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Communication Processes, Principles AND Ethics
Purposive Communication (Our Lady of Fatima University)
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It is the sender’s job to
concept of idea).
2. MEDIUM (message)
The Nature of Communication
The medium is the
Communication is derived from the
immediate form which a
Latin word “common” which means,
message takes. For example,
“belonging to many” and
a message may be
“communico” means to confer with
communicated in the form of
others. It is the mutual exchange of
a letter, an email or face to
information, ideas, and
face in the form of aspeech
understanding by any effective
Medium is also known as the
In other words, communication is a
process by which people send
messages or exchange ideas or
thoughts with one another in a
verbal or non-verbal manner.
The channel is responsible
for the delivery of the chosen
message form.
Communication is the interaction of
For example: post office,
words from a society and thus gives
internet, television and radio
pleasure and an increased
understanding of life.
4. RECEIVER (decoder/listener)
The receiver or the decoder
is responsible for
extracting/decoding meaning
1. SENDER (encoder)
from the message.
The sender also known as
the encoder decides on the
The receiver is also
message to be sent and the
responsible for providing
best/most effective way that
feedback to the sender.
it can be sent.
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It is his/her job to
Examples of physical noise:
● Loud party at the neighbors
while you’re trying to record.
5. FEEDBACK (response)
Irritating hum of your
computer, air conditioner, or
electric fan.
This is important as it
determines whether or not
the decoder grasped the
Physiological noise is created by
intended meaning and
barriers within the sender or
whether the communication
was successful
Examples of physiological
noise on the encoder’s side
The context of any
are: articulation problems,
communication act is the
mumbling, talking too fast,
environment surrounding it.
talking too slow, forgetting to
pause, and forgetting to
It is also known as the
setting of the
An example of physiological
noise on the listener’s side:
hearing problems. Maybe the
7. NOISE (also called interference)
listener can’t hear high tones
This is the factor that inhibits
as clearly as they used to. For
the conveyance of a
some, low tones are the
problem. Their difficulty in
literally hearing words and
Noise is anything that
sounds becomes
interferes with
physiological noise.
Psychological noise is mental
Physical noise is interference that is
interference in the speaker or
external to both speaker and
listener; it hampers the physical
transmission of the signal or
Wandering thoughts,
preconceived ideas, and
sarcasm can be a kind of
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psychological noise.
Semantic noise is interference
created when the speaker and
listener have different meaning
The communication process is dynamic,
continuous, irreversible, and contextual. It
is not possible to participate in any
element of the process without
acknowledging the existence and
functioning of the other elements.
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This form of knowledge becomes
meaningful only to others when you
initiate communication with them.
4. Communication is active, powerful, or
1. Communication is Schemata-driven
It begins with your self, you begin
with what you have already stocked
in your brain or with what you have
already known or understood about
the subject matter of the
communicative act. Transmitted
messages become understandable
or meaningful because of your
background knowledge about the
Communication is said to be active
because messages have varied
effects on all participants in any
communicative event. It engages
speakers and listeners inaction of
giving and receiving information.
Communication is powerful and
forceful for it elicits different
meanings or reactions; these
messages are prone to changes.
2. Communication is an Interpretive Act
The only person who knows the
exact or full meaning of the message
transmitted is the sender or speaker.
Being the creator or source of the
ideas, he has the absolute
knowledge about his message.
It was called interpretive act
because the role of the receiver or
the listener is just to interpret, infer,
or guess the meaning of things
appealing to his sense of hearing.
3. Communication does not guarantee a
direct or automatic link between two
Subjected to the changeable and
continued existence of the world,
communication is dynamic ( a
process or system characterized by
constant change) as life that goes on
and on like a river. nothing remains
permanent or fixed in the world of
5. Communication is symbolic
Symbols, signs, or marks like letters,
words, sentences, graphs, pictures,
and other concrete objects represent
or stand for ideas that you intend to
convey verbally.
For non-verbal communication, you
resort bodily actions (gestures, eye
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movements, posture, facial
9. Communication is developmental or
expressions) voice quality, space
and time elements to stand for the
ideas you want to express.
Tocommunicate ideas to go through
the different stages of language
learning that begins from birth to
elementary, high school and college
levels. it is not a one-time learning
towards communicative
6. Communication always results in
10. Communication is a progress
It refers to two or more persons
participate in any communicative
Several stages of communication
act. The first expresses or sends a
take place when people exchange or
message; the second responds or
share ideas with one another. Each
reacts to the message.
stage involves elements with
different functions.
7. Communication is irreversible
11. Communication is ethical
Youare free to talk to about
anything under the sun. but once
Any communication event is
you utter something, the things you
expected to apply rules, moral
have said remain as it is susceptible
values, and beliefs agreed upon by
to different interpretations or
societal members. Guided by these
standards determined by the cultural
group you belong to, your
8. Communication is contextual
community communication becomes
ethical, good or desirable.
An exchange of views, ideas, or
feelings doesn't only involve the
12. Communication is influenced by media
sender and receiver, but also other
and technology
aspects of the communication
setting like type, place, topic,
Now, you are in the era of
occasion, purpose, and manner of
knowledge explosion or modern
technology. This period is
characterized by an instant global
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exchange of knowledge, services
and technology. using modern
electronic communication devices,
an exchange of ideas occurs just in
seconds or minutes regardless of
the distance between or among the
participants. With the speedy turn
out of varied modern media and
devices of communication like the email, cellphone, webcam, internet
and other computer-run gadgets
find interaction with anyone in any
corner of the world easily and
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we know and the “open hand” and
the “palm up” gestures that signals a
person would like something or
needs help (Martin &Nakayama,
2010). Smiling is also a universal
non-verbal behavior, but the triggers
Verbal Language
that lead a person to smile vary from
Verbal language consists of symbols
culture to culture. The expansion of
such as letters, words, and other
media, particularly from the United
marks that you need to subject to
States and other Western countries
language or grammar rules for a
around the world, is leading to more
coherent or organized means of
nonverbal similarities among
understanding or expressing ideas.
cultures, but the biggest cultural
this verbal or spoken language
difference in nonverbal
becomes a written language once
communication occur within the
you put on paper or any surface the
categories of eye contact, touch,
marks or prints symbolizing or
representing the ideas you intend to
and personal space (Pease &Pease,
2004). Nonverbal communication
convey or have spoken to others.
like other forms of communication is
influenced by context and varies
Verbal symbols refer to the use of
among individuals within a
speaker language (Antonio, et.al., p.
particular cultural group as well.
The idea you want to convey
through this non-verbal
Non-verbal Language
communication are symbolized or
As with other aspects of
represented, not by words but by
communication, norms for non-
the following nonverbal non-verbal
verbal communication vary from
language symbols:
country to country and also among
cultures within a particular country.
1. Body Movements
Some non-verbal communication
Also known as body kinetics.
behaviors appear to be somewhat
innate because they are universally
Big and small movements of your body like
recognized. Such universal signals
gestures, facial expressions, posture, and
are the “eyebrow flash” of
eye behavior expresses meanings.
recognition when we see someone
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Kinesics derived from the Greek term
“kinesis” meaning “motion” which refers to
3. Time
There are two kinds of people based on
the study of body movements.
time; punctual and late
2. Paralanguage
Your willingness, hesitance, or
Refers to the ways of saying something
hatred to wait for a long time speaks
of your trait of patience or
These are extra sounds that go with
impatience. Likewise, this reflects
your spoken words and a study of these
your manner of valuing your
special sounds accompanying your words is
relationship with the object of your
called Paralinguistic.
waiting. Your trait of optimism is also
proven by your fondness of talking
Examples of paralanguage are the
about your goals, dreams, or plans
for the future. Chronemics is the
a) Speaking voice produced by your
term that refers to your act of
studying the impact or effect of time
on your behavior.
❏ highness and lowness (Pitch)
❏ loudness or softness
❏ speediness and slowness
4. Proxemics
It concerns the way a person uses
the space around him as well as the
distance where he stands.
❏ rising and falling (Intonation)
❏ Pleasing or unpleasing
sound - shrillnes, huskiness,
a. Intimatedistance
breathiness, mellowness, etc.
In this situation, people are in
direct contact with each
other or are in no more than
18 inches apart as in mother
b) Vocalization or voice’s special usage
and child.
like crying, giggling, moaning,
growling, yawning, sighing and
b. Personal distance
People may stay anywhere
from 18 inches to 4 feet
c) vocal pauses or boosters like
from each other as in casual
and personal conversations.
ny others.
This distance is close enough
to see each other’s reactions
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but fair enough not to
represented by dressing styles, body
encroach on the person’s
types, body appearances like size or
shape, architectural designs or
structures, art objects, graphic
c. Social distance
When talking to persons
materials, lightning effects, aromatic
or smelly objects, and other
unknown to the speaker, he
environmental factors that influence
must keep a distance of 4 to
or affect any communicative event.
12 feet. Mostly done in
impersonal business and
social gatherings or
interviews which is expected
to be more formal.
d. Public distance
It is the distance of more
than 12 feet typically used in
public speaking. There is a
need for the speaker to
speak loudly and to use
exaggerated gestures for the
audience to understand what
he is trying to convey.
Furthermore, there is a
necessity for the availability
of gadgets to aid in the
sound projection.
Haptics is the term used to refer to
your acts of studying the effects of
your touchon people
5. Physical Appearance and Object
Meanings in this kind of non-verbal
language,aresymbolized or
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