CIS4203- IT STRATEGY AND GOVERNANCE CHAPTER 3 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE, TOGAF CHAPTER 3 CLO 1: Discuss the issues, challenges, and growing importance of IT strategy and governance in an organization Effective Date Change Descri DRC No ption Version Author 1.0 Pedro Flores 15 August, Define the 2021 first version 001 DOCUMENT REVISION CONTROL (DRC) X.Y X: MAJOR CHANGE Y: MINOR CHANGE 2 LECTURE NOTES Contents of lectures are based on the textbook, recommended text, and supplementary material Please read Chapter 2 from page 131 to 153 3 Enterprise Architecture Architectural Frameworks LECTURE OUTLINE TOGAF 4 LECTURE OBJECTIVES At the end of lecture, the student should be able to: Generate sponsorship – construct , cascade and sponsor role Get the right talent - with the right skills and attitudes determine change approach - commitment or compliance Develop target readiness – identify and manage resistance to change at all levels and determine how to overcome it Develop communications plan – communicate in terms of frame of reference 5 WHAT IS ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE? Is this the enterprise Architecture? Include the checkout registers in the enterprise architecture? Include the supply chain process and distribution? 7 WHAT IS ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE? Not just the computer software, hardware, and network Need to analyze and design an enterprise in the context of its operations: • The business processes • The organization This B R O A D E R view leads to a better overall design ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE Is an overall, high-level design of the enterprise Through the analysis and documentation of an enterprise in its current and future states from an integrated strategy, business, and technology perspective. EA = S + B + T Enterprise Architecture = Strategy + Business + Technology ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE 10 WHY ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE? to get the most from business, technology, and human resources requires an enterprise to think in terms of enterprise-wide solutions, rather than individual systems and programs (Figure 1-1). WHY ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE? EA provides a strategy and business driven approach to policy, planning, decision-making, and resource development that is useful to executives, line managers, and support staff. An enterprise-wide architecture should serve as an authoritative reference, source of standards for processes / resources, and provider of designs for future operating states. Avoid waste and duplication in large, complex organizations. It also resolves the “battle of best practices” and competition between sub-architectural domains which can be problematic for organizations that are trying to become for efficient. Enables IT planning and development to create and deliver those products and services that accomplish the strategic goals of the enterprise. DOES AN EA CHANGE? We adjust EA because: Growth of the enterprise (organic, acquisition, etc...) Advancements in technology Changes in the corporate strategies/goals (market penetration rather than skimming) We learnt how to do things better ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE COMMON FRAMEWORKS EA3 cube – includes the following levels: strategic goals/initiatives, business products/services data/information flows supporting systems/applications technology/infrastructure. TOGAF – includes the following domains: Business Architecture Applications Architecture Data Architecture Technical Architecture Zachman - provides a formal and structured way of viewing and defining an enterprise. It is a two-dimensional classification schema that reflects the intersection between two historical classifications. It attempts to answer the following questions: What, How, When, Who, Where, and Why. UTILIZING TOGAF FRAMEWORK The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), developed in 1995, is an enterprise architecture methodology that offers a high-level framework for enterprise software development. TOGAF helps organize the development process through a systematic approach aimed at reducing errors, maintaining timelines, staying on budget and aligning IT with business units to produce quality results. UTILIZING TOGAF FRAMEWORK (CONT.) TOGAF helps businesses align IT goals with overall business goals, while helping to organize cross-departmental IT efforts. TOGAF helps businesses define and organize requirements before a project starts, keeping the process moving quickly with few errors. The aims of TOGAF are: Ensure everyone speaks the same language Avoid lock-in to proprietary solutions by standardizing on open methods for enterprise architecture Save time and money, and utilize resources more effectively Achieve demonstrable ROI DOMAINS OF TOGAF Business architecture: includes information on business strategy, governance, organization and how to adapt any existing processes within the organization. Applications architecture: a blueprint for structuring and deploying application systems and in accordance with business goals, other organizational frameworks and all core business processes. Data architecture: defining the organization’s data storage, management and maintenance, including logical and physical data models. Technical architecture: also called technology architecture; it describes all necessary hardware, software and IT infrastructure involved in developing and deploying business applications. DOMAINS OF TOGAF – BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE Business Architecture Guild: Aspects of the Business Represented by Business Architecture DOMAINS OF TOGAF – APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE Applications architecture strategy involves ensuring the applications and the integrations align with the growth strategy of the organization. If an organization is a manufacturing organization with fast growth plans through acquisitions, the applications architecture should be nimble enough to encompass inherited legacy systems as well as other large competing systems. Strategy - involves ensuring the applications and the integrations align with the growth strategy of the organization. Patterns - To create patterns, one needs building blocks. Building blocks are components of software, mostly reusable, which can be utilized to create certain functions. Patterns are a way of putting building blocks into context and describe how to use the building blocks to address one or multiple architectural concerns. Applications Architect - understanding of application modularization/distribution, integration, high availability, and scalability patterns, technology and trends. Increasingly, an understanding of application containers, serverless computing, storage, data and analytics, and other cloud-related technology and services are required application architect skills. DOMAINS OF TOGAF – DATA ARCHITECTURE A data architecture aims to set data standards for all its data systems as a vision or a model of the eventual interactions between those data systems. Data integration, for example, should be dependent upon data architecture standards since data integration requires data interactions between two or more data systems. 3 architectural processes: Conceptual - represents all business entities. Logical - represents the logic of how entities are related. Physical - the realization of the data mechanisms for a specific type of functionality. DOMAINS OF TOGAF – TECHNICAL ARCHITECTURE Technical architecture, or technology architecture, describes the hardware, software, and network infrastructure needed to support the deployment of core, mission-critical applications Technical architecture is the process of development of methodical IT specifications, models and guidelines, using a variety of Information Technology notations, for example UML, within a coherent Information Technology architecture framework, following formal and informal Information Technology solution, enterprise, and infrastructure architecture processes.