Uploaded by Barbie Ann Candel


Module 1
1. To discuss the factors that motivate people to travel.
2. To explain the relation between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the travel motivations listed in travel literature;
3. To identify the characteristics of travelers based on purpose of travel and analyze the travel constraints.
A. Motivation for Travel
Several studies on tourist motivations have listed various reasons why people travel. Some of the motivations listed
in travel literature are:
Relief Of Tension
Togetherness Interpersonal Relations
One’s Achievements
Roots Or Ethnic
Maintaining Social Contacts Convincing Oneself Of
Showing One’s Importance To Others
Status & Prestige
Interest In Foreign Areas
Four Classes of Basic Travel Motivators:
1. Physical Motivators – include those related to physical rest, sports participation, beach recreation, relaxing
entertainment and motivations directly connected with health;
2. Cultural Motivators – include the desire to know about other countries - their music, art, folklore, dances, paintings,
and religion;
3. Interpersonal Motivators – pertain to the desire to meet other people, visit friends or relatives, escape from routines,
from family and neighbors;
4. Status and prestige Motivators – concern ego needs and personal development. Includes trips related to business,
conventions, study, and pursuit of hobbies and education.
Maslow’s Theory of Motivation and Travel Motivations
A study of travel motivations found in travel literature indicates that these motivations fit into the hierarchy of needs
model by Abraham Maslow, a famous psychologist.
Relating travel motivations with Maslow’s
need theory will produce two tangible
1. A traveler is better understood and better
motivated if he or she is recognized as a person
consuming products and services. This will
enable the marketer to provide a better product
- prestige, social
Social Needs
- family togetherness, companionshp,
ethnic roots, maintain social contacts
or service to the traveler.
2. According to Maslow, the lower-level needs
should be first satisfied before the higher-level
needs, we would expect that products and
services would be regarded as a necessity
rather than a luxury.
Safety Needs
- health, recreation, keeping oneself active & healthy
Physiological Needs
- escape, relaxation, relief of tension, sunlust, physical, mental
relaxation of tension
Tourist Motivations
A. The Need for Escape or Change – the greatest reason for travel can be summed up in one word, “escape” – escape
from the dull daily routine. Travel can provide diversity. It removes a person from a familiar surroundings to something
that is new and exciting.
B. Travel for Health – development in the field of medicine has influenced travel for centuries, giving rise to the concept
of health tourism. The search for health and long life has popularized spas, seaside resorts, as well as sun resorts.
C. Sports – interest in sports, either as a participant or a spectator, is attracting large segments of the population. The
Olympic game which is held every four years attract millions of tourists.
D. Social Contact - much travel grows out of the social nature of people. Travel increases the “social resources” of
individuals. It makes them more interesting to themselves and to others.
E. Status and Prestige – travel provides the means for ego and self-enhancement. Being well-traveled enhances one’s
status in society.
F. Travel for Education – the search for knowledge and truth is inherent in every individual. Travel offers an opportunity
to satisfy the urge to learn.
G. Personal Values – many people are urged to travel to satisfy personal values, such as the search for spiritual
experience, patriotism, and wholesomeness. Example: Visiting places like Vatican, Mecca, Jerusalem, or Disneyland
H. Cultural Experience – cross-cultural exchanges, experiencing how other people live, and fostering international
understanding are some of the reasons to satisfy curiosity about other cultures, lifestyles, and places.
I. Shopping and Bargain Hunting – to many people, the joys derived from buying certain goods may be the major
reason for travel. Millions of travelers go to Hong Kong, Singapore, and other tax-free ports to shop.
J. Professional and Business Motives – conferences and conventions about education, commerce and industry
increase annually. However, a great portion of business travel is mixed with pleasure.
K. Search for Natural Beauty – travel can satisfy one’s search for beauty in the environment and in the scenery.
Natural beauty such as sunsets, mountains, waterfalls, and beaches inspires most people to travel.
Classification of Travelers Based on Purpose of Travel
The 2 major classifications of travelers based on travel purpose are the business travelers and pleasure travelers.
1. Business Travelers
a. Regular Business Traveler – the cost of their trip is shouldered by a company; hence, travel is not influenced
by personal income. They are described as well-educated, rich, have high-level jobs, and tend to fly often.
b. Business Travelers attending Meetings, Convention, and Congresses – Travel Pulse surveys indicate that
20% of all business travel trips are for the purpose of attending meetings, conventions, and congresses. These
are regular formalized meeting of associations or body or a meeting sponsored by an association on a regular or
ad hoc basis.
c. Incentive Travelers - Incentive travel is a travel given by firms to employees as a reward for some
accomplishment or to encourage employees to achieve more than what is required. Companies who buy incentive
travel trips are usually those involved in insurance, sales and marketing or manufacturing industries.
2. Pleasure/Personal Travelers – this group consists of people traveling for vacation or pleasure. They are also called
nonbusiness travelers and have a different spending patterns from business travelers.
a. Resort Travelers – surveys have shown that they are better educated, have higher household incomes, and are
more likely to have professional and managerial positions and majority have families with children.
b. Family Pleasure Travelers – this type of travelers are motivated by 3 objectives. (1) is to use travel as an
educational experience for their children, (2) to do something different, and (3) to use travel to bring the family
closer together.
c. The Elderly – persons in the “50 plus” age bracket are called active affluent or people with the money and the
desire to travel extensively. They are generally searching for learning experiences, cultural enrichment,
socialization, and activities which lead to self-fulfillment.
d. Singles and Couples – they take their vacations to fulfill their psychological, intellectual, and physical needs by
giving them the opportunity to rest, relax, escape the routine of pressures of daily living, enjoy the naturalness of
life and to express total freedom.
Travel Constraints
1. Lack of Money – is the major travel constraint. Less money means less travel.
2. Lack of Time – the desire to travel and financial ability to travel are insufficient if one does not have the time to travel.
3. Lack of Safety and Security – tourists will not go to destinations that they consider unsafe.
4. Physical Disability – in the form of bad health or physical handicap may keep people at home.
5. Family Commitments – this inhibits travel. Parents with young children find it inconvenient and expensive to go on
6. Lack of Interest in Travel – this condition may be due to a variety of factors, such as dislike of travel, shyness in
meeting people, dislike of changing routine, and many more.
7. Fears – some people do not want to travel because of fears, fear of flying, fear of the unknown and some are afraid
of the unfamiliar decisions they will have to make while traveling.
1. Think about your own motivations on why you travel (if you already experienced travelling before) or why you wanted
to travel (if you haven’t experienced it yet).
2. Classify what type of traveler you are or wanted to be. Reminisce your past travels or trip that you have done with
your family or friends.
3. Create a 1-3 minutes short vlog/video sharing your classification as a traveler, motivations, and constraints in
traveling. Please include your own personal photos or videos of your travel whether local or international.
4. Submit it via email or Messenger.
Expand your Horizon:
Learn more about the Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs through watching the video in link
Here is an example of a short travel vlog that
can inspire you, watch the video in link