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Nurhaziyah binti Roskamarozaman (8893)
Norlaila binti Haji Abd Halim (9168)
Nociception involves the 4 processes of transduction, transmission, perception, and
1. Transduction occurs when a stimulus, such as pressure, thermal energy, or chemical
irritation, is converted into a nerve signal or action potential. This occurs at the ends
of sensory nerve cells known as nociceptors whose terminals are sensitive to this type
of activation.
2. Transmission is the process of transferring pain information from the peripheral to the
central nervous system. Signals are transmitted along the axons of nociceptors.
Primary nociceptive sensory nerve fibers, synapse with second-order neurons in the
dorsal horn of the spinal cord. From here, neurons project to the brainstem, thalamus,
and hypothalamus, as well as to reflex arcs to mediate an avoidance response.
3. Pain modulation refers to up or down regulation of pain signals throughout the spinal
cord and the brain. Many of these signals never reach consciousness because they are
dampened by intrinsic modulatory activity within the central nervous system. The
gate control theory, advanced by Melzack and Wall, focused on descending pathways
from the brain to the spinal cord that inhibited pain signaling.The current view is that
signals originating in the brain can both inhibit and facilitate pain signal transmission.
4. Perception of pain is the awareness associated with a specific area of the body. It
depends on the transmission of pain signals through the thalamus to the cortex and
limbic system. At this point in pain processing, perception of the pain experience is
influenced by social and environmental cues, as well as by cultural conditioning and
past personal experiences
Nurhaziyah binti Roskamarozaman (8893)
Norlaila binti Haji Abd Halim (9168)
Collegeum Pharmaceutical (2021). Nociceptive Pain. Retrieved from