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Practice exam Micro

Practice exam Micro
What traits are shared between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Highlight all that apply.
DNA chromosomes
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Cell membrane (though composition may differ)
Membrane-bound organelles
Single orate for DNA
Replication method
Receptor proteins on cell surface
How would you define a bacterium, especially as opposed to a virus?
Match each of the following to their definitions.
1. Acellular pathogens, not alive
2. Frequently haploid eukaryotes like mold
3. Dances like a dad
A Fun Guy
4. Single celled eukaryote, often motile
Archaea differ from Bacteria in their desired environments and the traits that allow them to thrive in
those environments. List and briefly describe both the places Archaea can be found AND what
evolutionary traits might allow them to thrive in those places.
What is the evolutionary importance of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT)?
Of the three methods of HGT, which requires phage - and what role do phage play in the transfer?
How does a strain differ from a cultivar?
Match the following types of cultivars to the traits by which they are differentiated..
1. The hosts they infect
2. Antibody-detected traits
3. Biochemical or physiological traits
4. Cell or colony shape
Draw a generic bacillus shaped bacterium with a flagella, fimbriae, circular DNA inside nucleoid,
ribosomes, and at least one plasmid. Label each of these and make sure you understand the order of cell
membrane - cell wall - capsule.
Fill in the blank the following statements about bacterial shapes.
________ is the comma shape of bacteria, and is similar in size to the shape coccus. If a coccus
aggregates into groups or bundles, it is referred to as ___________. A pair of any shape will have the
prefix _______. A bacteria with the prefix strepto- will be expected to aggregate in a ________
formation. Bacillus refers to the shape resembling a ________. If that rod is irregular or pointed at one
end, it can be called _______. One nice example of this shape is Clostridium.
Chemotaxis occurs in three major steps. Please fill in the blanks about those three steps.
The first step involves a molecule that either repels or attracts the bacteria. An example of one that
attracts is _______, and as such can be referred to as a(n) ___________. One that might repel is a high
concentration of H+, and would be referred to as a(n) _________.
The second step involves a chain reaction which can be generically referred to as a(n) __________
cascade. It ends in methylation of _________, which then leads to the third step accordingly.
The bacterium’s flagella will turn either clockwise, or counterclockwise. If it turns clockwise, it is referred
to as a tumble - counterclockwise is a(n) _______.
Please draw a diagram of the cross section of a peptidoglycan layer. This should include NAM/NAG units
and amino acid chains, and the amino acid used in binding should be labeled.
Demonstrate or describe three major differences between Gram (-) and Gram (+) cell structures.
Describe movement of phospholipids within double-leafed cell membranes.
What is the endosymbiotic hypothesis and how does it relate to eukaryotic organelles?
Passive vs. Active Transport. Match the following.
1. Passive movement down gradient
2. Passive mvt down gradient, but water!
3. Incline of [conc.], pH, or another trait
4. Sln with more water than inside cell
5. Sets off neuronal communication
6. At rest; reaction is complete.
7. Four transmembrane proteins ATP
8. Same [Conc.] inside and outside cell
9. Channel for water movement
Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 10. Sln with less water than inside cell
What is the sequence of events for endospore production?
How does Prokaryotic DNA differ from Eukaryotic DNA?
If you are infected with Tetanus, what symptoms will you experience? In what environments do tetanus
bacteria often infect humans and why are they found there? What will kill you if you do not receive
vaccination and treatment?
Draw the difference in Free Energy exchange in an exergonic and endergonic reaction. Which is hot to
the touch and why?
Fill in the blanks about Endergonic and Exergonic reactions:
Exergonic reactions are _____ to the touch. They are SPONTANEOUS / NOT SPONTANEOUS, and are
usually accomplished by adding _______ to the environment. They are CATABOLIC / ANABOLIC and an
example of an exergonic reaction is ___________.
Endergonic reactions, by contrast, are _________ to the touch. They are SPONTANEOUS / NOT
SPONTANEOUS, and are usually accomplished by adding _______ to the environment. They are
CATABOLIC / ANABOLIC and an example of an endergonic reaction is ___________.
Please fill in the blanks about ATP.
ATP is the energy currency of life. It’s full name is _______________________, and its three major
subunits molecularly speaking are _______________, a ribose molecule, and ______________. When a
phosphate group is removed, the new molecule can serve as a ___________ if in a coupled reaction.
When two phosphate groups are removed, the new molecule is AMP or cAMP in some cases - this
molecule serves as a pretty important _________________ in other reaction systems.
Define the following:
Electrochemical gradient
Aerobic respiration
Activation Energy
REDOX reaction
Electron carriers
Explain the role of each of the following in a given reaction, and how they impact the rate of reaction (if
Enzymatic Inhibitors
Competitive Substrates
Induced fit model of enzyme activity