$m AgVo.
H$m_Jma d H$maImZXma `m§Zr EH$Ì `oD$Z nañnam§À`m AS>MUr, àíZ g_OmdyZ KoD$Z Vo VS>OmoS>rÀ`m _mJm©Zo
Xya H$amdo Aer `moOZm g§Kf© gmoS>{dÊ`mÀ`m `§ÌUoVrb n{hbr nm`ar Amho. H$m_Jma d H$maImZXma `m§Zr
VS>OmoS> H$amdr åhUyZ Imbrb `§ÌUm d A{YH$ma nXm§Mr {Z{_©Vr Ho$br OmVo.
(A) H$m_Jma d H$maImZXma `m§Mr g{_Vr
(Works Committee)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`Xm 1947 Zwgma Á`m H$maImÝ`mV _Owam§Mr g§»`m 100 nojm OmñV Amho Ë`m
H$maImÝ`mV H$m_Jma d CÚmoOH$ `m§Mo g_mZ à{V{ZYr Agbobr g§`wŠV g{_Vr ñWmnZ H$aUo gŠVrMo Amho.
Aer g{_Vr ñWmnZ H$aÊ`mMo CÔoe H$m_Jma d CÚmoOH$ `m§À`mV ghH$m`© {Z_m©U ìhmdo. H$m_Jmam§À`m
d¡`{ŠVH$ AS>MUr Xya ìhmì`mV. nañna {hVg§~§YmÀ`m {df`mda MMm© H$ê$Z {ZU©` KoUo ho AmhoV. `m g{_VrMr
H$m`©j_Vm, Cn`wŠVVm d `e CÚmoOH$ `m g{_Vrbm {H$Vr _hÎd XoVmo, g{_Vrbm {H$Vr A{YH$ma {XboV d
{H$Vr à_mUmV g{_VrÀ`m {e\$maer àË`j A§_bmV AmUë`m OmVmV `mda Adb§~yZ AgVo.
(~) VS>OmoS> A{YH$mar
(Conciliation Officer)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`Xm 1947 H$b_ 4 Zwgma Am¡Úmo{JH$ joÌmVrb CÚmoJg§ñWo_Ü`o _mbH$ d H$m_Jma
`m§À`m_Ü`o {Z_m©U Pmboë`m Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm~m~V _Ü`ñWr H$ê$Z Ë`m§À`mV VS>OmoS> qH$dm g_oQ> KS>dyZ
AmUÊ`mgmR>r g§~§{Y gaH$ma Amdí`H$ {VVŠ`m VS>OmoS> A{YH$mè`m§Mr gaH$mar A{YnÌH$mÝd`o gyMZm XoD$Z
Zo_UyH$ H$ê$ eH$Vo. g§~§{YV gaH$ma VS>OmoS> A{YH$mè`mMr Zo_UyH$ {d{eï> joÌmgmR>r qH$dm {d{eï> joÌmVrb
{d{eï> CÚmoJmgmR>r qH$dm EH$ qH$dm A{YH$ CÚmoJm§gmR>r VgoM H$m`_À`m qH$dm VmËnwaË`m H$mb_`m©XogmR>r
H$ê$ eH$Vo.
VS>OmoS> A{YH$mè`m§Mr H$V©ì`o (H$b_ 12)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`ÚmVrb H$b_ 12 _Ü`o VS>OmoS> A{YH$mè`mMr H$V©ì`o Z_yX Ho$br AmhoV.
1. Á`mdoir EImÚm CÚmoJg§ñWoV AWdm g_mOmon`moJr godm g§ñWoV Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh ApñVËdmV AgVmo
qH$dm Ver eŠ`Vm AgVo d Ë`mMr H$m`ÚmVrb H$b_ 22 Zwgma gyMZm {Xbobr AgVo Voìhm VS>OmoS>
A{YH$mè`mZo {Z{X©ï> Ho$boë`m nÕVrZo VS>OmoS>rMr H$madmB© gwê$ H$amdr.
2. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm~m~VrV _mbH$ d H$m_Jmam§V Ý`m` d gm¡hmX©nyU© VS>OmoS> KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mgmR>r
VS>OmoS> A{YH$mar {dZm{db§~ H$bhmMr VnmgUr H$aVrb d VS>OmoS> hmoÊ`mgmR>r gd© ~m~tMm {dMma H$aVrb.
C{MV VS>OmoS> hmoÊ`mgmR>r C^` njm§Zm àd¥Îm H$aÊ`mgmR>r Amdí`H$ Vo gd© à`ËZ A{YH$mè`mZo Ho$bo nm{hOoV.
3. VS>OmoS>rÀ`m H$madmB©V Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMr qH$dm Ë`mVrb H$moUË`mhr ~m~tMr VS>OmoS> Pmbr
Agë`mg, VS>OmoS> A{YH$mè`mZo Ë`mg§~§YrMm Ahdmb XmoÝhr njm§À`m gøm Agboë`m VS>OmoS> nÌH$mgh
g§~§{YV gaH$maH$S>o qH$dm Ë`mg A{YH$ma {Xboë`m A{YH$mè`mH$S>o nmR>{dbm nm{hOo.
4. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmÀ`m VS>OmoS>rÀ`m H$madmB©V VS>OmoS> hmoD$ Z eH$ë`mg, VS>OmoS>r {df`rÀ`m gd©
à`ËZm§Mr H$madmB© nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va eŠ` {VVŠ`m bdH$a, VS>OmoS> H$moUË`m H$maUm§_wio hmoD$ eH$br Zmhr Am{U
VS>OmoS> hmoÊ`mgmR>r H$moUVo à`ËZ Ho$bo, `m~Ôb dñVwpñWVrMr g§nyU© _m{hVr XoUmam Ahdmb gaH$maH$S>o
nmR>{dbm nm{hOo.
5. VS>OmoS>rMr H$madmB© gwê$ Pmë`mZ§Va 14 {Xdgm§À`m _wXVrV qH$dm gaH$maZo R>adyZ {Xboë`m _wXVrV
VS>OmoS> A{YH$mè`mZo Amnbm Ahdmb gaH$maH$S>o nmR>{dbm nm{hOo.
(H$) VS>OmoS> _§S>i (H$b_ 5)
(Conciliation Board)
VS>OmoS> A{YH$mè`mg Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh {_Q>{dÊ`mV An`e Amë`mg, emgZ, Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh
H$m`ÚmVrb H$b_ 5 Zwgma gaH$mar A{YnÌH$mÝd`o gyMZm XoD$Z VS>OmoS> _§S>imMr ñWmnZm H$ê$ eH$Vo.
VS>OmoS> _§S>imV EH$ AÜ`j d JaOoZwgma XmoZ qH$dm Mma gXñ` AgVmV. _§S>imMm AÜ`j hr ñdV§Ì ì`ŠVr
AgVo. Va gXñ` ho Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmer g§~§{YV XmoÝhr njm§Mo g_mZ à{V{ZYr AgVmV. à{V{ZYtMr {Z`wŠVr
g§~§{YV njm§À`m {e\$maerZo Ho$br OmVo. VS>OmoS> _§S>imMm AÜ`j {Oëhm qH$dm hm`H$moQ>m©Mm godm{Zd¥Îm
Ý`m`mYre AgVmo.
VS>OmoS> _§S>imMr H$V©ì`o
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`ÚmVrb H$b_ 13 _Ü`o VS>OmoS> _§S>imMr H$V©ì`o Z_yX Ho$br AmhoV.
1. EImXm H$bh Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh VS>OmoS> _§S>imH$S>o gmon{dë`mZ§Va, Ë`mda VS>OmoS> hmoÊ`mgmR>r
{dZm{db§~, Ý`m` VS>OmoS>rda n[aUm_ H$aUmè`m gd© KQ>H$m§Mr VnmgUr H$amdr. Ý`mæ` d gm¡hmX©nyU© VS>OmoS>rgmR>r
g§~§{YV njm§Zm àd¥Îm H$amdo.
2. VS>OmoS>rÀ`m H$madmB©V Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh qH$dm H$bhmg§~§{YV H$mhr ~m~tda VS>OmoS> Pmë`mg
_§S>imZo Ë`mg§~§YrMm Ahdmb, g§~§{YV njm§À`m gøm{Zer VS>OmoS> nÌH$mgh gaH$maH$S>o nmR>{dbm nm{hOo.
3. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmda VS>OmoS> Z Pmë`mg, VnmgUr nyU© Pmë`mZ§Va, VS>OmoS>rgmR>r _§S>imZo Ho$bobo
à`ËZ d C^` njmV VS>OmoS> H$moUË`m H$maUm§Zr Pmbr Zmhr `mg§~§YrMm g§nyU© Ahdmb gaH$maH$S>o nmR>{dbm
nm{hOo. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMr n[apñWVr, dñVwpñWVr, Ho$bobr Cnm``moOZm, _§S>imMo {ZîH$f©, VS>OmoS> Z
hmoÊ`mMr H$maUo, H$bh {_Q>Ê`mgmR>r {e\$maer B. ~m~r AhdmbmV Z_yX H$amì`mV.
4. VS>OmoS> _§S>imH$S>o Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh gmon{dë`mnmgyZ XmoZ _{hÝ`mÀ`m AmV qH$dm gaH$maZo {Xboë`m
_wXVrV Ë`mZo Amnbm Ahdmb gaH$maH$S>o nmR>{dbm nm{hOo.
(S>) Mm¡H$er _§S>i
(Court of Enquiry)
Á`m g§ñWm gmd©O{ZH$ {hV g§ñWm ZmhrV Ë`m§À`mVrb dmX {_Q>{dÊ`mgmR>r gaH$ma Mm¡H$er _§S>i Zo_y
eH$Vo. ho Mm¡H$er _§S>i EImXm dmX gmoS>{dÊ`mgmR>r Zo_bo OmD$ eH$Vo. `m _§S>imbm EImÚm dmXmMo qH$dm
g_ñ`oMo g§emoYZ H$ê$Z Ë`mg§~§YrMm Ahdmb gaH$mabm gmXa H$amdm bmJVmo. ho _§S>i EH$m ì`ŠVrMo qH$dm
AZoH$ ì`ŠVtMo Agy eH$Vo. `m _§S>imbm Amnbm {ZU©` C^` njm§da bmXVm `oV Zmhr.
2. bdmX qH$dm _Ü`ñWr
(H$b_ 10 A) :
_hmË_m Jm§YtZr Ah_Xm~mX `oWrb H$m_Jma d H$mnS>{JaUr _mbH$ `m§À`mVrb Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh
`eñdrnUo {_Q>{dë`mZ§Va `m nÕVrg A{YH$ _hÎd àmá Pmbo. 1947 À`m Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`ÚmV `m
nÕVrZo ñdoÀN>oZo bdmXm_m\©$V H$bh {_Q>{dÊ`m~m~V H$moUVrhr VaVyX ZìhVr. na§Vw 1956 À`m XwéñVr_Ü`o
H$b_ 10 A à_mUo bdmXm_m\©$V Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh {_Q>{dÊ`mÀ`m _mJm©bm g§_Vr XoÊ`mV Ambr. `m XwéñVr
H$m`Úmà_mUo, bdmX qH$dm _Ü`ñW Ho$di H$m_Jma H$moQ>m©Mm Ý`m`mYre, amÁ` Ý`m` _§S>imMm Ý`m`mYre,
_Ü`dVu Ý`m` _§S>imMm Ý`m`mYre Agy eHo$b. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh ApñVËdmV AgVmZm qH$dm {Z_m©U hmoÊ`mMr
eŠ`Vm Agob Va Vmo H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb`, Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb`, amï´>r` Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb`mH$S>o ZoÊ`mnydu
_mbH$ d H$m_Jma qH$dm H$m_Jma g§KQ>Zm AmnmngmV boIr H$ama H$ê$Z Vmo bdmXmH$S>o ZoD$ eH$VmV. hm H$ama
{d{eï> Z_wÝ`mV Agmdm. Ë`mda gd© njm§À`m gøm Agmì`mV. `m H$amamÀ`m àVr gaH$ma d VS>OmoS>
A{YH$mè`mH$S>o gmXa Ho$ë`m nm{hOoV. gaH$ma hm H$ama EH$ _{hÝ`mÀ`m _wXVrV gaH$mar A{YnÌH$mV à{gÕ
H$aVo. bdmXm_Yrb gXñ`m§Mr g§»`m g_mZ Agob Va bdmX H$amam_Ü`o AmUIr EH$m ì`ŠVrMr "A§nm`a'
åhUyZ Zo_UyH$ H$aÊ`mMr VaVyX Agmdr. Á`mdoir bdmXm_Yrb gXñ`m§Mr _Vo g_mZ hmoVmV Ë`mdoir "A§nm`a'
bdmXmÀ`m H$m_H$mOmV ^mJ KoVmo. ñdV: {ZdmS>m XoVmo d hm {ZdmS>m ({ZU©`) bdmXmMm {ZdmS>m g_Obm OmVmo.
bdmXmZo Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMr VnmgUr H$ê$Z Amnbm {ZdmS>m gaH$mabm gmXa Ho$bm nm{hOo. `m
{ZdmS>çmda bdmXmÀ`m gd© gXñ`m§À`m gøm Agmì`mV. Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh bdmXmH$S>o gmon{dë`mZ§Va Ë`m
VmaoIg ApñVËdmV Agbobm d H$bhmer g§~§{YV Agbobm H$moUVmhr g§n qH$dm Q>mio~§Xrg _ZmB© H$aÊ`mMm
A{YH$ma gaH$mabm AgVmo. _Ü`ñW, bdmX XmoÝhr njm§Mr ~mOy EoHy$Z KoD$Z Amnbo _V XmoÝhr qH$dm EH$m
njmda bmXy eH$Vmo. bdmXmMm {ZdmS>m H$moQ>m©À`m {ZU©`mà_mUo AgVmo d Vmo XmoÝhr njm§da ~§YZH$maH$ AgVmo.
3. Ý`m`mb`m_m\©$V g_PmoVm
H$m_Jma d _mbH$ `m§À`mV Oa VS>OmoS> A{YH$mar qH$dm bdmX `m§À`m_m\©$V g_PmoVm hmoD$ eH$bm Zmhr
Va Ë`m§À`mVrb H$bh {_Q>dyZ g_PmoVm H$aÊ`mgmR>r Vmo H$bh Ý`m`mb`mV XmIb H$ê$Z Ë`m§À`mda Ý`m`mb`mMm
{ZU©` bmXÊ`mMm A{YH$ma H$m`ÚmZo emgZmbm {Xbm Amho. 1947 À`m Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`ÚmV `mo½` Ë`m
XwéñË`m 1956 gmbr H$aÊ`mV Amë`m. 1956 À`m XwéñVrà_mUo H$m_Jma d H$maImZXma `m§À`mV g_PmoVm
KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mgmR>r Imbrb Ý`m`mb`o ñWmnZ Ho$br AmhoV.
B H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb`
B amÁ` Am¡Úmo{JH$ _§S>i / Ý`m`mb`
B amï´>r` Am¡Úmo{JH$ _§S>i / Ý`m`mb`
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmMo Xwîn[aUm_ Q>miÊ`mgmR>r gaH$ma H$m`ÚmÀ`m AmYmao H$bhmV hñVjon H$ê$Z Vmo
H$bh Ý`m`mb`mV XmIb H$aVo. Ý`m`mb`mÀ`m {ZU©`mda H$moUË`mhr njmMo Xw_V Agy eH$V Zmhr. Ý`m`mb`mMm
{ZU©` XmoÝhr njm§da ~§YZH$maH$ AgVmo. Ý`m`mb`mZo {Xboë`m {ZU©`mMr A§_b~OmdUr gaH$maZo H$amd`mMr
H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb` (Labour Court) (H$b_ 7)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`ÚmÀ`m Xwgè`m n[a{eï>mV {Xboë`m ~m~tda {dMma H$ê$Z {ZU©` XoÊ`mgmR>r d
H$m`ÚmVrb VaVwXrZwgma Ë`m§À`mda Q>mH$bobr H$V©ì`o nma nmS>Ê`mgmR>r gaH$ma A{YnÌH$m_Ü`o gyMZm XoD$Z
EH$ qH$dm A{YH$ H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb`m§Mr ñWmnZm H$ê$ eH$Vo.
n[a{eï> XmoZ_Yrb Imbrb {df`mg§~§Yr H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb` {ZU©` XoD$ eH$Vo.
1. CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m ñWm`r {Z`_mZwgma _mbH$m§Zr H$m_Jmam§Zm {Xboë`m AmXoemMm `mo½`nUm d H$m`XoeranUm.
2. ñWm`r {Z`_m§Mm AW© d Ë`m§Mr A§_b~OmdUr.
3. H$m_mdê$Z H$_r Ho$boë`m, ~S>V\©$ Ho$boë`m H$m_Jmamg H$m`ÚmVrb VaVwXrZwgma Ý`m` XoUo.
4. H$m_Jmam§Zm ê$T>rZwgma {_iUmè`m gdbVr, {deof h¸$ _mbH$mZo H$mTy>Z KoVë`mg.
5. g§n, Q>mio~§Xr H$m`Xoera Amho H$m`?
6. n[a{eï> VrZ_Ü`o Z_yX Ho$bobo {df` gmoSy>Z BVa {df`.
H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb`mda \$ŠV EH$M ì`ŠVr H$m_ H$arb Am{U {VMr {Z`wŠVr g§~§{YV gaH$ma H$aob.
H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb`mÀ`m Ý`m`m{YemÀ`m nmÌVm Imbrbà_mUo AmhoV.
1. Cƒ Ý`m`mb`mMm AmOr, _mOr Ý`m`mYre qH$dm
2. {Oëhm Ý`m`mYre nXmMm qH$dm gh {Oëhm Ý`m`mYre nXmMm 3 dfmªMm AZw^d. qH$dm
3. 7 df} Ý`m`mYre nXmMm AZw^d. qH$dm
4. H$m_Jma Ý`m`nrR>mdarb H$m_mMm 5 df} AZw^d. qH$dm
5. Cƒ Ý`m`mb`, Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb`, H$m_Jma Ý`m`mb`mV 7 df} dH$sb åhUyZ H$m`© Ho$bo Agob.
6. H$m`ÚmMr nXdr d Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb`mV Cnà~§YH$ qH$dm H$m_Jma Cnm`wŠV åhUyZ 5 df} H$m_mMm
B amÁ` Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb` (State Industrial Tribunal) (H$b_ 7 A)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bh H$m`ÚmVrb Xwgè`m qH$dm {Vgè`m n[a{eï>m_Ü`o Z_yX Ho$boë`m H$moUË`mhr ~m~tMm
VgoM `m H$m`ÚmZo gmon{dboë`m BVa H$moUË`mhr ~m~tda {dMma H$ê$Z {ZU©` XoÊ`mgmR>r gaH$ma A{YnÌH$m_Ü`o
gyMZm XoD$Z EH$ qH$dm A{YH$ Ý`m`mb`m§Mr ñWmnZm H$ê$ eH$Vo.
n[a{eï> VrZ_Ü`o g_m{dï> Agboë`m ~m~r Imbrbn«_mUo,
1. doVZ, doVZ XoÊ`mMm H$mbmdYr, doVZ XoÊ`mMr nÕVr.
2. _mbH$m§Zr H$m_Jmam§À`m ^{dî` {Zdm©h {ZYrg qH$dm {Zd¥Îm doVZ {ZYrg Úmd`mMr dJ©Ur.
3. AZwJ«hmMr a¸$_, ZwH$gmZ^anmB© ^Îmm d BVa ^Îmo.
4. H$m_mMo Vmg d {dlm§VrMm H$mbmdYr.
5. nJmar aOm d gwÅ>çm.
6. ñWm`r AmXoemì`{V[aŠV H$m_Jmam§À`m H$m_mÀ`m nmù`m.
7. loUrZwgma H$m_Jmam§Mo dJuH$aU.
8. ê$T>rZwgma {_iUmè`m gdbVr d {deof gdbVr H$mTy>Z KoUo.
9. {eñVrMo {Z`_, {Z`_mV ~Xb d ZdrZ {Z`_ bmJy H$aUo.
10. H$m_Jma g§»`oV H$nmV hmoB©b Ago H$maImÝ`mMo dmOdrH$aU, à_mUrH$aU, `§Ìgm_J«r d V§Ìm_Yrb
11. H$m_Jmam§Zm godoVyZ H$_r H$aUo qH$dm CÚmoJg§ñWm ~§X H$aUo.
`m Ý`m`mb`mV Ý`m`mYrenXr EH$M ì`ŠVr AgVo d {VMr {Z`wŠVr g§~§{YV amÁ` emgZ H$aVo. Cƒ
Ý`m`mb`mMm Ý`m`mYre qH$dm 3 df} {Oëhm / gh{Oëhm / Cn Ý`m`mYre nXmMm AZw^d qH$dm 5 dfo© H$m_Jma
Ý`m`mb`mMm Ý`m`mYre åhUyZ AZw^d qH$dm H$m`ÚmMr nXdr d 10 df} H$m_Jma Am`wŠV åhUyZ H$m`© Ho$bobr
ì`ŠVr `m Ý`m`mb`mMr Ý`m`mYre hmoÊ`mg nmÌ g_Obr OmVo. `m Ý`m`mb`mg H$m_m~m~V g„m XoÊ`mgmR>r
gaH$mabm Amdí`H$ dmQ>ë`mg gaH$ma XmoZ ì`ŠVtMr "Agogg©' åhUyZ {Z`wŠVr H$aVo.
B amï´>r` Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb` (National Industrial Tribunal) (H$b_ 7)
Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhm_Ü`o amï´>r` _hÎdmMo àíZ A§V^y©V AmhoV qH$dm Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmÀ`m ñdê$nm_Ü`o
EH$mnojm A{YH$ amÁ`m§V AgUmè`m Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§ñWm§Mo {hVg§~§Y Jw§Vbo AmhoV qH$dm Ë`m§À`mda Aem
H$bhmMm n[aUm_ hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm Amho, Ago _Ü`dVu gaH$mabm dmQ>ë`mg, Aem Am¡Úmo{JH$ H$bhmg§~§Yr
{ZU©` XoÊ`mgmR>r _Ü`dVu gaH$ma, gaH$mar A{YnÌH$m_Ü`o gyMZm XoD$Z EH$ qH$dm A{YH$ amï´>r` Am¡Úmo{JH$
Ý`m`mb`m§Mr ñWmnZm H$ê$ eH$Vo.
amï´>r` Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb`mda EH$M ì`ŠVr H$m_ H$arb d {VMr _Ü`dVu gaH$ma_m\©$V Zo_UyH$ H$obr
OmB©b. Cƒ Ý`m`mb`mÀ`m Ý`m`mYrenXmMm AZw^d AgUmè`m ì`ŠVrM qH$dm Cƒ Ý`m`mb`mMm Ý`m`mYre
AgUmè`m ì`ŠVtMrM Zo_UyH$ `m Ý`m`mb`mda H$aVm `oVo.
_Ü`dVu gaH$mabm Amdí`H$ dmQ>ë`mg `m Ý`m`m{Yem§Zm g„m XoÊ`mgmR>r XmoZ "Agogg©' Mr {Z`wŠVr
Ho$br OmVo.
`m Ý`m`mb`mnwT>o gmXa Ho$boë`m H$bhmda H$m_Jma qH$dm amÁ` Am¡Úmo{JH$ Ý`m`mb` Ý`m` XoD$ eH$V
Zmhr. `m Ý`m`mb`mZo {Xbobm {ZU©` XmoÝhr njm§da EH$ dfm©n`ªV Var ~§YZH$maH$ AgVmo. na§Vw gaH$ma hr _wXV
àË`oH$ doir EH$ df© `mà_mUo dmT>dy eH$Vo. hr _wXV OmñVrV OmñV EHy$U 3 df}n`ªV dmT>{dVm `oVo. `m
Ý`m`mb`mZo {Xbo`m {ZU©`mMr A§_b~OmdUr 30 {Xdgm§À`m AmV H$amdr bmJVo. H|$Ð gaH$ma `m Ý`m`mb`mZo
{Xbobm {ZU©` \o$Q>miy eH$Vo qH$dm Ë`mV ~Xb H$ê$ eH$Vo. H|$Ð gaH$ma `m Ý`m`mb`mMm {ZU©` gmd©O{ZH$
{hVmÀ`m Ñ{ï>Zo ñdrH$maÊ`mg ZH$ma XoD$ eH$Vo. emgZmZo {ZU©` \o$Q>mië`mg qH$dm Ë`mV ~Xb Ho$ë`mg
emgZmg Ë`m_mJrb H$maUo d ñdV:Mm {ZU©` bmoH$g^oV gmXa H$amdm bmJVmo.
gmd©O{ZH$ {hVmon`moJr g§ñWmVrb gd© H$bh gaH$maZo Ý`m`mb`m_m\©$V gmoS>{dbo nm{hOoV. gaH$ma
EImÚm ImOJr CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb H$bh ñdV:À`m _ZmZo Ý`m`mb`mH$S>o gmXa H$aÊ`m{df`r AmXoe XoD$ eH$Vo.
VgoM ImOJr CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb H$moUË`mhr EH$m njmZo emgZmH$S>o {dZ§Vr Ho$ë`mg emgZ Ë`m§À`mVrb H$bh
Ý`m`mb`mH$S>o gwnyX© H$aVo.
~r. H$m°_. ^mJ-3 : Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZ nona-2
`m {df`mÀ`m gwYm[aV Aä`mgH«$_mà_mUo A{YH$Mm ^mJ go{_ñQ>a 6 H$[aVm
KQ>H$ H«$. 7 _Yrb CnKQ>H$
H$_©Mmar gwa{jVVm, Amamo½` Am{U _ZmoY¡`©
(Employee Safety, Health and Morale)
H$moUË`mhr g§ñWoMr, g§KQ>ZoMr qH$dm amîQ´>mMr {ZYm©[aV C{Ôï>ço gmÜ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmbm O_rZ,
^m§S>db, `§Ìgm_J«r, H$ƒm_mb, l_ BË`mXr KQ>H$m§Mr Amdí`H$Vm AgVo. `m gd© KQ>H$m§n¡H$s l_ / H$_©Mmar
/ _Zwî`~i hm KQ>H$ A{Ve` _m¡ë`dmZ d _hÎdmMm g_Obm OmVmo. H$maU CËnmXZmÀ`m C{Ôï>m§Mr nyV©Vm
àm_w»`mZo _mZdr KQ>H$mda Adb§~yZ AgVo. BVa gd© KQ>H$ {ZOud Agë`mZo Vo ñdV: {H«$`merb hmoD$ eH$V
ZmhrV. ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m {d{dY nmVù`mda doJdoJù`m H$m`m©Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mgmR>r Zo_bobm A{YH$mar dJ©
Am{U Ë`m§Mo ghmæ`H$ åhUOoM Am¡Úmo{JH$ ì`dñWmnZmVrb _mZdr KQ>H$ hmo`. H$_©Mmar dJm©Mm _mZdr
Ñ{ï>H$moZmVyZ {dMma H$amdm bmJV Agë`mZo Ë`mg _mZdr KQ>H$ Ago åhQ>bo OmVo. CËnmXZmMr gd© g§gmYZo CXm.
H$ƒm_mb, ^m§S>db, `§Ìgm_wJ«r, CnH$aUo BË`mXr H$m`©j_nUo hmVmiÊ`mMo Am{U JVrerb ~Z{dÊ`mMo à^mdr
H$m`© H$_©Mmar dJm©g H$amdo bmJVo. H$_©Mmar hmM CËnmXZmVrb {H«$`merb d gOrd KQ>H$ Amho. Vmo
CËnmXZmÀ`m BVa KQ>H$mhÿZ {^Þ AgyZ Ë`mbm ^mdZm, BÀN>m, AmH$m§jm, ~wÕr, _Z, {dMma, AmdS> BË`mXr
AgVmV. Ë`m_wio H$_©Mmè`m§H$S>o _mZdVoÀ`m ^y{_Ho$VyZ nmhÊ`mdaM Ë`m KQ>H$mMo ì`dñWmnZmVrb ghH$m`©
Adb§~yZ AgVo. _mZdr KQ>H$mMo Ano{jV `moJXmZ-ghH$m`© {_imbo Zmhr Va g§ñWobm Amnë`m C{Ôï>m§Mr nyV©Vm
H$aÊ`mV AS>MUr `oVmV. AWm©V CËnmXZmMo BVa gd© KQ>H$ `mo½` Ë`m XOm©Mo, `mo½` Ë`m à_mUmV CnbãY
AgVrb, CËnmXZ H$m`m©Mo {Z`moOZ d H$m`©doimnÌH$ {H$Vrhr ì`dpñWV Ho$bobo Agbo Var Oa _mZdr KQ>H$mMo
ghH$m`© Zgob Va CËnmXZ H$m`© gwê$M hmoUma Zmhr d CËnmXZ hmoUmaM Zmhr. åhUyZ AmYw{ZH$ H$mimV CËnmXZ
H$m`m©V `§ÌmMm d d¡km{ZH$ V§ÌmMm {H$Vrhr _moR>çm à_mUmda dmna hmoV AgbmVar CËnmXZ H$m`m©Vrb _mZdmMo
ñWmZ A~m{YV Amho d Vo A~m{YVM amhUma Amho. _mZdr hmVm{edm` d ~wÕr{edm` `§ÌmMr MmHo$ {\$ê$
eH$Uma ZmhrV Ago åhQ>ë`mg A{Ve`moŠVr hmoUma Zmhr. Ë`m_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm {_iUmam _mo~Xbm, ì`dñWmnZm~amo~aMo
g§~§Y, H$m_Jma H$ë`mU, H$m`©dmVmdaU, H$_©Mmar gwa{jVVm, Amamo½`, _ZmoY¡`© BË`mXr KQ>H$m§Mm Ë`m§À`m
H$m`m©da n[aUm_ hmoV Agë`mZo `m~m~V ì`dñWmnZmbm Xj Agmdo bmJVo. H$_©Mmè`m§Zr Amnë`m ~wÕrMm,
H$ënZmeŠVrMm, {dMma d {ZU©` j_VoMm, gO©Z{ebVoMm Cn`moJ H$ê$Z H$_rV H$_r g§gmYZmV OmñVrVOmñV
CËnmXH$Vm {_i{dÊ`mgmR>r ì`dñWmnZmZo AZwHy$b H$m`©n[apñWVr {Z_m©U H$ê$Z, Ë`m§À`m emar[aH$, Am{W©H$,
gm_m{OH$ d Ah§H$ma OmonmgUmè`m JaOm ^mJ{dUo Amdí`H$ Amho.
_mZdr KQ>H$mMo _hÎd
(Importance of Human Factor)
àË`oH$ g§ñWoMr H$m`©o hr Ë`m g§ñWoVrb ì`ŠVrdaM Adb§~yZ AgVmV. _mZdmMm à`ËZm{edm` d
_mJ©Xe©Zm{edm` Ë`m g§ñWoVrb gd© àH$maMr gmYZ gm_J«r hr AZwËnmXH$ AdñWoVM amhVo. H$_©Mmar ho
g§ñWoMr g§nÎmr qH$dm _mZdr ^m§S>db AgyZ _Zwî`~imMo ì`dñWmnZ ho ì`dñWmnZ H$m`m©Vrb AË`§V _hÎdmMo
d _Ü`dVu H$m`© _mZbo OmVo. CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb _mZdr KQ>H$mMo _hÎd Imbrb ~m~rdê$Z ñnîQ> hmoB©b.
1) A_`m©{XV j_Vm : CÚmoJ g§ñWoVrb {d{dY H$m`m©gmR>r dmnamV `oUmè`m doJdoJù`m KQ>H$mn¡H$s
_Zwî`~i hm A_`m©{XV j_Vm AgUmam KQ>H$ Amho. åhUyZ Ë`mbm _mZdr g§gmYZ (Human Resource) Ago
åhQ>bo OmVo. V|ìhm BVa H$mhr C{Udm AgVmZmhr qH$dm _`m©{XV ^m¡{VH$ KQ>H$mVyZ Ano{jV C{Ôï>ço àmá H$aUo
eŠ` hmoVo.
2) BVa KQ>H$m§Mm Cn`moJ : CËnmXZmgmR>r Amdí`H$ AgUmè`m ^m§S>db, ^y_r, H$ƒm_mb, `§Ìgm_wJ«r
`m KQ>H$m§Mm `mo½` Am{U H$m`©j_ dmna H$aÊ`mgmR>r _mZdr KQ>H$mbm CÚmoJg§ñWoV A{Ve` _hÎd Amho.
CËnmXZmÀ`m gd© KQ>H$m§Mr OwidmOwid H$aUo, Ë`mV g_Ýd` gmYZo Am{U Ë`m§Mm CËnmXZmgmR>r H$m`©j_VoZo
Cn`moJ H$ê$Z g§ñWoÀ`m C{Ôï>m§Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mV _mZdr KQ>H$mMo _moR>o `moJXmZ AgVo. qH$~hþZm _mZdr
KQ>H$m{edm` CËnmXZmÀ`m BVa KQ>H$m§Mm CËnmXZmgmR>r dmna H$aUo eŠ`M Zmhr.
3) CËnmXZ dmT> : CÚmoJ g§ñWoÀ`m Ano{jV C{Ôï> nyV©VogmR>r, Ë`m g§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZmV dmT> hmoUo JaOoMo
AgVo. Ë`mgmR>r CËnmXZmÀ`m BVa KQ>H$mZm EH$Ì AmUyZ Am{U Ë`m§Mm _hÎm_ dmna H$ê$Z CËnmXZmV dmT>
KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mgmR>r _mZdr KQ>H$ Amdí`H$ R>aVmo. CËnmXZmÀ`m gd© KQ>H$mZm `mo½` {XeoZo, `mo½` Vr JVr
XoD$Z CËnmXZmV dmT> KS>dyZ AmUÊ`mMr O~m~Xmar _mZdr KQ>H$ nma nmS>Vmo. _mZdr KQ>H$m{edm` CËnmXZmMo
H$m`© eŠ` Zmhr. åhUyZ `mo½` _mZdr g§gmYZ {Z`moOZ H$ê$Z, Ë`mH$Co _mZdVoÀ`m Ñ{ï>H$moUmVyZ nmhÿZ, Ë`m§À`m
Amdí`H$ JaOm§Mr nyV©Vm Ho$ë`mg CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZ j_VoV dmT> hmoVo.
4) _yb^yV KQ>H$ : _mZdr KQ>H$mÀ`m àJë^VodaM ì`dgm{`H$ qH$dm AÝ` g§ñWmMo `e Ad§~yZ Amho.
H$maU _Zwî`~i / H$_©Mmar hmM g§KQ>Zobm JVrerb OrdZ àmá H$ê$Z XoUmam KQ>H$ Amho. VmoM CËnmXZmVrb
_yb^yV KQ>H$ Amho. CËnmXZmÀ`m BVa KQ>H$m§Mm dmna H$gm H$amdm ho _mZdr KQ>H$mdaM Adb§~yZ Agë`mZo
_mZdr KQ>H$m{edm` BVa KQ>H$ H$m`©aV hmoD$M eH$Uma ZmhrV. åhUyZM _mZdr KQ>H$mH$S>o _mZdVoÀ`m
^y{_Ho$VyZ nm{hë`m{edm` g§ñWobm Amnë`m C{Ôï>m§Mr nyV©Vmhr H$aVm `oV Zmhr.
5) dmT> Am{U {dH$mg : H$_©Mmar hmM EH$ CËnmXZmMm Agm EH$_od KQ>H$ Amho H$s Á`mMm {dH$mg
H$aVm `oVmo. Ë`mbm `mo½` _mJ©Xe©Z H$ê$Z, à{ejU XoD$Z, àoaUm XoD$Z, godmgw{dYm CnbãY H$ê$Z Ë`mÀ`m
emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$ j_VoV dmT> H$aVm `oVo Am{U CÚmoJg§ñWoMm {dH$mg gmYVm `oVmo. _mZdr KQ>H$mMm
{dH$mg Pmbm VaM BVa KQ>H$m§Mm {dH$mg hmoÊ`mg IynM _XV hmoVo. H$_©Mmar hoM CËnmXZ KQ>H$m§Mm
H$miOrnyd©H$ d H$m`©j_VoZo dmna H$ê$ eH$VmV. ghm{OH$M Ë`m KQ>H$m§Mm {dH$mg hmoÊ`mg _XV hmoVo.
WmoS>Š`mV _mZdr KQ>H$mÀ`m {dH$mgm{edm` BVa KQ>H$m§Mm {dH$mg eŠ` Zmhr.
6) IMm©V H$nmV d Z\$m d¥Õr : AmOÀ`m ñnYm©Ë_H$ n[apñWVrV àË`oH$ g§ñWm§Zm {H$_mZ IMm©V d
g§gmYZmV H$_mb g§nÎmr d \$bàmár {_i{dUo H«$_àmá Pmbo Amho. ho Ho$di _Zwî`~imÀ`m ghH$m`m©ZoM eŠ`
hmoVo. `mgmR>r g§ñWoVrb H$_©Mmè`m§Zm Amdí`H$ Vo {ejU d à{ejU XoD$Z Ë`m§Mr j_Vm Am{U H$m`m©{df`rMm
AmË_{dídmg dmT>{dë`mg EHy$Z H$m`©j_VoV dmT> hmoD$Z IMm©V H$nmV H$aV `oVo. n`m©`mZo Zâ`mV dmT> hmoVo.
WmoS>Š`mV, AmYw{ZH$ CÚmoJ g§ñW§mMo "IMm©V H$nmV d Zâ`mV dmT>' ho C{Ôï> gmÜ` H$aÊ`mgmR>r g§ñWoÀ`m EHy$U
H$m`©j_VoV dmT> hmoUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. Ë`mgmR>r _mZdr KQ>H$mMr ^y{_H$m _hÎdmMr R>aVo.
7) ì`dñWmnZ H$m`© : CÚmoJ g§ñWoÀ`m {ZYm©[aV C{Ôï>m§Mr nyV©Vm H$aÊ`mgmR>r {Z`moOZ, g§KQ>Z, AmXoe
XoUo, g_Ýd`, {Z`§ÌU BË`mXr ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m H$m`m©~amo~aM _mZdr g§gmYZ ì`dñWmnZ ho ì`dñWmnZmMo EH$
_hÎdmMo H$m`© Amho. ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m gd© H$m`m©Mo `e _mZdr g§gmYZ (_mZdr KQ>H$mÀ`m) ì`dñWmnZmda
Adb§~yZ AgVo. H$maU Oa _mZdr KQ>H$mH$S>o _mZdVoÀ`m ^y{_Ho$VyZ nm{hbo Zmhr Va ì`dñWmnZmMr gd© H$m`}
An`er R>aVmV. Ë`m_wioM CÚmoJg§ñWoV _mZdr KQ>H$mMo (_Zwî`~imMo) ì`dñWmnZ A{YH$ à^mdr Pmë`mg
Ë`m g§ñWoMo ì`dñWmnZ AmXe© R>aVo.
8) Zd{Z{_©Vr : AmOÀ`m ~XbË`m n[apñWVrV Zd{Z{_©Vr hm àË`oH$ g§ñWoMm A{d^mÁ` KQ>H$ ~Zbm
Amho. g§ñWm§Zm ~XbË`m ì`mdgm{`H$ n`m©daUmer Amnbm H$ma^ma AÜ``mdV R>oD$Z {ZYm©[aV C{Ôï>ço gmÜ`
H$aÊ`mMo H$m`© ho _mZdr g§gmYZmH$Sy>Z Ho$bo OmVo. `mV ZdrZ g§H$ënZm§Mm emoY, ZdrZ CËnmXZ, ZdrZ {dVaU
nÕVr d V§Ìo `m§Mm {dH$mg Ho$bm OmVmo. ZdrZ Vm§ÌrH$ Am{U `m§{ÌH$ joÌmVrb AZoH$ {dH$mgmË_H$ gmYZm§Mm
gVV Adb§~ H$ê$Z g§ñWoMr EHy$U H$m`©j_Vm dmT>{dÊ`mV _mZdr KQ>H$mbm A{Ve` _hÎdmMo ñWmZ Amho.
àË`oH$ joÌmV Pmbobr d hmoV Agbobr Zd{Z{_©Vr hr _mZdr g§gmYZmMo (_mZrd KQ>H$mMo) `moJXmZ qH$dm
\$bàmár hmo`.
H$_©Mmar gwajm
(Employee Safety)
_mZdmÀ`m Am`wî`mV H$mhr AH$pënV qH$dm AZmhÿV KQ>Zm {Z`{_VnUo KS>V AgVmV. gmh{OH$M
_mUgmÀ`m gwajoÀ`m AmoT>mVmUrbm gwadmV hmoVo. AmOmanU, AnKmV, AmnÎmr, dmT>Vr O~m~Xmar `m_wio
ì`ŠVrda AgwajoMm VmU nS>Vmo. Ë`mà_mUoM CÚmoJg§ñWoV doimodoir AZoH$ H$maUm_wio AnKmV CX²^dÊ`mMr
eŠ`Vm AgVo. AnKmVm_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm emar[aH$, _mZ{gH$ BOm nmohmoMÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. H$m_Jmam§À`m
Or{dVmbm YmoH$m d _mb_ÎmoMr ZwH$gmZ hmoD$Z gd© >Hw$Qw>§~M Xw:ImV hmoaniVo, Ë`m§Zm Am`wî`mV {Zamem
Am{U hVmenUm `oVmo. EdT>oM Zìho Va Ë`m§Mm ^{dî`H$mimV nyU© H$amd`mÀ`m `moOZm Am{U ñdßZo `m§Mm
AJXr MwamS>m hmoD$Z OmVmo. CÚmoJg§ñWoMohr Am{W©H$ ZwH$gmZ hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo, CËnmXZ amoS>mdVo,
g§ñWoMr àJVr _§XmdVo, J«mhH$m§Mm amof nËH$amdm bmJVmo. CÚmoJmVrb YmoHo$ qH$dm AnKmVm_wio H$m_Jmam§À`m
_ZmV Agwa{jVVoMr ^mdZm {Z_m©U hmoD$Z Ë`mMo n[aUm_ Ë`m§À`m emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$ Amamo½`mda hmoVmV.
Ë`m_wio H$m_Jmam§Mr AZwnpñWVr dmT>Vo qH$dm H$m_Jma ZmoH$ar gmoS>yZ XwgarH$S>o OmÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aVmV,
Aem Agwa{jVVo_wio Am¡Úmo{JH$ g§~§Yhr {~KS>VmV, Am¡Úmo{JH$ em§VVm YmoŠ`mV `oVo Am{U amï´>mdahr J§^ra
n[aUm_ hmoVmV. åhUyZ g§ñWoÀ`m _Zwî`~i ì`dñWmnZmZo H$m`©ñWimda gwa{jVVm, AnKmV_wŠV, ^`_wŠV
dmVmdaU {Z_m©U Ho$bo nm{hOo. VaM H$_©Mmar dJ© {Zð>oZo, AmË_{dídmgmZo, H$m`©j_VoZo, AmnbonUmZo
H$m_mV ag KoD$Z C{Ôï>ço nwV©VogmR>r `moJXmZ XoVrb.
AW© / g§H$ënZm :
gwa{jVVm åhUOo Aer EH$ gVV am~dmdr bmJUmar à{H«$`m hmo` H$s, {OÀ`m_wio H$_©Mmar dJm©Mr YmoH$m
qH$dm g§H$Q> `mnmgyZ _wŠVVm hmoVo.
gmYmaUV: CÚmoJ g§ñWoV doimodoir KS>Umao g§^mì` AnKmV qH$dm YmoHo$ H$moR>o, H$m Am{U H$em àH$mao
KS>VmV `mMm {dMma H$ê$Z, Ë`m§À`m H$maUm§Mm emoY KoD$Z AnKmVmMo/YmoŠ`mMo à_mU H$_r H$ê$Z H$m_JmamV
gwa{jVVoMr ^mdZm {Z_m©U H$aÊ`mgmR>r H$aÊ`mV Amboë`m Cnm``moOZobm gwajm Ago åhUVmV. `mV H$m_mMo
{Z`_ H$aUo, `§ÌmMr XoI^mb d Xwê$ñVr, OwZmQ> `§Ìo ~XbUo, Amdí`H$ g§ajH$ gmYZm§Mm dmna, H$m_Jmam§Zm
AnKmV à{V~§YH$ gwa{jVVoMo à{ejU XoD$Z AnKmVm_wio _mb_Îmm d Or{dVmÀ`m hmoUmè`m ZwH$gmZrMo n«_mU
H$_r H$ê$Z H$m_JmamV gwa{jVVoMr ^mdZm {Z_m©U Ho$br OmVo.
Am§Vaamï´>r` H$m_Jma _§S>imZo H$_©Mmar gwa{jVVo~m~V Ago ñnï> Ho$bo Amho, ""CÚmoJg§ñWoZo
Amnë`m H$_©Mmè`m§À`m AmnÎmr {déÕ `mo½` g§KQ>ZmÛmao CnbãY H$ê$Z {Xbobr gwa{jVVm åhUOo H$_©Mmar
gwa{jVVm hmo`. `m AmnÎmr _w»`ÎdoH$ê$Z AmH$pñ_H$nUo {Z_m©U hmoUmè`m AgVmV.''
H$_©Mmar gwa{jVVm hr J{Verb g§H$ënZm Amho. H$m_Jma OrdZmV `oUmè`m AH$pënV nU An[ahm`©
AS>MUrda _mV H$aÊ`mgmR>r _mZdr g§gmYZ ì`dñWmnZmZo H$_©Mmar gwajm `moOZm am~dmdr bmJVo. `mÛmao
CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb AnKmVm§Mr qH$dm g§^mì` YmoŠ`m§Mr H$maUo emoYyZ Vr Xya H$aÊ`mMm à`ËZ H$aUo Am{U CÚmoJ
g§ñWoV A{YH$m{YH$ gwa{jVVoMo dmVmdaU {Z_m©U H$aUo hm hoVy AgVmo.
CÚmoJ g§ñWoVrb _mZdr g§gmYZ ì`dñWmnZmÀ`m gwa{jVVm {d^mJmbm H$_©Mmar gwa{jVVo~m~V AZoH$
H$m`} nma nmS>mdr bmJVmV. Ë`m_Ü`o AnKmVm§Mr qH$dm YmoŠ`m§Mr H$maUo d {R>H$mUo emoYUo, AnKmV à{V~§YmË_H$
`moOZm {ZpíMV H$aUo H$m_Jmam_Ü`o gwa{jVVoMr OmUrd-OmJ¥Vr {Z_m©U H$aUo, AnKmV à{V~§YmË_H$ gmYZo
H$m`©ñWimda CnbãY H$aUo, Ë`mMm dmna H$aÊ`mg H$_©Mmè`m§Zm àd¥Îm H$aUo, AnKmV Q>miUo~m~V _mJ©Xe©Z
à{ejU XoUo, AnKmV CX²^dë`mg H$_©Mmè`mg d¡ÚH$s` godm-gw{dYm nwa{dUo, Am{W©H$ ghmæ` {_idyZ XoUo,
gwa{jVVoÀ`m {Z`_m§Mo H$mQ>oH$moa nmbZ H$am`bm ^mJ nmS>Uo, VgoM AnKmVJ«ñV H$_©Mmè`m§Zm gd© Ë`m godmgw{dYm, ZwH$gmZ^anmB© {_idyZ XoUo, Am{W©H$ d _mZ{gH$ AmYma XoD$Z nyduMo H$m_ H$aUo eŠ` Zgob Va
Ë`mÀ`m j_VoZwgma ZdrZ H$m_o gmon{dUo BË`mXr. WmoS>Š`mV, darb {ddoMZmdê$Z Ago ñnï> hmoVo H$s, CÚmMr
H$miOr, Agwa{jVVoMr ^mdZm Am{U AmOMr qMVm `m_wio ì`mHw$i Pmboë`m qH$dm hmoUmè`m H$m_Jma dJm©Mr
H$m`©j_Vm {Z:g§e`nUo {VVH$sM {ZH¥$ï> XOm©Mr AgUma Amho `m Ñï>MH«$mVyZ H$m_Jmambm H$mT>md`mMo
Agë`mg H$_©Mmar gwa{jVVoMr H$mg Yabr nm{hOo.
H$_©Mmar gwa{jVVoMr JaO
(Need of Employee Safety)
gwa{jVVoMr JaO {hM OrdZmMr JaO Agë`m_wio gwa{jVVm {h OrdZmer {ZJS>rV Amho `mV e§H$m
Zmhr. gwa{jVVm H$emgmR>r? hm àíZ åhUOo, OrdZ H$emgmR>r? Agm àíZ H$aÊ`mgmaIo Amho d `m Xwgè`m
àíZmMo CÎma VoM n{hë`m àíZmMo CÎma Amho. CÚmoJg§ñWm§Zm AË`mdí`H$ AgUmar gwa{jVVoMr JaO nwT>rbà_mUo
gm§JVm `oB©b.
1) H$m`©j_VoV dmT> : CÚmoJg§ñWoV {Z_m©U Pmboë`m AnKmV _wŠV d ^`_wŠV dmVmdaUm_wio
H$m_Jmam§À`m H$m_mVrb CËgmh dmT>Vmo. Ë`mÀ`m darb emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$ VmU H$_r hmoD$Z Vo Amnbo H$m_
A{YH$ O~m~XmarZo Am{U H$V©ì` ^mdZoZo nma nmS>VmV. Ë`m_wio CÚmoJg§ñWoÀ`m CËnmXZj_VoV d EHy$U
H$m`©j_VoV dmT> hmoVo.
2) CËnmXZmÀ`m à_mUmV d JwUdÎmoV dmT> : gwa{jV H$maImZo ho ""H$m`©j_ H$maImZo'' AgVmV.
gwa{jV CÚmoJ g§ñWoVrb H$_©Mmè`m§Mr _mZ{gH$Vm hr ^`_wŠV AgVo d Vo Amnbo H$m_ _Z bmdyZ
H$m`©j_VoZo H$ê$ eH$VmV. `m_wio CËnmXZmÀ`m à_mUmV dmT> hmoVo d CËnmXZmMm XOm©hr gwYmaVmo. AWm©V
CÚmoJmVrb gwa{jV H$m`©pñWVr_wio doioMr ~MV, g§gmYZm§Mm n`m©á Cn`moJ d H$m_mgmR>r H$_©Mmè`m§Mr
emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$ V`mar AgVo. Ë`m_wio H$m_mVrb KmB©-JS>~S>, Jm|Yi, AnKmV H$_r hmoVmV, n[aUm_r
CËnmXZmV d JwUdÎmoV dmT> hmoVo.
3) _mbH$-H$_©Mmar g§~YmV gwYmaUm : Am¡Úmo{JH$ gwa{jVVo_wio H$m_Jmam§Zm godm emídVrMr ImÌr
{_iVo. Ë`m§À`m J¡ahOoarMr Am{U AXbm~XbrMo à_mUhr H$_r hmoVo, Ë`m§Mo _Zmo~b C§MmdVo, CÚmoJg§ñWodarb
H$m`©{Zð>m dmTy>Z Ë`m§À`mV O~m~XmarMr ^mdZm {Z_m©U hmoVo. Ë`m_wio _mbH$ d H$_©Mmar `m§Mo g§~§Y gbmo»`mMo
4) H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ ñdmñÏ` d gwI : CÚmoJg§ñWoVrb dmB©Q> d Agwa{jV H$m`©n[apñWVrMo Am{U AnKmVmMo
n[aUm_ H$m_Jmam§À`m H$m`©j_Voda hmoD$Z Ë`m§Mo H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ ñdmñÏ` {~KS>Vo. Ë`m_wio H$m¡Qw>§{~H$ gwI d
ñdmñÏ`mgmR>r Am¡Úmo{JH$ gwa{jVVm A{Ve` _hÎdmMr AgVo. H$_©Mmar hm H$maImÝ`mV ZmoH$a Agbm Var Vmo
Kar Amnë`m Hw$Qw>§~mMm nmbZH$Vm© AgVmo. Ë`mÀ`m Hw$Q>§~r`m§Mo ñdmñÏ` d gwI ho Ë`m H$_©Mmè`mÀ`m gwa{jVVoda
Adb§~yZ AgVo.
5) H$_©Mmar amhUr_mZmV gwYmaUm : H$m_Jmam§Mr H$m`©j_Vm, Ë`m§Mr emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$pñWVr,
Hw$Qy>§~m{df`r dmQ>Umar H$miOr `m gdmªMm Ë`mÀ`m amhUr_mZmer g§~§Y AgVmo. CÚmoJ g§ñWoVrb gwajm Am{U
_mZ{gH$ pñWVr gwYmaë`mg, H$m_Jmam§Mr H$m`©j_Vm d CËnmXH$Vm dmT>Vo. Ë`m_wio Ë`m§À`m doVZmV dmT> hmoVo,
Ë`m§Zm ñdV:Mr àJVr d {dH$mg H$aÊ`mMr g§Yr {_iVo. `m gdmªMm n[aUm_ åhUOo H$m_Jmam§Mo amhUr_mZ
C§MmdÊ`mg _XV hmoVo.
6) H$_©Mmè`m§Mm {dH$mg : H$m_Jmam§Mm CÚmoJg§ñWoV {dH$mg hmoÊ`mgmR>r Ë`m§Mr emar[aH$ d _mZ{gH$
j_Vm CÎm_ AgUo Amdí`H$ AgVo. gwajm d ñdmñÏ` {df`H$ H$m`©H«$_m_wio H$m_Jmamg gwa{jVVoÀ`m
dmVmdaUmV H$m_ H$aUo eŠ` hmoVo. VgoM emar[aH$ j_Vm dmT>Ê`mg _XV hmoVo. `mVyZ H$m_Jma Amnbr
H$m`©j_Vm, H$m`©n[aUm_H$maH$Vm, H$m`©H$m¡eë` BË`mXrV dmT> H$ê$ eH$Vmo. Ë`m_wio Ë`mg {dH$mgmMr g§Yr
CnbãY hmoÊ`mg _XV hmoVo.
7) IMm©_Ü`o \$ma _moR>r ~MV : Am¡Úmo{JH$ AnKmV Pmë`mg g§~§YrV CÚmoJg§ñWobm XmoZ àH$maMo IM©
H$amdo bmJVmV. (A) àË`j IM© (~) AàË`j IM©.
àË`j IMm©V Oa AnKmV àmUKmVH$ Agob Va H$_©Mmè`m§À`m dmagm§Zm Úmdr bmJUmar ZwH$gmZ^anmB©
{H§$dm Oa AnKmV àmUKmVH$ Zgob Va H$_©Mmè`m§bm Úmdm bmJUmam d¡ÚH$s` IMm©Mm g_mdoe hmoVmo.
AàË`j IM© hm àË`j IMm©À`m {VßnQ> qH$dm Mm¡nQ> `oV AgVmo. `m AàË`j IMm©V Imbrb ~m~tMm
g_mdoe hmoVmo.
1. CËnmXZ doioMm Anì`` hmoVmo. AnKmVJ«ñVmÀ`m _XVrbm YmD$Z Amboë`m H$_©Mmè`m§Mo CËnmXZ H$m`©
Wm§~Vo. AnKmVmMr Mm¡H$er, Ahdmb d MMm© H$aÊ`mVhr doi dm`m OmVmo.
2. AnKmVJ«ñW H$_©Mmè`mÀ`m OmJr Xwgam H$_©Mmar H$m_ H$aVmo. Vmo AZw^dr AgobM Ago Zmhr, Ë`mMm
CËnmXZ à_mUmda d XOm©da n[aUm_ hmoVmo. Ë`mbm à{ejU XoÊ`mgmR>r doi d n¡emMm Anì`` hmoVmo.
3. AnKmVmV gmnS>bobm H$_©Mmar ~am hmoD$Z H$m_mda Amë`mZ§Va Vmo nyduÀ`m H$m`©j_VoZo H$mhr H$mi
H$m_ H$ê$ eH$V Zmhr.
4. BVa ghH$mar H$_©Mmè`mÀ`m _ZmV AnKmVmMr ^rVr {Z_m©U hmoVo. Ë`m_wio Ë`m§Mr H$mhr à_mUmV
J¡ahOoar d AXbm~Xbr hmoÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo. `m_wio CËnmXZ à_mUmda d XOm©da n[aUm_ hmoVmo.
5. B_maV, `§Ìo d AY©dQ> V`ma Pmbobm _mb `m§Zm hmZr nmohmoMÊ`mMr eŠ`Vm AgVo.
6. CËnmXZmÀ`m à_mUmda n[aUm_ Pmë`mZo J«mhH$m§Mr _mJUr doioda nwa{dVm `oV Zmhr Ë`m_wio J«mhH$
H$_r hmoVmV.
darbà_mUo CÚmoJg§ñWoda àË`j d AàË`j nS>Umam AdmOdr IMm©Mm ~moOm Q>miÊ`mgmR>r qH$dm H$_r
H$aÊ`mgmR>r gwa{jVVoMr à^mdr ì`dñWm H$aUo JaOoMo Amho.
{deofV: \$mD§$S´>r_Ü`o (Foundry) H$m_ H$aUmè`m H$m_Jmam§Zm {d{dY H$m`m©Zwgma Amnë`m gwa{jVVogmR>r
H$moUË`m g§ajH$ Cnm``moOZm H$amì`m bJmVmV. Vo CXmhaU XmIb nwT>rbà_mUo nmhVm `oB©b.
H$m_mMm àH$ma
g§ajH$ Cnm`
1. ^§Jma Am{U YmVyMm H$Mam hmVmiUo
~wQ> Am{U hmV_moOo
2. ^Å>r Am{U ^Å>rÀ`m Kw_Q>mMo H$m_
a§JrV H$mMm§Mm Mî_m, {eaómU, hmV_moOo Am{U
gwVr H$nS>o.
3. ^Å>rV ^§Jma Am{U BVa YmVy H$Mam ^aUo.
~wQ>, hmV_moOo, a§JrV H$mMm§Mm Mî_m Am{U
gwVr H$nS>o.
4. {dVibobm YmVy hmVmiUo
~wQ>, hmV_moOo, a§JrV H$mMm§Mm Mî_m,
gwVr H$nS>o B.
5. hË`mamZo Rm>oR>mdUo
Ywi à{V~§YH$ AmdaU, _mñH$, ~wQ>, hmV_moOo,
a§JrV H$mMm§Mm Mî_m B.
(Knock out)
6. J«m`qS>J H$aUo
7. gmÀ`mV dñVy AmoVUo
H$U© g§ajH$, hmV_moOo, a§JrV H$mMm§Mm Mî_m,
Ywi à{V~§YH$ AmdaU Am{U ~wQ>.
Mî_m, ~wQ> Am{U hmV_moOo.
gwa{jVVm H$m`©H«$_mVrb KQ>H$
(Factors in Safety Programme)
gwa{jVVm hm _Zwî`~imÀ`m Ñï>rZo EH$ _hÎdmMm KQ>H$ Agë`mZo H$m_Jmam§Zm gwa{jVVm {_iÊ`mgmR>r
H$m`©ñWimda Mm§Jbr n[apñWVr {Z_m©U H$aUo _hÎdmMo AgVo. Á`m CÚmoJKQ>H$mV H$m_Jma H$m_ H$aVmo VoWo
Ë`mbm gwb^ d gwa{jVnUo H$m_ H$aVm Ambo nm{hOo. YmoH$mXm`H$ &am