Module 5. Unfolding the Mental Self Your understanding of your inner self holds the meaning of your life Click Here to Start Module 5. Unfolding the Mental Self Module Objectives To discuss the intellectual aspects of one’s being (intelligence and other mental capabilities), and how these develop our selfrepresentation. Module 5. Unfolding the Mental Self This module focuses on the intellectual aspects of Self. As intelligent beings, humans strive and successfully cope with the demands of environment across time. Our intellectual abilities make us superior over other organisms in the planet. Thus, a thorough understanding of this gift to humanity warrants serious attention. The module also covers discussions on how human beings learn, and how our learning abilities develop our being. Unit 2.The Mechanism of Human Learning This unit provides an overview of learning, the factors that contribute to the learning process, and how it shapes our individual self. Unit 1.Cognition, Memory, and Intelligence This unit discusses the nature of cognition and metacognition, its underlying mechanisms, and how it contributes to one’s sense of self. This further tackles the mechanism of human memory and the different types of human intelligences. Click Here to Begin UNIT 1.Cognition, Memory, and Intelligence This unit discusses the nature of cognition and metacognition, its underlying mechanisms, and how it contributes to one’s sense of self. This further tackles the mechanism of human memory and the different types of human intelligences Intended learningoutcomes At the end of this Unit, students are expected to demonstrate the following: 1.Explain and elaborate concepts and processes on cognition, memory, and intelligence 2.Analyze and demonstrate how cognition, memory, and intelligence are manifested in various aspects of his life. 3.Apply principles of cognition, memory, and intelligence to his own life. Diagnostics Learning Checkpoint Do you AGREE or DISAGREE? Everything we learn becomes permanently stored in our memory. We have an innate capacity to analyze and apply information. Personal and environmental factors influence the way we think. Intelligence is manifested in a variety of ways. Intelligence is only acquired in schools. Unit 1. Cognition, Memory, and Intelligence We are born with innate capabilities that empower us to manage ourselves in various settings and situations. As we are born, we depend on our senses as we make reactions and reflexes that are part of our developmental milestones. As we grow older, we begin to observe our environment, analyze information, make choices, and behave appropriately according to the situation. From a sensory-based acquisition of knowledge, we are led to a more logical and abstract manner of thinking as we grow older, evidenced by more complex tasks and challenges that we are faced with as we mature and develop. Even our school tasks correspond to the mental level that we are expected to be in. Cognition Unit 1. Cognition, Memory, and Intelligence Memory is composed of three levels: sensory memory, short-term or working memory, and long- term memory. Sensory memory is the level that allows information from the external environment to be perceived by an individual via his senses, usually in the form of chemical and physical stimuli, often with focus and intent. It is also the shortest level of memory, where information only lasts for half a second. However, not all stimuli are perceived by our sensory memory; just like a computer, our mind can only accommodate those sensory information that will be useful and thus is transferred to our short-term memory. All other stimuli are largely ignored by the individual. When information is deemed to be useful for the immediate future, then it is transferred to our short-term or working memory. Attention is a critical factor of the transfer from sensory to working memory. Memory Unit 1. Cognition, Memory, and Intelligence Intelligence has been defined in a number of ways. The term has been referred to as an individual’s capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, planning, creativity and problem solving. It has been characterized as the application of knowledge to enable adjustment to the environment. Thus, it is not merely knowing but applying knowledge appropriately whenever the need arises. Intelligence is often thought of as hereditary rather than environmental in nature. Two things should be noted about intelligence; one, individuals are born with innate intellectual ability that is harnessed in various contexts; and two, intelligence is not confined to the school context. Intelligence is one of the critical constructs that underlie studies of individual differences and a number of theories have already been presented to explain its nature. From the ancient times to the present, it has been a popular focus of study. Intelligence A number of theories have been presented with regard to intelligence. The Multiple Intelligence model of Howard Gardner has proposed eight (8) types of human intelligence, as follows: Intelligence Description Verbal-linguistic Ability to analyse information and produce output that involves oral and written language. Ability to understand and answer mathematical equations Logicalmathematical Visual-spatial Ability to analyse graphical information Musical Ability to produce and make meaning of different types of sound. Naturalistic Ability to identify and distinguish aspects of the natural world. Bodily-kinesthetic Ability to use one’s body to create products or solve problems. Interpersonal Ability to be sensitive of other people’s thoughts and emotions. Intrapersonal Ability for self-introspection Aside from the Multiple Intelligence theory, another framework proposed is that of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of intelligence. According to Sternberg (1985), intelligence is defined as “a mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one’s life.” Sternberg proposed three aspects of intelligence: componential, experiential, and contextual intelligence. According to the theory, intelligence is a function of how these three aspects are interchangeably used by the individual and up to what levels they are used. Cog Alternative name Componential Analytical Experiential Contextual Creative Practical Description Includes abstract thinking & logical reasoning; verbal & mathematical skills. Divergent thinking and ability to deal with novel situations Being “street smart”; ability to apply knowledge to the real world and shape or choose an environment. Both theories of multiple intelligence and triarchic theory explain the nature of intelligence, and the personal and environmental factors that shape it. Module 5. Unfolding the Mental Self This module focuses on the intellectual aspects of Self. As intelligent beings, humans strive and successfully cope with the demands of environment across time. Our intellectual abilities make us superior over other organisms in the planet. Thus, a thorough understanding of this gift to humanity warrants serious attention. The module also covers discussions on how human beings learn, and how our learning abilities develop our being. Unit 2.The Mechanism of Human Learning This unit provides an overview of learning, the factors that contribute to the learning process, and how it shapes our individual self. Unit 1.Cognition, Memory, and Intelligence This unit discusses the nature of cognition andmetacognition, its underlying mechanisms, and how it contributes to one’s sense of self. This further tackles the mechanism of human memory and the different types of human intelligences. Click Here to Begin UNIT 2.The Mechanism of Human Learning This unit provides an overview of learning, the factors that contribute to the learning process, and how it shapes our individual self. Intended learningoutcomes At the end of this Unit, students are expected to demonstrate the following: 1.Define and explain about learning and the learning process. 2.Identify and explain what factors influence the learning process. 3.Apply principles of learning to one’s academic life. Diagnostics Learning Checkpoint Do you AGREE or DISAGREE? Learning is a lifelong process. Learning happens in a variety of situations. Every individual learns in exactly the same manner. There is a limit to what we can learn. Learning is a choice. Unit 2. The Mechanism of Human Learning If cognition, memory, and intelligence are underlying mechanisms that allow us to perceive, process, and apply information for daily adaption, then learning is a natural consequence of these mechanisms. Learning is defined as “a relatively permanent change in a person’s knowledge or behavior as a result of experience”. This definition connotes three things: one, that the change is long-term; two, that the source of change comes from within the memory or knowledge structure of the individual; and lastly, that the change is attributed to personal experience of the learner in his environment, and not due to some temporary state. When we transfer knowledge or information to long-term memory and that is elaborated, rehearsed, and practiced, then learning happens. Learning However, the notion of learning is underlined by notions of self-efficacy and human agency. Self-efficacy is defined as “the extent to which we believe we can confidently learn and master a particular skill.” When an individual has high self-efficacy, they are likely to engage in challenging tasks and recover from disappointments quickly. On the other hand, people with low self-efficacy are likely to avoid difficult tasks because of lack of confidence and result to having low self-esteem. Thus, self-efficacy is a crucial factor behind learning and performance. According to Bandura, self-efficacy can be developed by the following: Mastery Experience Social modelling Improving physical and emotional states Verbal persuasion Accomplishment of simple tasks that lead to more complex tasks. Observing an identifiable model who accomplishes the task. Being relaxed and calm before pursuing a challenging task. Providing encouragement and feedback during the accomplishment of a challenging task. Apart from self-efficacy, human agency is another underlying principle in learning. People are not merely products of inner forces or environments; they are self-regulating and proactive. We influence our own environments by our characteristics and behavior; we influence other people; and we influence social groups in achieving large-scale benefits. Intentionality Forethought Self-reactiveness Self-reflectiveness Making an active decision to engage in particular activities. Anticipation of outcomes and consequences of particular actions. Ability to construct and regulate behavior appropriately. Reflection and evaluation of one’s thoughts and behavior. Thus, in the learning process, students are equally accountable for their performance as much as their teachers. While teachers are considered agents of change in the learning process, students have the responsibility to be equally involved as well. When teachers give tasks, it is a responsibility of the student to be engaged toward its accomplishment; students are accountable for the level and quality of engagement in the task; students anticipate outcomes commensurate to the quantity and quality of efforts exerted; and most of all, students should gain valuable lessons and learning as they evaluate the entire learning process. It is in this perspective that students are agents of their own learning, and they are expected to invest in their own learning cycle. Differences between deep learning and surface learning have been consistently studied in various research. Surface learning leads to mere absorption of facts, rote memorization, extrinsic motivation, focus on structured curricula and assessment that does not allow for autonomous learning to happen, and pays attention to teacher performance rather than student learning. On the other hand, deep learning strategies result to knowledge construction, making meaningful connections, use of higher cognitive skills, enhanced intrinsic motivation, better metacognition, and fosters discovery learning. In adopting deep learning strategies, students can engage in the following habits: •Take down notes. By taking down notes, students reinforce absorption of ideas and can relate them to past information they have already stored. •Ask questions during class sessions. Asking questions during class resolves two things: fosters discussion and individual & group discovery and allows opportunity for immediate feedback of the learning process. In adopting deep learning strategies, students can engage in the following habits: •Creating cognitive maps. The essence of deep learning is making meaningful connections among information relayed to the learner. By creating cognitive maps, students can link concepts together, resulting to personal construction of meaning shared by these information and enabling transfer to longterm memory. •Engage in collaborative learning activities with mentors and peers. There is a saying that “two heads are better than one.” In joining study groups, learners can converse, exchange ideas, engage in debate, and immerse in peer evaluation that can be used for personal feedback. Thus, teachers present collaborative learning opportunities for this purpose. •Go beyond the mandatory course requirements. Reading additional reference materials, watching films that exhibit concepts discussed in class, going on trips for authentic learning experience, and other learning opportunities not signified in the course syllabus can greatly enhance the learning process.