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Acids and Bases Chemistry

[Company address]
Carvell Maynard
Arrhenius theory by Svante Arrhenius introduced in 1887 states that acids are substances that
dissociate in water yield electrically charged atoms or molecules, called ions (H+). Bases are
ionize in water to yield hydroxide ions (OH-)
Bronsted-Lowry theory also called proton theory of acids and bases introduced in 1923 by
Johannes Nicholas Bronsted and Thomas Martin Lowry states that any compound that can
transfer a proton to any other compound is called an acid.
Properties of salt
Conduct electricity (electrocytes)
Sour taste
Yield hydrogen gas (water soluble)
Reacts with bases to produce a salt compound and water
pH values lesser than 7
The presence of (H+) ions in aqueous solutions of acids give their characteristic properties.
1. Acid react with reactive metals
Acids except nitric acid react with metals above hydrogen to form a salt and hydrogen
2. Acid reacts with bases
Acids react with bases, which are mainly metal hydroxide and metal oxide to form a salt and
3. Acid reacts with metal carbonates and metal hydro carbonate
Acid reacts with metal carbonates and metal hydro carbonate to form salt, carbon dioxide and
Properties of bases
Conduct electricity (electrocytes)
Bitter taste
Indicator (change red litmus to blue)
Feel soapy
pH greater than 7
1. Bases react with acids
Bases react with acids to produce a salt and water
2. Bases react with ammonium salts
When heated, bases react with ammonium salts to produce salt, ammonia and salt.
A pH scale is a measure from 0 to 14 that determines how acid or basic an aqueous solution
is. 0-7 on a pH scale represents acidity of an aqueous solution, with 0 being the lowest and 7
being the strongest. 7-14 on the pH scale represents basicity with 7 being the lowest and 14
being the strongest.
A salt is a substance formed when all the replaceable H+ ions in acids and substituted with
metal ions.
Acid salts still contain some replacable H+ from the acid. The pH is below 7, where as
normal salts contain no replaceable H+ ions. These have a pH of 7 or neutral.
Hydrated salt is an ionic compound in which a number of water molecules are attracted by
ions and therefore enclosed within its crystal lattice.
These are some hydrated salt.
CuSO₄ • 5H₂O
FeSO₄ • 7H₂O
Hydroxides (Base)
Oxides (Base)
Chloride, Bromides & Iodides
Solubility Characteristics
Insoluble except for Na₂, CO₃, K₂CO₃, &
Insoluble except for NaOH & KOH,
Ba(OH)₂ &Ca(OH)₂ are slightly soluble
Insoluble K₂O, Na₂O & CaO react with
water to give corresponding hydroxides
All soluble except fro Ag &Pb salts. PbCl₂
and PbBr₂ are soluble in hot water
All soluble
All soluble except for PbSO₄, BaSO₄, CaSO