Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for TYBMS 1 TM OPERATIONS RESEARCH (BMS Third Year : Sixth Semester) (Core Courses – Compulsory) NITIN KULKARNI Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) Chapter 1 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Introduction to Operations Research Operations Research Models in which values of all variables and all possible outcomes are known with certainty are called __________ models. (a) Physical (b) Symbolic (c) Deterministic (d) Probabilistic Operations Research Models in which some or all variables are random in nature are called __________ models. (a) Physical (b) Symbolic (c) Deterministic (d) Probabilistic Mean, median and mode are measures of __________. (a) Central tendency (b) Dispersion (c) Probability __________ and __________ are techniques applied in project management. (a) CPM and PERT (b) Assignment and Transportation (c) Decision theory and Inventory models Operations Research techniques are __________ in nature. (a) Qualitative (b) Judgemental TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni TM 2 Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni (c) Approximate (d) Quantitative [Ans.: (1 – Deterministic); (2 – Probabilistic); (3 – Central tendency); (4 – CPM, PERT); (5 – Quantitative)] Chapter 2 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Linear Programming - I __________ are the entities whose values are to be determined from the solution of the LPP. (a) Objective function (b) Decision Variables (c) Constraints (d) Opportunity costs __________ specifies the objective or goal of solving the LPP. (a) Objective function (b) Decision Variables (c) Constraints (d) Opportunity costs Objective function is expressed in terms of the __________. (a) Numbers (b) Symbols (c) Decision Variables __________ are the restrictions or limitations imposed on the LPP. (a) Variables (b) Costs (c) Profits (d) Constraints The type of constraint which specifies maximum capacity of a resource is ‘__________ or equal to’ constraint. (a) Less than (b) Greater than (c) Less than or greater than In linear programming ________ represents mathematical equation of the limitations imposed by the problem. (April 19) (a) Objective function (b) Decision variable (c) Redundancy (d) Constraints TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for TYBMS 3 [Ans.: (1 – Decision variables); (2 – Objective function); (3 – decision variables); (4 – Constraints); (5 – less than); (6 – Constraints)] Chapter 3 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Linear Programming - II The region of feasible solution in LPP graphical method is called ____. (a) Infeasible region (b) Unbounded region (c) Infinite region (d) Feasible region When it is not possible to find solution in LPP, it is called as case of __________. (a) Unknown solution (b) Unbounded solution (c) Infeasible solution (d) Improper solution When the feasible region is such that the value of objective function can extend to infinity, it is called a case of __________. (a) Infeasible solution (b) Alternate optimal (c) Unbounded solution (d) Unique solution When the constraints are a mix of ‘less than’ and ‘greater than’ it is a problem having __________. (a) Multiple constraints (b) Infinite constraints (c) Infeasible constraints (d) Mixed constraints In case of an ‘________’ constraint, the feasible region is a straight line. (a) less than or equal to (b) greater than or equal to (c) mixed (d) equal to In linear programming, unbounded solution means ______. (April 19) (a) Infeasible solution (b) Degenerate solution (c) Infinite solutions (d) Unique solution [Ans.: (1 – Feasible region); (2 – Infeasible solution); (3 – Unbounded solution); (4 – Mixed constraints); (5 – equal to); (6 – Infinite solutions)] TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni TM 4 Chapter 4 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Linear Programming - III The incoming variable column in the simplex algorithm is called __________. (a) key column (b) incoming column (c) variable column (d) important column The outgoing variable row in the simplex algorithm is called __________. (a) outgoing row (b) key row (c) interchanging row (d) basic row The intersection value of key column and key row is called _________. (a) vital element (b) important element (c) key element (d) basic element The variable added to the LHS of a less than or equal to constraint to convert it into equality is called __________. (a) surplus variable (b) artificial variable (c) slack variable (d) additional variable A resource which is completely utilized is called __________ in simplex. (a) null resource (b) scarce resource (c) zero resource (d) abundant resource A resource which is partially utilized is called __________ in simplex. (a) surplus resource (b) extra resource (c) available resource (d) abundant resource The value of one extra unit of resource is called __________ in simplex. (a) unit price (b) extra price (c) retail price TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for TYBMS (8) (d) shadow price In simplex, a maximization problem is optimal when all Delta J, i.e. Cj – Zj values are __________. (a) Either zero or positive (b) Either zero or negative (c) Only positive (d) Only negative [Ans.: (1 – key column); (2 – key row); (3 – key element); (4 – slack variable); (5 – scarce resource); (6 – abundant resource); (7 – Shadow price); (8 – Either zero or negative)] Chapter 5 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 5 Transportation Problems To find initial feasible solution of a transportation problem the method which starts allocation from the lowest cost is called ________ method. (a) north west corner (b) least cost (c) south east corner (d) Vogel’s approximation In a transportation problem, the method of penalties is called __________ method. (a) least cost (b) south east corner (c) Vogel’s approximation (d) north west corner When the total of allocations of a transportation problem match with supply and demand values, the solution is called __________ solution. (a) non-degenerate (b) degenerate (c) feasible (d) infeasible When the allocations of a transportation problem satisfy the rim condition (m + n – 1) the solution is called __________ solution. (a) degenerate (b) infeasible (c) unbounded (d) non-degenerate When there is a degeneracy in the transportation problem, we add an imaginary allocation called __________ in the solution. (a) dummy TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni TM 6 (6) (7) (b) penalty (c) epsilon (d) regret If M + N – 1 = Number of allocations in transportation, it means _________. (Where ‘M’ is number of rows and ‘N’ is number of columns) (a) There is no degeneracy (b) Problem is unbalanced (c) Problem is degenerate (d) Solution is optimal Which of the following considers difference between two least costs for each row and column while finding initial basic feasible solution in transportation? (a) North west corner rule (b) Least cost method (c) Vogel’s approximation method (d) Row minima method [Ans.: (1 – least cost); (2 – Vogel’s approximation); (3 – feasible); (4 – non-degenerate); (5 – epsilon); (6 – There is no degeneracy); (7 – Vogel’s approximation method)] Chapter 6 (1) (2) (3) Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Assignment Problems If the number of rows and columns in an assignment problem are not equal than it is called __________ problem. (a) prohibited (b) infeasible (c) unbounded (d) unbalanced The method of solution of assignment problems is called __________ method. (a) NWCR (b) VAM (c) LCM (d) Hungarian When a maximization assignment problem is converted in minimization problem, the resulting matrix is called __________. (a) Cost matrix (b) Profit matrix (c) Regret matrix (d) Dummy matrix TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for TYBMS (4) (5) (6) The extra row or column which is added to balance an assignment problem is called __________. (a) regret (b) epsilon (c) dummy (d) extra When a particular assignment in the given problem is not possible or restricted as a condition, it is called a __________ problem. (a) infeasible (b) degenerate (c) unbalanced (d) prohibited If in an assignment problem, number of rows is not equal to number of columns then __________. (a) Problem is degenerate (b) Problem is unbalanced (c) It is a maximization problem (d) Optimal solution is not possible [Ans.: (1 – unbalanced); (2 – Hungarian); (3 – Regret matrix); (4 – Dummy); (5 – Prohibited); (6 – Problem is unbalanced)] Chapter 7 (1) (2) (3) 7 Network Analysis - I The longest path in the network diagram is called __________ path. (a) best (b) worst (c) sub-critical (d) critical The second longest path in the network diagram is called __________ path. (a) alternate (b) feasible (c) sub-critical (d) critical Forward pass calculations are done to find __________ occurrence times of events. (a) exact (b) earliest (c) latest (d) approximate TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni TM 8 (4) (5) (6) Backward pass calculations are done to find __________ occurrence times of events. (a) tentative (b) definite (c) latest (d) earliest An activity whose start or end cannot be delayed without affecting total project completion time is called __________ activity. (a) dummy (b) non-critical (c) critical (d) important Floats for critical activities will be always _________. (April 19) (a) one (b) zero (c) highest (d) same as duration of the activity [Ans.: (1 – Critical); (2 – Sub-critical); (3 – earliest); (4 – latest); (5 – critical); (6 – Zero)] Chapter 8 (1) (2) (3) Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Network Analysis - II The two types of costs involved in project crashing are __________ and __________ costs. (a) direct and indirect (b) total and partial (c) visible and invisible (d) measurable and non-measurable In project crashing, rent and overheads are treated as __________ costs. (a) significant (b) insignificant (c) direct (d) indirect In project crashing, the costs associated with actual activities (e.g. manpower, materials, machinery etc.) are called __________ costs. (a) visible (b) measurable (c) direct (d) indirect TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for TYBMS (4) (5) In project crashing, as we systematically crash the project, direct cost of project __________ and indirect cost of project __________. (a) increases - decreases (b) decreases - increases (c) increases - remains same (d) remain same - decreases In project crashing, as we systematically crash the project, total project cost initially __________ and after the optimal point, it __________. (a) increases - decreases (b) decreases - increases (c) remains same - decreases (d) decreases - remains same [Ans.: (1 – direct, indirect); (2 – indirect); (3 – direct); (4 – increases, decreases); (5 – decreases, increases)] Chapter 9 (1) (2) (3) (4) 9 Network Analysis - III The shortest possible completion time of an activity in PERT is called __________ time. (a) pessimistic (b) optimistic (c) most likely (d) expected The longest possible completion time of an activity in PERT is called __________ time. (a) expected (b) most likely (c) pessimistic (d) optimistic a + 4m + b In PERT, the time estimate calculated by using formula 6 is called __________ time. (a) optimistic (b) pessimistic (c) most likely (d) expected In PERT, the expected project completion time is also called as __________ project completion time. (a) average (b) normal TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni TM 10 (c) (d) (5) (6) mean critical Fill in the blanks with ‘<’ or ‘>’ sign as applicable a (2) (3) (4) m b (a) <, > (b) >, < (c) >, > (d) <, < The maximum time in which an activity will be completed assuming all possible delays and postponements is termed as ___________. (a) optimistic time (b) most likely time (c) pessimistic time (d) expected time [Ans.: (1 – optimistic); (2 – pessimistic); (3 – expected); (4 – mean); (5 – <, <); (6 – pessimistic time)] Chapter 10 (1) Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Job Sequencing Problems The time required by each job on each machine is called __________ time. (a) elapsed (b) idle (c) processing (d) average The order in which machines are required for completing the jobs is called __________. (a) machines order (b) working order (c) processing order (d) job order The time between the starting of the first job and completion of the last job in sequencing problems is called __________. (a) total time (b) assignment time (c) elapsed time (d) idle time The time during which a machine remains waiting or vacant in sequencing problem is called __________ time. (a) processing (b) waiting TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for TYBMS (5) (6) (c) idle (d) free In sequencing problem, the order of completion of jobs is called __________. (a) completion sequence (b) job sequence (c) processing order (d) job order The total time required to complete all the jobs in a job sequencing problem is known as ___________. (a) idle time (b) processing time (c) elapsed time (d) processing order [Ans.: (1 – processing); (2 – processing order); (3 – elapsed time); (4 – idle); (5 – job sequence); (6 – elapsed time)] Chapter 11 (1) (2) (3) (4) 11 Theory of Games The participants in a game are called __________. (a) clients (b) members (c) customers (d) players A game having more than two players is called __________ game. (a) multi-person (b) many person (c) n-person (d) unknown person The outcome of the interaction of selected strategies of opponents in a game is called __________. (a) income (b) profit (c) payoff (d) gains In a game, the alternatives or courses of action available to each player are called __________. (a) options (b) choices TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni TM 12 (5) (6) Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni (c) actions (d) strategies A situation in a game where, in the payoff matrix, maximin of row is equal to minimax of column is called __________. (a) centre point (b) main point (c) saddle point (d) equal point The various alternatives or courses of actions available to each player in a game are called as __________. (a) saddle points (b) strategies (c) pay-off (d) ‘n’ player game [Ans.: (1 – players); (2 – n-person); (3 – payoff); (4 – strategies); (5 – saddle point); (6 – strategies)] TM Operations Research (BMS) by Nitin Kulkarni MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON MANAGEMENT SCIENCE 1. The term “Operation Research” was coined by : a. Mc Closky and Trefthen b. Arthur Clark c. Churchman, Ackoff and Arnoff d. George B Dantzig 2. Management Science came into existence in a ................... context. a. Business b. Academic c. Military d. Religious 3. By the beginning of ........................., the industries in USA realised the importance of Management Science in solving business and management problems. a. 1930s b. 1940s c. 1950s d. 1960s 4. In India, Operations Research came into existence in the year .............. a. 1940 b. 1947 c. 1949 d. 1950 5. In India, first Operations Research unit was set up at ................................. a. Regional Research Laboratory, Hyderabad b. Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkotha c. Indian Institute of Science and Technology, Bengaluru d. Indian Institute of Science and Technology, Mohali 6. In India, first Operations Research application was made by ........................... a. Pranab K Sen b. Prof. Mahalonobis c. Samarendra Nath Roy d. Raghu Raj Bahadur 7. Operations Research Society of India was formed in the year .................. a. 1950 b. 1955 c. 1957 d. 1960 8. Who defined Operations Research as “the art of giving bad answers to problems which otherwise have worse answers”? a. H M Wagner b. H A Taha c. T L Saaty 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. d. Arthur Clark .................... defined Operations Research as “the art of winning wars without actually fighting.” a. H M Wagner b. H A Taha c. T L Saaty d. Arthur Clark Operations Research is a very powerful tool for ........................ a. Operations b. Research c. Decision making d. None of these Who defined Operations Research as scientific approach to problem solving for executive management. a. E L Arnoff b. H M Wagner c. Churchman d. None of these The term “Operations Research” was coined in the year ................... a. 1930 b. 1940 c. 1950 d. 1960 The innovative science of Operations Research was discovered during ...................... a. Civil war b. World war I c. World war II d. Industrial Revolution Operations Research has the characteristic that it is done by a team of ..................... a. Scientists b. Mathematicians c. Academicians d. Politicians Operations Research emphasises on the overall approach to the system. This characteristic of Operations Research is often referred to as ................................. a. System orientation b. System approach c. Inter-disciplinary d. Team approach Operations Research cannot give perfect .................. to the problem. a. Answers b. Solutions c. Both a and b d. Decisions 17. ............................ models involve the allocation of resources to activities in such a way that some measure of effectiveness is optimised. a. Sequencing b. Allocation c. Queuing theory d. Decision theory 18. In .................. models, everything is defined and the results are certain. a. Probabilistic b. Deterministic c. Both a and b d. None of these 19. ......................... models involve more risks and uncertainties. a. Probabilistic b. Deterministic c. Both a and b d. None of these 20. .......................... models are obtained by enlarging or reducing the size of the items. a. Iconic models b. Analogue models c. Symbolic models d. None of these 21. The word .................. may be defined as some actions that we apply to some problems or hypothesis. a. Research b. Operations c. Both a and b d. None of these 22. ......................are representations of reality. a. Phases b. Models c. Both a and b d. None of these 23. .........................are called mathematical models. a. Iconic models b. Symbolic models c. Analogue models d. None of these 24. Probabilistic models are also called ........................... a. Deterministic models b. Dynamic models c. Stochastic models d. None of these 25. ........................ models assume that the values of the variables do not change with time during a particular period. a. Dynamic 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. b. Static c. Both a and b d. None of these .......................models consider time as one of the important variable. a. Dynamic b. Static c. Botha and b d. None of these ........................may be defined as a method of determining an optimal program of interdependent activities in view of available resources. a. Goal programming b. Linear programming c. Decision making d. None of these ..................... are expressed in the form of equations a. Objectives b. Constraints c. Both a and b d. None of these If there are more than one optimal solutions for the decision variables, the solution is ........... a. Infeasible b. Unbounded c. Alternative d. None of these Dual of the dual s a .......................... a. Dual b. Primal c. Alternative d. None of these The quantitative approach to decision analysis is a .......................... a. Logical approach b. Rational approach c. Scientific approach d. All of the above A model is a ........................... a. An essence of reality b. An approximation c. An idealisation d. All of the above The dummy source/destination in a transportation problem is added to ........................ a. Satisfy rim constraints b. Prevent solution from becoming degenerate c. Ensure total cost does not exceed a limit d. None of the above 34. The solution to a transportation problem with ‘m’ rows and ‘n’ columns is feasible if the number of positive allocations are: a. m + n b. m x n c. m +n – 1 d. m +n + 1 35. The method used for solving an assignment problem is: a. Reduced matrix method b. MODI method c. Hungarian method d. None of these 36. An assignment problem can be solved by ......................... a. Simplex method b. Transportation method c. Both a and b d. None of these 37. For salesman who has to visit ‘n’ cities, which of the following are the ways of his tour plans: a. n ! b. (n+1) ! c. (n-1) ! d. n 38. The assignment problem is: a. Requires that only one activity be assigned to each resource b. Is a special case of transportation problem c. Can be used to maximise resource d. All the above 39. The Hungarian method for solving an assignment problem can also be used to solve: a. A transportation problem b. A travelling salesman problem c. A linear programming problem d. Both a and b 40. All the parameters in the linear programming model are assumed to be ..................... a. Variables b. Constraints c. Functions d. None of these 41. Graphic method can be applied to solve a liner programming problem when there are only ........................... variables a. A one b. Two c. Three d. More than three 42. If the feasible region of a linear programming problem is empty, the solution is .................... a. Unbounded b. Infeasible 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. c. Infeasible d. Alternative The variables whose coefficient vectors are unit vectors, are called ...................... a. Unit variables b. Basic variables c. Non-basic variables d. None of these Any column or row of a simplex table is known as ......................... a. Key column b. Key row c. Vector d. None of these .................... is considered as the pioneer of Linear Programming Technique. a. churchman b. D W Miller c. James Lundy d. George B Dantzig A minimisation problem can be connected into maximisation problem by changing the signs of coefficients in the ........................... a. Constraints b. Objectives c. Both a and b d. None of these In an LPP, if the solution of a variable can be made infinitely large without violating the constraints, then the solution is .............................. a. Infeasible b. Alternative c. Unbounded d. Unique In maximisation cases, ....................... are assigned to the artificial variables as their coefficients in the objective function. a. + m b. – m c. 0 d. None of these In simplex method, we add .......................... in the case of constraints with sign “=” a. Surplus variable b. Artificial variable c. Slack variable d. None of these In simplex method, ........................ should be selected when there is tie between slack/surplus variable and decision variable. a. Slack variable b. Decision variable c. Surplus variable 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. d. None of these When at least one of the basic variables is zero, then the basic feasible solution to a Linear Programming Problem is said to be .............................. a. Infeasible b. Unbounded c. Degenerate d. Non-degenerate In Linear Programming Problem, degeneracy occurs in ................. stages. a. One b. Two c. Three d. Four Every Linear Programming Problem is related to another Linear Programming Problem, called .......................... a. Primal b. Dual c. Non-linear Programming d. None of these In a maximisation assignment problem, the objective is to maximise ............................. a. Profit b. Cost c. Optimisation d. None of these Operations Research does not give perfect solution to a problem, but it helps to improve the ......................... of the solution. a. Quality b. Clarity c. Look d. None of these Operations Research makes a ...................... attack on complex problems to arrive at optimal solution. a. Scientific b. Systematic c. Both a and b d. None of these Operations Research uses models to help the management in determining its .................... scientifically. a. Policies b. Actions c. Both a and b d. None of these Operations Research is a ................................ a. Science b. Art c. Both a and b 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. d. None of these ......................... deals with making sound decisions under conditions of certainty, risk and uncertainty. a. Game theory b. Network analysis c. Decision theory d. None of these ....................... deals with the concepts such as critical path, float, events, etc. a. Game theory b. Decision theory c. Queuing theory d. Network analysis ............................... is used to imitate an operation prior to actual performance. a. Inventory control b. Simulation c. Game theory d. Integrated Production Model ............................... is concerned with determination of the most economic replacement policy. a. Probabilistic programming b. Linear programming c. Search theory d. Replacement theory The O R technique which helps in minimising total waiting and service cost is: a. Game theory b. Queuing theory c. Both a and b d. Decision theory Linear Programming technique is a: a. Constrained optimisation technique b. Technique for economic allocation of resources c. Mathematical technique d. All of the above A constraint in a Linear Programming Model restricts: a. Value of objective function b. Value of decision variable c. Use of available resources d. All of the above Before formulating a formal L P model, it is better to: a. Verbally identify decision variables b. Express the objective function in words c. Express each constraint in words d. All of the above Linear Programming Technique helps to find an optimal use of: a. Machine 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. b. Money c. Manpower d. All of the above Which of the followings is an assumption of Linear Programming Technique? a. Divisibility b. Additivity c. Proportionality d. All of the above Which of the following is true with regard to a Linear Programming Model? a. No guarantee to get integer valued solution b. The relationship among decision variables is liner c. Both a and b d. None of the these The graphical method if LPP uses: a. Linear equations b. Constraint equations c. Objective function d. All of the above Constraints in an LPP are treated as active, if they: a. Do not consume all the available resources at optimality b. Represent optimal solution c. Both a and b d. None of these While solving a LPP graphically, the area bounded by constraints is called ................. a. Feasible region b. Infeasible region c. Unbounded region d. None of these While solving an LPP, infeasibility may be removed by: a. Removing a variable b. Removing a constraint c. Adding a variable d. Adding a constraint ........................variables are fictitious and cannot have any physical meaning. a. Slack variables b. Surplus variables c. Artificial variables d. Decision variables An optimal solution is considered as the ................... among the feasible solutions. a. Worst b. Best c. Ineffective d. None of these ........................... method is used to solve an assignment problem. a. American method 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. b. Hungarian method c. German method d. British method The allocated cells in the transportation table are called .............................. a. Occupied cells b. Empty cells c. Unoccupied cells d. None of these In transportation Problems, VAM stands for ......................... a. Value Addition Method b. Vogel’s Approximation Method c. Virgenean Approximation Method d. None of these Initial feasible solution to a transportation Problem can be found out by ......................... a. VAM b. MODI Method c. Both a and b d. None of these ........................ is applied to determine optimal solution. a. NWCR b. VAM c. MODI Method d. None of these A Transportation Problem is said to be unbalanced when total supply is not equal to ............ a. Total cost b. Total demand c. Both a and b d. None of these For a minimisation Transportation Problem, the objective is to minimise: a. Profit b. Cost c. Solution d. None of these ....................... is an important Operations Research Technique to analyse the queuing behaviour. a. Game theory b. Waiting line theory c. Decision theory d. Simulation An organisation chart is an example of ........................... a. Iconic model b. Mathematical model c. Analogue model d. None of these 85. ........................ model is a map which indicates roads, highways, towns and interrelationships a. Iconic model b. Analogue model c. Mathematical model d. None of these 86. Operations Research techniques help to find ................... solution. a. Feasible solution b. Infeasible solution c. Optimal solution d. None of these 87. Operations Research Techniques involves ..................... approach. a. Team approach b. Critical approach c. Individual approach d. None of these 88. A LPP model doesnot contain: a. Decision b. Constraints c. Feasible solution d. Spread Sheet 89. Straight lines shown in a linear programming graph indicates ........................... a. Objective function b. Constraints c. Points d. All of the above 90. Non-negativity constraints are written as ...................... a. Equality b. Non-equality c. Greater than or equal to d. Less than or equal to 91. PERT stand for: a. Performance Evaluation Review Technique b. Programme Evaluation Review Technique c. Programme Evaluation Research Technique d. None of these 92. An activity which must be completed before commencement of one or more other activities is called................................. a. Successor activity b. Predecessor activity c. Dummy activity d. None of these 93. In network diagram, events are commonly represented by ......................... a. Arrows b. Nodes c. Triangles d. None of these 94. ......................... is activity oriented network diagram. a. CPM b. PERT c. Histogram d. Ogive 95. ................... is an event oriented network diagram. a. CPM b. PERT c. Histogram d. Ogive 96. An activity which does not consume either resource or time is called ............................. a. Predecessor activity b. Successor activity c. Dummy activity d. Terminal activity 97. ......................... is a series of activities related to a project. a. Network b. Transportation Model c. Assignment model d. None of these 98. An event which represents the beginning of more than one activity is a : a. Merge event b. Net event c. Burst event d. None of these 99. Activities lying on critical path are called ............................ a. Critical activities b. Non-critical activities c. Dummy activities d. None of these 100. Activities that cannot be started until one or more of the other activities are completed, are called.......................................... a. Dummy activities b. Initial activities c. Successor activities d. Predecessor activities 101. ............................ is the sequence of activities which determines the total project duration. a. Critical path b. Network c. Non-critical activities d. None of these 102. PERT emphasises on ........................... a. Activity b. Time c. Cost d. None of these 103. ..................... is the duration by which an activity can be delayed without delaying the completion of the project. a. Earliest Start Time b. Earliest Finish Time c. Latest Start Time d. Latest Finish Time 104. The EST + activity duration = .............................. a. Earliest Finish Time b. Latest Start Time c. Latest Finish Time d. None of these 105. ............................ is the latest time by which an activity can be finished without delaying the completion of the project. a. LST b. LFT c. EFT d. EST 106. ......................... is a scheme or design of something intended to do. a. Network b. Float c. Project d. Program 107. In a network diagram, activity is denoted by ............................ a. Node b. Arrow c. Triangle d. None of these 108. .......................... is the duration by which an activity can be delayed without delaying the project. a. Slack b. Total float c. Both a and b d. None of these 109. The maximise criteria is ........................... a. Optimistic b. Pessimistic c. Neutral d. None of these 110. Decision making under certainty refers to .............................. situation. a. Deterministic b. Probabilistic c. Competitive d. None of these 111. ............................is known as father of game theory. a. Von Neumann b. A K Erlang c. George b Dantzig d. Arnoff 112. Which of the following is an assumption of game theory? a. The players act rationally and intelligently b. Each payer has a finite set of possible courses of action c. The players attempt to maximise gains or minimises losses d. All of the above 113. Each participant of the game is called................... a. Strategist b. Winner c. Player d. Loser 114. The outcome of a game is known as.................... a. Profit b. Loss c. Pay off d. None of these 115. A matrix which shows the gains and losses resulting from moves and counter moves is called.................................. a. Cost matrix b. Pay off matrix c. Both a and b d. None of these 116. When all the players of the game follow their optimal strategies, then the expected pay off of the game is called....................... a. Gain of the game b. Loss of the game c. Value of the game d. None of these 117. The position in the pay off matrix where the maximin coincides with the minimax. a. Saddle point b. Break even point c. Pivot point d. None of the above 118. A game is said to be fair if the value of the game is......................... a. One b. Two c. Three d. Zero 119. In a ........................game the amounts won by all winners together is equal to the sum of the amounts lost by all losers together. a. Non-zero sum game b. Zero sum game c. Rectangular game d. None of these 120. Which of the following method is used to solve mixed strategy problems: a. Probability method b. Graphic method c. Linear Programming method d. All of the above 121. A queue is formed when the demand for a service: a. Exceeds the capacity to provide that service b. Is less than the capacity to provide that service c. a or b d. None of these 122. Queuing theory is also termed as ............................ a. Game theory b. Replacement theory c. Waiting line theory d. None of these 123. In queuing theory, ...................... refers to those waiting in a queue or receiving service. a. Service provider b. Customer c. Both a and b d. None of these 124. In queuing theory, ...................... is a person by whom service is rendered. a. Customer b. Server c. a or b d. none of these 125. In waiting line theory, number of customers waiting in the queue is referred to as ................ a. Traffic intensity b. Queuing system c. Service pattern d. Queue length 126. Number of customers in the queue per unit of time is called ...................... a. Queuing system b. Length of queue c. Average length of queue d. None of these 127. The ration between mean arrival rate and mean service rate is called ................... a. Idle period b. Average length of queue c. Traffic intensity d. None of these 128. Commonly assumed probability distribution of arrival pattern is ....................... a. Poisson distribution b. Binomial distribution c. Normal distribution d. None of these 129. Commonly assumed probability distribution of service pattern are ....................... a. Poisson distribution b. Exponential distribution c. Erlang distribution d. b and c 130. a customer’s behaviour of leaving the queue when he does not like to wait in the queue due to lack of time or space is called ..................... a. Jockying b. Reneging c. Collusion d. Balking 131. A customer’s behaviour of leaving the queue due to impatience is called ....................... a. Jockying b. Reneging c. Collusion d. Balking 132. A customer’s behaviour of jumping from one queue to another is called ............................ a. Jockying b. Reneging c. Collusion d. Balking 133. In queuing theory, ............................ stands for mean arrival rate of customers. a. b. c. d. μ λ t none of these 134. In queuing theory, ............................ stands for mean service rate. a. μ b. λ c. t d. none of these 135. ...................... is a method of analysing the current movement of the some variable in an effort to predict the future movement of the same variable. a. Goal programming b. Queuing theory c. Markov Analysis d. Replacement theory 136. In queuing theory, FCFS stand for .............................. a. First Cum First Served b. First Customer Fist Served c. Fast Channel First Served 137. Initial feasible solution to a transportation problem arrived through which of the following method is very near to the optimal solution: a. NWCM b. LCM c. VAM d. None of these 138. In Transportation Problem, NWCM stands for ............................. a. North West Cost Method b. Net Worth Corner Method c. North West Corner Method d. None of these 139. In Transportation Problem, LCM stands for ............................. a. Lowest Common Multiplier b. Least Cost Method c. Lowest Cell Method d. None of these 140. Matrix Minima Method to find initial feasible solution to a TP is also called ....................... a. NWCM b. LCM c. VAM d. None of these 141. MODI Method to test the optimality of a feasible solution to TP is also called............... a. Stepping Stone Method b. u. v. Method c. both a and b d. none of these 142. ............................refers to the manner in which the customers behave while being in the queue. a. Service pattern b. Service pattern c. Queue discipline d. None of these 143. Excess of service facilities over and above the number of customers results: a. Idleness of service capacity b. Queues c. Both a and b d. None of these 144. ................................was the first person who developed a viable queueing theory a. Von Neumann b. Morgenstern c. H M Wagner d. Simeon Dennis Poisson 145. Traffic intensity in Queuing Theory is also called........................... a. Service factor b. Arrival factor c. Utilisation factor d. None of these 146. Traffic intensity is computed by using the formula: a. λ/μ b. μ/λ c. 1- λ/μ d. 1- μ/λ 147. Game theory became popular when the book “Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour” was published in 1944 by .............................. a. Von Neumann b. Mc Closky c. Von-Neumann and Mc Closky d. Von-neumann and Morgenstern 148. Which of the following is a characteristic of a dual problem: a. Dual of a dual is primal b. If dual has a finite optimal solution, then the primal also has finite optimal solution c. If dual has no feasible solution, then the primal also has no feasible solution d. All of the above 149. Shadow price is also called ...................... a. Dual price b. Unit price c. Total cost d. None of these 150. ................................is that element of the simplex table which lis both in the key row and key column. a. Key element b. Pivot element c. Both a and b d. None of these 151. Transportation model was first introduced by ........................ in the year 1941. a. T C Koopman b. George B Dantzig c. Von-neumann d. F L Hitchcock 152. VAM is also called........................ a. Matrix Minima Method b. Penalty Method c. MODI Method d. None of these 153. Which of the following methods is used to solve an assignment problem: a. Enumeration Method b. Hungarian Method c. Simplex Method d. All of the above 154. Hungarian method was developed by ........................ a. T C Koopman b. F L Hitchcock c. D Konig d. George B Dantzig 155. .................... is the popular method for solving an assignment problem. a. Hungarian Method b. Enumeration Method c. Simplex Method d. None of the above 156. The outlet where the services are being provided to the customers is called................. a. Waiting line b. Service facility c. Idle facility d. Traffic intensity 157. The variables which can be manipulated by the decision maker are called.................... a. Controllable variables b. Uncontrollable variables c. Both a and b d. None of these 158. The variables which cannot be manipulated by the decision maker are called.................... a. Controllable variables b. Uncontrollable variables c. Both a and b d. None of these 159. Controllable variables are also called.................................. a. Slack variables b. Surplus variables c. Artificial variable d. Decision variables 160. If a simplex table shows the values 2, -3, 0 against “θ”, which should be taken as the replacement ratio. a. 2 b. -3 c. 0 d. None of these *** ANSWERS: 1:a 2:c 3:c 4:c 5:a 6:b 7:c 8:c 9:d 10 : c 11 : b 12 : b 13 : c 14 : a 15 : d 16 : c 17 : b 18 : b 19 : a 20 : a 21 : b 22 : b 23 : b 24 : c 25 : b 26 : a 27 : b 28 : b 29 : c 30 : b 31 : c 32 : d 33 : a 34 : c 35 : c 36 : c 37 : c 38 : d 39 : b 40 : b 41 : b 42 : b 43 : b 44 : c 45 : d 46 : b 47 : c 48 : a 49 : b 50 : b 51 : c 52 : b 53 : b 54 : a 55 : a 56 : c 57 : c 58 : c 59 : c 60 : d 61 : b 62 : d 63 : b 64 : d 65 : d 66 : d 67 : d 68 : d 69 : d 70 : d 71 : b 72 : a 73 : b 74 : c 75 : b 76 : b 77 : a 78 : b 79 : a 80 : c 81 : b 82 : b 83 : b 84 : c 85 : b 86 : c 87 : c 88 : d 89 : b 90 : c 91 : b 92 : b 93 : b 94 : a 95 : b 96 : c 97 : a 98 : c 99 : a 100 : c 101 : a 102 : b 103 : c 104 : a 105 : b 106 : a 107 : b 108 : b 109 : b 110 : a 111 : a 112 : d 113 : c 114 : c 115 : b 116 : c 117 : a 118 : d 119 : b 120 : d 121 : a 122 : c 123 : b 124 : b 125 : d 126 : c 127 : c 128 : a 129 : d 130 : d 131 : b 132 : a 133 : b 134 : a 135 : c 136 : a 137 : c 138 : c 139 : b 140 : c 141 : b 142 : c 143 : a 144 : d 145 : c 146 : a 147 : d 148 : d 149 : a 150 : c 151 : d 152 : b 153 : d 154 : c 155 : a 156 : b 157 : a 158 : b 159 : d 160 : c MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS DECISION SCIENCE 1. Decision Science approach is a. Multi-disciplinary b. Scientific c. Intuitive d. All of the above 2. For analyzing a problem, decision-makers should study a. Its qualitative aspects b. Its quantitative aspects c. Both a & b d. Neither a nor b 3. Decision variables are a. Controllable b. Uncontrollable c. Parameters d. None of the above 4. A model is a. An essence of reality b. An approximation c. An idealization d. All of the above 5. Managerial decisions are based on a. An evaluation of quantitative data b. The use of qualitative factors c. Results generated by formal models d. All of the above 6. The use of decision models a. Is possible when the variables value is known b. Reduces the scope of judgement & intuition known with certainty in decision-making c. Require the use of computer software d. None of the above 7. Every mathematical model a. Must be deterministic b. Requires computer aid for its solution c. Represents data in numerical form d. All of the above 8. A physical model is example of 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. a. An iconic model b. An analogue model c. A verbal model d. A mathematical model An optimization model a. Provides the best decision b. Provides decision within its limited context c. Helps in evaluating various alternatives d. All of the above The quantitative approach to decision analysis is a a. Logical approach b. Rational approach c. Scientific approach d. All of the above The qualitative approach to decision analysis relies on a. Experience b. Judgement c. Intuition d. All of the above The mathematical model of an LP problem is important because a. It helps in converting the verbal description & numerical data into mathematical expression b. Decision-makers prefer to work with formal models c. It captures the relevant relationship among decision factors d. It enables the use of algebraic technique Linear programming is a a. Constrained optimization technique b. Technique for economic allocation of limited resources c. Mathematical technique d. All of the above A constraint in an LP model restricts a. Value of objective function b. Value of a decision variable c. Use of the available resources d. All of the above The distinguishing feature of an LP model is a. Relationship among all variables is linear b. It has single objective function & constraints c. Value of decision variables is non-negative d. All of the above Constraints in an LP model represents a. Limitations b. Requirements 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. c. Balancing limitations & requirements d. All of the above Non-negativity condition is an important component of LP model because a. Variables value should remain under the control of the decision-maker b. Value of variables make sense & correspond to real-world problems c. Variables are interrelated in terms of limited resources d. None of the above Before formulating a formal LP model, it is better to a. Express each constrain in words b. Express the objective function in words c. Verbally identify decision variables d. All of the above Maximization of objective function in an LP model means a. Value occurs at allowable set of decisions b. Highest value is chosen among allowable decisions c. Neither of above d. Both a & b Which of the following is not a characteristic of the LP model a. Alternative courses of action b. An objective function of maximization type c. Limited amount of resources d. Non-negativity condition on the value of decision variables. The best use of linear programming technique is to find an optimal use of a. Money b. Manpower c. Machine d. All of the above Which of the following is not a characteristic of the LP a. Resources must be limited b. Only one objective function c. Parameters value remains constant during the planning period d. The problem must be of minimization type Non-negativity condition in an LP model implies a. A positive coefficient of variables in objective function b. A positive coefficient of variables in any constraint c. Non-negative value of resources d. None of the above Which of the following is an assumption of an LP model a. Divisibility b. Proportionality c. Additivity d. All of the above 25. Which of the following is a limitation associated with an LP model a. The relationship among decision variables in linear b. No guarantee to get integer valued solutions c. No consideration of effect of time & uncertainty on LP model d. All of the above 26. The graphical method of LP problem uses a. Objective function equation b. Constraint equations c. Linear equations d. All of the above 27. A feasible solution to an LP problem a. Must satisfy all of the problem’s constraints simultaneously b. Need not satisfy all of the constraints, only some of them c. Must be a corner point of the feasible region d. Must optimize the value of the objective function 28. Which of the following statements is true with respect to the optimal solution of an LP problem a. Every LP problem has an optimal solution b. Optimal solution of an LP problem always occurs at an extreme point c. At optimal solution all resources are completely used d. If an optimal solution exists, there will always be at least one at a corner 29. An iso-profit line represents a. An infinite number of solutions all of which yield the same profit b. An infinite number of solution all of which yield the same cost c. An infinite number of optimal solutions d. A boundary of the feasible region 30. If an iso-profit line yielding the optimal solution coincides with a constaint line, then a. The solution is unbounded b. The solution is infeasible c. The constraint which coincides is redundant d. None of the above 31. While plotting constraints on a graph paper, terminal points on both the axes are connected by a straight line because a. The resources are limited in supply b. The objective function as a linear function c. The constraints are linear equations or inequalities d. All of the above 32. A constraint in an LP model becomes redundant because a. Two iso-profit line may be parallel to each other b. The solution is unbounded c. This constraint is not satisfied by the solution values d. None of the above 33. If two constraints do not intersect in the positive quadrant of the graph, then 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. a. The problem is infeasible b. The solution is unbounded c. One of the constraints is redundant d. None of the above Constraints in LP problem are called active if they a. Represent optimal solution b. At optimality do not consume all the available resources c. Both a & b d. None of the above The solution space (region) of an LP problem is unbounded due to a. An incorrect formulation of the LP model b. Objective function is unbounded c. Neither a nor b d. Both a & b While solving a LP model graphically, the area bounded by the constraints is called a. Feasible region b. Infeasible region c. Unbounded solution d. None of the above Alternative solutions exist of an LP model when a. One of the constraints is redundant b. Objective function equation is parallel to one of the constraints c. Two constraints are parallel d. All of the above While solving a LP problem, infeasibility may be removed by a. Adding another constraint b. Adding another variable c. Removing a constraint d. Removing a variable If a non-redundant constraint is removed from an LP problem then a. Feasible region will become larger b. Feasible region will become smaller c. Solution will become infeasible d. None of the above If one of the constraint of an equation in an LP problem has an unbounded solution, then a. Solution to such LP problem must be degenerate b. Feasible region should have a line segment c. Alternative solutions exist d. None of the above The initial solution of a transportation problem can be obtained by applying any known method. However, the only condition is that a. The solution be optimal 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. b. The rim conditions are satisfied c. The solution not be degenerate d. All of the above The dummy source or destination in a transportation problem is added to a. Satisfy rim conditions b. Prevent solution from becoming degenerate c. Ensure that total cost does not exceed a limit d. None of the above The occurrence of degeneracy while solving a transportation problem means that a. Total supply equals total demand b. The solution so obtained is not feasible c. The few allocations become negative d. None of the above An alternative optimal solution to a minimization transportation problem exists whenever opportunity cost corresponding to unused route of transportation is: a. Positive & greater than zero b. Positive with at least one equal to zero c. Negative with at least one equal to zero d. None of the above One disadvantage of using North-West Corner rule to find initial solution to the transportation problem is that a. It is complicated to use b. It does not take into account cost of transportation c. It leads to a degenerate initial solution d. All of the above The solution to a transportation problem with ‘m’ rows (supplies) & ‘n’ columns (destination) is feasible if number of positive allocations are a. m+n b. m*n c. m+n-1 d. m+n+1 If an opportunity cost value is used for an unused cell to test optimality, it should be a. Equal to zero b. Most negative number c. Most positive number d. Any value During an iteration while moving from one solution to the next, degeneracy may occur when a. The closed path indicates a diagonal move b. Two or more occupied cells are on the closed path but neither of them represents a corner of the path. c. Two or more occupied cells on the closed path with minus sign are tied for lowest circled value 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. d. Either of the above The large negative opportunity cost value in an unused cell in a transportation table is chosen to improve the current solution because a. It represents per unit cost reduction b. It represents per unit cost improvement c. It ensure no rim requirement violation d. None of the above The smallest quantity is chosen at the corners of the closed path with negative sign to be assigned at unused cell because a. It improve the total cost b. It does not disturb rim conditions c. It ensure feasible solution d. All of the above When total supply is equal to total demand in a transportation problem, the problem is said to be a. Balanced b. Unbalanced c. Degenerate d. None of the above Which of the following methods is used to verify the optimality of the current solution of the transportation problem a. Least cost method b. Vogel’s approximation method c. Modified distribution method d. All of the above The degeneracy in the transportation problem indicates that a. Dummy allocation(s) needs to be added b. The problem has no feasible solution c. The multiple optimal solution exist d. a & b but not c An assignment problem is considered as a particular case of a transportation problem because a. The number of rows equals columns b. All xij = 0 or 1 c. All rim conditions are 1 d. All of the above An optimal assignment requires that the maximum number of lines that can be drawn through squares with zero opportunity cost be equal to the number of a. Rows or columns b. Rows & columns c. Rows + columns – 1 d. None of the above 56. While solving an assignment problem, an activity is assigned to a resource through a square with zero opportunity cost because the objective is to a. Minimize total cost of assignment b. Reduce the cost of assignment to zero c. Reduce the cost of that particular assignment to zero d. All of the above 57. The method used for solving an assignment problem is called a. Reduced matrix method b. MODI method c. Hungarian method d. None of the above 58. The purpose of a dummy row or column in an assignment problem is to a. Obtain balance between total activities & total resources b. Prevent a solution from becoming degenerate c. Provide a means of representing a dummy problem d. None of the above 59. Maximization assignment problem is transformed into a minimization problem by a. Adding each entry in a column from the maximization value in that column b. Subtracting each entry in a column from the maximum value in that column c. Subtracting each entry in the table from the maximum value in that table d. Any one of the above 60. If there were n workers & n jobs there would be a. n! solutions b. (n-1)! solutions c. (n!)n solutions d. n solutions 61. An assignment problem can be solved by a. Simplex method b. Transportation method c. Both a & b d. None of the above 62. For a salesman who has to visit n cities which of the following are the ways of his tour plan a. n! b. (n+1)! c. (n-1)! d. n 63. The assignment problem a. Requires that only one activity be assigned to each resource b. Is a special case of transportation problem c. Can be used to maximize resources d. All of the above 64. An assignment problem is a special case of transportation problem, where 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. a. Number of rows equals number of columns b. All rim conditions are 1 c. Values of each decision variable is either 0 or 1 d. All of the above Every basic feasible solution of a general assignment problem, having a square pay-off matrix of order, n should have assignments equal to a. 2n+1 b. 2n-1 c. m+n-1 d. m+n To proceed with the MODI algorithm for solving an assignment problem, the number of dummy allocations need to be added are a. n b. 2n c. n-1 d. 2n-1 The Hungarian method for solving an assignment problem can also be used to solve a. A transportation problem b. A travelling salesman problem c. A LP problem d. Both a & b An optimal solution of an assignment problem can be obtained only if a. Each row & column has only one zero element b. Each row & column has at least one zero element c. The data is arrangement in a square matrix d. None of the above Customer behavior in which the customer moves from one queue to another in a multiple channel situation is a. Balking b. Reneging c. Jockeying d. Altering Which of the following characteristics apply to queuing system a. Customer population b. Arrival process c. Both a & b d. Neither a nor b Which of the following is not a key operating characteristics apply to queuing system a. Utilization factor b. Percent idle time c. Average time spent waiting in the system & queue d. None of the above 72. Priority queue discipline may be classified as a. Finite or infinite b. Limited & unlimited c. Pre-emptive or non-pre-emptive d. All of the above 73. The calling population is assumed to be infinite when a. Arrivals are independent of each other b. Capacity of the system is infinite c. Service rate is faster than arrival rate d. All of the above 74. Which of the cost estimates & performance measures are not used for economic analysis of a queuing system a. Cost per server per unit of time b. Cost per unit of time for a customer waiting in the system c. Average number of customers in the system d. Average waiting time of customers in the system 75. A calling population is considered to be infinite when a. All customers arrive at once b. Arrivals are independent of each other c. Arrivals are dependent upon each other d. All of the above 76. The cost of providing service in a queuing system decreases with a. Decreased average waiting time in the queue b. Decreased arrival rate c. Increased arrival rate d. None of the above 77. Service mechanism in a queuing system is characterized by a. Server’s behavior b. Customer’s behavior c. Customers in the system d. All of the above 78. Probabilities of occurrence of any state are a. Collectively exhaustive b. Mutually exclusive c. Representing one of the finite numbers of states of nature in the system d. All of the above 79. In a matrix of transition probability, the probability values should add up to one in each a. Row b. Column c. Diagonal d. All of the above 80. In a matrix of transition probability, the element aij where i=j is a 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. a. Gain b. Loss c. Retention d. None of the above In Markov analysis, state probabilities must a. Sum to one b. Be less than one c. Be greater than one d. None of the above State transition probabilities in the Markov chain should a. Sum to 1 b. Be less than 1 c. Be greater than 1 d. None of the above If a matrix of transition probability is of the order n*n, then the number of equilibrium equations would be a. n b. n-1 c. n+1 d. None of the above In the long run, the state probabilities become 0 & 1 a. In no case b. In same cases c. In all cases d. Cannot say While calculating equilibrium probabilities for a Markov process, it is assumed that a. There is a single absorbing state b. Transition probabilities do not change c. There is a single non-absorbing state d. None of the above The first-order Markov chain is generally used when a. Transition probabilities are fairly stable b. Change in transition probabilities is random c. No sufficient data are available d. All of the above A problem is classified as Markov chain provided a. There are finite number of possible states b. States are collectively exhaustive & mutually exclusive c. Long-run probabilities of being in a particular state will be constant over time d. All of the above The transition matrix elements remain positive from one point to the next. This property is known as: 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. a. Steady-state property b. Equilibrium property c. Regular property d. All of the above Markov analysis is useful for: a. Predicting the state of the system at some future time b. Calculating transition probabilities at some future time c. All of the above d. None of the above Which of the following is not one of the assumptions of Markov analysis: a. There are a limited number of possible states b. A future state can be predicted from the preceding one c. There are limited number of future periods d. All of the above An advantage of simulation as opposed to optimization is that a. Several options of measure of performance can be examined b. Complex real-life problems can be studied c. It is applicable in cases where there is an element of randomness in a system d. All of the above The purpose of using simulation technique is to a. Imitate a real-world situation b. Understand properties & operating characteristics of complex real-life problems c. Reduce the cost of experiment on a model of real situation d. All of the above Which of the following is not the special purpose simulation language a. BASIC b. GPSS c. GASP d. SIMSCRIPT As simulation is not an analytical model, therefore the result of simulation must be viewed as a. Unrealistic b. Exact c. Approximation d. Simplified While assigning random numbers in Monte Carlo simulation, it is a. Not necessary to assign the exact range of random number interval as the probability b. Necessary to develop a cumulative probability distribution c. Necessary to assign the particular appropriate random numbers d. All of the above Analytical results are taken into consideration before a simulation study so as to a. Identify suitable values of the system parameters b. Determine the optimal decision c. Identify suitable values of decision variables for the specific choices of system parameters d. All of the above 97. Biased random sampling is made from among alternatives which have a. Equal probability b. Unequal probability c. Probability which do not sum to 1 d. None of the above 98. Large complicated simulation models are appreciated because a. Their average costs are not well-defined b. It is difficult to create the appropriate events c. They may be expensive to write and use as an experimental device d. All of the above 99. Simulation should not be applied in all cases because it a. Requires considerable talent for model building & extensive computer programming efforts b. Consumes much computer time c. Provides at best approximate solution to problem d. All of the above 100. Simulation is defined as a. A technique that uses computers b. An approach for reproducing the processes by which events by chance & changes are created in a computer c. A procedure for testing & experimenting on models to answer what if ___, then so & so ___ types of questions d. All of the above 101. The general purpose system simulation language a. Requires programme writing b. Does not require programme writing c. Requires predefined coding forms d. Needs a set of equations to describe a system 102. Special simulation languages are useful because they a. Reduce programme preparation time & cost b. Have the capability to generate random variables c. Require no prior programming knowledge d. All of the above 103. Few causes of simulation analysis failure are a. Inadequate level of user participation b. Inappropriate levels of detail c. Incomplete mix of essential skills d. All of the above 104. To make simulation more popular, we need to avoid a. Large cost over runs b. Prolonged delays c. User dissatisfaction with simulation results d. All of the above 105. The important step required for simulation approach in solving a problem is to a. Test & validate the model b. Design the experiment c. Conduct the experiment d. All of the above DECISION SCIENCE - ANSWER KEY 1 a 26 d 51 c 76 d 101 b 2 c 27 a 52 a 77 a 102 d 3 a 28 d 53 c 78 d 103 d 4 d 29 a 54 d 79 a 104 d 5 d 30 d 55 d 80 c 105 d 6 d 31 c 56 a 81 a 7 c 32 d 57 c 82 a 8 c 33 a 58 a 83 a 9 a 34 a 59 c 84 c 10 c 35 c 60 a 85 b 11 d 36 a 61 c 86 a 12 a 37 b 62 c 87 d 13 d 38 c 63 d 88 c 14 d 39 a 64 d 89 c 15 a 40 b 65 b 90 c 16 d 41 b 66 c 91 d 17 b 42 a 67 b 92 d 18 d 43 b 68 d 93 a 19 a 44 b 69 c 94 c 20 b 45 b 70 c 95 b 21 d 46 c 71 d 96 c 22 d 47 b 72 c 97 b 23 d 48 c 73 a 98 c 24 d 49 a 74 d 99 d 25 d 50 c 75 b 100 d