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Unit 8 Assignment 1- Coaching for
Performance *Distinction*
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Unit 8: Coaching for Performance
Investigate the skills, knowledge, qualities and best practice of performance coaches
Skills are defined as learned abilities that athletes acquire through training and practice. A person’s
capacity to perform at a high standard effectively and efficiently is also known as skills.
There are three types of skills classification. These are transferable or functional, personal traits or
attitudes and knowledge based.
 Transferable or functional: This is actions that are taken in the act of performing a task or
activity. It is based on ability and talent. Examples include, organisation, promotion, writing
and analysing.
 Personal traits or attitudes: This is traits or personality characteristics that include
performing work. This is developed form childhood and life experiences. Examples include,
patience, being results orientated, independence and being diplomatic.
 Knowledge-based: This is knowledge about specific subjects, course of action and
information necessary to perform tasks.
Skill is a player’s capability to choose and perform the right techniques at the right time. This is when
it is done regularly, successfully and with a minimum of effort. Athletes use their skill to active
athletic objectives. For example, passing the ball in American football. Passing relies on the basic
sport skill of throwing. Passing requires accuracy as the player receiving the ball may have opposing
players near trying to block or intercept the ball.
Organisation of session
Organisation of skills need to be highly exhibited by a coach as it encourages participants to perform
to their highest and shows high levels of organisation. Participants maintain interest as they are
constantly working as the session has been planned with clear parts and exercises to help with
sessions. This means the coach can think of things such as.
 Warmup’s- They need to know how long and intense the warmup needs to be to be able to
accompany the main exercise periods
 Main activity- The main activity needs to be to the strength of every player, so everyone
feels included. They also need to include health and safety rules to ensure that everyone in
safe including themselves. This may be using softer balls in a game of dodgeball.
 Resting periods- There participants need time to reenergise. This also stops boredom and
A fully organised and fully prepared session should make certain
Know the equipment's that are going to be used to stop detaining of the session and that
the equipment's are not going to be of risk to anyone.
Have clear methods of starting and stopping the sessions effectively. This should be clearly
discussed with the participants beforehand. For example, blowing or whistle, hand signalling
for gathering or allowing participants to pick their own team members or picking team
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The facility where the session is to take place. For example, if a game of badminton is to be
played, the session should not be held in the gym, and if a gym session is to be has, the
session should not be held on the astro turf.
Rapport building
Rapport building is defined as the development of mutual trust, friendship or resemblance with
someone. This can be beneficial to a sports leader as it helps establish good interpersonal
relationships and allows effective worship between coaches and participants, productivity and
teamwork. A rapport building is achieved when athletes feel comfortable and can still be challenged
and have a strong strength between both individuals. For example, a coach can turn up early for a
yoga session planned with their participants and set up equipment's. This builds trust as the coach
ids able to turn up on time and set up the right equipment.
A perfect coach who manifests this is Coach John Calipari. He is a basketball coach and the head of
University of Kentucky men’s team who won the NCAA Championship. According to him, trust is very
important between a coach and an athlete. This is through techniques such as, never promising in
the recruiting process and aiming at under-selling and over-delivering. As it is key to remember that
the athletes their trust the coach is also at stake. He believes it is important to create a family
atmosphere with the team where the players know that everyone on the team is there for each
other. This builds unity and chemistry over time.
This has led him to a 305-71 record at Kentucky and an official lifetime record of 708-209. He has led
his teams to the NCAA tournament 20 times in 27 seasons, with four official Final Fours and one title.
Communication is interpreted as the simple act of transferring information from one place, person
or group to another. Better communication from coaches will result in positive impact on athlete's
performance. Good communication skills also stimulate effectively a successful environment. There
are three main forms of communication used by coaches and those are,
Verbal communication
Non-Verbal communication
Listening skills
Verbal communication: This is important as it keeps language simple and free from technical
and composite slang. The use of these can be viewed as unprofessional and pretentious but
can also be viewed positively as relation to students or participants. A coach should make
sure information been given by them is correct and appropriate. Unappropriated or
misinformation encourage substandard demeanour form participants and may impact
learning. For example, if a teacher constantly swears in a class, they are more likely to lose
respect from students.
Verbal communication is also having the attention of the person/people they are speaking to.
After a coach has provided information, they should check that participants understand
what has been said and observe the performance of the athletes.
 Non-Verbal communication: This is how communication such as facial expressions, gesture,
eye contact, posture, hand signals and tone of voice are used as imparting with others. An
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athlete will have the ability to tell or read positive and negative body language and this will
convey the coach's mood. Hand signals are commonly used by coaches as it directs or
provide instructions during training and competitions. For example, a coach flicks their
fingers inwards towards the palm signalling for a player to move upwards to the correct
position. This is in support of correction of the player but also increase the chance of team
support and winning. Facial expression is also most used. This is used as an indication of
either positive or negative conduct. For example, in a high school basketball game, a player
retaliates as a result to missing a shot and talks back to the referee. The coach shows a
negative facial expression to inform the player to stop.
 Listening skills: As well as communicating information, a coach should receive information
and feedback as a form of self-reflection. For improvement of listening skills, a coach should:
 Make eye contact with the speaker
 Avoid interrupting the speaker
 Ask questions or summarise what has been said to confirm understanding
 Concentrate on the speaker
Also showing listening skills shows respect for others, greater clarity and better relationships.
Diplomacy is the ability to manage others, the importance to coaches employs the skill by bringing
together and ensuring a range of personalities can come together within a group. At certain
times, sports athletes can be difficult to communicate with, possibly due to injury, loss of form,
or a loss of a competitive situation. During these, a sports coach can use diplomacy skills as a
form of communicating key messages to the athletes in a placate way. The coach must exude
appropriate messages to help the athletes improve their condition or performances, sometimes
giving them feedback.
Being diplomatic is to understand that everyone has a different perspective or take on any given
task. Sports diplomacy is a fundamental part of efforts to build ever-reinforcing relations
between two people. This is either between coaches and their athletes or between team
It is important that a coach motivates their athletes. A coach must be a source of main motivator to
help in success and achievement. This can be done in many ways as giving encouragement,
rewards and improving on weaknesses together. Enjoyment is critical when motivating sports
performers and abilities. A coach needs to sufficiently plan for progressive and challenging
practices to ensure they maintain their participants’ motivation for their sports performers.
Coaches can boost prerogative in their athletes by encouraging self-monitoring, performance
reflection, and honest reflection of physical and emotional well-being. An athlete’s motivation
plays a great role in performance and discern.
There are two different types of motivation which a coach can use to motivate the athletes. These
 Intrinsic
 Extrinsic
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Intrinsic- This is encouraged by internal factors such as pleasure and amusement. A coach
can use intrinsic motivation to support an athlete by making certain that practical sessions
performed are liked and changeable. The coach must make sure that participants can
achieve prosperity and develop personal skills, as well as ensuring appropriate stimulating,
and set sessions to a level appropriate for both the coach and athletes. This to allow the
coach to be encaging and to teach how to correctly perform certain tasks. For example,
teaching a youth class the accurate way of serving a shuttlecock in badminton. However, as a
youth team this will need to be measured. The coach needs to be aware of practices that will
disrupt health and safety measures. They need to never turn to watch a swing shot played
by your teammate in a doubles game or keep the racket up high near the upper part of their
body for protection.
The use of intrinsic motivation by a coach is most successful when athletes practice competence
and success due to their own actions and skills.
Extrinsic- This is promoted by external factors such as praise, acceptance and rewards. This
type of motivation is most common within young adults. For example, a student joins the
after-school football team just because his friends participate in it and he simply want to be
closer to them. This may subdue his performance as he is not really interested in
A coach may use palpable or impalpable rewards to motivate the participants. Palpable rewards
are things that can be physically given to someone. This can be something like medals, trophies
or money whereas impalpable rewards are non-physical things such as praise or
encouragement. A person's extrinsic motivation can also come from friends, coaches or anyone
with a high statue. Extrinsic motivated athletes inclined to focus on the performance or
competitive outcome.
Extrinsic motivation can also be viewed negatively as although it can produce short-term results,
it can be weak can be damaging in the long-term.
Knowledge is congenital and restricted. This is the sense that it is it is a naturally occurring talent
that needs to be stimulated and promote learning. It can be used and combined in different
ways in the hope to perform a certain task or activity.
Knowledge of correct technical and tactical performance models for selected sports
Technical performances are defined as the particular procedure of movement to execute an
action by the body. For example, in a sport like basketball there is dribbling, passing and
shooting. Whereas tactical performance is when decisions and actions obtain advantage during a
game. In basketball, this is done in notion of obtaining points over the opposing team. Some
tactical deliberation are types of defence, offensive schemes or plays and deciding whom to
guard on a fast break.
A coach should have an exhaustive understanding of the sports they are coaching or teaching.
This is important because it shows confidence as they can teach athletes correct technical
performance through models. It also helps deciding suitable activities need for development of
skills and performance for athletes. Using model as a way of teaching encourages inclusion of
every participants as most people learn from watching. This means they need to have Associate
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Certified Coach, Master Certified Coach and the Professional Certified Coach as a National
Governing Body. A National Governing Body is needed by a coach as it enables them to be
responsible for managing a specific sport, from rules to league tables of the game.
The coach may have gained knowledge through history if participation but may have to confer in
others or resources to have a higher comprehension of the correct technical performance
models. For example, in football some technical demands include,
 When defending: Restricting time and space, challenging and recovering, defending set plays
(corners, throw-ins)
 When attacking: Creating space, passing and movement and attacking set plays.
The coach should have a complete understanding of the exercises and operations to apply when
coaching athlete's different skills and tactics. While learning skills and techniques, participants
require progressive challenges. These challenges need to be focused on a complete or whole
experience of skills and techniques or can be broken into smaller parts for detailed understanding.
Techniques are the building blocks for skilled performance and are the most systematic way of
defeating a physical task or problem within the rules of sport.
A good example of this is Martina Hingis. She is a Swiss former professional tennis player. She won
three consecutive championships at the Australian Open and one a Wimbledon and the US open. As
a former athlete, she can teach her students tactical performance skills such as bringing the
opponent to the near as well as hitting the ball to the opponent’s weakness.
Knowledge of a range of sports activities to challenge and develop performance
A coach should have a range of activities they can use when coaching. Doing this is important to
prolong attentiveness and motivation. It also authorizes a coach to develop programmes most
fitting to the athlete's individually and progress. They players need to endure the appropriately
challenged pace needed for progression.
The coach may have specific pursuits that focus on distinct techniques. For example, a football
coach may use isolated practices to further develop the technique of a long-loafed pass. Another
example is a coach teaching athlete the correct period to serve different types of shots in
badminton. A drive shot should be used during periods when the opposing player is distracted.
The power and flatness behind the shuttlecock will catch the opposing player quickly stopping
them from reacting. Whereas if the swing shot is used, they may be able to react as it is high and
should be used when the player is closer to the net and will not be able to hit the shuttlecock in
time. This is to challenge the athlete as they always need to be focused on the game to be able
to know the right time to hitting the different types of shots further developing their
performance as they are more likely to earn points.
It is also important to have knowledge of range of sport activities as many skulls and techniques
transfer from one sport to another and complement each other while continuing to develop and
build upon pre-existing skills. It is also beneficial for participants as they develop their skills
across different sports and activities, they are likely to find that their performance in other
sports will increase. For example, skills in hockey and gold overlay. They both require stability
and comfortable play from a stationary base. Another example is, both baseball and football
involve running. In baseball, the player is supposed to run around the bases and after all the
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balls that have been hit when the player switch positions into defence. Also, in football the
player is supposed to run up and down the field and pass the ball back and forth in the attempt
of scoring. The coach is to presume activities to help develop mental skills that will guide during
exercises and games. Playing multiple sports can build solving, teamwork, communication and
responsibility. For example, a player who is a star on the netball field might find it beneficial to
play in a different role in basketball. As they are required into using different skills and
Knowledge of a range of sports adaptations to challenge and develop performance
A coach must have the ability to adapt their sessions appropriately in order appropriately
challenge participants. They need to be entertained for the period of the session. The adaptions
that can be made relate to:
♦ Space- The space in which a session takes place can affect the productivity of participants.
The coach can expand or reduce the amount of space available to challenge participants in
different ways. For example, if the amount of space is large in dodgeball, the players will
need to intense their accuracy and throwing skills.
♦ Time- Time restrictions could be used to further challenge the participants. For example, if a
task has been set to a specific time for completion, all participants are more likely to join.
This means that their teamwork sills have been challenged.
♦ Equipment- Different equipment's can be introduced to challenge athlete or highlight
problem areas that need addressing. This also means using basic equipment's for beginners
to help with settlement in the sport.
♦ Pace: The speed with which drills are presented can be modified to manifest new challenges.
♦ People- It has to do with the size of the group and their roles in that particular sport. The
size of the group could change to make practices either harder or easier. Or give performers
different roles in a session.
Knowledge allows a coach to improve the participant’s tactical ability to organize and acquire the
best for the team. Having knowledge of sports enables them to rigorously point out athlete's
disadvantages areas in need of improvement. They then implement the obligatory action which can
improve and challenge them.
For an athlete, repeated drills are important as the habit of competition is practiced. The athlete is
more likely to get used to the habit of completion if they are constantly in practice of it. The coach
must know how to run productive practices and the right adjustments needed to improve athletes in
game situations.
Planning for changing conditions
A coach should be prepared for every occurrence. This is known as contingency planning. A
contingency plan is a backup plan as events may change or not go to plan and may affect
SMARTER targets. When doing this it is important to:
♦ Consider barriers for everything that may go wrong or will not work efficiently as originally
planned. This is mostly to do with location or facility, weather, equipment’s and athletes. For
example, if a game of football has been planned to be played on outdoor field, it is also
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important to reserve an indoor field for when the weather is not fitting for a game to be
played outside.
♦ Do everything possible to ensure that barriers not going to be created. The coach needs to
check all equipment's, the availability of the facility, the number of participants and the
specific needs of the participants beforehand the event is to start.
♦ The coach should have an alternate plan which is shared with the participants. They also
need to be prepared in case something is to go wrong.
For example, a coach must have different activities as they need to consider possible changing
conditions. A golf coach may have different activities to use in different weather conditions; shot
selections for golfers change with weather conditions.
Planning for change in particularly applies to disability where conversion will be more suitable for all
participants involved. They are applied so that participation in activities or development can happen
effectively. For example, lowering the height of the basketball stand in2 basketball so everyone has a
chance of getting points or scoring. Rules also need be set for all players to be involved like everyone
getting a touch on the ball before it’s shot into the hoop.
Planning for progression
Effective planning needs to be demonstrated by coaches as it involves cautiously and intentionally
putting together particular things that athletes need to learn and need to know for improvement
and progression. These palms should be built on previous achievements to promote learning. For
example, if a player in football already knows how to kick, in ordered for progression, they need to
be taught how to be precise while kicking the ball.
Progression starts slowly and moderately increase the amount of exercise and keep overloading. The
principals of progression indicate increasing of overload, which can be improved by using FITT.
 F- frequency
 I- intensity
 T- time
 T- type
This is when the body adapts to its current routine. It is important for a coach to consider challenge
that each performer needs and how the session planned is going to challenge each person’s
progress. To be able to do this, the coach must have good comprehension of the athlete's and the
ability of how to effectively examine the athlete's performance. When planning for progression, it is
important of a coach to set appropriate goals that targets each individual's targeted area.
Progression is mostly delineated over a prolonged time. A coach may plan for progression over a
series of session rather than in a single session. The concept of planning multiple sessions is known
as ‘programme planning’. For example, an athlete who only exercises strenuously on the weekends
and not as much as the weekdays will not see solid results as they do not exercise regularly. This
means they desecrates the principle of progression and in this situation, the overload process is
gone too slowly.
Maintaining safety in changing conditions
A coach must ensure that the health and safety between participants are sustained and supported. A
session may start off in a safe environment in the beginning, but it may change towards the end.
The coach should be prepared to end sessions if an athlete becomes injured or infected. On the
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other hand, they should be able to modify the session as the states change. Sporting activities
involve the component of risk since it’s competitive and fast paced. Risks are usually categorised
 Low- No or minimal risk of injury
 Medium- Some risk of injury
 High- High risk of injury
If the risk is anything higher than low, the coach must act to abolish the hazard. They should add
precautions or accept levels by reviewing. There are two types of risk that can cause injuries:
♦ Extrinsic risks- Something outside the body that may cause an injury. Example, slippery
floors or bad weathers.
♦ Intrinsic risks- This is a physical aspect of the body that causes injury. Examples are not
eating enough before training or taking part of an activity while having an injury.
This means the coach needs to prioritise warm up and cool downs. Unproductive warm-ups can put
athletes at risk as they are more prone to injuries such as hamstring and muscle strains. Doing all
this will increase muscle temperature and blood temperature and increase range of movement
from everyone. It is also important to maintain safety with rest and recovery periods. Rest and
recovery periods ensure that participants are getting enough rest for continuation. This will
avoid hackneyed injuries such as Achilles' tendinitis and tennis elbow. This means athletes can
perform to the highest of their abilities.
When conditions such as facilities are changes, it is important to ensure that equipment work and
will be safely used in the new environment. For example, hard balls should be exchanged with
softer ones when games are being played outside. This is to avoid causing major injuries to nonparticipants who are hit the ball. The coach should also ensure that risk assessments are carried.
Potential hazard risks should be identified ahead of the sessions like water on the field.
Thoroughly complying with all these means they are following all the relevant health and safety
legislation like the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974).
Personal coaching ability
My personal coach ability is stunted and needs to be improved. There are certain areas that needs to
be facilitated to explore the needs of the participants I am coaching. I should have the ability to
comfortably provide feedback, work with players of all levels and have developed skills which
allows me to assess the performance of players and adapt our practice based on the needs of
the participants.
My session was a 30-minute game of badminton. With the age of the participants ranging from 16 to
Strengths: I believe I lacked strength in the session I did because I failed to convey most attributes of
a successful leader.
 I believe I was successful in planning. This means there were several activities for the
performers to complete in the required amount of time. This kept them interested in the
session and interactive throughout the session. I also succeeded in the organisation of
equipment's. This means I was prepared for the session and ready to go.
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Communication: Positive attributes exhibited throughout the session is the ability to speak
specifically and personally, instead of generally and abstractly. The ability to display this
shows relatability to the participants and allowed specific problems to be targeted and
solved. However, this can also be viewed as a weakness as it is not an inclusion of every
individual which led to boredom and distractions. The session was also delayed as speaking
specifically and personal was time consuming.
Other positive communication skills demonstrated is in a non-verbal form. This increased intimacy
with participants and was most useful during the warm-up session. The warm-up session was a
quick ball passing activity amongst participants and non-verbal communication was used when
pointing or nodding to specific areas where the ball needed to be passed to. This is a benefit as
the warm-up was rapid and effective.
Organisation: Organisational skills were present throughout and before the session as it is
needed. A session plan was completed to give an overall idea of what had to be completed
during specific times. However, this was impacted as certain participants were absent. The
use of sudden organisational skills was effective as there was a general idea of how the
session was meant to play out and a good skill needed by a coach. This is a positive as it
promoted a working environment.
 Observant: I lacked this quality due to the absence of confidence and resulted to some
unengaging participants. It is a negative quality by a coach. An example of being observant in
a main badminton session is observing the position in which the shuttlecock is held and
correcting it allowing ethics to be implied as a coach. ‘Hold the head of the shuttlecock with
its head facing downwards so that the shuttlecock will drop straight down.’
Another example is the different types of serves and passes. 'A low serve allows flexibility because
either forehand or backhand can be used. It also allows the shuttlecock to float just over the top of
the net. Whereas as a high serve drives the shuttlecock deep into the opponent's court.’ Participants
will be taught the correct way of holding the shuttlecock and playing the game as well as informing
the participants about the different serves needed also highlighting knowledgeable qualities.
However, the lack of observing was beneficial as the traits of a democratic leader was portrayed.
This was effective because it allowed participants to input their ideas and tailor the session to fit
their interests. This further led to the relations to the participants being intensified.
Patient: A successful coach must have patience to handle a stressful session or game,
progression of participants and different attitudes. Patience was portrayed at the beginning
of the session as I waited for the participants to get prepared. Patience helps in making
better decisions.
 Having knowledge about my session allowed improvement from participants as well as
development of tactical abilities. Being able to pinpoint the areas an athlete or team need to
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improve and implement the necessary course of action is also an essential part of being a
coach. Knowledge was portrayed throughout the session but was highlighted in the main
game as the correct skill improvement game was chosen to be played before the main
session was to begin. A coach should have knowledge of the correct and fitting warm-up
game as it enables increased speed of contraction and relaxation of warmed muscles as well
as a greater economy of movement because of lowered viscous resistance within warmed
muscles avoiding any health and safety precautions.
Future personal development:
I believe I have several areas to improve. Some such as communication, confidence, activity
structure, leadership style and humour. I need to be confident to control the session and keep it
interesting as well as incorporate all leadership styles such as democratic and autocratic.
Implying these would have been in the favour of all participants as there would have be an
opportunity for input from others and promotion of work. This will improve the demeanour of
the performers as well as improve the session overall. A suggested recommendation for an
improvement is the NHS help for self-esteem. Psychological therapies such as counselling or
cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is offered. Other cost-efficient options are joining social
groups such as a football team. A future development of the badminton session will a warm-up
game of bulldog to evidently show confidence.
Activity structure also needs to be improved. A good and effective coach needs to know how long an
in-game session is going to last for. In my warmup (throwing tennis balls), it lasted for 7 minutes
instead of 5. This destroys the structure of the session and lengthens the session leading to cool
down periods and the main game being shortened.
A justified recommendation for improvement is receiving and implying feedbacks given for future
development of sessions. ‘Constantly hitting the net with the shuttlecock’ can be an example of
a comment given by a participant which can be viewed as feedback. An example of a personal
future development for reflecting on this comment is learning about the different types of nets
used. ‘A standard badminton net should be 5 feet 1 inch in height and 17 feet in length for
singles and 20 feet in length for doubles ‘.
My leadership skills were poor as I failed in demonstrating basic practices such as the peering of the
players due to the lack of confidence. An example of where my leadership skills could have been
used in my session is in the skill practice. During the skill practice game of throwing and catching
of different balls (handballs, footballs and tennis ball), leadership skills could have used in terms
of choosing a captain for the game and telling the participants the rules. As a democratic leader,
participants were given the chance of making decisions for improvement of the session.
However, this had a negative impact as I had minimal to no control of the session and the
players and the lowest amount of productivity were demonstrated.
I need to improve on my leadership style. This means I need to specifically know how to approach
different tasks. Recommendations for future developments included online courses such as the
NHS leadership academy program and Oxford Executive leadership program.
My communication skills need to be improved to take control the session. Examples such as calling
the group together to assign the next activity will evidently increase progression of the session
and will inform the players about upcoming programs. Communication skills can be improved
with cost efficient online courses and NHS England communication courses for future
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