# Chapter 45

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Chapter 45: Nutrition
Fundamentals of Nursing, 9th Edition
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1.A nurse is teaching about the energy needed at rest to maintain life-sustaining activities for a
specific period of time. What is the nurse discussing?
a.
Resting energy expenditure (REE)
b.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
c.
Nutrient density
d.
Nutrients
ANS: B
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the energy needed at rest to maintain life-sustaining activities
for a specific period of time. The resting energy expenditure (REE), or resting metabolic rate, is
the amount of energy an individual needs to consume over a 24-hour period for the body to
maintain all of its internal working activities while at rest. Nutrients are the elements necessary
for body processes and function. Nutrient density is the proportion of essential nutrients to the
number of kilocalories. High–nutrient density foods provide a large number of nutrients in
relation to kilocalories.
2.In general, when a patient’s energy requirements are completely met by kilocalorie (kcal)
intake in food, which assessment finding will the nurse observe?
a.
Weight increases.
b.
Weight decreases.
c.
Weight does not change.
d.
Weight fluctuates daily.
ANS: C
In general, when energy requirements are completely met by kilocalorie (kcal) intake in food,
weight does not change. When kilocalories ingested exceed a person’s energy demands, the
individual gains weight. If kilocalories ingested fail to meet a person’s energy requirement, the
individual loses weight. Fluid, not kilocalories, causes daily weight fluctuations.
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3.A nurse is asked how many kcal per gram fats provided. How should the nurse answer?
a.
3
b.
4
c.
6
d.
9
ANS: D
Fats (lipids) are the most calorie-dense nutrient, providing 9 kcal/g. Carbohydrates and protein
provide 4 kcal/g.
4.A nurse is teaching a patient about proteins that must be obtained through the diet and cannot
be synthesized in the body. Which term used by the patient indicates teaching is successful?
a.
Amino acids
b.
Triglycerides
c.
Dispensable amino acids
d.
Indispensable amino acids
ANS: D
The body does not synthesize indispensable amino acids, so these need to be provided in the diet.
The simplest form of protein is the amino acid. The body synthesizes dispensable amino acids.
Triglycerides are made up of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
5.A nurse is caring for a patient with a postsurgical wound. When planning care, which goal will
be the priority?
a.
Reduce dependent nitrogen balance.
b.
Maintain negative nitrogen balance.
c.
Promote positive nitrogen balance.
d.
Facilitate neutral nitrogen balance.
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ANS: C
When intake of nitrogen is greater than output, the body is in positive nitrogen balance. Positive
nitrogen balance is required for growth, normal pregnancy, maintenance of lean muscle mass and
vital organs, and wound healing. Negative nitrogen balance occurs when the body loses more
nitrogen than the body gains. Neutral nitrogen balance occurs when gain equals loss and is not
optimal for tissue healing. There is no such term as dependent nitrogen balance.
6.In providing diet education for a patient on a low-fat diet, which information is important for
the nurse to share?
a.
Polyunsaturated fats should be less than 7% of the total calories.
b.
Trans fat should be less than 7% of the total calories.
c.
Unsaturated fats are found mostly in animal sources.
d.
Saturated fats are found mostly in animal sources.
ANS: D
Most animal fats have high proportions of saturated fatty acids, whereas vegetable fats have
higher amounts of unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid, an unsaturated fatty
acid, is the only essential fatty acid in humans. Diet recommendations include limiting saturated
fat to less than 7% and trans fat to less than 1%.
7.A patient has a decreased gag reflex, left-sided weakness, and drooling. Which action will the
nurse take when feeding this patient?
a.
Position in semi-Fowler’s.
b.
c.
Place food on left side.
d.
Offer fruit juice.
ANS: B
Have the patient flex the head slightly to a chin-down position to help prevent aspiration. If the
patient has unilateral weakness, teach him or her and the caregiver to place food in the stronger
side of the mouth. Provide a 30-minute rest period before eating and position the patient in an
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upright, seated position in a chair or raise the head of the bed to 90 degrees. Thin liquids such as
water and fruit juice are difficult to control in the mouth and are more easily aspirated.
8.The patient has been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease and placed on a low-fat diet. The
patient asks the nurse, “How much fat should I have? I guess the less fat, the better.” Which
information will the nurse include in the teaching session?
a.
Cholesterol intake needs to be less than 300 mg/day.
b.
Fats have no significance in health and the incidence of disease.
c.
All fats come from external sources so this can be easily controlled.
d. Deficiencies occur when fat intake falls below 10% of daily nutrition.
ANS: D
Deficiency occurs when fat intake falls below 10% of daily nutrition. While keeping cholesterol
below 300 mg is correct according to the American Heart Association, it does not answer the
patient’s question about fat. Various types of fatty acids have significance for health and for the
incidence of disease and are referred to in dietary guidelines. Linoleic acid and arachidonic acid
are important for metabolic processes but are manufactured by the body when linoleic acid is
available from the diet.
9.The nurse is describing the ChooseMyPlate program to a patient. Which statement from the
patient indicates successful learning?
a.
“I can use this to make healthy lifestyle food choices.”
b.
“I can use this to count specific calories of food.”
c.
“I can use this for my baby girl.”
d.
“I can use this when I am sick.”
ANS: A
ChooseMyPlate serves as a basic guide for making food choices for a healthy lifestyle.
The ChooseMyPlate program was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to replace
the MyFoodPyramid program. It helps balance calories but does not provide specific calories of
food. These guidelines are for Americans over the age of 2 years. These guidelines are provided
for health, not sickness.
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10.The nurse is teaching a health class about the ChooseMyPlate program. Which guidelines will
the nurse include in the teaching session?
a.
Balancing sodium and potassium
b.
Decreasing water consumption
c.
Increasing portion size
d.
Balancing calories
ANS: D
The ChooseMyPlate program includes guidelines for balancing calories; decreasing portion size;
increasing healthy foods; increasing water consumption; and decreasing fats, sodium, and sugars.
It does not balance sodium and potassium.
11.The nurse is providing nutrition education to a Korean patient using the five food groups. In
doing so, what should be the focus of the teaching?
a. Discouraging the patient’s ethnic food choices
b. Changing the patient’s diet to a more conventional American diet
c. Including racial and ethnic practices with food preferences of the patient
d. Comparing the patient’s ethnic preferences with American dietary choices
ANS: C
As a nurse, consider the food preferences of patients from different racial and ethnic groups,
vegetarians, and others when planning diets. Initiation of a balanced diet is more important than
conversion to what may be considered an American diet. Ethnic food choices may be just as
nutritious as American choices. Foods should be chosen for their nutritive value and should not
be compared with the American diet.
12.A nurse is teaching a nutrition class about the different daily values. When teaching about the
referenced daily intakes (RDIs), which information should the nurse include?
a.
Have values for protein, vitamins, and minerals
b.
Are based on percentages of fat, cholesterol, and fiber
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c.
Have replaced recommended daily allowances (RDAs)
d.
Are used to develop diets for chronic illnesses requiring 1800 cal/day
ANS: A
The RDIs are the first set, comprising protein, vitamins, and minerals based on the RDA. The
daily reference values (DRVs) make up the second set and consist of nutrients such as total fat,
saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, fiber, sodium, and potassium. Combined, both sets
make up the daily values used on food labels. Daily values did not replace RDAs but provided a
separate, more understandable format for the public. Daily values are based on percentages of a
diet consisting of 2000 kcal/day for adults and children 4 years or older.
13.The nurse is planning care for a group of patients. Which task will the nurse assign to the
nursing assistive personnel?
a.
Measuring capillary blood glucose level
b.
Measuring nasoenteric tube for insertion
c.
Measuring pH in gastrointestinal aspirate
d.
Measuring the patient’s risk for aspiration
ANS: A
The skill of measuring blood glucose level after skin puncture (capillary puncture) can be
delegated to nursing assistive personnel. The other skills cannot be delegated. A nurse must
measure a nasoenteric tube for insertion, pH in gastrointestinal aspirate, and patient’s risk for
aspiration.
14.In teaching mothers-to-be about infant nutrition, which instruction should the nurse provide?
a.
Supplement breast milk with corn syrup.
b.
Give cow’s milk during the first year of life.
c.
Add honey to infant formulas for increased energy.
d.
Provide breast milk or formula for the first 4 to 6 months.
ANS: D
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Breast milk or formula provides sufficient nutrition for the first 4 to 6 months of life. Infants
should not have regular cow’s milk during the first year of life. It is too concentrated for an
infant’s kidneys to manage, increases the risk of milk product allergies, and is a poor source of
iron and vitamins C and E. Furthermore, children under 1 year of age should never ingest honey
and corn syrup products because they are potential sources of the botulism toxin, which increases
the risk of infant death.
15.When planning care for an adolescent who plays sports, which modification should the nurse
include in the care plan?
a.
Increasing carbohydrates to 55% to 60% of total intake
b.
Providing vitamin and mineral supplements
c.
Decreasing protein intake to 0.75 g/kg/day
d.
Limiting water before and after exercise
ANS: A
Sports and regular moderate to intense exercise necessitate dietary modification to meet
increased energy needs for adolescents. Carbohydrates, both simple and complex, are the main
source of energy, providing 55% to 60% of total daily kilocalories. Protein needs increase to 1 to
1.5 g/kg/day. Fat needs do not increase. Adequate hydration is very important. Adolescents need
to ingest water before and after exercise to prevent dehydration, especially in hot, humid
environments. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not required, but intake of iron-rich foods is
required to prevent anemia.
16.In providing prenatal care to a pregnant patient, what does the nurse teach the expectant
mother?
a.
Calcium intake is especially important in the first trimester.
b.
Protein intake needs to decrease to preserve kidney function.
c.
Folic acid is needed to help prevent birth defects and anemia.
d.
Extra vitamins and minerals should be taken as much as possible.
ANS: C
Folic acid intake is particularly important for DNA synthesis and growth of red blood cells.
Inadequate intake may lead to fetal neural tube defects, anencephaly, or maternal megaloblastic
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anemia. Protein intake throughout pregnancy needs to increase to 60 grams daily. Calcium intake
is especially critical in the third trimester, when fetal bones mineralize. Prenatal care usually
includes vitamin and mineral supplementation to ensure daily intakes; however, pregnant women
should not take additional supplements beyond prescribed amounts.
17.The patient is an 80-year-old male who is visiting the clinic today for a routine physical
examination. The patient’s skin turgor is fair, but the patient reports fatigue and weakness. The
skin is warm and dry, pulse rate is 116 beats/min, and urinary sodium level is slightly elevated.
Which instruction should the nurse provide?
a. Drink more water to prevent further dehydration.
b. Drink more calorie-dense fluids to increase caloric intake.
c. Drink more milk and dairy products to decrease the risk of osteoporosis.
d. Drink more grapefruit juice to enhance vitamin C intake and medication absorption.
ANS: A
Thirst sensation diminishes, leading to inadequate fluid intake or dehydration; the patient should
be encouraged to drink more water/fluids. Symptoms of dehydration in older adults include
confusion, weakness, hot dry skin, furrowed tongue, and high urinary sodium. Milk continues to
be an important food for older woman and men, who need adequate calcium to protect against
osteoporosis; the patient’s problem is dehydration, not osteoporosis. Caution older adults to
avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice because these will decrease absorption of many drugs. The
patient needs fluids not calories; drinking calorie-dense fluids is unnecessary.
18.The nurse is assessing a patient for nutritional status. Which action will the nurse take?
a.
Forego the assessment in the presence of chronic disease.
b.
Use the Mini Nutritional Assessment for pediatric patients.
c.
Choose a single objective tool that fits the patient’s condition.
d.
Combine multiple objective measures with subjective measures.
ANS: D
Combine multiple objective measures with subjective measures related to nutrition to adequately
screen for nutritional problems. Using a single objective measure is ineffective in predicting risk
of nutritional problems. Chronic disease and increased metabolic requirements are risk factors
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for the development of nutritional problems; these patients may be in critical need of this
assessment. The Mini Nutritional Assessment is used for screening older adults in home care
programs, nursing homes, and hospitals.
19.The patient has a calculated body mass index (BMI) of 34. How will the nurse classify this
finding?
a.
Normal weight
b.
Underweight
c.
Overweight
d.
Obese
ANS: D
BMI greater than 30 is defined as obesity. BMI between 25 and 30 is classified as overweight.
BMI from 18.5 to 24.9 is normal. BMI under 18.5 is underweight.
20.A nurse is caring for patients with dysphagia. Which patient has neurogenic dysphagia?
a.
A patient with benign peptic stricture
b.
A patient with muscular dystrophy
c.
A patient with myasthenia gravis
d.
A patient with stroke
ANS: D
Stroke is the only cause of dysphagia in this list that is considered neurogenic. Myasthenia gravis
and muscular dystrophy are considered myogenic in origin, whereas benign peptic stricture is
considered obstructive.
21.The patient has H. pylori. Which action should the nurse take?
a.
Encourage avoidance of wheat and oats.
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b.
Encourage milkshakes as a nutritious snack.
c.
Encourage completion of antibiotic therapy.
d.
Encourage nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
ANS: C
H. pylori, a bacterium that causes up to 85% of peptic ulcers, is confirmed by laboratory tests or
a biopsy during endoscopy. Antibiotics treat and control the bacterial infection. Avoidance of
wheat and oats are required for patients with celiac disease who must follow a gluten-free diet.
Encourage patients to avoid foods that increase stomach acidity and pain such as caffeine,
decaffeinated coffee, frequent milk intake, citric acid juices, and certain seasonings (hot chili
peppers, chili powder, black pepper). Discourage smoking, alcohol, aspirin, and nonsteroidal
antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
22.In determining malnourishment in a patient, which assessment finding is consistent with this
disorder?
a.
Moist lips
b.
Pink conjunctivae
c.
Spoon-shaped nails
d.
Not easily plucked hair
ANS: C
Spoon-shaped nails, koilonychia, is an indication of poor nutrition. All the others are normal
findings. Lips should be moist, conjunctivae should be pink, and hair should not be easily
plucked.
23.A nurse is preparing to administer an enteral feeding. In which order will the nurse implement
the steps, starting with the first one?
1. Elevate head of bed to at least 30 degrees.
2. Check for gastric residual volume.
3. Flush tubing with 30 mL of water.
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4. Verify tube placement.
5. Initiate feeding.
a.
4, 2, 1, 5, 3
b.
2, 4, 1, 3, 5
c.
1, 4, 2, 3, 5
d.
2, 1, 4, 5, 3
ANS: C
The steps for an enteral feeding are as follows: Place patient in high-Fowler’s position or elevate
head of bed to at least 30 (preferably 45) degrees; verify tube placement; check for gastric
residual volume; flush tubing with 30 mL of water; and initiate feeding.
24.The patient is admitted with facial trauma, including a broken nose, and has a history of
esophageal reflux and of aspiration pneumonia. With which tube will the nurse most likely
a.
Nasogastric tube
b.
Jejunostomy tube
c.
Nasointestinal tube
d.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube
ANS: B
Patients with gastroparesis or esophageal reflux or with a history of aspiration pneumonia may
require placement of tubes beyond the stomach into the intestine. The jejunostomy tube is the
only tube in the list that is beyond the stomach and is not contraindicated by facial trauma. The
nasogastric tube and the PEG tube are placed in the stomach, and placement could lead to
aspiration. The nasointestinal tube and the nasogastric tube may be contraindicated by facial
trauma and the broken nose.
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25.The nurse is preparing to insert a nasogastric tube in a patient who is semiconscious. To
determine the length of the tube needed to be inserted, how should the nurse measure the tube?
a.
From the tip of the nose to the earlobe
b.
From the tip of the earlobe to the xiphoid process
c.
From the tip of the earlobe to the nose to the xiphoid process
d.
From the tip of the nose to the earlobe to the xiphoid process
ANS: D
Measure distance from the tip of the nose to the earlobe to the xiphoid process of the sternum.
This approximates the distance from the nose to the stomach in 98% of patients. For duodenal or
jejunal placement, an additional 20 to 30 cm is required.
26.Before giving the patient an intermittent gastric tube feeding, what should the nurse do?
a.
Make sure that the tube is secured to the gown with a safety pin.
b.
Inject air into the stomach via the tube and auscultate.
c.
Have the tube feeding at room temperature.
d.
Check to make sure pH is at least 5.
ANS: C
Be sure that the formula is at room temperature. Cold formula causes gastric cramping and
discomfort because the mouth and the esophagus do not warm the liquid. Do not use safety pins.
Safety pins can become unfastened and may cause harm to the patient. Auscultation is no longer
considered a reliable method for verification of tube placement because a tube inadvertently
placed in the lungs, pharynx, or esophagus transmits sound similar to that of air entering the
stomach. Gastric fluid of patient who has fasted for at least 4 hours usually has a pH of 1 to 4,
especially when the patient is not receiving gastric-acid inhibitor.
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27.A small-bore feeding tube is placed. Which technique will the nurse use to best verify tube
placement?
a.
X-ray
b.
pH testing
c.
Auscultation
d.
Aspiration of contents
ANS: A
At present, the most reliable method for verification of placement of small-bore feeding tubes is
x-ray examination. Aspiration of contents and pH testing are not infallible. The nurse would need
a more precise indicator to help differentiate the source of tube feeding aspirate. Auscultation is
no longer considered a reliable method for verification of tube placement because a tube
inadvertently placed in the lungs, pharynx, or esophagus transmits sound similar to that of air
entering the stomach.
28.The nurse is concerned about pulmonary aspiration when providing the patient with an
intermittent tube feeding. Which action is the priority?
a.
Observe the color of gastric contents.
b.
Verify tube placement before feeding.
c.
Add blue food coloring to the enteral formula.
d.
Run the formula over 12 hours to decrease overload.
ANS: B
A major cause of pulmonary aspiration is regurgitation of formula. The nurse needs to verify
tube placement and elevate the head of the bed 30 to 45 degrees during feedings and for 2 hours
afterward. While observing the color of gastric contents is a component, it is not the priority
component; pH is the primary component. The addition of blue food coloring to enteral formula
to assist with detection of aspirate is no longer used. Do not hang formula longer than 4 to 8
hours. Formula becomes a medium for bacterial growth after that length of time.
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29.The patient is to receive multiple medications via the nasogastric tube. The nurse is concerned
that the tube may become clogged. Which action is best for the nurse to take?
a. Instill nonliquid medications without diluting.
b. Irrigate the tube with 60 mL of water after all medications are given.
c. Mix all medications together to decrease the number of administrations.
d. Check with the pharmacy for availability of the liquid forms of medications.
ANS: D
Use liquid medications when available to prevent tube occlusion. Irrigate with 30 mL of water
before and after each medication per tube. Completely dissolve crushed medications in liquid if
liquid medication is not available. Read pharmacological information on compatibility of drugs
and formula before mixing medications.
30.The patient has just started on enteral feedings, and the patient is reporting abdominal
cramping. Which action will the nurse take next?
a.
Slow the rate of tube feeding.
b.
Instill cold formula to “numb” the stomach.
c.
Change the tube feeding to a high-fat formula.
d.
Consult with the health care provider about prokinetic medication.
ANS: A
One possible cause of abdominal cramping is a rapid increase in rate or volume. Lowering the
rate of delivery may increase tolerance. Another possible cause of abdominal cramping is the use
of cold formula. The nurse should warm the formula to room temperature. High-fat formulas are
also a cause of abdominal cramping. Consult with the health care provider regarding prokinetic
medication for increasing gastric motility for delayed gastric emptying.
31.The patient has just been started on an enteral feeding and has developed diarrhea after being
on the feeding for 2 hours. What does the nurse suspect is the most likely cause of the diarrhea?
a.
Antibiotic therapy
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b.
Clostridium difficile
c.
Formula intolerance
d.
Bacterial contamination
ANS: C
Hyperosmolar formulas can cause diarrhea or formula intolerance. If that is the case, the solution
is to lower the rate, dilute the formula, or change to an isotonic formula. Antibiotics destroy
normal intestinal flora and disturb the internal ecology, allowing for Clostridium difficile toxin
buildup. However, this takes time (more than 2 hours), and no indication suggests that this
patient is on antibiotics. Bacterial contamination of the feeding usually occurs when feedings are
left hanging for longer than 8 hours.
32.A patient develops a foodborne disease from Escherichia coli. When taking a health history,
which food item will the nurse most likely find the patient ingested?
a.
Improperly home-canned food
b.
Undercooked ground beef
c.
Soft cheese
d.
Custard
ANS: B
Undercooked ground beef is the usual food source for Escherichia coli. Botulism is associated
with improperly home-canned foods. Soft cheese is the usual food source for listeriosis. Custards
are associated with salmonellosis and Staphylococcus.
33.The nurse is caring for a patient receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Which action will
the nurse take?
a.
Run lipids for no longer than 24 hours.
b. Take down a running bag of TPN after 36 hours.
c.
Clean injection port with alcohol 5 seconds before and after use.
d. Wear a sterile mask when changing the central venous catheter dressing.
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ANS: D
During central venous catheter dressing changes, always use a sterile mask and gloves, and
assess insertion sites for signs and symptoms of infection. To avoid infection, change the TPN
infusion tubing every 24 hours, and do not hang a single container of PN for longer than 24
hours or lipids longer than 12 hours.
34.The patient is having at least 75% of nutritional needs met by enteral feeding, so the health
care provider has ordered the parenteral nutrition (PN) to be discontinued. However, the nurse
notices that the PN infusion has fallen behind. What should the nurse do?
a.
Increase the rate to get the volume caught up before discontinuing.
b.
Stop the infusion as ordered.
c.
d.
Hang 5% dextrose.
ANS: C
Sudden discontinuation of PN can cause hypoglycemia. PN must be tapered off. Usually, 10%
dextrose is infused when PN solution is suddenly discontinued. Too rapid administration of
hypertonic dextrose (PN) can result in an osmotic diuresis and dehydration. If an infusion falls
behind schedule, the nurse should not increase the rate in an attempt to catch up.
35.The patient is on parenteral nutrition and is lethargic. The patient reports thirst and headache
and has had increased urination. Which problem does the nurse prepare to address?
a.
Hyperglycemia
b.
Hypoglycemia
c.
Hypercapnia
d.
Hypocapnia
ANS: A
Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia are thirst, headache, lethargy, and increased urination.
Hypocapnia is not associated with parenteral nutrition. Hypercapnia increases oxygen
consumption and increases CO2 levels. Ventilator-dependent patients are at greatest risk for this.
Hypoglycemia is characterized by diaphoresis, shakiness, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
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36.In providing diabetic teaching for a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which instructions
will the nurse provide to the patient?
a.
Insulin is the only consideration that must be taken into account.
b.
Saturated fat should be limited to less than 7% of total calories.
c.
Nonnutritive sweeteners can be used without restriction.
d.
Cholesterol intake should be greater than 200 mg/day.
ANS: B
The diabetic patient should limit saturated fat to less than 7% of total calories and cholesterol
intake to less than 200 mg/day. Type 1 diabetes requires both insulin and dietary restrictions for
optimal control. Nonnutritive sweeteners can be eaten as long as the recommended daily intake
levels are followed.
37.The patient with cardiovascular disease is receiving dietary instructions from the nurse.
Which information from the patient indicates teaching is successful?
a.
Maintain a prescribed carbohydrate intake.
b.
Eat fish at least 5 times per week.
c.
Limit trans fat to less than 1%.
d.
Avoid high-fiber foods.
ANS: C
American Heart Association guidelines recommend limiting saturated fat to less than
7%, trans fat to less than 1%, and cholesterol to less than 300 mg/day. Diet therapy includes
eating fish at least 2 times per week and eating whole grain high-fiber foods. Maintaining a
prescribed carbohydrate intake is necessary for diabetes mellitus.
38.The nurse is providing home care for a patient diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS). Which dietary intervention will the nurse add to the care plan?
a. Provide small, frequent nutrient-dense meals for maximizing kilocalories.
b. Prepare hot meals because they are more easily tolerated by the patient.
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c. Avoid salty foods and limit liquids to preserve electrolytes.
d. Encourage intake of fatty foods to increase caloric intake.
ANS: A
Small, frequent, nutrient-dense meals that limit fatty foods and overly sweet foods are easier to
tolerate. Restorative care of malnutrition resulting from AIDS focuses on maximizing
kilocalories and nutrients. Patients benefit from eating cold foods and drier or saltier foods with
fluid in between.
39.A patient is on a full liquid diet. Which food item choice by the patient will cause the nurse to
intervene?
a.
Custard
b.
Frozen yogurt
c.
Pureed vegetables
d.
Mashed potatoes and gravy
ANS: D
Mashed potatoes and gravy are on a dysphagia, mechanical soft, soft and regular diet but are not
components of a full liquid diet. The nurse will need to provide teaching on what is allowed on
the diet. Custard, frozen yogurt, and pureed vegetables are all on a full liquid diet.
40.A nurse is caring for a group of patients. Which patient will the nurse see first?
a. Patient receiving total parenteral nutrition of 2-in-1 for 50 hours
b. Patient receiving total parenteral nutrition infusing with same tubing for 26 hours
c. Patient receiving continuous enteral feeding with same feeding bag for 12 hours
d. Patient receiving continuous enteral feeding with same tubing for 24 hours
ANS: B
The nurse should see the patient with total parenteral nutrition that has the same tubing for 26
hours. To prevent infection, change the TPN infusion tubing every 24 hours. Change the
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administration system every 72 hours when infusing a 2-in-1 solution and every 24 hours for a 3in-1 solution. Change bag and use a new administration set every 24 hours for a continuous
enteral feeding. While the patient with the continuous enteral feeding has the same tubing for 24
hours, it has not extended the time like the total parenteral nutrition has.
41.The nurse is preparing to check the gastric aspirate for pH. Which equipment will the nurse
obtain?
a.
10-mL Luer-Lok syringe
b.
Asepto syringe
c.
Sterile gloves
d.
Double gloves
ANS: B
Cone-tipped or Asepto syringe is needed for testing of gastric aspirate for pH; these syringes are
better than a Luer-Lok syringe. Clean gloves are needed, not sterile or double.
MULTIPLE RESPONSE
1.A nurse is teaching a health class about the nutritional requirements throughout the life span.
Which information should the nurse include in the teaching session? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Infants triple weight at 1 year.
b.
Toddlers become picky eaters.
c.
School-age children need to avoid hot dogs and grapes.
d.
Breastfeeding women need an additional 750 kcal/day.
e.
Older adults have altered food flavor from a decrease in taste cells.
ANS: A, B, E
An infant usually doubles birth weight at 4 to 5 months and triples it at 1 year. Toddlers exhibit
strong food preferences and become picky eaters. Older adults often experience a decrease in
taste cells that alters food flavor and may decrease intake. Toddlers need to avoid hot dogs and
grapes, not school-age children. The lactating woman needs 500 kcal/day above the usual
allowance because the production of milk increases energy requirements.
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2.The patient is asking the nurse about the best way to stay healthy. The nurse explains to the
patient which teaching points? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Increase physical activity.
b.
Keep total fat intake to 10% or less.
c.
Maintain body weight in a healthy range.
d.
Choose and prepare foods with little salt.
e.
Increase intake of meat and other high-protein foods.
ANS: A, C, D
Recommendations include maintaining body weight in a healthy range; increasing physical
activity and decreasing sedentary activities; increasing intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grain
products, and fat-free or low-fat milk; eating moderate amount of lean meats, poultry, and eggs;
keeping fat intake between 20% and 35% of total calories, with most fats coming from
polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (most meats contain saturated fatty acids); and
choosing prepared foods with little salt while at the same time eating potassium-rich foods.
3.When assessing patient with nutritional needs, which patients will require follow-up from the
nurse? (Select all that apply.)
a.
A patient with infection taking tetracycline with milk
b.
A patient with irritable bowel syndrome increasing fiber
c.
A patient with diverticulitis following a high-fiber diet daily
d. A patient with an enteral feeding and 500 mL of gastric residual
e.
A patient with dysphagia being referred to a speech-language pathologist
ANS: A, C, D
The nurse should follow up with the tetracycline, diverticulitis, and enteral feeding. Tetracycline
has decreased drug absorption with milk and antacids and has decreased nutrient absorption of
calcium from binding. Nutritional treatment for diverticulitis includes a moderate- or low-residue
diet until the infection subsides. Afterward, prescribing a high-fiber diet for chronic diverticula
problems ensues. A patient with a gastric residual volume of 500 mL needs to have the feeding
withheld and reassessed for tolerance to feedings. All the rest are normal and expected and do
not require follow-up. Patients manage irritable bowel syndrome by increasing fiber, reducing
fat, avoiding large meals, and avoiding lactose or sorbitol-containing foods for susceptible
Prime yourself for your Tests – Study Questions
individuals. Initiate consultation with a speech-language pathologist for swallowing exercises
and techniques to improve swallowing and reduce risk of aspiration for a patient with dysphagia.
4.To honor cultural values of patients from different ethnic/religious groups, which actions
demonstrate culturally sensitive care by the nurse? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Allows fasting on Yom Kippur for a Jewish patient
b.
Allows caffeine drinks for a Mormon patient
c.
Serves no ham products to a Muslim patient
d.
Serves kosher foods to a Christian patient
e.
Serves no meat or fish to a Hindu patient
ANS: A, C, E
The Jewish religion fasts 24 hours on Yom Kippur and must adhere to kosher food preparation
methods. Hinduism requires no meats or fish. Muslims do not eat pork. Mormons do not drink
caffeinated or alcoholic drinks.
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