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CLMD4A HairdressingG8 9

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This module was carefully examined and revised in accordance with the
standards prescribed by the DepEd Region 4A and Curriculum and Learning
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The Editors
Technology and
Hairdressing I
S. Zape, Jr.,
Jhonathan S. Cadavido, Romyr L. Lazo, Fe M. Ong-Ongowan, Lhovie A. Cauilan, Eugene Ray F. Santos and Philips T. Monterola
Team: Job
Schools Division Office Management Team: Rolando D. Calimag, Jaison E. Masendo,
Nhorivie Jeanne C. Aseniero, Cheerie E. Regalado and Alma Francisca A. Serafica
Technology and Livelihood Education (Hairdressing I)—Grade 8/9
PIVOT IV-A Learner’s Material
Quarter 1
First Edition, 2020
Published by: Department of Education Region IV-A CALABARZON
Regional Director: Wilfredo E. Cabral
Assistant Regional Director: Ruth L. Fuentes
Understanding Hair and Scalp Treatment
In this lesson, you will learn how to appreciate the benefits of scalp and
hair treatment, analyze scalp and hair structure, and distinguish diseases and
disorders of scalp and hair.
More so, you will be able to study how to observe safety precautions and
sanitation while at work and explain the different types of shampoo and conditioner.
Benefits of Scalp and Hair Treatment
People who experience itchy and dry scalp may ask for a scalp treatment
from any salon This service provides a wonderful feeling, and it corrects the oil
production in the scalp to encourage healthy hair growth. Scalp treatment can be
done for people with oily scalp or those with dry flaky patches. Having a healthy
scalp is necessary to have healthy hair.
Professional hair and scalp treatment are effective to address multiple
problems of the scalp and degrading hair quality including hair loss. This treatment works by tracking the issues from the roots and revitalizing the follicles.
Here are some of the benefits of hair and scalp treatment.
Human scalp hair is a bio-synthesized material that has a complex internal
structure. Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the center of the hair surrounded by the cortex,
which contains the major part of the fiber mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of
dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair.
A hair and scalp analysis allow us to see the state of your scalp up close. A
magnified scope is used to assess the condition of your skin, the density of your
hair and view your hair follicles. The findings will help to guide in a solution specific for hair problem, such as hair loss.
The following are a few important terminologies in hairdressing:
• hair density- is the number of individual strands per square inch on
your scalp.
• keratin- is the type of protein that makes up your hair, a protective protein; the structural building block of your hair.
• hair thickness- hair is measured on its diameter; it is divided as thin
hair in 0.05~0.07mm, normal hair in 008~0.09mm, thick hair called terminal hair in 0.1~0.15mm.
• porosity- the ability of the hair to absorb moisture
• elasticity- the strength of the hair and its ability to return to its original
state without breaking
Diseases and Disorders of Scalp and Hair
1. Seborrheic Dermatitis. Dandruff is a mild form of seborrheic dermatitis. In more
severe cases, a reddening of the scalp and a lot of oil happen. There may also see
reddish, greasy crusty scales between your eyebrows, and around your nose and
2. Cradle Cap. This form of seborrheic dermatitis affects infants, typically in the first
6 months. It causes greasy, yellowish scales or crusts on the scalp. Although it may
frighten parents, cradle cap is not a sign of a more serious infection, and it will usually clear up by the baby's first birthday.
3. Head Lice. Lice are an unpleasant but all-too-common part of childhood. Lice are
wingless insects about the size of a sesame seed. They feed on blood, and the females
lay their eggs on the hair close to the scalp.
4. Ringworm. It's an infection that leaves round, scaly, red rashes and patches
of hair loss on the scalp. Ringworm is most common in children between the ages of
3 and 7, but it can affect adults, too. It’s spread through close contact or by sharing
hats, clothing, towels, and combs. In rare cases, it's possible to catch ringworm from
a dog or cat.
5. Folliculitis. Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicle, the sac
that contains the root of the hair. It's usually caused by bacteria (usually staphylococcus) that find their way into the hair follicles from a nearby infection. The follicles
also can be irritated from shaving, makeup, or clothing. Some people
get folliculitis after taking a dip in a hot tub.
6. Psoriasis. This skin condition can show up anywhere, but often happens on the
scalp. It causes the body to make too many new skin cells. This buildup can form
thick, crusted scales that can feel itchy or sore.
7. Lichen Planus. Lichen planus affects the skin or mouth. Doctors believe lichen
planus is an autoimmune disease, which means your immune system attacks your
own body by mistake. People who have lichen planus develop flat-topped, purple, or
reddish bumps on their skin. And they usually itch. Other symptoms include redness, irritation, and (sometimes permanent) hair loss.
Safety Precautions and Sanitation
Health and safety must be a priority in your beauty salon. It’s vital to protect your staff and clients, operate within the law and be insured against potentially expensive legal action should something go wrong.
A. Carry out a risk assessment. Make a list of anything that could cause injury
or harm in your work place, and set out the steps you have taken.
• Contact with water, detergents or massage oil that irritate the skin.
• An allergic response to chemicals; this can take a while to develop.
B. Musculoskeletal problems. Staff may experience strains, sprains and general
pain due to doing physically repetitive work that involves a lot of standing and
C. Create a health and safety policy. Health safety protocols should always be
imposed. An allergy alert testing must be carried out allergy alert tests at least
48 hours before applying hair colour or eyebrow/eyelash tints.
D. Treatments and health safety. Always follow manufacturers’ instructions and
make sure the client is old enough to have the treatment or therapy and does
not have any medical condition which would put them at risk.
Dealing with hazardous products
• Ensure that you are knowledgeable enough on how to use and dispose
them safely.
• Always store hazardous substances in their original containers, away
from direct sunlight and preferably in a locked cupboard.
• Make sure you know which substances should not be poured down the
Keeping the Workplace and Equipment Safe
• The workplace should be adequately ventilated.
• Gas and electricity appliances should be regularly checked.
• Measures should be taken to avoid slips, trips and falls.
• Guard against legionella by checking your water on a regular basis. Specialist checks are required for spa operators.
• There must have a smoke detectors, fire extinguishers, a clear evacuation
Learning Task 1: Place the descriptions inside the box in the column that best
match the types of scalp. Do this in your notebook.
susceptible to breakage
hair limp and lank
Normal scalp
greasy hair
good looking
manageable hair
Oily scalp
Dry scalp
Learning Task 2: Study the given factors and indicate the needed details to analyze the hair, and continue the statement. Write your answers in your notebook.
1. scalp status : ______________________________________________________________
2. hair density : ______________________________________________________________
3. hair thickness : ___________________________________________________________
4. porosity : __________________________________________________________________
5. elasticity : _________________________________________________________________
Learning Task 3: Match the skin problems in column A with it’s descriptions in
column B.
Column A
Column A
Ring Worm
Cradle Cap
Lichen Planus
a. It develops flat topped, purple or
reddish bumps on the skin.
b. It can form thick, crusted scales
that can feel itchy or sore.
c. It is an inflammation or infection of
the hair follicle.
d. It is an infection that leaves round,
scaly, red rashes and patches of
hair loss on the scalp.
e. It cause greasy, yellowish scales or
crusts on the scalp.
f. It is a wingless insects about the size
of a sesame seed.
Learning Task 4: Explain in a short sentence on what can you do if you experience the following situations. Do this in your notebook.
1. You notice a large amount of hair in the drain after taking a bath.
2. You are experiencing an itchy and flaky patch on the scalp.
3. Your parents want to regrow hair in his scalp.
Learning Task 5: Answer the following questions in your notebook. Provide clear
situational examples.
1. How will you deal with the hazardous product in the workplace area?
2. What you should remember when applying treatment to the clients?
3. How will you keep the workplace and equipment safe?
4. What should you do first before applying hair color?
5. How will you reduce the risk of musculoskeletal problems?
Learning Task 6: Read and complete the following clauses into meaningful statements. Write your answers in your notebook.
It is important to observe safety rules in the salon because
A safe work environment with adequate safeguards promotes an
In this lesson, I learn that ___________________________________________
I understand and realize that _________________________________________
Understanding Appropriate Salon Procedures
In this lesson, you will study how to assist client in accordance with salon
procedures. In addition, you will learn the ways of providing appropriate clothing
according to the desired type of service and size and built of the client. After the
lesson, you will be able to advise client to remove all jewelry and accessories.
What is a Hairdressing Salon?
A hairdressing salon is a business that focuses on cutting, coloring and
styling customers’ hair.
Most hairdressing salons have a reception desk and a waiting area near the
front door. The more upscale, trendy and expensive salons tend to require customers to have an appointment, while the budget chain hair shops usually don’t.
The décor also varies widely between an expensive and an inexpensive hair salon.
Salon Policies and Rules
Salon policies are a set of rules that define boundaries and procedures regarding your clients’ behavior. They allow you to maintain a safe, organized and
fair environment, which benefits not only you and your staff but also the customers. Well-written salon policies secure your business’ profitability, significantly decrease the risk of accidents, give your employees clear procedures to follow and
finally – save you and your staff a lot of worries.
Some of the policies and rules in salon includes:
Late arrivals. Arriving 5 minutes late is not a big deal for most salons. But
if the client is 30 minutes late and has just arrived, latte in hand, that’s an issue.
Late cancellations. The salon loses income in late cancellations. Sometimes
clients have to cancel their appointment, and that’s okay – as long as they inform
you in a reasonable time.
No-shows. This is every salon owner’s nightmare – no-shows are frustrating
cases of clients who never show up for their booked visits, and without explanation. One-time no-shows can be forgiven, as to make a mistake is human, but you
should be more insistent with notorious ones.
Service guarantee and refunds. A service guarantee is often used as an assurance of the treatment quality. For your salon, you can set a “service guarantee”
policy, which provides compensation offer in case of a failed treatment. This dictate the form of compensation and time frame in which it can be requested.
Health history. The service should always begin the consultation by asking
a client for their health history – it safeguards both the customer and salon staff.
Some services may cause possible health complications, so it may be wise to refuse to perform a treatment or at least modify it. This knowledge will help you act
accordingly in case of any emergencies, such as sudden seizures.
Right to refuse service. Though severely overlooked, this is a very important
policy – being able to refuse to perform a service.
Additional policies. This covers rules about kids in the salon, pets, using
mobile phones during the treatment, eating and drinking during the treatment
Basic Services provided in a Hair salon
Shampooing: Hair washing / hair shampooing is the cosmetic act of keeping hair clean by washing it. To remove chemicals and dirt from hair . This is usually done to make hair more manageable for the hairdresser performing the haircut. After a haircut, it can remove loose strands of hair. It is also a relaxing practice, and many clients enjoy a hair wash as part of a haircut.
Haircutting: Haircutting is the process of cutting, tapering, texturizing and
thinning using any hair cutting tools in order to create a shape.
Hair coloring: Hair coloring, or hair dyeing, is the practice of changing
the hair color. The main reasons for this are cosmetic: to cover white hair or to
change the appearance of the customer.
Hair styling: A hairstyle, hairdo, or haircut refers to the styling of hair,
usually on the human scalp. Sometimes, this could also mean an editing of facial
or body hair. The fashioning of hair can be considered an aspect of personal
grooming, fashion, and cosmetics, although practical, cultural, and popular considerations also influence some hairstyles.
The drape / cape serves to protect the client from infectious and contagious
disease and protect the clients clothing from different hairdressing services. Comfort and protection of the client must always be considered during cosmetology
Purpose of Neck Strip
A neck strip or towel is used for sanitary reasons, to prevent contact of the
cape with the client's skin.
Three Types of Drapes
Plastic Drape
Plastic/Chemical Drape
Nylon Drape
Wet Service
Chemical service
Hair color, perms and relaxers
require a chemical drape.
Towel –Drape –Towel
Dry service
Neck strip – Nylon drape
Brushing & thermal services
Preparing the Patron
Direct the patron to remove jewelry.
Be certain to fasten the cape comfortably but securely.
Avoid having the cape come in contact with the patron’s skin.
Steps in Draping the Patron
1. Position yourself beside the patron.
2. Unfold cape and place it across patron’s body off the shoulders.
3. Fold towel by holding it on opposite corners.
4. Place towel around patron’s shoulder.
5. Position yourself behind patron.
6. Gather hair at the nape.
7. Slide towel across the back of the neck.
8. Bring towel ends around the sides’ then release the hair.
9. Overlap ends of towels in a criss-cross position under the chin.
10. Hold in position with dominant hand.
11. Bring the cape up to the chin.
12. Pull cape over the shoulder to the back of patron.
Bring one corner of the cape across the back to opposite side and
fasten to cape collar.
14. Bring the other corner of the cape across the opposite side; fasten to cape collar.
15. Adjust the cape tension at the neck for comfort.
16. Adjust the towel over cape collar.
Drape patron/customer correctly in accordance with the type of service.
Tools, supplies and materials are prepared and used according
to Occupational Health and Safety Code.
All clothing and linens used should be spotlessly clean and white.
Learning Task 1: Create a diagram showing
the steps in preparing client for a salon service. Do this in your notebook. Write a short
paragraph explaining the process diagram.
Learning Task 2: Read and analyse the given cases and write an immediate solution for each situation. Do this in your notebook.
1. An client named booked an appointment for a haircut but arrived 25 minutes
late at the salon. There are still many walk-in customers waiting in the salon
seeking for the same service.
2. You are supposed to take a day off on a Saturday when a client asked for an
appointment in your salon. Knowing that the staff are off too, you reserved
your time to provide the service. However, the client decided not to show in her
salon appointment.
Learning Task 3: Match the salon services in column A with it’s descriptions in
column B. Write your answers in your notebook.
1. Hair coloring
A. this could also mean an editing of
facial or body hair.
B. practice of changing
the hair color
C. In order to create a shape in the
D. To remove chemicals and
dirt from hair
2. Hair styling
3. Shampooing
4. Haircutting
Learning Task 4: Create a Venn Diagram showing the similarities and differences
of the three types of drapes. Briefly explain the diagram. Do this in your notebook.
Plastic Drape
Chemical Drape
Nylon Drape
Learning Task 5: Read and understand the
a. capping
b. draping
c. lining
d. overlapping
2. To what side should the towels be folded?
a. opposite sides
c. one side of towel
b. center of towel
d. opposite corners
3. What part of the face should the overlapped ends of towels be positioned?
a. near the ears
c. under the chin
b. on the chin
d. nape of neck
4. What materials are used to protect the operators and patron’s clothing from getting dirty during the treatment process?
a. tissue paper
c. hair clips
b. laboratory outfit
d. hand towel
5. How is the patron’s collar wrapped?
a. folded outward
c. leave it as is
b. folded inward
d. fold it together with the towel
Performing Shampoo and/or Conditioner Procedures
In this lesson, you will learn how to apply shampoo and/or conditioner on
the client. Specifically, after the lesson, you will be able to shampoo and/or condition hair as required and following standard procedure and ensure client’s safety
and comfort during the entire process.
Shampooing the hair is an important preliminary step for various hair
treatments. The importance of a good shampoo should not be underestimated.
The reputation for good shampooing builds friendly relationships with the patrons
and is the foundation for future business.
Shampoos are preparations for cleaning the hair and scalp. A shampoo is
given both for sanitary reasons and to obtain better results in relation to other
hair works. The purpose of a shampoo is to cleanse the hair and scalp. A shampoo
to be effective, must remove all dirt, oils, cosmetics present and the skin debris
from the scalp and hair shaft, without adversely affecting either the scalp or hair.
Unless the scalp and hair are cleansed regularly, the accumulation of oil
and perspiration which when mixed with natural scales and dirt offers a breeding
place for disease producing bacteria. Permitting this condition to exist can lead to
a scalp disorder.
Hair should be shampooed as often as necessary depending
on how quickly the scalp and hair become soiled. As a general rule, oily hair
should be shampooed more often than normal or dry hair.
Selecting the Correct Shampoo
To make an intelligent choice of shampoo, the cosmetologist should know
the composition and action of the shampoo and whether it will do an effective job.
To obtain this information, carefully read the label and its shampooing literature.
Required Materials and Implements
Before giving a shampoo, gather all necessary materials and implements.
There is nothing more annoying to the patron than to have the hairdresser wet her
hair and leave her stranded, while she dashes out to get shampoo or other necessities. Required materials and implements are neck strip, towels, shampoo cape,
comb and hair brush, shampoo and hair rinse.
Hair Brushing
Brushing should always be a part of both shampoo and scalp treatments
with the following exceptions:
before giving a lightening treatment.
before the application of tint.
before giving a permanent wave.
if scalp is irritated.
Brushing stimulates the scalp, helps remove dust and dirt from hair and
gives added sheen. Stimulation of the scalp, by brushing, helps to normalize the
oil glands. The hair should receive thorough brushing whether the scalp and hair
is dry or in oily condition. The comb should not be used to loosen scales from the
scalp; it should always be used in disentangling the hair.
To brush the hair, first part it through the center from front hairline to
neck. Now part a section about a quarter inch from the center parting to the
crown of the head.
Holding this strand of hair in the left hand between the thumb and fingers,
lay the brush (held in the right hand) with the bristles against the scalp; sweep
the bristles the full length of the hair, turning the wrist slightly in doing so, and
sweep to the ends of the hair. Repeat three times. Then part again, a quarter inch
from the first parting and continue until the entire head has been brushed.
Towel-drying the Hair
After a shampooing and rinse, the hair may be towel dried. Remove excess
moisture at the shampoo board. Drape towel over the patron’s head. Massage the
scalp over the towel with the palm and fingers of both hands in a circular motion
until the hair is almost dry. Comb the hair free of snarls, or tangles, starting with
the ends of the hair at the back of the head.
Shampooing Procedure
A. Preparation Steps
1. Select and arrange required materials.
2. Wash and sanitize hands.
3. Seat patron comfortably. Adjust neck strip, towel and shampoo cape
around patron’s neck.
4. Remove all the hair accessories from hair.
5. Examine patron’s hair and scalp condition.
6. Direct patron in a shampoo bowl and sit her comfortably.
7. Adjust volume and temperature of water.
B. Manipulating Steps
1. Wet hair thoroughly with warm water spray held off the head. Shift hand
to protect patron’s face and ears from the spray.
2. Mix hot water with cold. Test the water mixture and temperature on the
back of your hand. After lifting the spray and before applying it to the client, test the water temperature again.
3. Check the water flow and pressure. Do not allow the water to flow down
the neck or on the face of the patron.
4. Keep one hand between the head and the water spray – you will then be
aware of any temperature changes.
5. Thoroughly wet the hair, avoid wetting the patron.
6. Apply shampoo, first into the palm of your hand. Distribute it evenly over
the hair and scalp. Use as little shampoo as is necessary, or most of it will
be wasted.
7. With clawed fingers massage the scalp in a circular manner. Cover the
whole scalp – be sure to avoid missing any part.
8. Rinse the hair thoroughly, again checking the water temperature and
9. Finally rinse all traces of lather from the skin and hair.
C. Completion Steps
Comb the hair starting with hair ends at nape of neck.
Set the hair to the desired style.
Remove shampoo cape, towel or neck strip.
Dry hair and comb out hair to appropriate hair style.
Discard used materials and place unused supplies in their proper place.
Clean and sanitize combs and brushes.
Place used towels into towel hampers.
Clean and sanitize shampoo bowl.
Wash and sanitize hands.
Safety Measures for Shampooing
1. Clean shampoo bowl and sanitize neck of the bowl before and after each
2. Do not permit shampoo to get into patron’s eyes.
3. Protect patron’s ears with bits of clean cotton if she is sensitive to water in
the ears.
4. Test water temperature before applying to patron’s head.
5. Do not permit the fingernails to scratch the patron’s scalp.
6. Always towel off the excess moisture from patron’s hair before she leaves
the shampoo bowl.
7. Do not turn the dryer to “HOT” if the patron is subject to high blood pressure.
8. Do not permit the water to remain on the floor or around the shampoo bow
9. Do not permit the shampoo cape to come in contact with the patron’s skin.
10. Use sanitized combs, brushes, towels and other implements to each patron.
Preparation: Ensure everything is ready before starting, place products, tools
and equipment close at hand on a trolley or work surface, ensure all electrical
equipment is PAT tested and fit to be used. Follow COSHH (Control of substances hazardous to health): Store, handle, use, dispose of products correctly.
How to work hygienically: Use clean towels, sterilized tools and equipment
when working on a client.
Avoid contact dermatitis: Wash product from hands, dry hands, use moisturizing/barrier cream, wear gloves
Hazards and risks: Clean up spillages, trailing and frayed wires.
Leave work area clean and tidy after use: Remove towels, store equipment,
clean equipment, remove your client’s gown.
Learning Task 1: Arrange the following steps to show the proper procedure in
shampooing. Put the numbers 1-9 on the space before each number. Write your
answers In your notevbook
_____ Rinse hair thoroughly.
_____ Apply shampoo
Mix hot water into the cold water.
Keep one hand between the head and the water spray.
Finally rinse all traces of lather from skin and hair.
Check the water flow and pressure.
With clawed fingers massage the scalp in a circular manner.
Thoroughly wet the hair, avoid wetting the patron.
Wet the hair thoroughly.
Learning Task 2: Draw an illustration of the following materials. If coloring materials are available, color your drawing. Afterwards, state the used or function of
the materials in shampooing. Do this in your notebook.
Bath towels
Shampoo cape
Neck Strip
Hair rinse
Hair dryer
Bath towels
Shampoo cape
Neck Strip
Hair rinse
Hair dryer
Learning Task 3: Recall a shampooing experience (of your siblings/parents/
relatives) in a salon (If available, watch a video of a hairdresser while shampooing/conditioning hair), assessed the process using the checklist below.
1. Checked and analyzed
patron’s hair and scalp condition
2. Provided patron with appropriate clothing materials
3. Positioned patron prior to
4. Checked work station according to service requirement
5. Ensured patron’s safety and
comfort during the entire process
6. Performed shampoo within
the appropriate time and procedure
7. Checked results according to
the patron’s desired outcome
Learning Task 4: From the data that you have in the Learning Task 3, how will
you evaluate the performance of the subject hairdresser. Cite a brief descriptive
observations. Do this in your notebook.
A. Strong Points:
B. Weak Points:
C. Suggestions:
Learning Task 5: Answer the following questions correctly. Write your answer on
a separate sheet of paper.
1. What refers to the preparation used for cleaning the scalp and hair?
a. shampoo
c. neutralizer
b. cold wave lotion
d. hair rinse
2. How often should you shampoo the hair?
a. everyday
c. once every after three days
b. every other day
d. as often as necessary
3. Shampooing is ______.
a. wet the hair and scalp
b. cleanse the hair
c. cleanse the hair and scalp from dust and dirt present
d. stimulate blood circulation
4. What must one do to obtain correct information in the selection of shampoo?
a. advertisement from magazines
b. the manufacturer’s direction
c. the brand label
d. the lecture given by the teacher or expert
5. When does brushing of the hair not become a part of both shampoo and scalp
a. before giving a lightening treatment
b. if the hair is dry
c. if the hair is oily
d. if there is presence of dandruff
Performing Hair Drying Service
The lesson covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes in blow drying hair
on the client. These include the following service requirements in drying hair
like: towel dry and comb hair according to service requirements, blow dry hair
according to service requirements and following standard procedure, apply finishing product on blow dried hair according to product specifications.
Read the following text.
What Is Towel Drying?
When you towel-dry your hair, you use a towel or other absorbent material
like a soft t-shirt to soak up moisture from your hair. This little step helps
cut the time it takes to air-dry your hair.
Is Towel Drying Your Hair Good Or Bad?
There is a right and wrong way to towel-dry your hair.
When your hair is wet, it is at its most fragile state. At this point, rubbing it
vigorously with a towel can cause long-term hair damage and cause your
hair to fall out. Excessive rubbing with a towel can also lead to major frizz.
However, if you are gentle, use the right kind of towel, and take a few simple
precautions, your hair will thank you later.
Benefits Of Towel Drying Hair
When done right, there are countless benefits of towel drying your hair.
Some of the most significant ones include the following:
1. When you use a blow dryer, your hair is exposed to heat. Excessive heat
can turn your hair frizzy and damage it. Towel drying saves your hair from
getting exposed to extreme heat.
2. When you use a towel, you do not need to apply any product to dry your
hair safely. Styling products and heat protectants often accumulate and
build-up on your scalp leading to other hair and scalp issues. This doesn't
happen when you use a towel for drying hair.
3. There is little or no friction when you dry your hair with a towel (of
course, you shouldn't be rubbing your hair with the towel). The less the friction, the better it is for the health of your hair.
Drying hair is the process of styling wet hair while blow-drying it. Using a hand
-held dryer, you use a variety of techniques to create different effects. While directing heated air on to the wet hair, you mould the hair with brushes, use a
comb or your fingers, and positioning it to fit the style for which you have cut it.
Blow Styling Techniques
The technique you choose will be determined by the hair texture, the quality and
quantity of hair, the style to be produced and the cut. he most suitable hair for
blow styling is firm, thick, and coarse hair.
BLOW – WAVING is shaping the hair into waves, using directed heated air from
hair/ dryer, and combs, brushes or your hands. It achieves natural soft fullness.
BLOW – DRYING is simply drying the hair with the hand held dryer. It is used to
blow dry hair into a chosen shape, or in a required direction.
SCRUNCH DRYING is the gripping and squeezing clumps of hair while directing
heated air into the hand. The process yields a casual, ruffled, molded shape.
FINGER OR HAND DRYING is the lifting pulling and directing hair with the fingers or hands. Casual, soft and full shapes can be achieved.
Billowing fullness is perhaps the chief effect.
BLOW – COMBING is the drying and shaping using comb, or a comb attachment fixed to the hairdryer. It is a kind of blow drying and achieves
shape and direction.
BLOW – STRETCHING OR STRAIGHTENING a means of smoothing and unkinking or straightening the hair. A variety of brush shapes and sizes may be
A blow – style consists of first shampooing the hair, then softening it with a
dryer and finally molding it into shape using a blow-dryer. It may be dressed, if
required, when the hair has cooled.
Natural drying is leaving the hair to dry naturally, depending on whether the cut
and the style are suitable. Natural drying maybe assisted by the heat of the sun
and wind.
HAND – HELD DRYER is the most important piece of equipment you need. The
dryer should have adjustable speeds and temperatures and period of durability. It
needs to be light and easy to hold and to have controls positioned for easy reach.
HAND DRYER ATTACHMENTS such as nozzles and diffusers are available. Using
the dryer without a nozzle or diffuser allows for a wider directed air flow.
COMBS should be professional and heat resistant. The comb you will use should
have both widely spaced and narrowly spaced teeth.
BRUSHES are probably the most important items after blow dryers. A firm, stiff,
bristle or plastic brush is required. This will help you to grip, direct and control
the hair.
DIFFUSER fits over the end of the hair dryer and distributes an even flow of warm
air. It reduces a strong air to flow and is used for finishing styles. It is ideal for
producing soft, casual, ruffled natural curl looks. It can be used on various hair
NOZZLE is intended to concentrate the hot air flow on to a specific area. It
is ideal for blow-waving as it allows the hair to be directed at the troughs
and crests of the wave shapes.
STYLING IRONS OR TONGS are often used to finalize a dried hair style. This is
an electrically heated unit. The hair is rolled and held in place long enough for the
heat to soften the hair. The irons are then slid out to leave a smooth rolled shape,
similar to that produced by the rollers.
HOT BRUSHES AND HEATED ROLLERS are available in several sizes. They are
applied to dried hair in similar manner for styling tongs.
Use only professional tools.
Ensure that all electrical equipment are in good order.
Never use electrical equipment with wet hands – you might be electrocuted.
Never use faulty equipment.
Work comfortably. Avoid continually twisting or stretching your body.
Maintain high standards of hygiene.
7.Test the heat of the dryer before applying it to the hair. You may cause discomfort to your patron or damage to the hair. If the air is too hot for the skin
or too hot for the hair.
8. Direct hot air away from the scalp.
9. Do not keep the dryer in one place too long.
10. When straightening, never overstretch the hair.
11. Do not attempt to shape hair when it is too wet.
12. Pulling the hair may cause breakage.
13. Use suitable blow-drying aids to protect hair from overheating.
14. Do not blow style hair that is in poor condition.
15. Do not blow dry if the hair is too dry or wet.
Blow – styling, setting, styling and dressing can be usefully aided by using some
of a large variety of products. .
There are aids available to meet most needs. Product knowledge will help you select the correct one for your client. The aids in the following list may contain:
1.Plasticizers to enfold and support the hair
2.Moisturizers to retain or resist moisture
3.Protective screeners
4.Silicone shiners
5.Sun protectors
6.Blow styling aids protect the hair from excessive heat, augment the length of
time for which the hair shape is held and give body to the hair.
There are different hair aid strengths.
1.Firm hold
2.Extra hold
3.Medium hold
4.Ultra hold
5.Ultimate hold
1.Dressing aids give sheen, shine, gloss and glitz to the hair. Gels, oils,
silicones, mousses, foams and waxes used to reflect light and to enhance a healthy looking shape.
2.Setting aids enhance hair elasticity, help the hair to keep its spring and
bounce, and allow it to stretch easily.
3.Protective aids shield the hair from the harsh effects of exposure to the
4.Curl enhances the hair to retain curl or wave formation longer and include
perm enhancers.
Styling products:
1.Lotion – soft hold for all hair types.
2.Moisturiser – makes hair soft and shiny, ideal for conditioning dry frizzy
3.Heat protector – will coat hair with protective layer, stops natural oils drying out, for all hair types.
Finishing products:
1.Serum/oil – ideal for natural dry brittle hair, for all hair types but may weigh
down fine hair.
Learning Task 1: After reading the text, there are other things to consider in
drying hair. Refer to the picture below and copy and answer in your notebook the
needed information on the box.
Benefits of drying
Materials used in drying hair
Safety measures when
drying hair
Learning Task 2: In your notebook, make an observation from your locality/
neighborhood or simply recall your visited salon from the past. Write your observation on how they apply blow drying and make suggestions and recommendations on how they will improve their blow drying techniques.
Learning Task 2: Choose the letter of the correct answer and write your answer
on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Which styling aid is used to retain or resist moisture during blow drying process?
B. Screeners
C. Plasticizers
D. Shiners
2. Which of the following give sheen, shine, and gloss to the hair, to reflect light
and to enhance the healthy looking shape?
A.Curl enhancers
B. Setting aids
C. DressingPIVOT
D. protectors
3. Which of the following is not an example of dressing aids for hair?
B. silicone
C. soils
D. sunblock
4. What styling product is used to coat hair with protective layer and stops natural oils from drying out?
Meeting the OHS Requirements
The lesson deals on how to sanitize the workplace and store tools
and equipment in accordance with occupational safety and health requirements.
Salon policies and procedure regarding storing of supplies and materials are also
discussed. At the end of this lesson, you should be able to clean, sanitize, and
store tools and equipment according to OHS requirements, Segregate and dispose
waste materials according to OHS requirements.
To increase the lifespan of salon tools and equipment and create an inviting space
Daily Use Tools. Start by using natural-based cleaning supplies to prevent
health and environmental ramifications. Gather tools that are used daily such as
scissors, hair clips, razors, brushes, or anything else that needs cleaning.
Put on rubber gloves to set these tools in a large tub of hot water for at
least 30 minutes. Soak them in another tub that contains natural cleaning products or 80% alcohol to sanitize thoroughly. Let the tools sit for no less than one
hour. Afterward, use a soft, clean towel to pat dry.
Before cleaning electric tools, make sure they are unplugged. Gently scrub
the surface and insides if possible with a disinfecting wipe and let it sit for 30
Equipment. From an excess of color and dropped lightener to hairspray buildup
and coffee spills, salon chairs have had it all. It’s best to clean the stain immediately rather than waiting and letting it settle.
Use this natural alternative to clean spills quickly:
1. Mix one-half cup of baking soda with four cups of warm water.
2. Take a sponge or soft cloth and test the mixture on the bottom of the chair.
3. Follow with a thorough cleaning.
If there is still hairspray or a stain on the chair, use a stronger mixture:
1. Pour some baking powder in a bowl and add enough lemon juice to make a
2. Apply the mixture to the sticky areas of the chair and leave the mixture on
the chair for a couple of minutes. The acid in the lemon juice will cut
through the stickiness.
3. Wipe away the mixture with a clean cloth.
4. Repeat the process as many times as necessary.
For sinks, use one part powdered or liquid detergent and three parts water.
Let it sit for about an hour before rinsing.
Sterilization and sanitation techniques practiced in beauty salon involve
the use of agents such as radiation and heat, and chemical agents, such as antiseptics, disinfectants and vapor fumigants.
Dry and moist heat may both be used in sterilization.
Glass – bead sterilizer is a small electrically-heated unit which contains glass
beads; these transfer heat to objects placed in contact with them. This method
is suitable for small tools such as tweezers and scissors.
Autoclaving is the most effective method for sterilizing objects in the salon.
Water is boiled in an auto clave (similar to a pressure cooker), the water reaches a temperature of 121 – 134 ◦c.
If an object cannot be sterilized, it should be placed in a chemical disinfectant
solution such as quaternary ammonium compounds or glutaraldehyde.
An antiseptic prevents the multiplication of microorganisms. It is milder than
a disinfectant and it does not kill all micro-organism.
Sterilization Techniques
1. Always follow the manufacturer’s guidelines on the use of sterilizing unit.
2. Select the appropriate method of sterilization for the object.
3. Clean the object in clean water and detergent to remove dirt and grease. Dirt
left on the object may prevent effective sterilization.
4. Dry it thoroughly with a clean, disposable paper towel.
5. Place tools that have been sterilized in a clean covered container.
Hazardous waste is “waste with properties that make it dangerous or capable of having a harmful effect on human health or the environment.” Once an item
containing hazardous properties is no longer usable, it is deemed hazardous
Common Hazardous Wastes
Today’s beauty salons and spas offer a range of services – from hair styling
to nail and skin treatments as well as retail products. By providing these services,
however, many wastes can be generated.
Examples of products that may be considered a RCRA hazardous waste in
your salon or spa can include, but are not limited to: acetone or nail polish remover; aerosols, including hair spray and quick nail dry; acrylic nail liquids and powders; adhesives, including cyanoacrylate nail glue; nail base and top coats; nail
polish; certain gels; hair coloring, dye and bleach; disinfectants used to equipment
and other tools; some soaps and shampoos (state regulated) ; fluorescent bulbs;
batteries; and electronics.
Hazardous Waste Best Practices
The most important first step salon or spa owners and managers should
take is making sure a waste management compliance program is set in place. Below are several best practices for bagging, separating and storing hazardous waste
items that will help ensure the safety and compliance of your program:
1. Properly seal items. Prior to storing any hazardous waste items in a bin,
place them individually in a sealed plastic bag. This will keep items from
mixing and causing a reaction.
2. Use separate bins. Incompatible hazardous waste items must remain separate. It’s recommended to use designated bins for each type of hazardous
waste category: aerosols and flammables, toxics, corrosive acidic, corrosive
alkaline (basic), oxidizers and universal waste.
3. Label containers properly. Once the initial item is placed within a bin, label the
container as hazardous waste and also include the accumulation
start date and an indication of the hazardous characteristic of the waste.
Should an inspector ever visit your salon, proper labelling is one of the first
things they will evaluate.
4. Scout a safe storage area. Store accumulation bins in a dedicated, clean
and neatly organized hazardous waste area. Make sure bins are stored
away from heavy traffic areas, electrical panels, and perishable or consumable product storage and dock doors.
Learning Task 1: Answer the following questions in your notebook.
1. What would happen if you did not follow expected standards regarding
health and safety in the salon? ___________________________________________
2. Why is it important to sterilize tools? _____________________________________
3. What are some ways of disposing waste? __________________________________
Learning Task 2: In a short bond paper, copy and write the listed waste in the
box in its designated trash bin below.
Cotton balls
Hair coloring
Polish remover
Bottled shampoo
Tissue paper
Learning Task 3: Gather tools and implements and perform sterilization technique. In your notebook, ask your parents or siblings to rate you using the rubrics below.
Materials Needed:
1. Cleaning materials
2. Sterilization
3. 70% alcohol
4. Soap/liquid/bar
5. Cotton
6. Antiseptic solution/Lysol
Criteria for Grading Score
1. Gathered and sterilized tools with 100% accuracy - 5
2. Gathered and sterilized tools with 75% accuracy - 3
3. Gathered and sterilized tools with 50% accuracy - 1
Learning Task 4: Fill in the blanks with the correct answer. Write your
answer in your notebook.
1. Sterilization and sanitation techniques practice in the salon involves the_____
A. use of physical agents C. use of radiation
B. use of chemical agents
D. all of the above
2. Most effective method of sterilizing objects in the salon______.
A. autoclaving
C. heating
B. moist heat
D. dry heat
3. To sanitize floors sinks and toilet bowls in the beauty salon, use_____.
A. alcohol
C. antiseptic
B. formalin
D. Lysol
4. The destruction of all living microorganisms is called____
A. sanitization
C. sterilization
B. fumigation
D. radiation
5. The strength of alcohol used for disinfecting implements should be____.
A. 20%
B. 30%
C. 40%
D. 70
Learning Task 5: In your notebook, answer the following questions.
1. How do salons be effective in terms of waste segregation?
2. Who are the most responsible in waste segregation inside the salon?
3. As a good citizen how will you engage yourself in waste management?
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“Hair Dye Allergy: Symptoms, Treatment, and Color Alternatives.” Retrieved from
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(2016). "Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal
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Para sa mga katanungan o puna, sumulat o tumawag sa:
Department of Education Region 4A CALABARZON
Office Address: Gate 2 Karangalan Village, Cainta Rizal
Landline: 02-8682-5773 local 420/421
Email Address: lrmd.calabarzon@deped.gov.ph