Escola de Medicina | Universidade do Minho Biostatistics in Health Sciences Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Patrício Costa 2020/21 Patrício Costa 1 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics IBM SPSS Statistics SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) is a computer program used for statistical analysis. was released in its first version in 1968 after being developed by Norman H. Nie and C. Hadlai Hull. The original SPSS manual (Nie, Bent & Hull, 1970) has been described as one of "sociology's most influential books". is among the most widely used programs for statistical analysis in social science. It is used by market researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing organizations and others. Between 2009 and 2010 the premier software for SPSS was called PASW (Predictive Analytics SoftWare) Statistics. The company announced July 28, 2009 that it was being acquired by IBM for US$1.2 billion. As of January 2010, it became "SPSS: An IBM Company". Wikipedia Other packages: SAS, SysStat, Statistica, Stata ou os programas freeware R, PSPP, JASP e Jamovi. Comparison of statistical packages: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_statistical_packages Patrício Costa 2 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics SPSS Tutorials Subscrive Andy Field youtube channel (https://www.youtube.com/ and search for “Andy Field”), open the reproduction list SPSS Tutorials and watch the following videos: 1 - Entering Data into SPSS 3 - Importing Data into SPSS from Excel 4 - Selecting Cases in SPSS 6 - Editing Graphs in SPSS Patrício Costa 3 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics First screen Patrício Costa 4 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Patrício Costa 5 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Role: • Input: The variable will be used as an input (e.g., predictor, independent variable). • Target: The variable will be used as an output or target (e.g., dependent variable). • Both: The variable will be used as both input and output. • None: The variable has no role assignment. • Partition: The variable will be used to partition the data into separate samples for training, testing, and validation. • Split: Included for round-trip compatibility with IBM® SPSS® Modeler: Variables with this role are not used as split-file variables in IBM® SPSS® Statistics. Patrício Costa 6 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Scales of measurement - Stevens (1946, 1951) Nominal Data classification data, e.g. m/f no ordering, e.g. it makes no sense to state that M > F; arbitrary labels, e.g., m/f, 0/1, etc Ordinal Data ordered but differences between values are not important e.g., Manchester Triage System (MTS) in a general emergency department; classifications of burns; Likert scales, rank on a scale of 1..5 your degree of satisfaction Patrício Costa 7 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Scales of measurement - Stevens (1946, 1951) Interval Data ordered, constant scale, but no natural zero differences make sense, but ratios do not (e.g., 30°-20°=20°-10°, but 20°/10° is not twice as hot! e.g., temperature (C,F), dates Ratio Data ordered, constant scale, natural zero e.g., height, weight, age, length Additional information about variables Level of measurement or scale of measure: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Level_of_measurement Patrício Costa 8 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Variable transformations http://cmapspublic3.ihmc.us/rid=1074815492093_143863377_6575/Scales%20of%20Measurement.cmap Patrício Costa 9 Introduction to IBM SPSS Statistics Variable transformations Patrício Costa 10