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Teacher education refers to policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers
with skills, knowledge and attitudes they require to perform their duties effectively in the
classroom, school and community at large.
Teacher education encompasses teaching skills, sound pedagogical theory and professional skills.
Teacher Education = Teaching Skills + Pedagogical theory + Professional skills.
Teaching skills would include providing training and practice in the different techniques,
approaches and strategies that would help the teachers to plan and impart instruction, provide
appropriate reinforcement and conduct effective assessment. It includes effective classroom
management skills, preparation and use of instructional materials and communication skills.
Pedagogical theory includes the philosophical, sociological and psychological considerations that
would enable the teachers to have a sound basis for practicing the teaching skills in the classroom.
The theory is stage specific and is based on the needs and requirements that are characteristic of
that stage.
Professional skills include the techniques, strategies and approaches that would help teachers to
grow in the profession and also work towards the growth of the profession. It includes soft skills
(critical thinking, self-esteem, decision making, communication skills, interpersonal skills,
empathy, handling peer pressure, negotiation skills, teamwork, leadership) counseling skills,
computer skills, information retrieving and management skills and above all life-time management
long learning skills.
An amalgamation of teaching skills, pedagogical theory and professional skills would serve to
create the right knowledge, attitude and skills in teachers, thus promoting holistic development.
1.1. Definition of terms
 Teacher- a person who is involved in providing information, skills and knowledge to other
 A professional teacher is a person who imparts knowledge, competencies, skills and
attitudes to learners and has undertaken a recognized pedagogical training and attained
accredited certification.
 Teaching-(Hough and Duncan 1970)-is a unique professional, rational and humane
activity in which one creatively uses knowledge to promote the learning and welfare of
1.2. Nature of Teacher Education:
1) Teacher education is a continuous process and its pre-service and in-service components are
complimentary to each other. Teacher education can be considered in three phases: Pre-service,
Induction and In-service. The three phases are considered as parts of a continuous process.
2) Teacher education is based on the theory that ―Teachers are made, not born‖ in contrary to the
assumption, ―Teachers are born, not made. Since teaching is considered an art and a science, the
teacher has to acquire not only knowledge, but also skills that are called ―tricks of the trade‖.
3) Teacher education is broad and comprehensive. Besides pre-service and in-service programmes
for teachers, it is meant to be involved in various community programmes and extension activities,
viz adult education and non-formal education programmes, literacy and development activities of
the society.
4) It is ever-evolving and dynamic. In order to prepare teachers who are competent to face the
challenges of the dynamic society, Teacher education has to keep abreast of recent developments
and trends.
5) has knowledge base that is sensitive to the needs of field applications. The crux of the entire
process of teacher education lies in its curriculum, design, structure, organization and transaction
modes, as well as the extent of its appropriateness.
6) As in other professional education programmes the teacher education curriculum has a
knowledge base which is sensitive to the needs of field applications and comprises meaningful,
conceptual blending of theoretical understanding available in several cognate disciplines. However
the knowledge base in teacher education does not comprise only an admixture of concepts and
principles from other disciplines, but a distinct ‗gestalt‘emerging from the conceptual blending‘,
making it sufficiently specified.
7) Teacher education has become differentiated into stage-specific programmes. This suggests that
the knowledge base is adequately specialized and diversified across stages, which should be
utilized for developing effective processes of preparing entrant teachers for the functions which a
teacher is expected to perform at each stage.
8) It is a system that involves an interdependence of its Inputs, Processes and Outputs.
1.3. Need of Teacher Education:
The American Commission on Teacher Education rightly observes, “The quality of a nation
depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of its citizens depends not exclusively, but in
critical measure upon the quality of their education, the quality of their education depends more
than upon any single factor, upon the quality of their teacher.”
Teachers are an important resource and their training and continuous professional
development is pivotal to achieving the vision and aspirations of the country
The need for teacher education is felt due to the following reasons;
1) It is common knowledge that the academic and professional standards of teachers constitute
a critical component of the essential learning conditions for achieving the educational goals of a
nation. The focus of teacher preparation had to shift from training to education if it had to make a
positive influence on the quality of curriculum transaction in classrooms and thereby pupil learning
and the larger social transformation. The aspects that need greater emphasis are;
the length of academic preparation,
the level and quality of subject matter knowledge,
the repertoire of pedagogical skills that teachers possess to meet the needs of diverse
learning situations,
the degree of commitment to the profession,
sensitivity to contemporary issues and problems and
the level of motivation.
This is not possible if teacher preparation focused only on training. Holistic teacher building is
necessary and therefore teacher education needed more emphasis than mere training.
2) Teachers are entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring learners achieve their learning goalslearning of all children well depends not only on ensuring that teachers have the necessary
knowledge and skills to carry out their work, but also that they take responsibility for seeing that
all children reach high levels of learning and that they act accordingly.
3) People come to teacher education with beliefs, values, commitments, personalities and moral
codes from their upbringing and schooling which affect who they are as teachers and what they
are able to learn in teacher education and in teaching. Helping teacher candidates examine critically
their beliefs and values as they relate to teaching, learning and subject matter and form a vision of
good teaching to guide and inspire their learning and their work is a central task of teacher
education (Fieman-Nemser, 2001).
4) On a daily basis, teachers confront complex decisions that rely on many different kinds of
knowledge and judgement and that can involve high stakes outcomes for students‘ future. To make
good decisions, teachers must be aware of the many ways in which student learning can unfold
in the context of development, learning differences, language and cultural influences, and
individual temperaments, interests and approaches to learning‖. In addition to foundational
knowledge about the areas of learning and performance listed in the above quotation, teachers need
to know how to take the steps necessary to gather additional information that will allow them to
make more grounded judgements about what is going on and what strategies may be helpful. More
importantly, teachers need to keep what is best for the student at the centre of their decision
5) Teacher education like any other educational intervention, can only work on those professional
commitments or dispositions that are susceptible to modification. While we can‘t remake
someone‘s personality, we can reshape attitudes towards the other and develop a professional
rather than a personal role orientation towards teaching as a practice.
6) The Ministry of Education document ―Challenge of Education : A Policy Perspective‖ (1985)
has mentioned, ―Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the field of education.
Whatever policies may be laid down, in the ultimate analysis these have to be implemented by
teachers as much through their personal example as through teaching learning processes.‖ India
has reached the threshold of the development of new technologies which are likely to revolutionise
the classroom teaching. Unless capable and committed are teachers in service, the education
system cannot become a suitable and potential instrument of national development. The teacher is
required to acquire adequate knowledge, skills, interests and attitudes towards the teaching
profession. The teacher‘s work has become more complicated and technical in view of the new
theories of psychology, philosophy, sociology, modern media and materials. The teacher can be
made proficient with well planned, imaginative pre-service and in-service training programmes.
The teacher training programs in Kenya cater for development production of teacher for preprimary, secondary, special, vocational and technical education. The main objectives of Teacher
Education in Kenya are:
Some of the most important objectives of teacher education are as follows:
1. To Impart an adequate knowledge of the subject- matter:
The objective of teacher education is to develop a good command of the subject matter of the
assignment given to him in the colleges. To empower student teachers not only to understand the
nature of subjects but also the unity and integrity of knowledge,
2. To Equip the prospective teachers with necessary pedagogic skills: to enable them use
stage specific pedagogy, curriculum development its transaction and evaluation and to
enable them make pedagogical analysis of the subjects they teach. This prepare the teachers
to use ‘child centered approach’ To develop among them the competencies to communicate
abstract and complex ideas and concepts in simple terms. The teacher should develop a
capacity to do, observe, infer and to generalize.
3. to Enable the teacher to acquire understanding of child psychology:
The objective is to understand the child psychology so that the teacher is able to appreciate the
difficulties experienced by children so as to bring about new modes and methods of achieving the
goals in consonance with the reactions of the children.
4. Developing proper attitudes towards teaching:
One of the major objectives of teacher education is to develop proper altitudes towards teaching
as a result of which he will be able to maximize the achievements from both the material and
human resources. There is also development of a proper perception of the problems of universal
enrolment, regular attendance, year-to-year promotion.
Provide opportunities for self-learning, reflection, assimilation and articulation of new ideas;
developing capacities for self -directed learning and the ability to think, be self-critical and to work
in groups.
5. To develop in the teachers the ability to adapt changes or new situations-to enable teachers
understand the process of socialization, developing self-confidence: to develop the ability to
take care of himself in terms of:
(a) Adjustment with the physical conditions,
(b) Healthy adjustment with the social environment
(c) Adjustment with himself to derive emotional satisfaction with his life.
(d)To prepare them for the development of personality, inculcation of values, fostering the spirit
of citizenship and patriotic feeling.
6. Enabling teachers to make proper use of instructional facilities and utilize community
resources as educational inputs:
The objective of teacher education is to develop the capacity to extend the resources of the school
by means of improvisation of instructional facilities.
7. Enabling teachers to understand the significance of individual differences of child and to
take appropriate steps for their optimum development:
The objective of teacher education is to know the causes of individual differences as a result of
which he will be able to develop the ability to be a child with children, an adult with the adults, a
responsible citizen among the community.
8. To develop skills in guidance and counselling including development of the ability to give
direct satisfaction of parents from the achievement of children in terms of:
(a) Proper habits of taking care of the body,
(b) Proper attitudes reflected in the behaviour of the children at home, in the school, in the
streets, at the farms and fields etc.
(c) Progress in the class.
9. To help them evolve happy and healthy school and community relationship and promote interest
in life long learning
10. To develop among teachers an acceptable desired perspective about secondary education and
understanding of its nature, purpose and philosophy
11. Enable them foster creative thinking among pupils for understanding of knowledge
12. To acquaint them with factors affecting educational systems and classroom situations and thus
in every teacher consciousness for excellence in education
13. To acquaint them with educational needs of special groups of pupils
14. To develop in the teacher the ability to communicate effectively, train them in the use of ICT,
and develop communication skills
15. To develop aesthetic sensibilities
16. To acquaint them with research in education including action research
Brief history of teacher education in Kenya
No sooner had the modern education been established in Kenya than the need for teachers became
obvious. Since there was no existing reservoir of teachers on the spot, every Christian missionary
society sort means of providing and training teachers for its own schools initially missionaries used
monitors or best pupils in class to teach others. It was this apprentices who were sent as teacherscum-evangelists to ‘push’ schools to spread Christianity and education. Eventually, the
missionaries began training teachers at various mission centres or on the job. Through this
endeavors there emerged by 1920, a number of teacher training centres in various parts of Kenya.
The Christian missionary society Maseno, the Roman Catholic centres in Kakamega and Kabaa
and the Church of Scotland mission at Kikuyu among others, trained teachers for Kenya. At that
time British Colony government did not have its own secular TTCs.
Despite the missionary effort, the 1920s came finding the majority of teachers unqualified and
most trained ones of the lowest level, popularly known as vernacular teachers. By the late 1930s
TE lagged far behind the demand. From that time to the attainment of independence in 195 one of
the major snags in expanding education was lack of qualified teachers. The use of UT therefore
persisted. Admittedly, the number of TTCs increasing but most of them catered for the lowest
cadres of teachers. In the 1960, Kenya had 40 small TTCs with few classes and therefore a limited
range of specialist staff.
The duties of the teacher is very much relevant in nursery, primary, middle, secondary, higher
secondary schools. Hence the scope of teacher education is very vast. The duties of the teacher in
different stages of education depend on the foundational general education of the teacher.
Emphasis is to be on the practical aspects rather than theory.
The scope of teacher education can be understood in the following ways;
 Teacher education at different levels of education
Triangular basis of teacher education
Aspects of teacher education
Teacher Education at different levels of Education :
Teacher education reaches teachers at all levels of education, namely Pre-primary, Primary,
Elementary, Secondary, Higher Secondary and the Tertiary. The needs and requirements of
students and education vary at each level. Hence level and stage-specific teacher preparation is
essential. Teacher education also helps in the development of teaching skills in teachers of
professional institutions. The teachers in professional institutions have only the theoretical and
practical knowledge of their respective subjects. They require specialized teacher training inputs
to deal with students entering their professions. Teacher education also reaches special education
and physical education. Thus where there are teachers, there would be teacher education.
The knowledge base is adequately specialized and diversified across stages, in order to develop
effective processes of preparing entrant teachers for the functions which a teacher is expected to
perform at each stage.
Triangular Basis of Teacher education : Construction of the relevant knowledge base for each
stage of education requires a high degree of academic and intellectual understanding of matter
related to teacher education at each stage. This involves selection of theoretical knowledge from
disciplines cognate to education, namely, psychology, sociology and philosophy, and converting
it into forms suitable for teacher education. Teacher education derives its content from the
disciplines of Philosophy, Sociology and Psychology. These disciplines provide the base for better
understanding and application of Teacher education. The Philosophical basis provides insights to
the student teachers about the implications of- the various schools of philosophy, ancient and
modern philosophical thoughts, educational thoughts of philosophical thinkers on education and
its various aspects such as curriculum construction and discipline. The Sociological basis helps
the student teachers to understand the role of society and its dynamics in the educational system
of a nation and the world at large. It encompasses the ideals that influence national and
international scenes. The Psychological basis helps the student teachers develop insights into
students‘ psychological make-up. This enables the student teachers to understand their self, their
students and the learning situations such that they are able to provide meaningful and relevant
learning experiences to their students.
Levels of teacher training
There are different levels of teacher training whose curriculum descriptions are different. Six levels
of teacher training are identified as shown.
E.C.D.E teacher education
Primary teacher education
Secondary teacher education
Technical teacher education
Higher level education
Special teacher
Aspects of Teacher Education :
Teacher education is concerned with the aspects such as, who (Teacher Educator), whom (Student
teacher), what (Content) and how (Teaching Strategy). Teacher education is dependent upon the
quality of teacher educators. The quality of pedagogical inputs in teacher education programmes
and their effective utilization for the purpose of preparing prospective teachers depend largely on
the professional competence of teacher educators and the ways in which it is utilized for
strengthening the teacher education programme. Teacher education, thus, first deals with the
preparation of effective teacher educators.
Teacher education reaches out to the student teachers by providing the relevant knowledge, attitude
and skills to function effectively in their teaching profession. It serves to equip the student teachers
with the conceptual and theoretical framework within which they can understand the intricacies of
the profession. It aims at creating the necessary attitude in student teachers towards the
stakeholders of the profession, so that they approach the challenges posed by the environment in
a very positive manner. It empowers the student teachers with the skills (teaching and soft skills)
that would enable them to carry on the functions in the most efficient and effective manner.
Teacher education therefore pays attention to its content matter.
Vision of teacher education : Teacher education has to become more sensitive to the emerging
demands from the school system. For this, it has to prepare teachers for a dual role of;
Encouraging, supportive and humane facilitator in teaching learning situations who enables
learners (students) to discover their talents, to realize their physical and intellectual potentialities
to the fullest, to develop character and desirable social and human values to function as responsible
citizens; and,
An active member of the group of persons who make conscious effort to contribute towards the
process of renewal of school curriculum to maintain its relevance to the changing societal needs
and personal needs of learners, keeping in view the experiences gained in the past and the concerns
and imperatives that have emerged in the light of changing national development goals and
educational priorities.
These expectations suggest that teacher operates in a larger context and its dynamics as well as
concerns impinge upon her functioning. That is to say, teacher has to be responsive and sensitive
to the social contexts of education, the various disparities in the background of learners as well as
in the macro national and global contexts, national concerns for achieving the goals of equity,
parity, social justice as also excellence. To be able to realize such expectations, TE has to comprise
such features as would enable the student teachers to
 Care for children, and who love to be with them;
 Understand children within social, cultural and political contexts;
 View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience;
 Understand the way learning occurs, possible ways of creating conductive conditions for
learning, differences among students in respect of the kind, pace and styles of learning.
 View knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of reflective learning.
 Be receptive and constantly learning.
 View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience, and knowledge generation
as a continuously evolving process of reflective learning.
 View knowledge not as an external reality embedded in textbooks, but as constructed in the
shared context of teaching-learning and personal experience.
 Own responsibility towards society, and work to build a better world.
 Appreciate the potential of productive work and hands-on experience as a pedagogic medium
both inside and outside the classroom.
 Analyze the curricular framework, policy implications and texts.
 Have a sound knowledge base and basic proficiency in language.
1. Explain the need for Teacher Education.
2. Describe the scope of Teacher Education.
3. Enumerate the objectives of Teacher Education.
Teacher education is often divided into these stages
There are three stages of teacher training which include; pre-service teacher training, induction
and continuing teacher education.
(i) initial teacher training / education (a pre-service course before entering the classroom as a
fully responsible teacher);
(ii) induction (the process of providing training and support during the first few years of
teaching or the first year in a particular school);
(iii)teacher development or continuing professional development (CPD) (an in-service process
for practicing teachers).
Initial teacher training-pre-service
The individual is introduced to the knowledge and skills needed to carry out the professional job
of training. It introduces the teacher to principles that underlie teaching such as the aims of
education, the curriculum, the nature/ characteristics of a child, development methods of learning
and teaching, resources that can be used for teaching and learning.
School based teacher education-prospective teachers are exposed to the realities of teaching while
serving in the schools
Practicum based education-structured programme in which the student teacher learns through
actual involvement with pupils and the community. Theory and practice are integrated at the
earliest stages of experience.
Ladder-type curriculum- provides sequence of courses so that a student who leaves school after
one year or any other prior to completion of the four year course may be certified as a teacher aide
after the first year, as assistant teacher after the second year, as an assossiate teacher ofter third
year and granted a full degree after successful completion of the fourth year
Inducting a new teacher into the teaching profession involves providing the support necessary to
help the beginning teacher develop a professional identity, and to further develop the basic
competences that were acquired in college.
Teaching involves use of subject knowledge as well as a knowledge about most effective ways to
teach different types of learners. Teachers ought to undertake a complex set of tasks and therefore
many teachers experience their first years as stressful.
This is the period when the teacher trainee assumes the role and responsibilities of a teacher for
the first time. The student teacher is at this time said to be on probation. This begins with small
scale teaching (microteaching) when the trainees teach in small groups among themselves. The
trainees are then attached to schools where they practice teaching as they are mentored by the
experienced teachers within the school. The initial years (1-2years) of teaching are also part of the
induction period. The new teacher is under supervision of the subject heads until confirmation.
A number of countries and states have put in place comprehensive systems of support to help
beginning teachers during their first years in the profession. These programs are also useful for inservice/ teacher professional development. Elements of such a programme can include:
 mentoring: the allocation to each beginning teacher of an experienced teacher, specifically
trained as a mentor; the mentor may provide emotional and professional support and
guidance; (to help the beginning teacher relate what she learned in college with classroom
 Peer tutoring-a peer network: for mutual support but also for peer learning- a colleague
approaches another to obtain or seek professional assistance or guide on his/ her discipline.
The area of competence of each colleague benefits the other leading to each member
growing professionally and academically
 support for the process of self-reflection that all teachers engage in (e.g. through the
keeping of a journal).
 Input from educational experts
TEACHERS participate in each of the following activities:
• courses/workshops (e.g. on subject matter or methods and/or other education-related
• education conferences or seminars (at which teachers and/or researchers present their
research results and discuss education problems);
• qualification programme (e.g. a degree programme);
• observation visits to other schools;
• participation in a network of teachers formed specifically for the professional development
of teachers;
• individual or collaborative research on a topic of professional interest; and
• mentoring and/or peer observation and coaching, as part of a formal school arrangement.
• reading professional literature (e.g. journals, evidence-based papers, thesis papers); and
• engaging in informal dialogue with peers on how to improve teaching
Research suggests that such programmes can:
 increase the retention of beginning teachers in the profession;
 improve teaching performance;
 promote the teachers' personal and professional well-being.
Continuous professional development
Teachers prepare young people to enter into a rapidly changing world. The teaching skills required
are also evolving, the student body continues to change due to demographic issues, and there is
explosion of knowledge through increased research and technology. There is also a continuous
pressure on academics to have mastery of their subjects as well as to understand their students.
There is no initial course of teacher education can be sufficient to prepare a teacher for a career of
all the years of teaching career.
Continuous Professional Development (CPD) is the process by which teachers (like other
professionals) reflect upon their competencies, keep them up to date, and develop them further.
The extent to which education authorities support this process varies, as does the effectiveness of
the different approaches. A growing research base suggests that to be most effective, CPD
activities should:
be spread over time,
be collaborative,
use active learning,
be delivered to groups of teachers,
include periods of practice, coaching, and follow-up,
promote reflective practice,
encourage experimentation, and
respond to teachers' needs- common reasons why teachers participate in in-service
education include
o promotion and status
o improved job performance
o increased salary
Professional development of teachers begins with pre-service and continues into the in-service
CPD can be carried out though the following methods;
mentoring: the allocation to each beginning teacher of an experienced teacher, specifically
trained as a mentor; the mentor may provide emotional and professional support and guidance;
(to help the beginning teacher relate what she learned in college with classroom reality).
 Peer network: for mutual support but also for peer learning- a colleague approaches another
to obtain or seek professional assistance or guide on his/ her discipline. The area of
competence of each colleague benefits the other leading to each member growing
professionally and academically
subject lead approach-a senior of the same subject leads the other teachers overseeing all
curricular programs associated with that subject
cluster lead approach- Teachers in the same area come together to share experiences
support for the process of self-reflection that all teachers engage in (e.g. through the
keeping of a journal).
Distance educationSchool- based in-service education eg SMASSE
and benchmarking
Purpose of in-service education
Acquisition of new knowledge
Familiarization with curriculum development
Familiarization with the principles of organization and management
Continuous PD of teachers may be conducted by educational players such as KEMI, KISE, KICD,
A model of teacher training is a framework forwarded by scholars on how teacher training should
be programmed. It provides insights on how the curriculum should be organized or structured. The
common models of teacher training are;
1. Applied science model.
In this model emphasis is placed on a wide base of knowledge in form of theories. Teaching is
seen as a planned and procedural activity. A teacher is considered successful if he/she can apply
theories in teaching and contribute to the existing theories through research. This model derives
its authority from achievements of empirical science and emerges the following assumptions:
 Teaching is a science and such can be examined rationally and objectively
 Teachers learn to be by being taught research- based theories
 Theories are conveyed to students by those who are considered to be experts in the
particular field
 Teachers are said to be educated when they become proficient enough to apply the
theories in practice
 the model takes into account the crucial element of current explosive growth of relevant
scientific knowledge
 provides opportunity for learners to achieve received knowledge
 this model can be used to train teachers in mass
Although this model can be used to train teachers in mass, the teachers trained have limited
practical skills. Due to its theoretical nature, the curriculum is bound to be too wide where trainees
are forced to cover more than necessary content.
 It fails to take into account the value of changes at the practical level applied by
practitioners thus creating a separation between research and professional practice
 Learners are left to apply on their own the theories learnt in class. Most of the theories are
not applied
 It fails to address many of important issues of teaching young children
 Learners are passive as they are restricted to the instructions of the expert
 It does not help in professional development or awareness of their role as teacherresearchers in their classroom since they are expected to use knowledge that has already
been researched.
 In Applied Science Model teaching is based on external knowledge, because it is
essentially depended on rules and principles derived from preexisting knowledge sources.
 The Applied Science Model is prescriptive since it advocates teachers to follow some
proven teaching method instead of relying upon individual or intuitive theories of teaching
and learning.
 The Applied Science Model is a product oriented model. It slavishly follows various
established methods and theories to improve teaching ability. In this model there is no
scope for expressing one’s creativity.
 Its major shortcoming is that it has not been able to deliver a relevant “scientific” solution
to the various professional dilemmas that the teacher faces in real-life classroom situations.
2. Craft model.
This model is built on the philosophy of do as I do. A teacher trainee imitates the trainer in
practicing a given skill. This approach is commonly used in training technical teachers. Advocates
for more internship. The basic assumptions underlying this model are as follows:
 Craft Model consists of the trainee or beginner working closely with the expert teacher.
 The practitioner is supposed to learn by imitating all the teaching techniques used by the
experienced teacher.
 Knowledge is acquired as a result of observation, instruction, and practice.
Merits: The positive sides of this model are as follows:
The Craft Model allows the learner to develop experiential knowledge, since the primary
responsibilities of the learner are in the classroom. Using this approach in teacher training
builds experiential knowledge in the teachers.
It is one of the quickest models of teacher education. Researches proved that students can
imitate their teacher very quickly.
The most relevant strategies of training are provided by experts, thus the student-teachers
play a passive role.
The Craft Model is essentially conservative. It does not account for any kind of change. It
depends merely on imitation.
It does not handle the relevant scientific knowledge.
In this model there is no scope for developing one’s creativity since it does not allow
suggesting new theories.
The main disadvantage of this model is that not very many teachers can be trained at the
same time since it requires one to one interaction.
3. Reflective model.
This a hybrid model between the applied science and the craft models. It capitalizes on the
strengths of both craft and applied science model. A theoretical approach is embraced at the onset
of training while the periods of induction are lengthened.
Instead of classroom lectures other approaches to teaching such as projects, discussions and field
activities are employed. It has its roots in the work of a number of educational theorists and
practitioners. Most definitions on reflective thinking found in the literature of teacher education
are based on Dewey’s inquiry oriented concepts.
The Reflective Model is based on the assumption that teachers develop professional competence
through reflecting on their own practice. In other words, a teaching experience is recalled and
considered to reach an evaluation and to provide input into future planning and action.
For Wallace a teacher education course should include two kinds of knowledge for it to be
professionally structured:
 Received knowledge: It is related to all the theories, concepts and skills that are studied
during the student-teacher’s methodology lessons.
 Experiential knowledge: It is that knowledge which is developed by the trainees
throughout their teaching practice.
Wallace’s Reflective Model is applicable to both pre-service and in-service education. The
model is separated it into three stages:
The pre-training: It is believed that the person who has decided to embark on professional
education does not enter the progamme with blank mind. He has, at least, some pre-training
knowledge about teaching.
The professional development: It is the stage of professional education or development
through theory and practice.
The professional competence: The ultimate goal of this model is to increase professional
Wallace presents the Reflective Model as a cyclical process in which the trainees are involved
throughout their teaching experience. Such a cycle aims for continuous improvement and the
development of personal theories of action.
There is an assumption that the student-teachers already have some knowledge that they acquired
as students and during the development of their programme. Once the student-teachers have the
opportunity to enter the classroom environment, they discover the actual framework of teaching
and become aware of the different classroom situations.
Reflective practice: they start recalling about their performance during the teaching practice, how
some experienced teachers deal with those situations, and also, how they themselves could manage
them. So, they make some decisions and think about possible actions they could apply to their
context. Or sometimes they simply reflect upon their classroom activities to evaluate their
professional performance. Such a study helps them to figure out both the positive as well as the
negative side of their teaching strategy. That means reflection helps them to avoid various future
professional dilemmas by recalling and evaluating past experiences.
The following illustration is a graphical representation of Wallace’s Reflective Model of
professional education or development: This is a very common way in which professional
competence is developed, and in it the process of reflective practice is clearly taking place, even
though the practice element occurs outside the formal framework of the course. The use of
reflective practice is obviously valid, but it should be noted that this sort of practice for professional
education carries certain Disadvantages:
 The main disadvantage is that the experience is private, not shared.
 The second disadvantage is the potential lack of focus in the discussion.
 The third problem could well be the lack of structure in the mode of articulating reflection.
 Ultimately, its flexibility and stress on participant initiative and input may cause lack of
organisation and a pooling of ignorance, at the expense of genuine professional or personal
Merits: Reflective teaching is very much beneficial for teacher development;
 Reflective practice helps the novice teachers become more aware of decision-making
processes to help them determine the effect their decisions have in the context in which
they are implemented.
 Reflective Model is broad in scope since it enables teachers to investigate, and clarify their
own classroom processes, and their individual theories of teaching and learning, instead of
relying on some specific method of teaching.
 The Reflective Model is a process oriented teaching approach since it provides an
opportunity for the teacher to reveal his creative sides.
 Reflective practice provides an opportunity for the teacher to find a self-defined solution
for a particular classroom problem.
 With a sharp contrast to the other models of teacher education, the Reflective Model does
not treat the student-teacher as a passive participant. Here he works with his educator as a
This is the only model that fulfills almost all the requirements for teacher development.
Organizational models on initial teacher training
Each initial teacher education program operates with certain structural and institutional
parameters, linked to the kind of teachers that are needed, how they are expected to learn, existing
resource constraints. It may be organized according to two basic models.
Consecutive Model
One area of training precedes the other. For example, professional training comes before content
area training or Vice versa.
A teacher obtains a qualification in one or more subjects (often an undergraduate bachelor’s
degree) and then studies for a further period to gain additional qualification in teaching.
Post graduate’s diploma in education comes after a general degree like bachelor of arts or science
thus training model is consecutive. The bachelor of education degree programme is organized such
that students study professional knowledge during initial years while content area comes later. As
commonly practiced, induction is done at the end. This qualifies the programme as consecutive in
Advantages- allows for flexible entry into teacher education
Weaknesses- weaker knowledge of learning knowledge and pedagogical knowledge
Concurrent Model
Both professional and content area are taught simultaneously. Both academic subjects and ways
of teaching the subjects are done together leading to a learner attaining a bachelors degree and
teaching credentials to qualify as a teacher in a specific subject. Eg
Concerning school based programs induction and formal training go together. Teachers are
given assignments to work out as they continue with teaching
In some countries it is possible for a person to receive training as a teacher by working in
a school under the responsibility of an accredited experienced practitioner.
There are community based teacher education where teacher candidates engage themselves
in communities that will allow them apply teaching theory to practice.
Advantage- challenges teacher candidates’ assumptions about issues of gender, race and
multicultural diversity
Teacher Education curriculum
The National Centre for Early Childhood Education (NACECE) develops the curriculum, trains
trainers and supervisors, and conducts monitoring and evaluation. The Early Childhood
Development and Education (ECDE) teacher education programme in which teachers are trained
through in-service courses in District Centres for Early Childhood Education (DICECEs).
Teacher Education curricula can be broken down into four major areas:
Foundational knowledge in education-related aspects of philosophy of education, history
of education, educational psychology, and sociology of education. Basic understanding of
how children develop and learn, plus some 'craft knowledge' on how to manage the
teaching process
Skills in teaching, 'pedagogic content knowledge' or 'methods': ways of teaching and
assessing the subject(s) appropriate to the learners' level assessing student learning,
supporting learning, using technology to improve teaching and learning, and supporting
students with special needs.
Content- Subject content: adequate knowledge and understanding of the subject(s) to be
taught in school —subject knowledge in the two subject areas; often also including ways
of teaching and assessing a specific subject, in which case this area may overlap with the
first ("foundational") area. There is increasing debate about this aspect; because it is no
longer possible to know in advance what kinds of knowledge and skill pupils will need
when they enter adult life, it becomes harder to know what kinds of knowledge and skill
teachers should have. Increasingly, emphasis is placed upon 'transversal' or 'horizontal'
skills (such as 'learning to learn' or 'social competences'), which cut across traditional
subject boundaries, and therefore call into question traditional ways of designing the
Teacher Education curriculum (and traditional school curricula and ways of working in
the classroom).
Practice at classroom teaching or at some other form of educational practice ( such as a
practicum): opportunities to bring all these together and practise performing the role of
teacher. usually supervised and supported in some way, though not always. Practice can
take the form of field observations, student teaching or internship.
Supervised field experiences
field observations—include observation and limited participation within a classroom under
the supervision of the classroom teacher
student teaching—includes a number of weeks teaching in an assigned classroom under
the supervision of the classroom teacher and a supervisor (e.g. from the university)
internship—teaching candidate is supervised within his or her own classroom
A profession is an occupation which provides skilled services to the community that requires
some specialized study and training for the purpose of and guidance.
A profession has a set of competencies based on knowledge acquired through academic training,
the goal of the members being a commitment to service guided by a code of ethics. It requires
formal qualification, mastery of skills, specialized knowledge and prolonged training.
While there is no agreed definition of a profession, the Australian Council of Professions
(Professions Australia) defines a profession as:
'A disciplined group of individuals who adhere to high ethical standards and uphold themselves
to, and are accepted by, the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a widely
recognised, organised body of learning derived from education and training at a high level, and
who are prepared to exercise this knowledge and these skills in the interest of others.
Teaching is a profession and teacher education is a process of professional preparation of teachers.
It is a task that requires action from multiple fronts and perspectives. A profession is characterized
A sufficiently long period of academic training
An organized body of knowledge on which the undertaking is based
Rigorous professional training with practical experience code of professional ethics that
binds its members into a fraternity
Characteristics of Teaching as a Profession
1. It Involves an Intellectual Operation:
Teachers are concerned with total development of human beings- physical, intellectual, moral,
social. Since teaching involves arousal of interest in teaching learning process, it requires an
intellectual operation.
The teacher evolves a suitable plan of action to carry out teaching by creating a conducive and
supportive learning environment to achieve the pre-specified objectives, i.e. bringing desirable
changes in the behaviour of the learners.
All the above are intellectual operations on the part of teacher. Therefore, teaching is essentially
an intellectual operation and exercise.
2. It is Based Upon a Systematic Body of Knowledge: teaching requires a sound body of
knowledge. Teachers make use of a specialized body of knowledge drawn from various subject
Knowledge springs from different layers and spheres of life—social, political, historical,
psychological, economic, cultural and religious. Teaching as a profession is based upon systematic
body of knowledge emanated from different spheres of human life and activities.
3. It Has a Common Code of Ethics:
Teaching profession has a common code of ethics which guides the behaviour and conduct of
teachers in their institutions and outside. Teachers decisions are guided by professional ethics. A
code of professional ethics is a charter of rights and duties for the protection of professional
autonomy and freedom.
This can ensure development of a high degree of recognition, regard and social status of the
profession so that true professionalism emerges in the long run. He/she is committed to his/her
profession in a true perspective.
4. It requires continuous updating of ones knowledge-it Generates In-Service Growth:
demands continuous in-service
In teaching profession, a teacher always learns at all stages of teaching. Learning does not stop.
An extra-ordinary literary genius R.N. Tagore says, “A lamp can never light another lamp
unless if continues to burn its own flame; a teacher can never truly teach unless he is still
learning himself”.
5. It Draws Material from the Spectrum of Science: It is a goal directed process.Teaching is not only an art but also a science. As an art it propels teachers to acquire some skills
which are called “tricks of the trade”. As such, a teacher needs to be trained properly in order to
achieve some objectives.
From the stand point of science, it goes through certain steps which are followed in the training of
a teacher. He/she is well-versed with the steps of teaching which go in a systematic way. Therefore,
teaching is not a haphazard affair. It requires proper planning to reach the goal.
6. It Transforms Raw-material into a Practical and Definite End: Creates all professionalsteachers facilitate acquisition of skills, knowledge and attitudes by learners which help them
function effectively in the society.
Teachers influence the future operations of learners psychologically, socially, economically
Learners are prospective raw-materials in teaching profession. They are prepared to teach with
efficiency and effectiveness for the larger interest of society which has varied expectations. They
are trained into a practical and definite end by means of providing right knowledge and practical
training in teaching and other pedagogical courses.
7. It Possesses an Educationally Communicable Technique:
An important characteristics of teaching as a profession is its nature of science. As teaching is a
science, teaching techniques are systematic and have certain steps to be followed. It is easily
communicable for its wide application.
8. It Tends towards Self-Organisation: focuses on character qualities such as honesty, selfregulation, humbleness, accountability, loyalty and integrity
It demands sensitivity of personnel involved in teaching activities towards growth and
development of profession. So, they are self-organised by evolving a definite mechanism to sustain
and promote the standards of teaching profession.
9. It renders essential a Social Service: has responsibilities and social justice
A nation or a society marches forward on the track of development if teachers serve in a better
manner to effect changes in various ways. Teaching infuses a sense of service in the minds of
teachers, because teaching is essentially a social service. Self-interest recedes giving way to
general interest. It accords high premium on social service-the crux of profession.
10. Requires special training and practice; It Has A Lengthy Period of Study and
Training:demands possession of a body of specialized knowledge and extended practical
Another chief characteristic of teaching is that this profession requires a lengthy period of study
and training. In other words, a person willing to take up this profession has to study for a number
of years and acquire mastery over the contents of the subject matter. After this, he/she has to pursue
training in teaching skill and method.
11. It Has A High Degree of Autonomy:
Autonomy is free from any form of intervention. Any form of intervention in teaching activities is
not brooked right from planning of activities, identifying instructional objectives, development of
curriculum, and transaction of curriculum, evaluating student’s performance, framing of admission
and promotion rules to organisation of co-curricular activities.
The teacher has to be engaged in self-study and has to carry on self-learning in order to keep
himself/herself of abreast with the latest trends in his/her subjects. This aspect is emphasized in
teaching profession which ultimately leads to growth of a teacher while in service.
12. it is a multi-skill activity
13. Emphasizes on punctuality and regularity
14. has high status and dignity
15. It has an effective entry procedures.
16. It is highly regarded in the society.
Barriers to the advancement of teaching to full professional status
Professionalism tends to be weak among teachers in developing countries because teachers do not
have full control over service they offer as well as the training and work standards. There is too
much control by the government. There is however increasing number of teachers professional
associations which focus on professional development of teachers. Some barriers to professional
advancement include
Education and teaching-teachers are fragmented on basis of qualification and specialization
Absolute and relative size- teaching in most countries is a mass occupation thus lack of
Lack of monopoly and legal recognition- teachers are regarded as ordinary workers with
commonplace skills. They do not have means to exclude those who have not met the
requirements as a teacher.
Self regulation- well established professions are able to self regulate- they maintain high
barriers to entry in terms of qualification, requirements and registration- teachers are highly
state dominated and subjected to bureaucratic rules and regulations over which they have
no control--poor terms of service and poor career prospectus.
Work environment- crowded classrooms, poor sanitary conditions of school buildings,
inadequate resources-poor working conditions.
Lack of continuing professional development to enable them keep up with dynamic
changes in the the sector.
Remuneration-most teachers are paid lower than other workers with similar qualifications
Teacher retention-there are alternative professions for teachers with high professional and
academic qualification, teaching is chosen as last resort/
Professional diversification-ranges from untrained teachers some just from secondary
school, to trained teachers fresh from college to professors
Declining educational standards
Strategies to enhance teaching as a profession
 Increased agitation of teachers through trade unions for better pay, improved terms of
 Better working environment and promotion prospects.
 Hardship allowances increase retention
 State sponsorship for study eg study leave with pay
 Improving teacher qualifications by raising entry grade.
 Automatic allowances and promotion on merit
Types of Teacher
There are many classifications of teachers. We can classify teachers based on their leadership style:
Authoritarian teacher who do not listen to the opinion of their students;
Democratic teacher, who allow students to participate in decision-making; and
Laissez-Faire teacher, who allow students to do whatever they like. Another way to
classify teachers is on nature-nurture nexus
Professional teachers are trained in the art of teaching, paid a salary or wage for their services.
They have terms of service
Qualities of a professional teacher
i. Committed to teaching profession and educational goals.
Should have good moral conduct
Be a good planner and decision maker
Be a good Learnera. Renewed knowledge-a learner- teacher must keep learning throughout Today
knowledge is produced and consumed quite rapidly this demands that it is updated.
The information the teacher conveys to his students should be up-to-date and should
reflect the latest scientific facts of the field.
b. Have proper understanding of content matter
c. Have good knowledge of learners
d. Understand policies governing education
Adaptable- Culturally and socially adaptive can handle new experiences- be open to
Have self-control and patience and fair-emotionally stable
Be a leader-Courageous-strong in spirit and brave
Have ability to develop good relationships with learners -develop good interpersonal skills
Patient, kind and caring personality-social, warm and friendly approachable.
Have dedication to teaching
Be able to engage learners in learning
Good communicator - can explain concepts appropriately- have appropriate teaching
o -can use appropriate reinforcement (verbal and non-verbal),
o -has sense of humour
Cooperative and democratic in nature- Working in collaboration and coordination.
Physically fit, active and energetic
The difference roles teacher performs at the are:
Manager As a manager observes overall feeling and tone of the class. Consult with other teachers
for curriculum ideas, sharing materials and scheduling common activities.
- To plan and deliver activities that meet student’s needs.
- To develop skills of time management, class-room management and material
- As a manager teacher develops human resources i.e. students by creating interest for the
academic, correlates the subject with other subjects.
Facilitator - Assist children who need individual help to work.
- Remain in contact with the whole group and sense changing mood or activity.
- Treat children with unconditional positive regard and provide individualized care for needs.
- Facilitates learning by being creative and organized in planning daily classes.
- Plan appropriate programme for exceptional students those need extra help.
Keeps in mind the intellectual development of the students.
Develops ability for abstract reasoning & conceptualization.
Emphasis on understanding / comprehending rather than memorizing.
Orgnaised form of learning.
Values and attitudes crucial for desirable way of functioning in the society.
Developing critical thinking and scientific attitude.
Evaluator - Provides proper atmosphere for the development. - Organises activities properly so
that preschool children pick them up quickly.
o Continue to set and correct homework.
o Evaluate students progress and discuss results with students, parents and other
o Participates in staff meeting, workshops for continuing professional development.
To monitor learning development.
o Developing an awareness that role of evaluation is directly proportional to teaching.
Guide and Counsellor
Give guidance for the development.
Give guidance about how to interact with others.
Develops healthy & safe play environment.
Meets with other educational professionals and parents to discuss above the
improvement of classroom techniques and progress of children
o Act as a role model.
o Prepares for next level of schooling
o Give guidance for the development stage i.e. adolescent about rapid physical
growth, emotional changes.
o Guidance for type of career to be chosen, i.e. professional / technical etc.
o Developing healthy attitude towards work.
Competencies Required
Personal - Academically qualified - Physically fit and healthy - Active and energetic - Socially
warm and friendly - Love for children and teaching - Physically sound - - Active and energetic Aware of self - Socially warm and friendly - Intellectually love for teaching Emotionally stable.
Aware of self. Socially warm & friendly. Intellectually – love for teaching. Have principles &
Professional - Up to date knowledge of subject - Appropriate teaching skills - Ability to tryout
innovative and creative methods of teaching. Specialist in subject - Depth and update knowledge
- Appropriate teaching skills - Uses innovative methods of teaching Subject Specialist with grasp
and depth & upto date knowledge about subject. Appropriate teaching skills. Ability to try out
innovative methods of teaching
Social - Develop interpersonal and interactive skills - Be open to criticism - Achieve the goals of
the institution - Developing rapport and creating friendly environment- Develop interpersonal and
interactive skills - Achieve the goals of the institution - Works in collaboration and co-ordination
- have leadership quality - develops rapport and creates congenial and friendly environment.
Develop inter personal & interactive skills. Be open to Criticism. Achieve the goals of the
institution. Working in collaboration & coordination. Be a leader. Developing rapport and creating
congenial & friendly environment
Key responsibilities of a teacher
1 Set high expectations which inspire, motivate and challenge pupils
• establish a safe and stimulating environment for pupils, rooted in mutual respect
• set goals that stretch and challenge pupils of all backgrounds, abilities and dispositions
• demonstrate consistently the positive attitudes, values and behaviour which are expected of
2 Promote good progress and outcomes by pupils
• be accountable for pupils’ attainment, progress and outcomes
• be aware of pupils’ capabilities and their prior knowledge, and plan teaching to build on these
• guide pupils to reflect on the progress they have made and their emerging needs
• demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how pupils learn and how this impacts on teaching
• encourage pupils to take a responsible and conscientious attitude to their own work and study.
3 Demonstrate good subject and curriculum knowledge
• have a secure knowledge of the relevant subject(s) and curriculum areas, foster and maintain
pupils’ interest in the subject, and address misunderstandings
• demonstrate a critical understanding of developments in the subject and curriculum areas, and
promote the value of scholarship
• demonstrate an understanding of and take responsibility for promoting high standards of literacy,
articulacy and the correct use of standard English, whatever the teacher’s specialist subject
• If teaching early reading, demonstrate a clear understanding of systematic synthetic phonics
• If teaching early mathematics, demonstrate a clear understanding of appropriate teaching
4 Plan and teach well structured lessons
• impart knowledge and develop understanding through effective use of lesson time
• promote a love of learning and children’s intellectual curiosity
• set homework and plan other out-of-class activities to consolidate and extend the knowledge and
understanding pupils have acquired
• reflect systematically on the effectiveness of lessons and approaches to teaching
• contribute to the design and provision of an engaging curriculum within the relevant subject
5 Adapt teaching to respond to the strengths and needs of all pupils
• know when and how to differentiate appropriately, using approaches which enable pupils to be
taught effectively
• have a secure understanding of how a range of factors can inhibit pupils’ ability to learn, and
how best to overcome these
• demonstrate an awareness of the physical, social and intellectual development of children, and
know how to adapt teaching to support pupils’ education at different stages of development
• have a clear understanding of the needs of all pupils, including those with special educational
needs; those of high ability; those with English as an additional language; those with disabilities;
and be able to use and evaluate distinctive teaching approaches to engage and support them.
6 Make accurate and productive use of assessment
• know and understand how to assess the relevant subject and curriculum areas, including statutory
assessment requirements
• make use of formative and summative assessment to secure pupils’ progress
• use relevant data to monitor progress, set targets, and plan subsequent lessons
• give pupils regular feedback, both orally and through accurate marking, and encourage pupils to
respond to the feedback.
7 Manage behaviour effectively to ensure, good and safe learning environment
• have clear rules and routines for behaviour in classrooms, and take responsibility for promoting
good and courteous behaviour both in classrooms and around the school, in accordance with the
school’s behaviour policy
• have high expectations of behaviour, and establish a framework for discipline with a range of
strategies, using praise, sanctions and rewards consistently and fairly
• manage classes effectively, using approaches which are appropriate to pupils’ needs in order to
involve and motivate them
• maintain good relationships with pupils, exercise appropriate authority, and act decisively when
8 Fulfill wider professional responsibilities
• make a positive contribution to the wider life and ethos of the school
• develop effective professional relationships with colleagues, knowing how and when to draw on
advice and specialist support
• deploy support staff effectively
• take responsibility for improving teaching through appropriate professional development,
responding to advice and feedback from colleagues
• communicate effectively with parents with regard to pupils’ achievements and well-being.
DUTIES OF A TEACHER There are many duties and responsibilities a teacher has. The
following is a general overview.
prepare lessons, making them as interesting as possible
prepare homework, assignments and assessment
research information to ensure the knowledge they impart is current
mark homework and pieces of assessment
identify the needs of individual students in their classes, and work to help each child develop his
or her own potential
6. prepare resources for the classroom
7. confer with students over their work
8. assist children to learn, not judge their inability to learn
9. identify emotional, intellectual, physical, etc issues which may be hindering the student from
learning to his/her best potential, and research and recommend courses of action
10. conduct parent-teacher interviews
11. provide a sounding board (for both students and teachers) and allow for open discussion
12. attend professional development sessions to improve his/her own teaching methods and
13. present a professional but caring persona at all times
14. Treat students with respect, and teach them to treat others with respect.
Teacher Management Is Classified Into Three Main Categories
Entry- includes assurance of the right persons entering the service; registration and
recruitment of teachers
Maintenance-entails deployment, remuneration, promotion, discipline and
Maintenance of teaching standards
Exit-management of teachers who leave the profession through natural attrition
Objectives of teacher management
Improve teacher registration and records management systems
Provide and Maintain sufficient and qualified teaching force for public education
Attain national equity in teacher distribution and optimal utilization
Enhance efficient management of public education institutions.
Expand opportunities for career growth and progression of teachers
Maintain discipline and integrity in the teaching service
Enhance professionalism and quality standards in the teaching service
Enhance efficiency and effectiveness in the management of the payroll
Increase customer satisfaction
Teacher management is carried out at school level by the head of the institution and at national
level by the Teachers Service Commission (TSC)entrusted with teacher management by the
Management of Teachers At School Level
For smooth and effective running of school, the school Head teacher/principal needs to gain the
support and commitment of all the teachers. principals need to motivate and encourage all staff to
feel that they are part of a team with common commission.
Staff motivation and development
It is important for the school administration to create a conducive atmosphere in the school to make
everybody feel that their contributions are valued and recognized.
Head teachers should ensure that the staffs have an opportunity to develop personal and
professional skills. Some ways in which head teachers may develop and motivate staff to increase
quality of performance include:
 Giving teachers a chance to attend appropriate INSET and other activities.
 Delegating important responsibilities such as chairing a subject panel.
 Inviting role models to talk to teachers, pupils and support staff.
 Recognizing achievement and celebrating successes and rejoicing with stalk holders.
 Organizing educational visits and tours.
Taking positive and objective stand in recommending teachers for promotion.
Paying attention to the general welfare and individual problems.
Supplying all basic resources required to teach.
Regularly consulting with all the stalk holders including the teacher’s union representatives.
Staff appraisal
The purpose of appraisal is for the head teacher to assess the teachers’ performance, identify their
professional needs and plan for the future improved performance. An appraisal meeting takes place
between the head teacher and individual staff members after an agreed period of time has elapsed.
The formal appraisal meeting should have a structure that is agreed upon between the appraiser
and the appraise. The appraisee should also be alerted to prepare for the meeting in the following
 The kind of questions/topic that will constitute the main areas of discussion.
 Prepare his/her own appraisal/self-appraisal and use the evidence for the appraisal
The main areas of discussions could cover the following:
 Commitment to the job.
 Classroom management/control
 Teacher/learning skills
 Impact on pupil performance
 Inter-personal skills
 Competence
 Administrative skills, e.g. record keeping
 Projection/objectives/plans including needs for future improvement in specific area(s)
At the close of the appraisal meeting, both parties should agree on the level of past performance
and how future performance can be addressed. Informal appraisal meetings may take place during
the appraisal period where some of the above areas for discussion may be reviewed.
The Teachers’ Service Commission (TSC)
TSC was established in1967 by an act of parliament Cap 212 of the laws of Kenya. The constitution
of Kenya (2010) chapter 15 article 248 established TSC as a constitutional commission to
undertake management of teachers in order to ensure
o Uniform terms and conditions of service for all teachers,
o only academically and professionally qualified teachers are recruited into service and
o to streamline teacher employment by having one employer.
The commission ensures establishment and maintenance of sufficient professional training force
that is equitably distributed and optimally utilized in public education and training institutions. It
also plays a regulatory role in the teaching service.
Functions of TSC
The commission is mandated to carry out the following functions;
Registration of trained teachers
Recruitment and employment of registered teachers
Assign teachers employed by the service in any public school or institution
To promote and transfer teachers
To exercise disciplinary control over the teachers
To terminate employment of teachers
To review standards of education and training for persons entering the teaching service
Review demand for and supply of teachers
To advise the national government on matters relating to the teaching profession
Registration of teachers
All qualified teachers must be registered by TSC. It is an offence to teach without being registered.
Section 23 (2) of TSC act
It entails verification of the qualification and background information of the applicant. The teacher
is issued with registration certificate.
Challenges- inefficiencies experienced
• The registration is done online yet some teachers are not computer literate. They are forced
to use the cyber cafes for registration leading to lack of confidentiality.
• There is no proper mechanism to ensure that all persons involved in teaching are registered
• Some schools especially in the Arid and Semi-arid Land (ASAL) areas are have limited
choice but forced to employ teachers who are not registered due to lack of registered
teachers in the areas. In addition, the private schools have not enforced this rule and this
makes such teachers to escape being punished when involved in disciplinary cases.
Solutions- the government should enforce teacher registration, register teachers as they graduate
from institutions, use online registration
Recruitment and employment
Recruitment is demand-driven –vacancies are advertised in print media and prospective candidates
apply in the school or district of their choice
Challenges- there are teacher shortages in public schools even with the surplus unemployed trained
teachers due to financial constraints
There is an upsurge in in enrollment due to free primary education and free day secondary school
and new schools by CDF
To address the challenge of teacher recruitment the government will adopt the following policies:
1. Provide and maintain professional teaching force for all public basic education and tertiary
educational institutions.
2. Establish and maintain a teacher management information system TMIS
3. Maintain a 5 year ‘stay policy’ for all teachers in first appointment.
4. For teachers in hard to reach areas review and maintain incentives periodically.
To implement this policies the government will adopt this policies:
1. Create links with post-secondary training institutions on matching supply of teachers of all
2. Institutionalize alternative modes of curriculum delivery and explore new ones.
3. Recruit adequate number of teachers for all public educational institutions.
Teacher Deployment
This is the process of assigning teachers duties in stations where their services are required through
postings, transfers, recruitment and placement of institutional administrations
Teacher deployment aims at ensuring equitable distribution and optimal utilization of teachers and
providing qualified and competent management to public health institutions.
The commission is mandated to assign and transfer teachers. The teachers are posted after study
leave or after determination of discipline cases to the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.
In addition the commission is mandated to transfer teachers from one station to another subject to
availability of vacancies and replacements.
Challenges faced during teacher deployment
1. Stakeholders interference when carrying out teacher balance and rationalization and
resistance of transfers due to medical reasons including HIV/AIDS and other terminal
diseases, alcohol and drug abuse, marriage grounds and insecurity.
There are also factors related to inequitable distribution of teachers, influx of teachers in
schools in urban regions, availability of infrastructure and differential house allowance.
2. Teachers of optimal subjects such as history, business studies, French, German etc. are
under-utilized due to the low enrollment into the subjects.
To address this challenges the government will adopt the following policy:
- Attain national equality in teacher distribution and utilization.
1. Conduct continuous teacher rationalization to attain equity and optimum utilization.
2. Develop mechanisms for sharing under-utilized optimal subject teachers between schools
in the same localities.
3. Rationalize the introduction of optimal subjects in school curricula to ensure that optional
subjects offered have adequate number of students.
4. Set minimum enrollment for new schools to qualify for TSC teachers with a view of
ensuring optimal utilization of teachers.
5. Establish mechanisms for attracting and retaining teachers in the teaching service.
6. Implement the reviewed staffing norms of 2005 and carry out periodic reviews of the norms
for effective teacher utilization.
7. Harmonize house allowance to create a level ground for all teachers.
Teacher promotion.
Teacher promotion is based on three different schemes of service:
1. Scheme of service for graduate teachers
2. Scheme of service for not graduate teachers
3. Scheme of work for technical teachers and lecturers
Teacher promotion is done through competitive selection and Teacher Proficiency Course (TPC).
Challenges faced during teacher promotion.
1. Limited posts provided for in the budgets and hence only a small percentage of those
deserving can be promoted per year.
2. Allocation for the Teacher Proficiency Courses (TPSs) for the non-graduate teachers are
confined to 2.5% per annum. This is not adequate in view of the large non-graduate
teachers managed by the commission.
To address this challenges the government will adopt the following policy:
- Expand opportunities for career growth and progression for teachers.
To implement this policy the government will adopt the following strategies.
1. Avail adequate budgetary provision to cater for promotion of teachers as per the existing
schemes of service and CPD through INSET Trainings.
2. Increase TPC funding to cater for 10% of non-graduate teachers from 2.5% in 2012.
3. Establish linkage with teachers professional body in the promotion process.
Teacher discipline
The objective of the discipline service is to enhance professionalism and integrity in the teaching
service. This is achieved through enforcement of the codes of regulations and the coded of conduct
and ethics for teachers, the discipline function in TSC is mainly performed through established
discipline panels comprising of TSC commissioners and secretariat staff.
Indiscipline among teachers is caused by, among others,
 lack of knowledge of the employment terms and conditions of service
 lack of basic skills in financial management
 poor knowledge of the code of regulations for teachers and code of conduct and ethics.
To address the challenges, the government will adopt the following policy
-develop mechanisms to enhance integrity and professionalism in the teaching practice
1. sensitize field officers on effective and efficient handling of discipline process.
2. Promote mechanisms for alternative forms of discipline resolution.
3. Decentralize dispensation of discipline cases to the countries.
4. Continuously sensitize teachers on integrity and professionalism in the service.
5. Build capacity of education administrators on financial management.
The commission agent investigates cases of teachers disciplinary cases especially before
interdiction provide the commission will all information and documents pertaining to the case
which leads to interdiction.
In cases of major offences tabulated in the code, the commission may as a result of the
proceedings determine that the teacher’s name is removed from the register, warned,
suspended or demoted and if the teacher is found not guilty of the allegations made against the
interdiction is revoked.
In cases of minor offences under regulations, the commission may determine that the teacher
be dismissed, suspended, demoted or be issued with a serious warning.
Monitoring and evaluation
The system has experienced several challenges namely:
• Understaffing. Lack of enough teachers has hampered the appraisal system as it’s not
possible to achieve targets with lack of enough manpower. Most teachers are overworked
and therefore cannot deliver as expected.
• Targets. Setting of low targets.
• M&E. This is still not being done as expected due to lack of transport, inaccessibility of
some areas and officers being in charge of vast areas.
• Trade unionism. The teachers unions KNUT and KUPPET has persistently resists
performance contracting for fear that many of their members would face numerous
disciplinary actions. They have been however been assured by the Teacher Performance
and Integrity Performance and Integrity Programme in Kenya that the appraisal system
would focus on corrective support development of a teacher.
• Lack of computer Literacy. Despite the sensitization of teachers and field officers little has
been done in respect to those who are not computer literate yet every teacher should fill his
appraisal online then appraised online.
• Poor infrastructure. Some areas have no network forcing both the teachers and officers to
go for long distances to appraise and be appraised.
Teacher discipline has also bedeviled with a number of challenges such as;
• Delays experienced in the determination of cases on financial malpractices presented
• Hostile and uncooperative witnesses
• Defective interdictions by field agents and inadequate supporting evidence or delays in
submission of the same contributed to delays in the dispensation of discipline cases
increasing number of court cases instituted by teachers against disciplinary panel decisions
posted a great challenge to the Commission
• Lack of technical capacity to investigate cases and interpret reports by the field officers.
• Failure by accused teachers and some witnesses to appear for the hearing
Teacher education programs in Kenya
Teacher education in Kenya is provided to meet the demands of the levels; pre-primary, primary,
secondary and tertiary level. The institutions offering training includes; ECDE at DICECE training
centres, PTE colleges, DTE colleges and universities.
Kenya has made great strides in teacher education since 1963. This has been demonstrated by
growth of;
 The number of teacher training institutions-offering certificate, diploma and degree courses
 Increased enrollment
 Increased transition rate
 Increased number of trained teachers
 Enhancement of equity
 Gender parity
 Improved relevance and quality across to all levels
The milestones are largely attributed to the implementation of recommendations of various
commissions, committees and taskforces of education and training.
The well-established tradition of teaching and learning in India has retained its inherent strength
even under adverse circumstances. The post-independence period was characterized by major
efforts being made to nurture and transform teacher education. The system of teacher preparation
has come under considerable pressure as a result of the expansion and growth of school education,
through efforts to universalize elementary education. Having inherited a foreign model of teacher
preparation at the time of independence from Britain in 1946, major efforts have been made to
adapt and up-date the teacher education curriculum to local needs, to make it more context based,
responsive and dynamic with regard to best meeting the particular needs of country. The current
system of teacher education is supported by a network of national, provincial and district level
resource institutions working together to enhance the quality and effectiveness of teacher
preparation programs at the pre-service level and also through in-service programs for serving
teachers throughout the country.
Impact of National Policies: has made considerable progress in school education since
independence with reference to overall literacy, infrastructure and universal access and enrolment
in schools. Two major developments in the recent years form the background to the present reform
in teacher educationThe political recognition of Universalization of Elementary Education that led to the Right to
Education Bill, 2008 and
The National Curriculum Framework for school education, 2005.
The Bill has been passed by the Parliament and the Right to Education Act has come into being
making it mandatory for the state to provide free and compulsory education to almost 20 crore
children in the 6-14 age group till class 8. The Act mandates a schedule for the functioning of
schools which includes a teacher-student ratio of 1:30 till a student population of 200 students at
the primary stage. This would increase the demand for qualified elementary school teachers many
times. The country has to address the need of supplying well qualified and professionally trained
teachers in large numbers in the coming years. The lunch of the massive Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
in 2002 and the recent financial commitment and education cess to augment the Universal
Elementary Education mission have underscored the need to adequately prepare teachers to
address the growing demand for quality education.
Developments in School education:
School education has seen significant development over the decades since independence.
enrolment figures inceased,
children are dropping out before completing class 8. The situation on the ground is still
ridden with difficulties.
Regional, social, economic and gender disparities are posing new challenges. This reality
increases the challenge that the prospective teacher will face in implementing the Right to
Education Act.
fragmentation of the school system poses the severest challenge to the national declaration
of catering to the basic needs of all children through the elementary education in an
inclusive setting.
However increasing privatization and differentiation of the schooling system have vitiated
drastically the right to quality education for all children.
Changing Role of the Teacher : The current system of schooling poses tremendous burden on
children. Educationists are of the view that the burden arises from treating knowledge as a ‗given‘,
an external reality existing outside the learner and embedded in textbooks. Knowledge is
essentially a human construct, a continuously evolving process of reflective learning. The NCF
2005, requires a teacher to be a facilitator of children‘s learning in a manner that the child is helped
to construct his/her knowledge. Education is not a mechanical activity of information transmission
and teachers are not information dispensers. Teachers have to increasingly play the role of crucial
mediating agents through whom curriculum is transacted.
Challenges in Teacher Education: Unprecedented expansion of teacher education institutions
and programmes during the past few years characterizes the teacher education scenario of today.
With increasing school enrolments and the launch of pan-Indian primary education development
programmes like Operation Blackboard, District Primary Education Programme, and
Universalization of Elementary Education, there was a natural increase in the demand for teachers.
Added to this, the backlog of untrained teachers in the system and the essential requirement of preservice teacher certification for appointment as a teacher led to mounting pressure on existing
institutional capacity. The demand far exceeding supply, market forces have taken over
unprecedented rise in the number of teacher education institutions in most parts of the country.
Research and Innovation: There is a need to increase research that documents practices
reflectively and analytically- whether it is of programs or of individual classrooms – so that it can
be included in the body of knowledge available for study to student teachers. University
departments and research institutions need to undertake such research. In addition there is a need
to innovate with different models of teacher education. Institutional capacity and capability to
innovate and create are a pre-requisite for the pursuit of excellence. Hence in the present scenario
a lot of impetus has been given to research. Many teacher educators are encouraged to take up
either major or minor research projects.
Inclusive Education: There are two kinds of exclusion prevalent in schools; one is the exclusion
of the child with disabilities and the second is the social exclusion of children who come from
socially and economically deprived backgrounds. There is a dire need to equip teachers to
overcome their biases in these regards and positively handle these challenges. The Persons with
Disabilities (PWD) Act of 2005 provides for free and compulsory education up to the age of 18
years for all children with disabilities. The education of socially and economically disadvantaged
groups, The enrolment and retention of girls and therefore their participation has also remained
behind those of boys.
Perspectives for equitable and sustainable development:
In order to develop future citizens who promote equitable and sustainable development for all
sections of society and respect for all, it is necessary that they be educated through perspectives of
gender equity, perspectives that develop values for peace, respect the rights of all, and that respect
and value work. In the present ecological crisis promoted by extremely commercialized and
competitive lifestyles, children need to be educated to change their consumption patterns and the
way they look at natural resources. There is also a increasing violence and polarization both within
children and between them, that is being caused by increasing stress in society. Education has a
crucial role to play in promoting values of peace based on equal respect of self and others. The
NCF 2005 and subsequent development of syllabi and materials is attempting to do this as well.
Role of Community knowledge in education: It is important for the development of concepts in
children as well as the application of school knowledge in real life that the formal knowledge is
linked with community knowledge. The NCF 2005 promotes the inclusion of locally relevant
content in the curriculum as well as pedagogy.
ICT in Schools and e-learning : With the onset and proliferation of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT), there is a growing demand that it be included in school
education. Teacher education has been structured to orient and sensitize the teacher to distinguish
between developmentally appropriate and detrimental uses of ICT. It needs to also equip teachers
with competence to use ICT for their own professional development. In view of the above
discussion the newly visualized Teacher education program as put forth by NCERT is as follows;
Newly visualized Teacher Education Program Emphasizes learning as a self-learning participatory process taking place in social context
of learner‘s as well as wider social context of the community to nation as a whole.
 Puts full faith in self learning capacity of school children and student teacher and evolving
proper educative programme for education.
 Views the learner as an active participative person in learning. His/her capabilities or
potentials are seen not as fixed but capable of development through experiences.
 Views the teacher as a facilitator, supporting, encouraging learner‘s learning.
 Does not treat knowledge as fixed, static or confined in books but as something being
constructed through various types of experiences. It is created through discussion, evaluate,
explain, compare and contrasts i.e., through interaction.
 Emphasizes that appraisal in such an educative process will be continuous, will be selfappraisal, will be peer appraisal, will be done by teacher educators, and formal type too.
Hence there would be a major shift;
Teacher centric, stable designs
Teacher direction and decisions
Teacher guidance and monitoring
Passive reception in learning
Learner centric, flexible process
Learner autonomy
Facilitates, support and encourages
Active participation in learning
Learning within the four walls of Learning in the wider social
the classroom
context the class room
Knowledge as "given" and fixed
Knowledge as it evolves and
Disciplinary focus
Linear exposure
Multiple and divergent exposure
Appraisal, short, few
Multifarious, continuous
Teacher Training schools or colleges may be divided into two categories (i) Public and (ii) Private.
From the point of view of management and organization, there are following four distinct types of
teacher education institutions.
(1) Normal Schools — Normal School movement gained a lot of momentums during the 19th
century. These were mainly concerned for the training of elementary school teachers. the duration
of the training was about one year. Their curriculum was narrow and limited to the following (i)
The review of common school subjects like languages, Geometry, Algebra, Arithmetic, Geography
etc. (ii) Mental and moral development of children, and (iii) Principles and methods of Teaching.
Recently the Normal Schools have undergone much change. They have become more progressive,
Now the duration of training to prepare teachers for elementary schools is three years. The course
contents are more comprehensive and. integrated. The curriculum includes subject-matter
orientation as well as professional training. Presently most of the Normal Schools have been
replaced by Teacher colleges.
(2) Teacher‘s Colleges — During the second quarter of 20th century, some Normal Schools were
replaced by Teachers Colleges with more progressive and modern teacher training institutions. As
it had the support of the teachers, teacher educators and numerous public organizations, including
that of National Educational Association the movement gained momentum. These Colleges are
Exclusively devoted to the training of teachers, offering 4 or 5 years integrated courses, both for
elementary and secondary school.
(3) Departments of Education — Departments of Education were created as a part of bigger
Colleges and Universities. The Iowa University was the first to create a separate department,
named, ―Department of Pedagogy, for training teachers in the art of teaching.
(4) Schools or Colleges of Education — The establishment of university Departments of
Education and liberal arts colleges started a new movement of creating autonomous Schools of
Education in different universities and Colleges of Education.
Many bodies and institutions are involved in teacher education. The Ministry recognizes
TSC- The COMMISIONS functions are to: register educators promote the
professional development of educators set, maintain and protect ethical and
professional standards. principal employer of teachers, is responsible for ensuring
that teachers‘ conditions of service, working conditions and career prospects meet
appropriate standards,
KICD-prepare curriculum
QUALITY assurance in the Department of Education.
HELB- Functions : It provides financial assistance to universities and colleges to
meet their requirement.
KNEC-responsible for monitoring the performance of schools and teachers
United Nations Educational Scientific, Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)-AT
international level
1. Several types of teacher education institutions thereby lacking in uniformity.
2. Inadequate teaching and learning resources. Poor standards with respect to resources for colleges
of education.
3. Financial Constraints: Unhealthy financial condition of the colleges of education
4. Incompetent teacher educators resulting in deficiency of scholars.
5. Negative attitude of managements towards development of both human as well as material
6. Uniform education policy of the government treating excellent institutions alike. Lack of quality
service standard guidelines for training programmes, which impact negatively on provision of
quality training.
7. Improper selection of the candidates (student teachers) to be admitted.
8. Traditional curriculum and teaching methods of teaching in the teacher education programme.
9. Inadequate duration of the teacher programme.
10. Haphazard and improper organization of teacher education. Lack of coordination of training,
especially in curriculum content and pedagogy, which compromises the quality of the training and
results in resource duplication and wastage.
11. Unplanned and insufficient co-curricular activities.
12. Subjective evaluation pattern.
13. Practice teaching neither adequate nor properly conducted.
14. Feedback mechanisms lacking.
15. Objectives of teacher education not understood.
16. Secondary level teacher education is not the concern of higher education.
We have trouble integrating what is happening in higher education and what is
happening in schools.
In higher education, they are teaching the theoretical, but in schools we need the
17. Lack of dedication towards the profession.
18. Lack of occupational perception
19. Technology issues
There are some suggestions here for improving the condition of teacher education:
1. Teacher education, like higher education and technical education must be the responsibility of
the central government.
2. Uniformity among teacher education institutions must be ensured and maintained in terms of
curriculum, duration and timings of the programme.
3. Curriculum development on a continuing basis to keep pace with current trends.
4. Government should look after the financial requirements of the institutions.
5. Teacher educators must be well qualified and experienced with language proficiency.
6. Teacher educators to be trained in the use of ICTs.
7. Privatization of teacher education should be regulated.
8. Institutes of low standards should be reformed or closed.
9. Conditions for affiliation should be made strict.
10. Regular and rigorous inspection by NCTE should be done on a regular basis.
11. Selection procedure must be improved and interviews, group discussions along with common
entrance test and marks should be introduced.
12. Duration of teacher education should be increased to two years.
13. More emphasis should be given on practice teaching till mastery is reached with appropriate
14. Internship should be of sufficient time (six months) and student teachers must be exposed to
the full functioning of the school.
15. Evaluation in teacher education should be objective, reliable and valid.
16. Teacher pupil ratio should be ideally 1:8.
17. Several types of co-curricular activities should be included in the curriculum.
18. Professional development of teacher educators as ongoing ritual.
19. Refresher course should be organized frequently for teacher educators.
20. Research in teacher education should be encouraged.
The effectiveness of teaching programs to produce high-quality educators is an important issue of
national concern. Ensuring the quality and success of teacher education programs requires
comprehensive assessment tools. The three most commonly employed data sources for evaluating
teacher preparation programs include:
 Teaching observations.
 Satisfaction surveys from graduates, employers and pupils in the graduates' classrooms.
 Pupil growth on standardized tests.
Cochran-Smith identified three ways that out-comes of teacher education are currently being
through evidence about the professional performance of teacher candidates;
 through evidence about teacher test scores; and
 through evidence about impacts on teaching practice and student learning
Teaching observations.
(O'Leary, 2014), define observations as "the conscious noticing and detailed examination of
participants' behaviour in a naturalistic setting"
Observations can be structured or unstructured. unstructured observations are less rigid and require
the researcher to provide a detailed account of the event that is being observed through field notes
and/or recording devices. Observation is a complex activity requiring many factors and issues to
be taken account of. For the results to be able to be treated with confidence observation needs to
be properly organized and recorded. The focus need not be confined to aspects of the teacher's
performance it can involve all aspects of classroom life such as interactions between learners,
group dynamics and use of technology. Observation is considered as a means of assessing teaching
and learning and also as a way of developing teachers’ skills and knowledge.
Assessing Student Teachers’ Competences during Teaching Practice.
Besides theoretical preparation consisting of various educational subjects and preparation,
teaching practice is a key element of student teacher preparation and professional development. It
provides opportunities for assessing both pre-service and in-service teachers in authentic
Teaching practice is an important component of becoming a teacher. It grants student teachers
experience in the actual teaching and learning environment … During teaching practice, a student
teacher is given the opportunity to try the art of teaching before actually getting into the real world
of the teaching profession.
The credibility of the assessment process used in teaching practice has been questioned with regard
to its usefulness as a tool for professional development. one of the difficulties inherent in this
process is that it often leads to a subjective assessment, which allows incompetent student teachers
to graduate into the teaching profession.
Student Teaching Assessment
During student teaching, candidates are observed at least six times, the generalist supervisor
observes four times and a specialist observes two times. The generalist observes and evaluates
general pedagogical practice while the specialist focuses on content knowledge and pedagogical
content knowledge and skills. Data is collected using the Student Teaching Assessment form.
When assessing the students during teaching practice, their mentors should provide them with an
opportunity to reflect on their strengths and weakness. The feedback that student teachers receive
from assessment opportunities should guide them in constructing their professional knowledge and
Student teachers should be assessed both formatively (during student teaching) and summatively
(at the conclusion of student teaching) in order to infuse the integrated curriculum they have gone
Classroom Observation
Systematic classroom observation is a quantitative method of measuring classroom behaviors from
direct observations that specifies both the events or behaviors that are to be observed and how they
are to be recorded.
Although there are several types of observational procedures or techniques that have been used
to examine effective teaching (e.g., charts, rating scales, checklists, and narrative descriptions), the
most widely used procedure or research method has been systematic classroom observation
based on interactive coding systems.
Major Components Assessed During Classroom Observation
(i) Preparation-scheme of work, lesson plan
(ii) subject matter mastery, depth, usefulness
(iii)teaching/learning resources-relevance, creativity, proper use
(iv) lesson presentation –
a. introduction-effectiveness and relevance
b. lesson development-harmony, connections, style appropriateness, learner
involvement, motivation, use of Q/A
c. conclusion- appropriateness, achievement of objectives
(v) teaching personality-punctuality, time management, disposition/confidence, voice
projection, decency-language and dressing
(vi) class organization – discipline, control and supervision, sensitivity to class needs and class
assignment and evaluation- past and current assignment given and marked, student
records maintained- progress/records of work
Several aspects of classroom instruction such as
 conducting daily reviews,
 presenting new material,
 conducting guided practice,
 providing feedback and correctives,
 conducting independent practice, and
 conducting weekly and monthly reviews