Analysis of Examination Related Experiences of Students under Varying Climatic Conditions Mohd Kamil Vakil1, Afreen Khan2, and Abdul Rahman3 1 Department of Civil Engineering, Z. H. College of Engineering & Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 202002 2 Department of Computer Science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 202002 3 Department of Mathematics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India 202002 firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract. The impact of climate change can be easily recognized around the world. With the sudden increase in carbon emission in recent years, it's been noted that working in an open environment is getting harder. To tackle with such severe weather, people are carrying out their work in the air-conditioned ambience. Furthermore, it has been observed that they are emitting more greenhouse gases, which add more to the climate change. Amid the substantial shift in the climatic condition, the students at schools and colleges of India are getting significantly affected. Thus, the examination performed in different climatic conditions around the year resulted in an adverse impact on these students' academic outcome. A survey was conducted among the students of different standards at Aligarh Muslim University to record their exam-related experiences in a set of months- October, December, March, and May. This study aimed to figure out their experiences of giving exams in air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned classrooms. The data generated from the survey was statistically analyzed. It was concluded that the students influenced during the polluted months of summer are appreciably higher than those uninfluenced. And the number of students that gave exams in AC rooms have relatively done better in academics than those sitting in non-AC rooms. The optimized environmental conditions for both school and college-based examinations are suggested. This paper also indicates the modification needed in the educational environment to achieve better efficiency of students. Keywords: air-conditioned, HVAC, classroom, examination, climate, student 1. Introduction Climate change is the havoc of present times. From Ocean to Land life, everyone is getting affected. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines climate change as a "change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable periods." Human beings are not the sole threat to causing climate change. For millions of years, continental shifts have influenced the global temperature, which has activated volcanic eruptions. These shifts have released enormous volumes of carbon dioxide, which in turn heated up the Earth. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, human beings have been acting as a menace to the climate, which has exposed our ecosystem at risk. Since then, the average rise of 0.8 degrees Celsius in global temperature is recorded. 2 The increase in sea level by approximately 20 centimeters is another form of degradation of Earth due to climate change. A study performed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reported that global warming in the last few decades is attributable to the observed surge in greenhouse gases. On the other side, the indoor environment is deeply affected by air pollution. According to research performed recently, indoor air can be deadlier than outdoor air . On average, Americans spend approximately 90 percent of their time indoors, where the concentration of certain pollutants is often 2 to 5 times higher than typical outdoor concentration . The degradation of indoor air quality by harmful chemicals and other substances can be ten times worse than outdoor air pollution . The Indoor Particulate Matter concentrations moderately depend on levels of meteorological variables like temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation . In most Indian schools & colleges, students spend almost one-fourth part of their day in the classroom. The classroom setup generally consists of wooden furniture and painted walls. The students are made to sit in this classroom setup. Most of the pressedwood products, such as particleboard, plywood and fiberboard, paper product coatings, and particular insulation material emit formaldehyde, which may cause students to experience watery eyes, burning sensation in the eyes, nose, and throat, cough, wheezing, nausea, and skin irritation . The classroom without a proper Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning (HVAC) system cause ambient heat exposure, which adversely affects students' performance and learning capacity at typical heat levels in tropical and subtropical areas . Different weather plays different roles in the efficiency of the learning environment within a classroom. The Particulate Matter- PM10 and PM2.5 reached hazardous levels in November to February and then again in May and June in New Delhi (2015). The long-term exposure of human beings to PM's increased levels during winter may cause lung and cardiovascular-related diseases. To understand the students' behavior and academic performance in different weather conditions, a survey had been carried out at Aligarh Muslim University, India. The study performed on the students of university schools, and colleges revealed that the learning performance gets affected during summer. This study aims to assess the ergonomics of students in their exam giving environment to create awareness of ergonomics and its application among these students. The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 involves the methods employed during the study involving the data collection and data analysis technique. Section 3 discusses the results of the investigation. Section 4 introduces the discussion. Section 5 presents the conclusion, followed by a recommendation. 2. Methods A survey was carried out at Aligarh Muslim University, India, in which the data of 110 participants were recorded. All the respondents were students from secondary school and different departments of the university. Out of 110 forms received, five were omitted due to incomplete submission. A questionnaire named "Comfortability in Classroom and During Examination: A Student Survey" was distributed among these students. Table 1: Categories and types of questions asked in the survey. The Head row states the categories and other cell contents hint the subject of a question. 3 Inside environment Outside environment HVAC Examination experience in- Performance obtained in- (general experience) (general experience) (general ence) (with and without AC) (Different seasons) Roof leakage/ Sun rays Debris presence AC installed/maintained October Summer Mold visibility Animals/ Greenery Ventilation/windows presence December Winter Rodents/pests visibility Dust/exhaust Chemicals/vehicle exhaust March Autumn Wall paint/ Furniture polish smell Disposal/ Chemicals Humidity/moisture May Spring experi- The survey had questions (Table 1) on classroom and examination-hall related performance in Air-Conditioned (AC) and Non-Air-Conditioned (NAC) rooms; and learning experience in October, December, March, and May (ODMM) and during different seasons- summer, winter, autumn, and monsoon. The data recorded were statistically analyzed using SPSS Version 24.0. 3. Results 3.1 Demographic Outline of Participants' The study comprised 105 students, out of which 65 (62%) males and 40 (38%) females responded successfully. The age was within a range of 14-32 years, with a mean of 22.95 ± 0.55 (Confidence Level of 95%). 3.2 Academic Performance in ODMM The students were asked about their range of percentages they score during their different terms of examination. The responses recorded were satisfactory. During the month of ODMM, the students' responses varied according to the percentage of marks they obtained. This is illustrated in Fig.1 below. Fig.1. The percentage range of students during different terms of examinations. The highest percentage is 72.26 ± 1.69 (CI 95%) in May, and the lowest is 69.43 ± 2.02 (CI 95%) in October. The skewness value of 0.13 in May is highest and positive 4 (left-modal), which depicts the degree of symmetry in the data distribution is slightly concentrated towards the left side of the median. The lowest negative value of kurtosis is-0.60 in May, which implies that the data distribution has a relatively lower peakedness degree. This is described in Table 2 below. Table 2: Moments of Distribution for the months ODMM Oct Dec Mar Parameters Mean 69.4339 70.9434 70.3773 Standard Error 1.0216 0.8970 1.0224 Median 70 75 75 Mode 75 65 75 Standard Deviation 10.5180 9.2353 10.5265 Kurtosis -0.2588 -0.4545 -0.5834 Skewness -0.2232 -0.1347 -0.1263 Confidence Level (95%) 2.0256 1.7786 2.0272 May 72.2641 0.8534 75 65 8.7866 -0.6072 0.1388 1.6922 Other than descriptive statistics, the regression analysis has been carried out between months: October–March, and May–December, is the former as the dependent variable and later as the independent variable. The R square, p-value, and other factors are illustrated in Table 3 below. Table 3: Regression Analysis between pairs of months (Oct-Mar & May-Dec) Parameters October - March May - December Multiple R 0.87176 0.80985 R Square 0.759966 0.655856 Adjusted R Square 0.75768 0.652579 Standard Error 5.157445 5.205433 p-value 0.019658 2.89E-05 105 105 Observations The R square value and a p-value of October–March are significantly considerable as their values come under desirable limits, particularly p-value, which is less than 0.05 (level of significance). 3.3 Examination Experience in AC and NAC Rooms Participants were asked about their comfortability in giving examination in the hall designed with and without AC in the four months- ODMM. The comfortability was asked on 5 degrees from Poor to Excellent through Fair, Satisfactory, and Very Good. The responses noted for this section ranged maximum between satisfactory and fair for both AC and NAC rooms. The illustrative statistical analysis of this section is depicted in Table 4 below. Table 4: Descriptive Statistics of data related to Comfortability with AC Parameters Oct Dec Mar May Mean 2.7757 2.6728 2.9345 3.2242 5 Standard Error Median Mode Std. Deviation Sample Variance Kurtosis Skewness Confidence Level (95.0%) 0.1048 3 2 1.0842 1.1756 -0.6388 0.4605 0.2078 0.1101 3 3 1.1391 1.2976 -0.9668 0.0502 0.2183 0.1121 3 2 1.1596 1.3447 -0.9448 0.2034 0.2222 0.1219 3 2 1.261239 1.5907 -1.1843 -0.0607 0.2417 The mean comfortability in May is highest, followed by March, October, and December. The least negative kurtosis (platykurtic) shows the least peakedness, among others, and skewness indicates a degree of symmetry, which is slightly concentrated in the right of the median. A similar result of kurtosis for December can be seen in Table 4 above, but positive skewness indicates a degree of symmetry is towards the left side of the median. 3.4 Students influenced during summer During summer, when the temperature reaches 48 degree Celsius and Air Quality Index turn to be 280, it becomes essential to own an AC and air purifying system at home. But both at the hostel and home, the availability of AC & air purifier are negligible. More than 80% of participants don't own an AC at their study place unless it is a library. Fig.2 below clearly describes the studying efficiency of students that get affected. Fig.2. Students opinion on academic wellness in 4 different seasons The lowest Mean value of 2.72 ± 0.19 (CI 95%) is in summer, while the highest is in autumn, followed by winter and monsoon. 4. Discussion A study performed by Wargocki P. et al. on student performance  founded the reduced rate of 30% on the performance of tests of reading and mathematics at 27°C (81°F) in comparison to 20°C (68°F) . In contrast, our study shows a reduced rate of 6 13% on the performance of a student giving the examination at 24°C (March) in comparison to 35°C (May). Furthermore, no study is done on this topic in this region previously, so no data relevant to this survey could be located. 5. Conclusion Based on the provided information, 80% of examination halls in AMU have AC, which controls the indoor temperature. Generally, AC runs in summer, and students have secured good marks in May. It resembles that students score better if given a comfortable hall to write their paper. Moreover, it is concluded that the students' influence during the summer months is appreciably greater than those uninfluenced. And the number of students that gave exams in AC rooms have relatively done better in academics than those in NAC rooms. 6. Recommendation The optimized environmental conditions for both school and college-based examinations such as better HVAC setup, air filtration system are proposed, and the least usage of interior polishing has a high content of formaldehyde. This could lead to better environmental ergonomics in the examination hall setup and otherwise. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Indoor air can be deadlier than outdoor air, research shows, https://www.cnbc.com/2016/04/22/indoor-air-can-be-deadlier-than-outdoorair-research-shows.html, last accessed 2016/04/22. EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE), https://cfpub.epa.gov/roe/chapter/air/indoorair.cfm, last accessed 2017/07/28. Why indoor air pollution may be worse than it is outdoors, http://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/health/article/1820604/why-indoor-air-pollution-may-be-worse-it-outdoors, last accessed 2016/06/10. 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